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FROM KERB TO CLOUD

COLLABORATIVE DECISION-MAKING ACROSS
THE AIRPORT & AIR TRAFFIC PROCESS

APRON & EN-ROUTE 8 CONNECTING TRANSPORT 10 CORE IT PLATFORMS 11 WHAT NEXT? 12 ABOUT THE AUTHOR 13 TRANSPORT // COLLABORATIVE DECISION MAKING ACROSS THE AIRPORT PROCESS .WHITEPAPER // TRANSPORT CONTENTS INTRODUCTION 3 THE PASSENGER 4 TERMINAL 6 AIRSIDE.

and encourage data sharing – not just between airport. airline and ground handlers but the passenger and key stakeholders across the wider network. To be truly collaborative. They connect the local economy with the global marketplace and employ a workforce that can number in the thousands. These airports focus on providing a differentiated experience. It is therefore hugely important that these increasingly complex operations evolve and address the challenges they face. an airport must understand the impact of what is happening out on the apron and maximise capacity whilst minimising the wider network and environmental impact. where operators and stakeholders share relevant data that will enable accurate situational awareness. Passenger experience is the great differentiator of the current aviation landscape. This operational platform needs to be fully integrated. This emphasis on passenger processing is equally applicable for regional airports as it is for hubs. The industry is embracing the notion of Collaborative Decision Making (CDM). To create a Next Generation Airport requires a collaborative operation to ensure maximum efficiency. Terminal and airside operations must understand the impact of key decisions on the wider functions. Airports like Cincinnati and Dublin are ensuring that passengers receive high quality service to ensure passengers chose them instead of a competitor airport. Apron & En-Route • Connecting Transport • Core IT Platform TRANSPORT // COLLABORATIVE DECISION MAKING ACROSS THE AIRPORT PROCESS 3 . Middle Eastern hubs such as Dubai and Doha. Asian hubs like Changi and European airports such as Oslo and Helsinki are no longer simply focussing on optimising airport processes. Over the course of this paper we will explore the impact a centralised technology platform will have on 5 critical areas of success: • The Passenger • Terminal Operations • Airside. One particular challenge facing the sector is the expected growth in air traffic and the impact this will have on operations.LIKE IT? SHARE IT! WHITEPAPER // TRANSPORT INTRODUCTION Airports are rightly considered critical national assets. enabled by stakeholder collaboration to deliver better passenger experience. open to all stakeholders.

operators are placing the capture of data. airports are able understand data and adjust plans accordingly. A-CDM provides better communication between airport stakeholders involved in the turnaround process. resulting in continued optimisation. TRANSPORT // COLLABORATIVE DECISION MAKING ACROSS THE AIRPORT PROCESS . ensuring that they enjoy your service is vital to maintain competitiveness. This gap can be closed with what we now refer to as Terminal CDM (T-CDM). transit airport or method of travel. airports must access real-time information. These operational dashboards should provide a high level insight into all key passenger processes. With this passengercentric view of the airport process in mind. T-CDM is critical for airports that aim to focus on delivering a positive passenger experience. European airports are already embracing EUROCONTROL’s Airport Collaborative Decision Making (A-CDM) initiative. However. whether it’s choosing a specific airline. With so many different options available to travellers. There is no benefit in measuring specific passenger and stakeholder processes if the information cannot be relayed at the point of need. allowing for fine-tuning and educated decisions. there is no value in optimising turnaround if we can’t get passengers to the gate on time. benchmarking and measurement of KPIs as priority number one. Passenger Process Optimisation Tools To support the drive to make the passenger more central to the airport operation and decision making process. Many airports have invested in a range of technologies to measure each passenger process or operational bottleneck to help better plan and react accordingly. As a result. However.LIKE IT? SHARE IT! WHITEPAPER // TRANSPORT THE PASSENGER The Passenger Experience Collaborative decision making and optimisation is a key area of focus for the industry. By inserting your own Service Level Agreements or ideals means that you have a visual on how well your team are working. By putting passengers at the heart of your operations you will be able to drive growth in both passenger numbers and route development. The ability to drill down into specific aspects of their terminal to look at processes in detail is key. A centralised database can aggregate wait-time data and augment it with on-the-day forecasts in a visual dashboard. it is common that an individual process point is measured in isolation and data sharing isn’t common.

