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# CHAPTER - 3

## LOAD FLOW METHOD FOR UNBALANCED SYSTEMS

3.1 INTRODUCTION
Load flow analysis is an important task for power system planning and operational
studies. Certain applications, particularly in distribution automation and optimization of a
power system, require repeated load flow solution and in these applications, it is very
important to solve the load flow problem as efficiently as possible. As the power distribution
networks become more and more complex, there is a higher demand for efficient and reliable
system operation. Consequently, the most important system analysis tool, load flow studies,
must have the capability to handle various system configurations with adequate accuracy and
speed. In many cases, it is observed that the radial distribution systems are unbalanced
because of single-phase, two-phase and three-phase loads. Thus, load flow solution for
unbalanced case, special treatment is required.
Conventional load flow methods cannot be directly applied to distribution systems as
discussed in previous chapter. Moreover, the techniques for three phase power flow analysis
for unbalanced systems cannot be developed by simply extending the single phase balanced
methods to three phase systems. A three phase load flow method has to address issues like
modeling of different types of component connections, determining starting point for three
phase power flow solution as there are phase shifts and transformation ratios for each phase
and at different buses. For untransposed lines and cables the balanced models are no longer
useful. The symmetrical component transformation can decouple the three phases. For three
phase networks an impedance matrix is to be obtained.
Chen et al. [24 - 26] have proposed a method to calculate power losses in unbalanced
radial distribution systems. Also proposed a method, how to model the transformer for power
flow analysis. Zimmerman and Chiang [39] have proposed Fast decoupled power flow

method for unbalanced radial distribution systems. This method orders the laterals instead of
buses into layers, thus reducing the problem size to the number of laterals. Using of lateral
variables instead of bus variables makes this method more efficient for a given system
topology, but it may add some difficulties if the network topology is changed regularly,
which is common in distribution systems because of switching operations. Thukaram et al.
[50] have proposed a method for solving three-phase radial distribution networks. This
method uses the forward and backward propagation to calculate branch currents and bus
voltages.
Garcia et al. [53] have proposed a method based on the Three-phase Current Injection
Method (TCIM), in which the current injection equations are written in rectangular
coordinates and is a full Newton method. Also it presents quadratic convergence properties
and convergence is obtained for all except some extremely ill conditioned cases. Lin and
Teng [54] have proposed a fast decoupled method which uses G-matrix for power flow based
on equivalent current injections. Teng [55] has proposed a method based on the Network
Topology which uses two matrices, viz. Bus Injection to Branch Current (BIBC) and BranchCurrent to Bus-Voltage (BCBV) matrices, to find out the solution. Kersting [56] has
proposed modeling of transformer and other components of distribution systems. Jen-Hao
Teng [78] has proposed direct method of load flow solution of unbalanced radial distribution

networks.
Mamdouh Abdel-Akher et al. [93] have proposed improved load flow method for
unbalanced RDS using sequence components. Peng Xiao et al. [96] have proposed a method
to model the different connections of transformer in as unbalanced radial distribution
networks. Subrahmanyam [100] has proposed simple three phase load flow method by
solving simple algebraic recursive expression of voltage magnitude. Many researchers [114,

127] have proposed different methods to solve load flow solution of unbalanced radial
distribution networks.
An efficient method for load flow analysis plays a critical role in automation
algorithms of RDS whose scope encompasses fault isolation, network reconfiguration and
service restoration. The ability of automation algorithms to handle these complex tasks that
require frequent topological changes in the RDS demands a dynamic topology processor
based on a well-defined data structure. In this chapter, a simple method of load flow
technique for unbalanced radial distribution system is proposed using data structure. The
proposed method involves the solution of simple algebraic equation of receiving end
voltages. However, most of the methods reported require a unique lateral branch and node
numbering method that needs to be pre-processed before the actual load flow can be carried
out using the recursive voltage equation. This unique numbering method is very essential in
obtaining the final solution.
The mathematical formulation of the proposed method is explained in the Section 3.2.
In this section, the modeling of different components of distribution system such as line, load
and transformer etc. are described. The steps of load flow algorithm are explained in Section
3.3. The effectiveness of the proposed method is tested with different examples of
distribution systems in Section 3.4 and the results are compared with the existing methods. In
Section 3.5, conclusions based on the solutions obtained by the proposed method are
presented.

