exactly what it says in the title.

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exactly what it says in the title.

© All Rights Reserved

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Ankit Chauhan, Raj kumar Singh

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Delhi Technological University, New Delhi, India

Article Info

Abstract

Article history:

Received 2 January 2014

Received in revised form

10 January 2014

Accepted 20 January 2014

Available online 1 February 2014

Analysis of the drag and lift forces acting on the surface of a flat plate

was done as flat plate is most fundamental of all the design

configurations. The analysis was done under various conditions of the

fluid flow viz. laminar and turbulent and the plate configuration was

changed from horizontal to gradually inclined positions. When the top

surface of the flat plate is considered, air velocity was found to increase

on moving along the plates length. Different results of drag and lift

forces were obtained, when analyzing the flow on flat plate at different

angles.

Keywords

CFD Modeling,

Drag and Lift Force,

Aerodynamics,

Flat plate

1. Introduction

Aerodynamics is the study of motion of air when

it flows around a solid object. Automotive

aerodynamics is the study of the aerodynamics of

road vehicles. The main concerns of automotive

aerodynamics are reducing drag, reducing wind noise,

minimizing noise emission, and preventing undesired

lift forces and other causes of aerodynamic instability

at high speeds. As the petroleum reserve is decreasing

at a rapid rate and is estimated to be over in about 40

to 50 years, the main concern of all automotive

engineers these days is the efficiency of the vehicle.

Efficiency of the vehicle can be effectively increased

by improving its shape. Even the stability of vehicle

at high speed mainly depends on the shape of the

vehicle.

DRAG FORCE: It is the force that acts in the

opposite direction to the motion of the vehicle or in

the direction of flow of air around the moving vehicle.

It provides resistance to the motion of the vehicle and

more power and hence more fuel is needed to

overcome this force.

Fd=(cd**v2*A)/2

Fd is the drag force, which is by definition the force

component in the direction of the flow velocity,

is the mass density of the fluid,

v is the speed of the object relative to the fluid and

A is the reference area

Larger the drag force on the vehicle, larger will be its

Corresponding Author,

E-mail address:

All rights reserved: http://www.ijari.org

ICARI

extent by optimizing the basic shape of the vehicle.

Flat plate was chosen for the analysis of lift and drag

force because flat plate is most fundamental of all the

design considerations. By this analysis, we can

optimize the angle for windshield, bonnet etc. Small

change in angle of the wind shield or bonnet can

effectively increase the vehicles stability at higher

speeds and can decrease its fuel consumption.

We analyzed the drag and lift force acting on the flat

plate at different angles and finally a graph was

plotted showing the variation in drag and lift force

with change in angle of inclination of the flat plate.

Computational fluid dynamics or CFD is the

branch of fluid mechanics, which uses numerical

methods to analyze and solve the problem which

involves fluid flow. Using the CFD (computational

fluid dynamics) modeling, instead of wind tunnel

have many advantages like, it saves our time and

provides the same results at lesser expense. Wind

tunnel needs much space to perform the experiments

but same results can be obtained by using CFD, which

does require only a computer.

All CFD problems are generally based upon the

Navier-Stokes equations. The general form the

equation is

density, p is the pressure,

is the stress tensor, and f

155

ISBN 978-93-5156-328-0

represents body forces (per unit volume) acting on the

fluid and is the del operator. The left side of the

equation describes acceleration, and may be

composed of time dependent or convective effects

(also the effects of non-inertial coordinates if present).

The right side of the equation is in effect a summation

of body forces and divergence of stress (pressure and

shear stress).

3. Computational Model

The two dimensional model of the plate was

drawn for simplicity and the grid points were

clustered along the wall where the velocity gradients

were large. Firstly, the flow over a flat plate aligned

parallel to free stream flow was modeled. Because of

the symmetry only one half of the geometry of the

plate was generated. The length of the flat plate was

taken as 0.5 m and height of the computational

domain was taken as 0.40 m. To ensure that uniform

free stream flow exist, inlet was located far enough

upstream of the plate. Further grid points were made

clustered near the wall where velocity gradients were

large. The grids used were generated with FLUENTS

grid generation package GAMBIT. Due to simplicity

of the domain and to keep the skewness as low as

possible a structured quad grid with over 900 cells on

which flow variables(velocity, pressure, etc.) were

calculated throughout the computational domain was

generated. After the generation of grid appropriate

boundary conditions to determine the type of the flow

modeled were set. Because of the no slip condition,

the flat plate was assigned the boundary condition of

wall. The leftmost edge of the computational domain

was assigned the velocity inlet while the rightmost

edge was assigned the pressure outlet boundary

condition. The symmetry boundary condition was

specified to the leading edge of the domain to force

the flow field variables to be mirror imaged across a

symmetry plane. Thereafter a mesh was generated as

shown in the figure 2.2. Similarly, the mesh was

generated for flat plate at an angle 20 degree, 40

4. Simulation

4.1 Processing

All the processing i.e., the analysis of the fluid

flow in the computational domain was done using the

software FLUENT 6.3. The grid was imported from

GAMBIT and checked for correctness. The fluid was

specified as air along with its properties. Numerical

parameters and solution algorithms were selected and

starting values for all the flow field variables was

specified. Beginning with the initial guesses,

discretized forms of the continuity equation and the

Navier Stokes equation were solved iteratively by

the software at the center of each cell. More than 2000

iterations were carried out to bring about the

convergence of the solution. The convergence is

how much the solution deviates from exact are zero or

very low. After the convergence of the solution the

forces acting on the plate were calculated by

specifying the velocity of the incoming fluid and the

dimensions of the plate. The flow was subsequently

changed to turbulent and corresponding results were

obtained.