The logical next step for mobile passenger information will be to provide personalised journey times and directions across the airport using increasingly location-aware and passenger aware-services. Yet many airports have this information but don’t share it with their passengers. Acceptable queuing time at security 2014 60% 2013 2012 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% More than 20 minutes Between 10 and 20 minutes Source: IATA 2014 Passenger Satisfaction Survey Between 5 and 10 minutes TRANSPORT // COLLABORATIVE DECISION MAKING ACROSS THE AIRPORT PROCESS Less than 5 minutes . the expected walk time to gate.LIKE IT? SHARE IT! WHITEPAPER // TRANSPORT Information at the Point of Need? Airport security is often highlighted by passengers as the most stressful part of their door-to-door journey. airports will be able to provide passengers with their gate number. Using innovative technologies. The number of passengers now booking flights online. checking in online and navigating through your airport via online maps is increasing. mainly because of the unknown component around how long it will take. Providing your passenger with all the information they require to navigate through your terminal will improve their experience. Improving customer services by improving passenger conveniences is a positive way to deliver customer satisfaction and can only be achieved through centralised technology and process management. retail discounts and the ability to purchase lounge access via their smartphone. With over 83% of all travelling passengers using smartphones. engaging with your passenger via mobile apps offers a quick win.

terminal operations and airside operations are working at the maximum efficiency. Operational dashboards are assisting some of the most efficient airports in the world to monitor. but airports need to fully understand the reasons why passenger behave the way they do. airports are now able to ensure optimum resourcing for all aspects of their operation. To ensure effective operations. optimise and improve processes.LIKE IT? SHARE IT! WHITEPAPER // TRANSPORT TERMINAL With the increase of passenger and flight movements our airports are becoming more congested. Airports can identify deviations to their expected on-the-day operation and are able to allocate resources effectively to manage these deviations. However. resulting in congestion at border control and baggage arrival carousels. Having a unified view of your terminal will ensure that you are able to run proactive operations landside. With 1 in 5 flights arriving 15 minutes ahead or behind schedule. Reducing bottlenecks within terminal operations will result in free flowing traffic across terminal processes and will help reduce costs and deliver passengers in to revenue generating areas more quickly and in a better mood to do so. resource plans which are designed to handle a specific number of passengers often have to accommodate these flight deviations. airports require a mixture of passenger tracking. deviations do occur almost daily. Passengers wo receiveexcellent service and feel positive they are more likely to spend. By using accurate demand forecasting and planning solutions alongside real time process monitoring solutions. deploy and review daily operational plans to ensure that passenger processes. The effectiveness of the landside and airside operation teams has a direct impact on revenue generation. Passenger Flow Analysis & Capacity Planning Understanding the flow of passengers through your terminal assists with layout planning. forecast planning and resource management technology that allows airport operators to see how issues in the terminal might affect operations airside. The ability to forecast. Measuring passenger dwell time in checkin or retail areas provides useful insight into the passenger behaviour. airport operations can predict expected pinch points. no matter how much airports plan for the day. capacity constraints and what might be causing these problems. plan. The terminal operation is an important component of an airport’s revenue and profitability. Using live data. Resourcing Efficiency & Tactical Deployment Accurate on-the-day planning and forecasting has a very positive impact on airports operatingin a highly constrained environment who are now able to optimise their operation to get the most out of their resources. Process Optimisation Optimising processes is key to any airport. their journey through the terminal and TRANSPORT // COLLABORATIVE DECISION MAKING ACROSS THE AIRPORT PROCESS .