## Unbalanced radial distribution system can be modeled as a network of buses

connected by distribution lines (with or without voltage regulators), switches or transformers.
Each bus may also have a corresponding load, shunt capacitor and/or co-generator connected
to it. This model can be represented by a radial interconnection of copies of the basic building
block shown in Fig. 3.1. Since a given branch may be single-phase, two-phase, or threephase, each of the labeled quantities is respectively a complex scalar, 2

1 or 3

1 complex

vector.

## Fig. 3.1 Basic building block of Distribution System

3.2.1 Distribution Systems Line Model
For the analysis of power transmission line, two fundamental assumptions are made,
namely:
Three-phase currents are balanced.
Transposition of the conductors to achieve balanced line parameters.
However, distribution systems do not lend themselves to either of the two
assumptions. Because of the dominance of single-phase loads, the assumption of balanced
three-phase currents is not applicable. Distribution lines are seldom transposed, nor can it be
assumed that the conductor configuration is an equilateral triangle. When these two

## assumptions are invalid, it is necessary to introduce a more accurate method of calculating

the line impedance.
A general representation of a distribution system with N conductors can be formulated
by resorting to the Carsons equations [56], leading to an NN primitive impedance matrix.
For most application, the primitive impedance matrices containing the self and mutual
impedances of each branch need to be reduced to the same dimension. A convenient
representation can be formulated as a 33 matrix in the phase frame, consisting of the self
and mutual equivalent impedances for the three phases. The standard method used to form
this matrix is the Krons reduction [56], based on the Kirchhoffs laws. For instance, a fourwire grounded wye overhead distribution line shown in Fig. 3.2 results in a 44 impedance
matrix. The corresponding equations are
i-bus

j-bus

A
B

Via

I ija

Z ijaa

I ijb

Z ijbb

Z ijab

Z ijcc

Z ijbc Z ijac

I ijc

Vib

Z ijan Vjb

Vja

C
c
i

nn
ij

cn
ij

bn
ij

c
j

I ijn

b b ba
Vi Vj Zij
Vic Vjc Zijca
n n na
Vi Vj Zij

Zijab
Zijbb
Zijcb
Zijnb

## It can also viewed in matrix form as

Zijac
Zijbc
Zijcc
Zijnc

Zijan Iija

Zijbn Iijb
Zijcn Iijc

Zijnn Iijn

(3.1)

abc
Viabc Vjabc Zij
n n nT
Vi Vj Zij

Zijn Iijabc
n
Zijnn Iij

(3.2)

If neutral is grounded, the voltages Vin and Vjn are considered to be equal. Then from the first
row of Eqn. 3.2, the value of I ijn can be obtained as
1

## Iijn Zijnn Zijn Iijabc

(3.3)

Substituting Eqn. (3.3) into Eqn. (3.2), the Krons reduction [56] of voltage equation reduces
to

(3.4)

where,

Zeijaa

Zeijba
Zeijca

Zeijab
Zeijbb
Zeijcb

Zeijac

Zeijbc
Zeijcc

(3.5)

## 3.2.2 Changing of phase impedances into sequence impedances

Phase components can be changed into sequence components as follows:

Zij012 A1ZijabcA

(3.6)

Vi012 A1 Viabc

(3.7)

Iij012 A 1Iijabc

(3.8)

1 1
A 1 a 2
1 a

1
a
a 2

and a= 11200

Now,

Zeij00
Ze10
ij
Zeij20

Zeij01 Zeij02
Ze11
Ze12
ij
ij
Zeij21 Zeij22

(3.9)

