org/
[ntroductJon
Part
to Seismic Inversion
8  Modelbased

Inversion
_

Methods
m
m
L
Bran Russel
....
Page 8 
Introduction
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8.1
to Seismic
Introducti
In the
information
Inversion
Methods
Brian
Russell
on
past
sections
directly
of
the
course,
we have derived
reflectivity
inversion to
methods can be severely affected by noise, poor amplitude recovery, and the
bandlimited nature of seismic data.
will
be included
In
first
in
the
final
inversion
our
approac is
intuitively
data
itself.
seismic data.
this
result.
results of tis
of
Notice
that
update
this
method is
that matchesthe data'very well, but is incorrect. (This can be seen easily
by noting that there are infinitely manyvelocity/depth pairs that will result
in the sametime value.) This is referred to as the problem of nonuniqueness.
To implement the approach shown in
fundamental questions.
First,
Figure 8.1,
Second,
between
Part
8  Modelbased
Inversion
Page 8 
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Introduction
to Seismic
Inversion
Methods'
Brian
Russell
CALCULATE
UPDATE
IMPEDANCE
ERROR
ERROR
SMALL
ENOUGH
NO
YES
SOLUTION
= ESTIMATE
Figure 8.1
Part
8  Modelbased
Inversion
technique.
Page 8 
Introduction
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8.2
%o Seismic
Generalized
Linear
Inversion
Methods
Brian
Russell
Inversion
tese observations in a
Mathematically,
M:(m
1,m
2, ..... , mk)
T=vector
ofkmodel
parameters,
and
T: (t1,t2, ..... , tn)T:
functional
of n observations.
vector
form
the
functional
relationship
i : 1, ...
, n.
between
the
produce an
and error by
analyzing the error betweenthe model output and the observations, and then
perturbing the model parameters in such a way as to produce an output which
will produceless error.
In this way, we may iterate towards a solution.
Mathematically'
F(M)
)F(MO)
= F(Mo)+ aT
M,
MOInitialodel,
where
M:
AM:
F(M) : observations,
F(Mo):calculated
valuesfrominitial
model, and
)F(M
O)
.2
Part
8  Modelbased
Inversion
= change
in calculated
values.
Page 8 
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Brian Russell
IMPEDANCE
(GM/CM3)(FT/SEC)
X1000
IMPEDANCE
4.6
41.5AMPLITUDE
41.5 4.6
ml
41.5 4.6
41.5
ii
,i
i,
ii
:.
__
Figure 8.2
A synthetic
inversion.
inversion
of (b)convolved
Part
8  Modelbased
I nversi on
with wavelet.
Page 8 
Introduction
to Seismic
Inversion
Methods
Brian
Russell
But note that the error between the observations and the computed values
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i s simply
F = F(M) F(MO).
Therefore,
where
= A AM,
A:
matrix
with
of deri vatives
n rows anU k columns.
1
= A
F,
However, since there are usually more observations than parameters (that
does
not
than k)
have
the matrix A is
true
inverse.
This
referred
to
as
an
(1984)).
The solution
is given by
M: (AT'A)IA
TZF.
Figure 8.1 can be thought of as a flowchart of the GLI methodif we make
the impedanceupdate using the methodjust described. However, we still must
derive
the
observations.
convol utional
functional
relationship
The simplest
necessary to relate
solution
the
model to
the
is the standarO
model
s(t)
= w(t) * r(t),
where r(t)
= primaries only.
Cooke and Schneider (1983) use a modilied version of the previous formula
in which multiples
Part
8  Modelbased
Inversion
Page 8 
Introduction
to Seismic
Inversion
Methods
Brian
'
Russell
IMP.EDANCE
x1OOO
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(GM/CM3)(FT/$EC)
._
,.o
. .::
. .:.
,, ,,
. . .....
. .:.........::
:...., ...... .. :...lO
? "e'.
: :........:..:.._
........
,,
, .....
.
4':
':::./.:.!i!i..::..':..
:.:......:.':ii.'':..
:.....
'......'..'..
:.' }::!
 ..'.:"
'
300M$
Figure 8.3
AMPLITUDE
(GM/CM3! (FT/SEC)X1000
10
,,,.l
Figure 8.4
Model
traces
derived
from
Figure 8.5
38 10
38
Introduction
to Seismic
Brian
Russell
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important
feature
of
this
particular
method is
the
the
This
and a thickness in
simplified
the
derive a fairly
Wewill
syntheticandreal examplefromCookeandSchneider(1983).
A 20 synthetic example was next considered by Cooke and Schneider
(1983). Figure 8.3 showsthe model, which consisted of two gas sands encased
in shale.
The impedance
Finally,
final
solution,
Part
8  Modelbased
Inversion
Page 8 
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Brian Russell
YES
_____J
' '
 _
FINALMObEL
._ x,
.... r  ;,
.'%..
cxr.
.,'_;'.:.
, . . . .. ..
t ...
