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ELASTICITY

PREVIOUS EAMCET QUESTIONS ENGINEERING

1. If the ratio of lengths, radii and young’s moduli of steel and brass wires shown in the figure are a, b and c respectively, the ratio between the increase in lengths of brass and steel wires would be: [2009 E]

b2a 1) 2c

Ans : 4

bc 2 2) 2a

ba 2 3) 2c

b2c 4) 2a

Sol: 2.

**eBrass TB LB rs2 ys = × × × esteel Ts LS rB2 yB
**

A mass of 6.5 kg is hanging from the end of a 60 cm long steel wire (Y = 2 × 1011 Pa) with area of crosssection 0.05 cm2. When it is revolving in a vertical circle it has an angular velocity of 2 revolutions per second, at the bottom of the circle. Approximate elongation of the wire (in meters) when the mass is at its lowest point of the trajectory is 1) 8 × 10–4 2) 4 × 10–4 3) 8 × 10–5 (2008 E) 4) 4 × 10–5

Ans : 1 Sol: Tension in the string on crossing the mean position

T = mg +

mv 2 mv 2 = mg + r l

But

V = 2 gl (1 − cos θ )

Given

θ = 900 ⇒ V = 2 gl

m × 2 gl = 3mg l FL e F ⇒ = Ae L Ay

∴T = mg +

Y=

Youngs modulus

3 × 1× 1 = 10−4 −6 11 = 3 × 10 × 10

3.

When a wire of length 10 m is subjected to a force of 100 N along its length, the lateral strain produced is 0.01× 10–3 m. The poisson’s ratio was found to be 0.4. If the area of cross-section of wire is 0.025 m2, its young’s modulus is 1) 1.6 × 108 N/m2 2) 2.5 × 1010 N/m2 3) 1.25 × 1011 N/m2 1 (2007 E) 4) 16 × 109 N/m2

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Elasticity Ans : 1

Sol:

Δr lateral strain σ= r = Δl longitudinal strain l Poisson’s ration = − Δr Δl ∴ = r l σ 10−5 = 25 ×10−6 = 0.4

Y=

Fl = Ae

F ⎛e⎞ 100 A⎜ ⎟ −3 ⎝ l ⎠ = 25 × 10 × 25 × 10−6

∴ y = 1.6 × 1018 Nm −2

4. Assertion (A) : Ductile metals are used to prepare thin wires. Reason (R) : In the stress-strain curve of ductile metals, the length between the points representing elastic limit and breaking point is very small. 1) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A) 2) Both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A) 3) (A) is true but (R) is false 4) (A) is false but (R) is true Ans : 3 Sol: Ductile metals can be drawn into thin wires. Therefore the length between the points representing elastic limit and breaking point is large (2006 E)

5.

The radii and young’s modulus of two uniform wires A & B are in the ratio 2:1 and 1:2 respectively. Both the wires are subjected to the same longitudinal force. If increase in the length of wire A is 1% . Then the increase in length wire B is (2005 E) 1) 1 2) 1.5 3) 2 4) 3

Ans : 3

Sol:

rA 2 YA 1 = , = , FA = FB rB 1 YB 2

2

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Elasticity

**eA e 1 × 100 = 1 ⇒ A = lA l A 100
**

y= FL = Ae F e F F ⇒ = = 2 L Ay π r y ⎛e⎞ A⎜ ⎟ ⎝L⎠

∴ from

⎛ eB ⎞ 2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ LB ⎠ = ⎛ rA ⎞ × ⎛ y A ⎞ ⇒ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎛ eA ⎞ ⎝ rB ⎠ ⎝ yB ⎠ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ LA ⎠ ⎛ eB ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎝ LB ⎠ = ⎛ 2 ⎞ × 1 ⇒ ⎜ ⎟ 1 ⎝1⎠ 2 100 ⇒

Percentage increase in length of the wire B 6.

eB 2 ×100 = ×100 = 2 100 LB

A metallic ring of radius 'r' cross sectional area 'A' is fitted in to a wooden circular disk of radius 'R' (R>r). If the Young's modulus of the material of the ring is 'Y', the force with which the metal ring expands is : (M-2004)

AYR 1) r

Ans : 1 Sol:

AY ( R − r ) r 2)

Young’s modulus of elasticity

Y (R − r) Ar 3)

YR 4) Ar 2004

y=

FL Ae

yAe ∴ Force = L

= 2π R − r But e = 2π R − 2π r

[

]

∴F =

7.

yA2π ( R − r ) Ay ( R − r ) = 2π r r

Bulk modulus of water is 2 x 109 N/m2. The pressure required to increase the density of water by 0.1% in N/m2 is : (E-2003)

**1) 2 x 109 2) 2 x 108 3) 2 x106 4) 2 x 104
**

2003 3

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Elasticity Ans : 3

Sol:

**ΔV ΔV × 100 = 0.1 ⇒ = 10−3 V Given V Bulk stress p = Bulk strain ⎛ ΔV ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ V ⎠ Bulk modulus (K) = ⎛ ΔV ⎞ 9 −3 ⇒P=K⎜ ⎟ = 2 × 10 × 10 ⎝ V ⎠
**

=

2 ×106 Nm-2

(E 2002)

8.