V V Ze I
012
j

012
i

012
ij

012
ij

i.e.,

1 1 10
Vj Vi Zeij
Vj2 Vi2 Zeij20

## Zeij01 Zeij02 Iij0

1
Ze11
Ze12
ij
ij Iij
Zeij21 Zeij22 Iij2

(3.10)

## 3.2.3 Load Models

The different load models that have been considered are given below.
3.2.3.1 Lumped Load Model
In distribution systems loads can exist in one, two and three phase loads with wye or
delta connections. Also loads can be categorized into four types depending on the load
characteristics; constant power, constant impedance, constant current and complex loads. In
this chapter, the loads considered are of constant power type and can be mathematically
represented as follows
Wye connected loads

Sphn
IL iphn
Vi
ph
i

(3.11)

where
ILph
i

Siphn

## = power per phase at ith bus

th
Viphn = phase to neutral voltage at i bus

Siphn
IL phph
Vi

ph
i

(3.12)

where
ILph
i

Siphn

## = power per phase at ith bus

th
Viphph = phase voltage at i bus

## 3.2.3.2 Distributed Load Model

Sometimes the primary feeder supplies loads through distribution transformers tapped
at various locations along line section. If every load point is modeled as a bus, then there will
be a large number of buses in the system. Hence these loads are represented as lumped loads:
At one-fourth length of line from sending end a dummy bus is created at which two
thirds of the load is assumed to be connected.
The remaining one-third load is assumed to be connected at the receiving end bus.
3.2.4 Transformer Model
The impact of the transformers in a distribution system is significant. Transformers
affect system loss, zero sequence current, method of grounding and protection strategy.
Three-phase transformer is represented by two blocks as shown in Fig. 3.3, one block
represents the per unit leakage admittance matrix YTabc , and the other block models the core
loss as a function of voltage on the secondary side.
Secondary

Primary

Core
Loss

## Fig. 3.3 General Three-phase Transformer Model

3.2.4.1 Core Loss

The core loss of a transformer is approximated by shunt core loss functions on each
phase of the secondary terminal of the transformer. These core loss approximation functions
are based on the results of EPRI load modeling research which state that real and reactive
power losses in the transformer core can be expressed as functions of the terminal voltage of
the transformer. Transformer core loss functions represented in per unit at the system power
base [25] are:

(3.13)

(3.14)

2
KVA Rating
2
A V B e C V
Pp.u.
System Base

2
KVA Rating
2
D V E e F V
Qp.u.
System Base

where,

## V is voltage magnitude in per unit.

It is to be noted that the coefficients A, B, C, D, E, and F are transformer dependent
constants.
3.2.4.2 Leakage Admittance Matrix: YTabc
The admittance matrix part of the proposed three-phase transformer models follow the
methodology derived by [25, 56], for simplification, a single three-phase transformer is
approximated by three identical single-phase transformers connected appropriately. This
assumption is not essential; however, it simplifies the ensuing derivation and explanation.
Based upon this assumption, the characteristic sub matrices used in forming the three phase
transformer admittance matrices can be developed. The Table 3.1 shows the sub-matrices of

YT for the nine most common step-down transformer connection types. The Table 3.2 shows
the matrices for step-up transformer connection types.
Table 3.1 Sub-matrices of YT for common step-down transformer connections [96]