One of the biggest barriers to delivering increased retail sales is the perception of in-store wait time.000. resourcing allocations. particularly at peak times. retailers have the ability to display live wait times improving sales metrics by addressing customer misconceptions. providing addition benefits beyond increasing non-aviation revenues. the Irish CAA has regulations in place stating that passengers should not wait any longer that 30 minutes at security. This ideal can only be achieved if an airport has an accurate measurement of passenger movements and dwell times at all stages of their journey. By measuring processes. in turn. a simple process that will ensure they are well informed and remain relaxed. Defined and Measurable Benchmarks/KPIs and SLAs You can’t manage what you can’t measure. airports are able to have greater insight into the performance of their outsourced organisations and gain insight into any SLA or KPI breaches. leveraging technology to optimise resourcing and passenger facilitation would improve the passenger experience. perhaps most importantly. From a strategic viewpoint. thus reducing walkaways. Dublin Airport can proactively manage their check point and respond early if it looks like they appoach their SLA threshold. Having clear definitions also encourages accountability across the stakeholder community as the visibility of any poor performance is increased. With multiple stakeholders working within your airport and taking responsibility for passenger processes. The longer passengers spend in queues the less time they have available to shop. Key pinch points at security can only be eliminated as a result of proper planning and effective operation. help with performance benchmarking and. Communication of wait times to passengers is often neglected. airports must look at ways to ensure they are measuring effectively against any Service Level Agreements (SLAs) or Key Performance Indicators (KPIs). the need for accurate. Non-Aviation Revenue It is clear that when passengers spend more time in the departure lounge after security then retail spend will increase. In the wider retail landscape. By using queue and dwell measurement solution. Within individual stores. consistent and transparent data is critical for measuring success and ensuring customer-centric retail operations. airports are fined €120.LIKE IT? SHARE IT! WHITEPAPER // TRANSPORT highlight steps that the airport can take to enhance passenger experience. footfall data combined with sales figures can deliver detailed conversion rate analysis and. Measuring performance also helps to avoid any regulatory penalties against service. and if that regulation is breached. TRANSPORT // COLLABORATIVE DECISION MAKING ACROSS THE AIRPORT PROCESS . For example.

This solution will deliver the correct number of aircraft to airspace sectors and down to the runway at the exact pace at which the aircraft can be accommodated. as seen in many worldwide airspace blocks. The main focus is to optimise the flow of aircraft into capacity-constrained areas. When the wind is high. long taxi times and excessive fuel burn. Many airports suffer from a large proportion of wind days. The solution to this problem is switching from Distance Based Separation to Time Based Separation when wind speed is above a certain level. Timebased metering. The key enabler for increasing on-time operations is the introduction of a departure sequencing technology that provides visibility on the forecasted departure times of aircraft and dynamically adapts to the ever-changing situation on the surface. in conjunction with En-Route Automation Modernisation (ERAM) will allow the faster processing of route requests and flight changes. Time-Based Flow Metering. By consolidating data from disparate stakeholder systems into one common operational view – fusing real-time data and predictive algorithms to forecast airport surface operations airport operators allows greater visibility into on-going operations and enhance the on-time performance. as well as calculating the optimum moment of travel and in turn reduce delays. improve the efficiency of their departures. terminal efficiency is only one piece of the puzzle. their expected completion time and impact on dependencies. APRON & EN-ROUTE Airside & Apron Many airports are utilising decision support tools and services which provide a comprehensive and innovative solution to surface management. As well as the clear operational efficiencies that this level of situational awareness delivers. and improve fuel efficiency. delivering aircraft to a specific place at a specific time. Providing detailed analysis of the aircraft turnaround process offers greater predictability around Target Off-Blocks Time (TOBT) based on the tracking of all key sub-milestones.LIKE IT? SHARE IT! WHITEPAPER // TRANSPORT AIRSIDE. As demonstrated by SESAR in Europe and NextGen in the US. capacity constraints and improve the forecast planning of the terminal and airside operations. operators will also be able to optimise staff resource utilisation. resulting in cancelations and delays to aircraft. enables air traffic controllers to manage aircraft in congested airspace more efficiently by smoothing out irregularities and delivering a more consistent flow of traffic down to the runway. improved environmental performance due to less fuel burn and noise pollution. decrease delays through better predictability of airspace use. TRANSPORT // COLLABORATIVE DECISION MAKING ACROSS THE AIRPORT PROCESS . civil aviation stakeholders are exploring efficient ways to optimise en-route traffic management. Going beyond simple information provision. These tools enable the operators to increase apron capacity. the standard distance based separation doesn’t allow of optimisation of the runway as the approach speeds of aircraft differ due to size. reduce the surface congestion and lower their airline customer’s operating costs. These objectives will provide both airports and airlines with the opportunity to provide a more streamlined experience to passengers. system integration and situational visibility is the ability to proactively track and manage the key milestones around the aircraft turnaround process. One of the key developments in this area is around the management of aircraft when affected by strong winds. while also reaping the benefit of reduced fuel burn. En-Route With optimisation and efficiency at the forefront of airport operator’s minds.