The Poisson's ratio of a material is 0.4. If a force is applied to a wire of this material, there is a decrease of cross-sectional area by 2%. The percentage increase in its length is : 1) 3% 2) 2.5% 3) 1% 4) 0.5%

Ans : 1

Sol:

Δr − Lateral strain σ= = r Δl longitudinal strain l Poisson’s ration dA dA dr dr = 2% = 2× ⇒ = 1% r r Given A but A ∴ dl dr / r 1 = = = 2.5% 0.4 l σ

9.

The length of an elastic string is 'a' metres when the longitudinal tension is 4N and 'b' meters when the longitudinal tension is 5N. The length of the string in metres when the longitudinal tension is 9 N is (E-2001) 1) a-b 2) 5b-4a 3) 2b-(1/4)a 4) 4a-3b

Ans : 2 Sol: Let the original length of the string is ‘l’, when the force is zero

y=

From the relation

FL ⇒F ∝e Ae

**∴ When the tension is 4N, then the length is a
**

∴4 ∝ (a − l ) ∴5 ∝ (b − l )

………………………..(1)

When the tention is 5N, then the length is b ………………………..(2) 4

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Elasticity Dividing (1) & (2)

4 a −l = ⇒ l = 5a − 4b 5 b−l …………………..(3)

When the tension is 9N, then the length is C

∴9 ∝ (c − l )

……………………....(4)

Dividing (1) & (4)

9 c−l = 4 a −l

⇒ 9a − 9l = 4c − 4l ⇒ 4c = 9a − 5l

but l = 5a -4b

**∴ 4c = 9a − 25a + 20b ⇒ 4c = 20b − 16a ⇒ c = 5b − 4a
**

10. When a uniform wire of radius r is stretched by a 2 kg weight, the increase in its length is 2.00 mm. If the radius of the wire is r/2 and other conditions remain in the same, increase in its length is (E-2000) 1) 2.00mm 2) 4.00 mm 3) 6.00 mm 4) 8.00mm

Ans : 4

y=

Sol: From the relation

FL FL = 2 Ae π r e

2

1 e ⎛r ⎞ ⇒e∝ 2 ⇒ 1 =⎜ 2 ⎟ r e2 ⎝ r1 ⎠

2 ⎛r /2⎞ =⎜ ⎟ e2 ⎝ r ⎠ =

=

2

e2 = 8mm

MEDICAL

11. A light rod of length 100 cms is suspended from the ceiling horizontally by means of two vertical wires of equal lengths tied to the ends of the rod. One of the wires is made of steel and is of area of cross - section 0.1cm2. The other wire is k of brass and of area of cross - section 0.2cm2. The position from the steel wire 5

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Elasticity along the rod at which a load is to be placed to produce equal stresses in both wires is : (Y dynes/cm2; Ybrass = 101011 dynes /cm2) 1) 100/3cm Ans : 1 Sol: Given that stress in the wires is equal 2)200/3 cm 3) 50cm 4) 75cm

steel

= 20 1011

(2009 M)

∴

F1 F2 F 0.1 1 = ⇒ 1 = = A1 A2 F2 0.2 2

F1 ( x ) = F2 (100 − x )

As the system is in equilibrium, taking moments about ‘c’

⇒

F1 100 − x 1 = = F2 x 2

200 cm Solving x= 3

12. When a wire is subjected to a force along its length, its length increases by 0.4% and its radius decreases by 0.2%. Then the Poisson’s ratio of the material of the wire is 1) 0.8 Ans : 2 2) 0.5 3) 0.2 4) 0.1

Sol:

Δr Lateral strain σ= = r lo ngitudinal strain Δl l Poisson’s ration 0.2 = 100 0.4 100 = 0.5

13. Two rods of different materials with coefficients of linear thermal expansion α1, α2 and Young’s moduli Y1 and Y2 respectively are fixed between two rigid walls. They are heated to have the same increase in temperature. If the rods do not bend and if α1 : α2 = 2 : 3, then the thermal stresses developed in the two rods will be equal when Y1 : Y2 is equal to 1) 2 : 3 Ans : 3 2) 2 : 5 3) 3 : 2 4) 5 : 2 (2007 M)

Sol:

F = y ∝ Δt Thermal Stress A

As thermal stress is equal 6

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Elasticity

**∴ y1α1Δt1 = y2α 2 Δt2 ∴ ∴ y1 α 2 = y2 α1 [ same rise in temperature] y1 3 = y2 2
**

(2007 M) 4) Breaking stress

14. A body subjected to strain several times will not obey Hook’s law due to 1) Yield point Ans: 3 Sol: Because of Elastic fatigue the body loses the property of elasticity temporarly. 2) permanent state 3) Elastic fatigue

15. A mass of 6.5 kg is hanging from the end of a 60 cm long steel wire (Y = 2 × 1011 Pa) with area of crosssection 0.05 cm2. When it is revolving in a vertical circle it has an angular velocity of 2 revolutions per second, at the bottom of the circle. Approximate elongation of the wire (in meters) when the mass is at its lowest point of the trajectory is 1) 8 × 10–4 Ans : 2 2) 4 × 10–4 3) 8 × 10–5 4) 4 × 10–5 (2006 M)

y=

Sol: Youngs modulus

FL Ae

∴ elongation

( e) =

FL Ay

2

But F = mg + mrω

2

( mg + mrω ) L ∴e =

Ay

Sub the given values e = 4 × 10 m 16.

−4

Two wires of same material and same diameter have lengths in the ratio 2:5. They are stretched by same force. The ratio of work done in stretching them is 1) 5 : 2 2) 2 : 5 3) 1:3 4) 3 : 1 (2005M)

Ans : 2

Sol:

1 × Force × clongation Work done = 2

7

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Elasticity

y=

But

FL FL ⇒e= Ae Ay

1 FL F 2 L ∴w = × F × = 2 Ay 2 Ay ∴ w ∝ l [ since F,A, Y are same]

⇒

17.

w1 l1 2 = = w2 l2 5

The increase in length of a wire on stretching is 0.025%. If its Poisson's ratio is 0.4, then the percentage decrease in the diameter is : M) 1) 0.01 2) 0.02 3) 0.03 4) 0.04 (2004

Ans : 1

σ=

Sol: Poisson’s ratio

lateral strain longitudinal strain

**∴ lateral strain = σ × longitudinal strain
**

= 0.4 ×0.025 = 0.01 18.

Consider the statements A and B, identify the correct answer given below : (A) : If the volume of a body remains unchanged when subjected to tensile strain, the value of poisson's ratio is 1/2. (B) : Phosper bronze has low Young's modulus and high rigidity modulus. 1) A and B are correct 3) A is correct and B is wrong 2) A and B are wrong 4) A is wrong and B is right (M-2003)

Ans : A is correct Sol: A) As V = constant

**∴π r 2l = constant ∴ from small approximation method 2 Δr Δl + =0 r l Δl −2Δr = l r
**

8

⇒

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Elasticity

**−Δr r Δl σ = Poisson’s ratio = l
**

A is correct

−Δr 1 r ∴σ = = ⎛ Δr ⎞ 2 −2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ r ⎠

B) Phosphor bronze has low elongation hence high youngs modulus and low rigidity modulus/ B is wrong 19.

Two springs of force constants 1000 N/m and 2000 N/m are stretched by same force. The ratio of their respective potential energies is : 1) 2 :1 2) 1 : 2 3) 4 : 1 4) 1 : 4 (M-2002)

Ans : 1 Sol: Potential energy

1 2 1 ⎡F ⎤ 1 F2 Kx = K ⎢ ⎥ = 2 ⎣K ⎦ 2 K = 2 ⇒ P.E ∝ 1 K ∴ PE1 K 2 2000 = = PE2 K1 1000

2

⇒ PE1 : PE2 = 2 :1

20.

A metal cube of side length 8.0 cm has its uper surface displaced with respect to the bottom by 0.10 mm when a tangential force of 4 x 109 N is applied at the top with bottom surface fixed. The rigidity modulus of the material of the cube is 1) 4 x 109 N/m2 2) 5 x 109 N/m2 3) 8 x 109 N/m2 4) 1x 108 N/m2 (2001 M)

Ans : 1

η=

Sol: Rigidity modulus

F/A Strain

**0.1×10−3 1 = −2 800 Strain = 8 × 10 4 × 104 ∴η = × 800 64 ×10−2 = 5 ×109 N / m 2
**

21.

When a tension F is applied, the elongation produced in uniform wire of length 'L', radius 'r' is 'e'. When tension 2 F is applied, the elongation produced in another uniform wire of length '2L' and radius '2r' made of same material is

9

(2000 M)

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Elasticity

1) 0.5e

Ans : 2

2) 1.0e

3) 1.5e

4) 2.0e

Sol:

e1 F1 L1 r22 = × × e2 F2 L2 r12 We know e1 F l 4r 2 = × × 2 =1 e2 2 F 2l r ⇒ e1 = e2 e2 = e

10

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