Transformer connection
Bus p
Bus s

Self Admittance
abc
Ypp
Yssabc

Mutual Admittance
Ypsabc
Yspabc

Wye-G

Wye-G

Y1

Y1

Y1

Y1

Wye-G

Wye

Y2

Y2

Y2

Y2

Wye-G

Delta

Y1

Y2

Y3

Y3t

Wye

Wye-G

Y2

Y2

Y2

Y2

Wye

Wye

Y2

Y2

Y2

Y2

Wye

Delta

Y2

Y2

Y3

Y3t

Delta

Wye-G

Y2

Y1

Y3t

Y3

Delta

Wye

Y2

Y2

Y3

Y3t

Delta

Delta

Y2

Y2

Y2

Y2

## Table 3.2 Sub-matrices of YT for common step-up transformer connections [96]

Transformer connection
Bus p
Bus s

Self Admittance
abc
Ypp
Yssabc

Mutual Admittance
Ypsabc
Yspabc

Wye-G

Wye-G

Y1

Y1

Y1

Y1

Wye-G

Wye

Y2

Y2

Y2

Y2

Wye-G

Delta

Y1

Y2

Y3

Y3t

Wye

Wye-G

Y2

Y2

Y2

Y2

Wye

Wye

Y2

Y2

Y2

Y2

Wye

Delta

Y2

Y2

Y3

Y3t

Delta

Wye-G

Y2

Y1

Y3t

Y3

Delta

Wye

Y2

Y2

Y3t

Y3

Delta

Delta

Y2

Y2

Y2

Y2

where,
Yt
Y1 0
0

0
Yt
0

0
2Yt
1

0 , Y2 Yt
3
Yt
Yt

Yt
2Yt
Yt

Yt
Yt
1

Yt , Y3
0
3
Yt
2Yt

Yt
Yt
0

0
Yt
Yt

## Yt - Per-unit leakage admittance.

If the transformer has an off-nominal tap ratio : between the primary and
secondary windings, where and are tappings on the primary and secondary sides
respectively, then the sub-matrices are modified as follows:

## a) Divide the self admittance matrix of the primary by 2.

b) Divide the self admittance matrix of the secondary by 2.
c) Divide the mutual admittance matrices by
With the nodal admittance matrix YT , the transformer voltage-current relationship
abc

## can be expressed as:

I P
I
s

abc

YT

abc

Vp
V
s

abc

(3.15)

where,

Ypp Yps

Ysp Yss

YT abc

The matrix YT

abc

is divided into four 33 sub-matrices: Ypp, Yps, Ysp and Yss. Vp and

Vs are the line-to-neutral bus voltages and Ip and Is are injection currents at the primary and
secondary sides of the transformer respectively.
The sequence component of primary and secondary currents can be calculated as

012

A 1 I p

abc

(3.16)

Is 012 A 1 Is abc

(3.17)

Then for three phase unbalanced system, the total current through branch k, I k

abc

is

summation of current at bus j due to self load and the cumulative current of all the branches
connected to bus j.
The equation for Vj

Vj

012

012

can be written as

Vi

012

Z012
I012
k
k

(3.18)

where

Ik

012

1
= sequence current vector in kth branch = A I k

abc

Vi

012

and Vj

012

1 abc
Z012
k A Zk A

(3.19)

where

Zabc
k

Zaa
k
ba
Zk
Zca
k

Zab
k
bb
Zk
Zcb
k

Zac
k
bc
Zk

Zcc
k

## Then the phase voltages can be calculated as:

V abc AV012

(3.20)

These calculations are to be carried out till the bus voltages are converged within the
specified tolerance limits. Then the real and reactive power loss in branch k connected
between i and j buses can be expressed as:
abc
k Re(Sijabc k )
PLoss

(3.21)

abc
Qabc
Loss k Im (Sij k )

(3.22)

where

## Sijabc k Viabc Vjabc I abc

k

Sijabc k is a complex power loss in the branch, k connected between buses i and j

## Viabc and Vjabc are voltage at buses i and j respectively and

I abc
k is the current through branch k connected between buses i and j.
The total active power loss (TPL) and total reactive power loss (TQL) are calculated
by using the Eqns. (2.11) and (2.12) given in Chapter 2.
3.3 ALGORITHM FOR LOAD FLOW CALCULATION
Step 1 : Read line and load data of an unbalanced radial distribution system.
Step 2 : Initialize the bus voltages as 1p.u and bus voltage angles for phase a,

phase - b and phase - c as 00 ,1200 , 1200 respectively. Initialize TPL, TQL to zero.
Step 3 : Set iteration count =1 and tolerance

= 0.0001.