Figure 8.6
I11 ustrated
flow chart
for
(Western GeophysicalBrochure)
Page 8 
! ntroducti
Brian
Russel 1
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8.3 Sei_smic
L_ithologicModelling(,SLIM)
Although the nthod outlined in Cookeand Schneider (1983)
promise, it has not,
commercially.
as
far
However,
fully
released,
than
the
direct
of
a seismic
flowchart
the
layers
of
variable
similar
and
is
perturbation
of
the
Also, the
of a model rather
section.
very
inversion
Notice that,
appears
Seismic Lithologic
brochure.
author is
Western Geophysical.
as this
showed much
density,
geological model is
various
control
supplied (from a
the
The
error sum is computed. The model is perturbed in such a way as to reduce the
error,
convergence.
over classical
methods is
recurslye
that
noise
in the seismic
section
is not
applying
this
method to
boundaries
of
sonic log.
data
to
be
Page 8 
10
inverted.
Part
8  Modelbased
I nversi
on
Introduction
to Seismic
Inversion
Methods
Brian
Russell
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1kit
,1.4
1.4
1.6
2.0
2.0
Stack
Initial
Figure 8.7
lkft
.4
1.6
1.8
2.0
1.8
Field
data
Synthetic
Figure 8.8
Left:
Reflectivity
data shown 1n
field data.
inversion.
1983).
..........
Page 8 
2.0
.m:
11
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Introduction
to Seismic
Inversion
Methods
Brian
Russell
In Figure 8.8 the stack is again shown in its most complexregion, with
the final synthetic data is shownafter 7 iterations through the program.
Notice the excellent agreement. On the right hand sie of Figure 8.9 is the
final reflectivity section from which the pseudoimpedanceis derived. Since
this reflectivity is "spiy", or broad band, it already contains the low
frequencycomponent
necessary
for full inversion. Finally, Figure 8.10 shows
the final inversion compared
with a traditional recursire inversion.
Note the
In
summary,
which can
reflectivity
parameter
be thought
is
of
extracted.
Part
8  Modelbased
Inversion
model1ing scheme
has the
advantage
as in recursire
that
errors
are
not
inversion.
Page 8 
12
Introduction
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to Seismic
Methods
500ft
N
lkft
Inversion
Brian
114
mile
S
Russell
114
mile
SE
.5
.7
l m
1.9
Figure 8.9
Impedance section
derived
of
lkft
50011
N
114mileS
114mileS
1.7
19
Fi gure 8.10
Traditional
recursire
inversion
8  Modelbased
Inversion
Page 8 
13
Introduction
to Seismic
Inversion
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Appendix
8!
Methods
Brian
Russell
Mat_r_ix
.appljc.at.
ions_inGeophy.s.ics
application.
3x1+2x2 : 1, and
x1 x2 = 2.
By inspection, we see that the solution is
x1
1 1
x2
y,
or
is,
therefore
x
1
x1
x2
8  Modelbased
Inversion
1 . 2
1/5
or
Part
y,
Page 8 
14
Introduction
to Seismic Inversion
Me.thods
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and the
problem terefore
of dimension N.
vector
Brian Russell
fewer
means
equations than
unknowns (in
Generally,
we either
situation
is
have
called
is
is
little
interest
to
case is
us since
there
is
no unique
solution.
the
The
following
problems:
(!)
Surface
consi stent
consistent
an
example.
(a) Cons.i
st Overd..etermined
Lin.earEqua.t.
ion.s
In
this
equations
case
are
we
simply
than
unknowns, but
In
this
the extra
case,
the
square matrix case. For examp.le, consider adding a third equation to our
earl ier example,
so that
3x1+2x2 : 1,
x1 x2 : 2,
anU
Part
8  Modelbased
Inversion
Page 8 
15
Introduction
to Seismic
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Inversion
Methods
Brian
Russell
in matrix form as
x1
x
But notice that the third equation is simply five times the second, and
therefore conveys no new information.
We may thus
form.
(b) Inco,
ns,
is,tentOverd.
eermine.
d L.i.near
Equai.on?
extra
versions
of other
This is
usually the case in our seismic wor and indicates the presence of measurement
noise and errors.
As an example, consider a modification to the preceding
equations, so that
3x1+2xZ  1,
x1 x2  Z,
in matrix form as
2
I
5
Part
8  Modelbased
Inversion
xI
x2
Page 8 
16
Introduction
to Seismic
Inversion
He.thods
Brian
Russell
'Now the third equationis not reducible to either of the other two, ana
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an alternate
of
least
solution
That is,
if
between the
to
e=Axy,
, en)
ei
Le.
Re expressing the 'preceding equation in terms of the values x, y, and A,
we
have
E = eTe= (y  Ax)T(y
 Ax)
= yTy_ xTATy
_ yTAx
+ xTATAx.
We then solve the equation
bE_
bxi
The final
solution to
the
leastsquares
equati OhS
AT
Ax = AT y
or
Part
8  Modelbased
Inversion
x = (ATA)lATy
.
Page 8 
17