# MAXIMA AND MINIMA

PREVIOUS EAMCET BITS 1. The function f ( x ) = x + ax + bx + c, a 2 ≤ 3b has
3 2

[EAMCET 2009]

1) one maximum value 3) no extreme value Ans: 3 Sol. f ( x ) = x 3 + ax 2 + bx + c f ′ ( x ) = 3x 2 + 2ax + b

2) one minimum value 4) one maximum and one minimum value

∴ Δ = 4a 2 − 12b = 4 ( a 2 − 3b ) < 0

∴ f ′ ( x ) never zero. 2. The maximum value of
1) ∞ Ans: 4 Sol. f ( x ) = log x x 2) e log x , 0 < x < ∞ is x 3) 1 4) e–1
[EAMCET 2009]

⎛1⎞ x ⎜ ⎟ − log x (1) 1 − log x x ∴ f ′( x ) = ⎝ ⎠ 2 = 0 ⇒ f ′(x) = =0 x x ⇒x=e 1 ∴ Max. f = e
3. If m and M respectively denote the minimum and maximum of f ( x ) = ( x − 1) + 3 for x ∈ [ −3,1] then the order pair (m, M) [EAMCET 2008] 1) (-3, 19) 2) (3, 19) 3) (–19, 3) 4) (–19, –3) Ans: 2 2 Sol. f ( x ) = ( x − 1) + 3 ⇒ f ′ ( x ) = 2 ( x − 1) ⇒ f ′′ ( x ) = 2 > 0
2

f ′ ( x ) = 0 ⇒ x = 1 . Minimum value = f(1) = 3

−3 ≤ x ≤ 1 ⇒ −4 ≤ x − 1 ≤ 0 ⇒ ( x − 1) + 3 ≤ 19
2

4.

Minimum value = 3 ∴ (m, M) = (3, 19) The condition for f ( x ) = x 3 + px 2 + qx + r ( x ∈

)

to have no extreme value, is [EAMCET 2007]

1) p 2 < 3q 2) 2p 2 < q 3) p 2 < 1/ 4 q Ans: 1 Sol. f(x) has no extreme value then f ′ ( x ) = 0 have no real roots.

4) p 2 > 3q

f ′ ( x ) = 3x 2 + 2px + q 4p 2 − 12q < 0 ⇒ p 2 < 3q
1

Maxima and Minima

5.

Observe the statements given below: Assertion (A) : f ′ ( x ) = xe − x has the maximum at x = 1 Reason (R) : f ′ (1) = 0 and f ′′ (1) < 0

[EAMCET 2007]

Which of the following is correct ? 1) Both A and R are true and R is the correct reason for A 2) Both A and R are true , but R is not the correct reason for A 3) A is true, R is false 4) A is false, R is true Ans: 1 Sol. f ( x ) = xe − x ⇒ f ′ ( x ) = (1 − x ) e− x f ′( x) = 0 ⇒ x = 1
1 f ′′ ( x ) = ( 2 − x ) e− x ⇒ f ′′ (1) = − < 0 e ∴ f(x) has maximum at x = 1 6. In the interval (- 3, 3) the function f ( x ) = x 3 + , x ≠ 0 is 3 x 2) decreasing 4) partly increasing and partly decreasing

1) increasing 3) neither increasing nor decreasing Ans: x 3 Sol. f ( x ) = + , x ≠ 0 3 x 1 3 f ′( x) = − 2 = 0 3 x x2 − 9 f ′(x) = 3x 2 x 2 − 9 < 0, ∀x ∈ ( −3,3)

i.e., f ′ ( x ) < 0 ∀x ∈ ( −3,3) ∴ decreasing The perimeter of a sector is a constant. If its area is to be maximum, the sectorial angel is [EAMCET 2006] c c π π 1) 2) 3) 4c 4) 2c 6 4 Ans: 4 Sol. + 2r = k ( say ) 7. θ

l

r

2

Maxima and Minima

but

= rθ

rθ + 2r = k k r= θ+2 Area A = k2 A = 2
1

1 2 k2θ r θ= 2 2 2 ( θ + 2)

⎧ 2 ( θ + 2 ) θ − ( θ + 2 )2 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬=0 4 ( θ + 2) ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎭

⇒ θ = 2c 8. Observe the following statements : A : f ′ ( x ) = 2x 3 − 9x 2 + 12x − 3 is increasing in [ −∞,1] ∪ [ 2, ∞ ] R : f ′ ( x ) < 0 for x ∈ (1, 2 ) Then which of the following is true? 1) Both A and R are true and R is the correct reason for A 2) Both A and R are true but R is not the correct reason for A 3) A is true, R is false 4) A is false, R is true Ans: 4 Sol. A : f ′ ( x ) = 6x 2 − 18x + 12 > 0
⇒ x ∈ ( −∞,1) ∪ ( 2, ∞ ) ∴ A is false B : f ′ ( x ) < 0, ∀x ∈ (1, 2 ) True The minimum value of 2x2 + x – 1 is 1 3 9 1) 2) 3) − 4 2 8 Ans: 3 4ac − b 2 −9 Sol. Min. value = = 4a 8 2x 10. If log (1 + x ) − is increasing then ….. 2+x 1) 0 < x < ∞ 2) – ∞ < x < 0 3) – ∞ < x < ∞ Ans: 1 2x Sol. f ( x ) = log (1 + x ) − 2+ x 9.
[EAMCET 2003] [EAMCET 2005]

4)

9 4

[EAMCET 2002]

4) 1 < x < 2

f ′( x) =

( 2 + x ) − 2x (1) > 0 1 − 2 1+ x (2 + x)
2

3

Maxima and Minima
⇒ x2

(1 + x )( 2 + x )

2

>0

∴x>0

11.

⇒ 0<x < ∞ The minimum value of ( x − α )( x − β ) is 1) 0 2) αβ 3) 1 2 ( α − β) 4 4)

[EAMCET 2001]
−1 2 ( α − β) 4

Ans: 4 Sol. x 2 − ( α + β ) x + αβ The min. value of ax 2 + bx + c is
2 2

4ac − b 2 4a

4αβ − ( α + β ) − (α − β) = ∴ 4 4 12. The maximum value of xy subject to x + y = 7 is 1) 12 2) 10 3) 49/4 Ans: 3 Sol. Given x + y = 7 xy = x(7 – x) Let f ( x ) = x ( 7 − x ) ⇒ f ′ ( x ) = 7 − 2x = 0 7 7 ⇒ x = ;y = 2 2 The minimum value of xx is 1) e 2) ee Ans:

[EAMCET 2001]
4) 55/4

13.

[EAMCET 2000]
3) e
−1/ e

4) e

1/ e

Sol. y = x x ⇒ log y = x log x ⇒

(1 + log x ) = 0 ⇒ x = e−1
∴ Min.value = e −1/ e

dy = x x (1+ logx) dx

4