Step 4 : Build BIM and Data Structure of the system using Section 2.3.
Step 5 : Convert phase component of voltages and impedances into sequence components
using Eqns. (3.6) (3.7).
Step 6 : Calculate sequence component load currents at all buses.
Step 7 : Calculate Sequence voltages (V012) at all buses using Eqn. (3.18). The phase voltages
(Vabc) can be calculated using Eqn. (3.20).
Step 8 : Check for the convergence, if the difference between the voltage magnitudes in two
consecutive iterations is less than , then go to Step 9else set count = count+1 and
go to Step 6.
Step 9 : Calculate losses in each branch using Eqn. (3.21) and (3.22) and compute
TPL and TQL.
Step 10 : STOP.

## 3.4 FLOW CHART FOR THE PROPOSED METHOD

Start
Read Distribution System.
Assume bus voltages for phase system are
,
,
.
Set iteration count (IC) =1, convergence criterion () =0.0001, Initialize real and
reactive power losses to zero

## Build Bus Incidence matrix (BIM)

Fig. 3.4 Flow chart of load flow method for unbalanced systems

## 3.5 ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES

To illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method is tested with two different
examples consisting of 25 and IEEE 37 bus unbalanced radial distribution systems.
3.5.1 Example 1
The proposed algorithm is tested on 25-bus unbalanced radial distribution system
whose single line diagram is shown in Fig. 3.5. For the load flow the base voltage and base
MVA are chosen as 4.16 kV and 30 MVA respectively. The line and load data are given in

Appendix B (Table B.1). The voltage profile of the system obtained using load flow solution
is given in Table 3.3. The summary of load flow result of 25 bus system is given in Table 3.4.

## Fig. 3.5 Single line diagram of 25 bus URDS

Table 3.3 Load flow result of 25 bus unbalanced radial distribution system
Bus
no.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19

|Va|
(p.u.)
1.0000
0.9702
0.9632
0.9598
0.9587
0.955
0.9419
0.9529
0.9359
0.9315
0.9294
0.9284
0.9287
0.9359
0.9338
0.9408
0.9347
0.9573
0.9548

Angle
(Va)
(Deg)
0.0000
-0.0099
-0.0122
-0.0134
-0.0133
-0.0097
-0.0097
-0.0097
-0.0097
-0.0097
-0.0097
-0.0097
-0.0097
-0.0096
-0.0096
-0.0097
-0.0096
-0.0122
-0.0122

Proposed method
Angle
|Vb|
(Vb)
(p.u.)
(Deg)
1.0000 -2.0944
0.9711 -2.1016
0.9644 -2.1034
0.9613 -2.1043
0.9603 -2.1043
0.9559 -2.1006
0.9428 -2.0997
0.9538 -2.1005
0.9367 -2.0993
0.9319 -2.099
0.9296 -2.0989
0.9284 -2.0988
0.9287 -2.0989
0.937 -2.0992
0.9349 -2.099
0.9418 -2.0996
0.936 -2.0991
0.9586 -2.103
0.9563 -2.1029

Existing method[127]
|Vc|
(p.u.)
1.0000
0.9755
0.9698
0.9674
0.9664
0.9615
0.9492
0.9596
0.9438
0.9395
0.9376
0.9366
0.9368
0.9434
0.9414
0.9483
0.942
0.9643
0.962

Angle
(Vc)
(Deg)
2.0944
2.0824
2.0796
2.0783
2.0783
2.082
2.0816
2.082
2.0815
2.0813
2.0813
2.0814
2.0814
2.0814
2.0814
2.0816
2.0815
2.0795
2.0795

|Va|
(p.u.)

|Vb|
(p.u.)

|Vc|
(p.u.)