The majority of stakeholders such as ground handlers. More importantly. aircraft operators. they have a much larger role to play in the future efficiencies of our skies. which ultimately has an impact on all airside. the passenger are all involved in your daily operations. will assist you with your CDM processes. airports are the creators and distributors of key data.LIKE IT? SHARE IT! WHITEPAPER // TRANSPORT An Airport’s Role in En-Route Optimisation Airports are no longer just seen as facilitator. Key to stakeholder engagement. departure. the airport is in control of the core operational data required for this optimisation – the Airport Operational Data Base (AODB). multiple stakeholders need to combine their communication to ensure safe and efficient travel. air traffic flow and arrival decisions. air navigation service providers and of course. With a continual rise in the number of passengers choosing air travel. TRANSPORT // COLLABORATIVE DECISION MAKING ACROSS THE AIRPORT PROCESS . Having robust solutions which deliver real-time information to point of need. allowing you to streamline your operation and make your airport more efficient. CDM is the platform for more efficient skies and benefits are visible to all stakeholders whether it’s the airport itself or air traffic controllers.

Having seamless and optimised transfer processes is vital to any passenger as it helps reduce uncertainty and stress. reducing overcrowding and delivering passengers in to revenue generating operations more quickly. For example. Informing passengers of any traffic incidents. Many large hubs have an extensive transport interchange which allows passengers to access the airport quickly and without hassle. Airports want passengers to process through landside operations as quickly. These roads are often affected by traffic congestion. This is particularly relevant when we travel. bus or tram links or road access. Based on this information it is possible to plan travel down to single minutes. in the office or at the airport. times at your security check point and the estimated time of departure will give the passenger the power to make conscious decisions. The process does not start at check-in. where relevant and reliable information is even more important. in many cases. hub airports need to understand their own transfer connections and how this impacts passenger perception. you will be able to proactively assist your passenger in all aspects of their journey. it starts when the passenger begins their journey to the airport. all of these transportation links are key to passengers getting to where they want to go. Using smartphones means that as a society we are planning our everyday life more efficiently. Alongside the transport links mentioned. precise and real-time updated information.LIKE IT? SHARE IT! WHITEPAPER // TRANSPORT CONNECTING TRANSPORT Transport Connections Regardless of connections to rail networks. To achieve this passenger’s require credible. Clear way finding and estimate travel time between gates is an easy and effective way to ensure passenger satisfaction. TRANSPORT // COLLABORATIVE DECISION MAKING ACROSS THE AIRPORT PROCESS . whether at home. Passengers By providing real time data through your website or mobile app. especially to those with tight transfer windows. Some of the most forward thinking airports have utilised technology to monitor congestion on these approach roads as they have an impact on all of your landside operations. airports own the approach roads/highways leading to the airport.