5. Analysis

5.1 Post processing

degree

and

ICARI

60

degree.

156

ISBN 978-93-5156-328-0

Fig: 3. Contours of velocity magnitude (m/s)

The post processing of the solution obtained was also done using

FLUENT version 6.3. In post processing stage various flow field

variables such as velocity and pressure were plotted and analyzed

graphically.

Similarly, the processing was done for flat plate inclined at

20degrees and 40 degrees and results are shown as follows.

Fig: 4. Contours of static pressure (pascal)- Flat plate inclined at 20 degree(left) and 40 degree(right)

Fig: 5. Contours of velocity magnitude of flat plate inclined at 20 degree (left) and 40 degree (right)

ICARI

157

ISBN 978-93-5156-328-0

6. Results

Following results were obtained from the FLUENT

1. Flat Plate parallel to flow stream.

Table: 4. Results for plate inclined at 600 to horizontal

Lamin

ar flow

2.

Drag

Force,

Fd

0.0005

N

Lift

Force,

Fl

0

Coefficie

nt of

drag, Cd

0.43

Coeffici

ent of

lift, Cl

0

Lamina

r flow

3.

Drag

Force

, Fd

0.65N

Lift

Force,

Fl

50.63

N

Coefficien

t of drag,

Cd

0.0013

Coeffic

ient of

lift, Cl

0.048

Laminar

flow

Drag

Force,

Fd

0.07N

Lift

Force,

Fl

284N

Coefficient

of drag, Cd

0.0006

Coeffici

ent of

lift, Cl

1.288

Lamina

r flow

Drag

Force

, Fd

0.33

N

Lift

Force

, Fl

705N

Coefficient

of drag, Cd

0.00122353

85

Coeffici

ent of

lift, Cl

2.55865

3

7. Conclusion

After analyzing all the results obtained from

fluent, it was concluded that angle of inclination of

the flat plate have significant effect on the drag force

acting on the flat plate. It was seen that drag force

changes prominently as we increase the angle of

inclination of the flat plate with the horizontal. It was

also observed that static pressure acting on the flat

plate changes its value along its length i.e. it is not

constant for overall length of the flat plate. Pressure is

maximum at the leading edge of the flat plate and

decreases gradually along the length of the flat plate.

An opposite pattern was observed in case of velocity

of air along the flat plate. Velocity has minimum

value at the leading edge of the plate and increases

along the length of the flat plate and reaches its

maximum value at the trailing edge of the flat plate.

References

[1] Quanhua Sun, Iain D. Boyd, University of

Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, Drag on a Flat

Plate in Low-Reynolds-Number Gas Flows

[2] Kunihiko Taira, William B. Dickson, Tim

Colonius, Michael H. Dickinson California

Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California,

Clarence W. RowleykPrinceton University,

Princeton, New Jersey Unsteadiness in Flow

over a Flat Plate atAngle-of-Attack at Low

Reynolds Number

[3] Edwin J. Saltzman, Robert R. Meyer Drag

reduction obtained by rounding the vertical

corners on a box shaped ground vehicle

[4] N. K. Chougule, G. V. Parishwad, P. R. Gore,

Pagnis S., Sapali S.N . CFD Analysis of Multijet Air Impingement on Flat Plate

[5] Y. Maghmoumi1, M. A. Alavi, M. R. Safaiy, I.

Norollahi, Numerical Analyses of Steady NonNewtonian Flow over Flat Plate on Intermediate

Reynolds Numbers by Finite Volume Method

[6] Ronald E. Hanson_, Howard P. Buckley, Philippe

Lavoie, Aerodynamic Optimization of the Flat

ICARI

Laminar and Transitional Boundary Layers

[7] Cingel, Cimbala Introduction to fluid dynamics

[8] J. D.Anderson Computaional Fluid Dynamics

[9] Fox and Mcdonalds Computaional Fluid

Dynamics INTERNET

[10] Aerodynamics

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aerodynamics

[11]

Computaional

Fluid

Dynamicshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computational_fluid

_dynamics

[12] Fluent Learning Modules

https://confluence.cornell.edu/display/SIMULAT

ION/FLUENT+Learning+Modules

[13] Gambit 2.2 tutorial guide http://vincent.chapin.

free.fr/Cours%20CFD/Doc/gambit-2.2 tutorials.

[14] Fluent 6.3 tutotrial guide http://hpce.iitm.ac.in

/website//Manuals/Fluent_6.3/fluent6.3/help/pdf/t

g/pdf.htm

158

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