1.0000
0.9702
0.9632
0.9598
0.9587
0.955
0.9419
0.9529
0.9359
0.9315
0.9294
0.9284
0.9287
0.9359
0.9338
0.9408
0.9347
0.9573
0.9524

1.0000
0.9711
0.9644
0.9613
0.9603
0.9559
0.9428
0.9538
0.9367
0.9319
0.9296
0.9284
0.9287
0.937
0.9349
0.9418
0.936
0.9586
0.9544

1.0000
0.9755
0.9698
0.9674
0.9664
0.9615
0.9492
0.9596
0.9438
0.9395
0.9376
0.9366
0.9368
0.9434
0.9414
0.9483
0.942
0.9643
0.96

20
21
22
23
24
25

0.9535
0.9538
0.9518
0.9565
0.9544
0.952

-0.0122
-0.0121
-0.0121
-0.0133
-0.0133
-0.0132

0.9547
0.9549
0.9525
0.9584
0.9565
0.9547

-2.1028
-2.1029
-2.1028
-2.1043
-2.1043
-2.1044

0.9603
0.9605
0.9585
0.9648
0.9631
0.9612

2.0795
2.0797
2.0799
2.0783
2.0782
2.0783

0.9548
0.9537
0.9518
0.9565
0.9544
0.952

0.9563
0.9549
0.9525
0.9584
0.9565
0.9547

0.962
0.9605
0.9585
0.9648
0.9631
0.9612

From the results the minimum voltages in phases a, b and c are 0.9284 p.u., 0.9284
p.u. and 0.9366 p.u. respectively. Total active power losses are observed as 52.7 kW, 55.41
kW and 41.83 kW in phases a, b and c respectively. Total Reactive power losses are as
58.2048 kVAr, 53.2694 kVAr and 55.6711 kVAr in phases a, b and c respectively. The
voltage regulation is 7.16%, 7.16% and 6.34% in phases a, b and c respectively. The solution
obtained by the proposed method is compared with solution obtained by the existing method
[127] and results are confirmed exactly. The total demand in each phase also can be observed
in Table 3.4.
Table 3.4 Summary of load flow result of 25 bus system
Description

Proposed method

Phase

phase A

phase B

phase C

phase A

phase B

phase C

## Total Real power

loss in kW
Total Reactive
power loss in kVAr
Total Real power
demand in kW
Total Reactive
power demand in
kVAr
Minimum Voltage
in p.u.

52.7

55.41

41.83

52.82

55.44

41.86

58.2048

53.2694

55.6711

58.32

53.29

55.69

1126.000

1138.7102

1125.1284

1126.12

1138.74

1125.16

850.2048

854.2695

855.6711

850.32

854.29

855.69

0.9284

0.9284

0.9366

0.9284

0.9284

0.9366

3.5.2 Example 2
The proposed algorithm is tested on IEEE 37-bus unbalanced radial distribution
system whose single line diagram is shown in Fig. 3.6. For the load flow the base voltage and
base MVA are chosen as 4.8 kV and 100 MVA respectively. The line and load data are given
in Appendix B (Table B.2 to B.6). The voltage profile of the system obtained using load flow

solution is given in Table 3.5. The summary of load flow result of 25 bus system is given in
Table 3.6.

## Fig. 3.6 Single line diagram of IEEE 37 bus URDS

Table 3.5 Load flow result of 37 bus unbalanced radial distribution system
Bus
no.
1
2
3
4
5
6

Proposed method
Existing method [132]
|Va| (p.u)
|Vb|
|Vc| (p.u) |Va| (p.u)
|Vb|
|Vc| (p.u)
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
(p.u)
(p.u)
0.9863
0.9855
0.9817
0.9863
0.9855
0.9817
0.9781
0.9772
0.9719
0.9781
0.9772
0.9719
0.9709
0.9715
0.9645
0.9709
0.9715
0.9645
0.9652
0.9667
0.9588
0.9652
0.9667
0.9588
0.9634
0.9651
0.9571
0.9634
0.9651
0.9571