Billing. specifically through the current initiatives such as Airport Dictionary Information Exchange (AIDX) and the ACI-ACRIS (Aviation Community Recommended Information Services) groups. reducing the reliance on software interfaces. which in turn speeds up decision making. efficiency and passenger experience. information sharing is the major focus of European airports and the potential benefits of sharing data across airport networks is huge. TRANSPORT // COLLABORATIVE DECISION MAKING ACROSS THE AIRPORT PROCESS . Airport-to-Airport Data Sharing Airport-to-airport data sharing will be the future of all airport interoperability standards and ensures the industry keeps pace with the desire of efficiency and collaboration. Cyber Security In the past. it is vital that we look at our operating system set up to ensure that we are protected from cyber threats as a single breach could have enormous consequences. ERP. There are multiple versions of the truth and lots of manual updating and inputting of data. Breaking down operational silos will enable stakeholders to share data. Data sharing will continue to be a focus for the industry. departure and enroute predictability. integration and consolidation. This consolidated platform should encompass all key applications – AODB.LIKE IT? SHARE IT! WHITEPAPER // TRANSPORT CORE IT PLATFORMS Airport Operations Platforms Traditional airport platforms consist of many point applications. Because of the importance of aviation to the national infrastructure. The movement towards data sharing will allow other airports within the region to improve airside. airports have naturally focussed on physical threats but in reality. FIDS. integrate these with the wider airline and DCS systems but provide assurances on the safety and security of these solutions via a robust approach to cyber security. loosely coupled together with minimal automation. providing real-time updates across the operation. These steering groups are focused on providing better data sharing and an industry wide common data dictionary. Business Intelligence and so on. RMS. the growing threat comes through the wire. Single systems will no longer deliver the desired levels of operational performance. In such a data rich and fast paced environment airports need to adopt a core operational and wider IT platform that is agile enough to cope with these demands. Through EUROCONTROL’s Airport Collaborative Decisions Making (A-CDM) initiative. resulting in optimised processes.

You can explore more of our content relevant to your role below: EN-ROUTE AIRSIDE TERMINAL Webinar: Intelligent Approach at LHR Whitepaper: Enhancing Airside and Landside Data Management Whitepaper: Embracing Technology to Achieve Service Excellence Product Information: Intelligent Approach Case Study: Avinor Case Study: CPH Forecasting ROI Calculator: Intelligent Approach Product Information: Chroma Suite Product Information: BEONTRA MANAGEMENT Whitepaper: Forecasting and Managing Airport Passenger Growth AODB Business Case Template TRANSPORT // COLLABORATIVE DECISION MAKING ACROSS THE AIRPORT PROCESS . there are a many ways you can work to enable and improve collaborative working across stakeholders.LIKE IT? SHARE IT! WHITEPAPER // TRANSPORT WHAT NEXT? Depending on your role within the airport process.

Our aviation heritage is unmatched. Our airport operational platform. Andrew can apply his deep knowledge of airport when dealing with Lockheed Martin’s customers. Andrew was the project leader for the replacement of their AOS legacy Andrew Shanks system with Lockheed Martin’s Chroma suite and knows first-hand the complexities of large scale projects. Andrew still resides in ‘The Granite City’ although is a frequent traveller due to his role within Lockheed Martin which involves him working with our airport customers. Whilst at Aberdeen Airport. staff training and airport operational systems. Manchester and Heathrow Airports. Our people. from 1998 to 2009 within an airport operational environment at Aberdeen. heritage and international reach provide customers across the aviation sector with the confidence to trust Lockheed Martin to deliver the next generation of truly collaborative.ABOUT THE AUTHOR Andrew Shanks has been working within the aviation industry since 1998. CONNECT WITH LOCKHEED MARTIN APPLICATION RATIONALISATION AND THE PUBLIC SERVICE CULTURE .lmco.shanks@civil.com ABOUT LOCKHEED MARTIN Lockheed Martin is a leading provider of airport and air traffic operational systems to the global aviation industry. andrew. and our focus on innovation. baggage handling. track record. and since 2009 as Lockheed Martin’s Airport Specialist. the Chroma Airport Suite. covering ramp operations.1 billion passengers and 3 million flight movements annually. A graduate of Robert Gordon University in Aberdeen. research and development is crucial in developing more efficient and effective aviation operations in to the future. With a wide range of experience across the airport campus. Our air traffic systems manage over 60% of the world’s airspace and are responsible for generating greater capacity via more effective flow management. efficient and data-rich operations. is trusted by over 70 airports across 3 continents to help more efficiently handle 1.