7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37

0.9607
0.9582
0.9547
0.9512
0.9501
0.9498
0.9497
0.9763
0.9740
0.9727
0.9726
0.9725
0.9761
0.9757
0.9697
0.9690
0.9686
0.9634
0.9632
1.0000
0.9542
0.9541
0.9497
0.9737
0.9723
0.9709
0.9707
0.9705
0.9686
0.9536
0.9751

0.9631
0.9621
0.9606
0.9596
0.9592
0.9590
0.9589
0.9749
0.9718
0.9683
0.9679
0.9675
0.9746
0.9738
0.9709
0.9705
0.9704
0.9651
0.9642
1.0000
0.9595
0.9593
0.9588
0.9717
0.9714
0.9629
0.9624
0.9619
0.9701
0.9578
0.9737

0.9547
0.9527
0.9494
0.9472
0.9461
0.9451
0.9448
0.9697
0.9672
0.9647
0.9646
0.9645
0.9701
0.9699
0.9635
0.9631
0.9630
0.9571
0.9569
1.0000
0.9478
0.9473
0.9445
0.9671
0.9667
0.9631
0.9629
0.9629
0.9627
0.9475
0.9691

0.9607
0.9582
0.9547
0.9512
0.9501
0.9498
0.9497
0.9763
0.9740
0.9727
0.9726
0.9725
0.9761
0.9757
0.9697
0.9690
0.9686
0.9634
0.9632
1.0000
0.9542
0.9541
0.9497
0.9737
0.9723
0.9709
0.9707
0.9705
0.9686
0.9536
0.9751

0.9631
0.9621
0.9606
0.9596
0.9592
0.9590
0.9589
0.9749
0.9718
0.9683
0.9679
0.9675
0.9746
0.9738
0.9709
0.9705
0.9704
0.9651
0.9642
1.0000
0.9595
0.9593
0.9588
0.9717
0.9714
0.9629
0.9624
0.9619
0.9701
0.9578
0.9737

0.9547
0.9527
0.9494
0.9472
0.9461
0.9451
0.9448
0.9697
0.9672
0.9647
0.9646
0.9645
0.9701
0.9699
0.9635
0.9631
0.9630
0.9571
0.9569
1.0000
0.9478
0.9473
0.9445
0.9671
0.9667
0.9631
0.9629
0.9629
0.9627
0.9475
0.9691

From the results the minimum voltages in phases a, b and c are 0.9497 p.u., 0.9588
p.u. and 0.9445p.u. respectively. Total active power losses are observed as 31.5612 kW,
23.6734 kW and 30.4408 kW in phases a, b and c respectively. Total reactive power losses
are as 24.0121 kVAr, 22.3235 kVAr and 29.1918 kVAr in phases a, b and c respectively. The
voltage regulation is 5.03%, 4.12% and 5.55% in phases a, b and c respectively. The solution
obtained by the proposed method is compared with solution obtained by the existing method
[132] and results are confirmed exactly. The total demand in each phase also can be observed
in Table 3.6.

Table 3.6 Summary of load flow result of 37 bus unbalanced radial distribution
system
Description

Proposed method

Phase

phase A

phase B

phase C

phase A

phase B

phase C

## Total Real power

loss in kW
Total Reactive
power loss in
kVAr
Total Real power
demand in kW
Total Reactive
power demand in
kVAr
Minimum Voltage
in p.u.

31.5612

23.6734

30.4408

31.56

23.67

30.44

24.0121

22.3235

29.1918

24.01

22.32

29.19

885.56

789.67

1163.44

885.56

789.67

1163.44

442.01

397.32

521.81

442.01

397.32

521.81

0.9497

0.9588

0.9445

0.9497

0.9588

0.9445

3.6 CONCLUSIONS
In this chapter, the implementation of Data structures for bus identification and load
flow solution for Unbalanced Radial distribution systems has been presented. The modeling
of major components such as line, transformer and load related to unbalanced radial
distribution system is presented. The proposed method is demonstrated with the two different
three phase unbalanced radial distribution systems and the results obtained are compared with
results of existing method.