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journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/pnucene

maintenance scheduling programming

Cludio M.N.A. Pereira a, b, *, Celso M.F. Lapa a, Antnio C.A. Mol a, b, Andr F. da Luz a

a

b

Comisso Nacional de Energia Nuclear e IEN/CNEN R. Hlio de Almeida, 75, 21941-972, P.O. Box 68550, Ilha do Fundo, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Universidade Gama Filho, Departamento de Cincia da Computao, Rua Manoel Vitorino 553, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

a r t i c l e i n f o

a b s t r a c t

Article history:

Received 9 December 2009

Received in revised form

5 April 2010

Accepted 29 April 2010

This work presents a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) approach for non-periodic preventive maintenance scheduling optimization. The probabilistic model, which is focused on reliability and cost

evaluation, is developed in such a way that exible intervals between maintenance interventions are

allowed. Due to the fact that PSO is typically skilled for real-coded continuous spaces, with xed

dimension (number of search parameters), a non-straightforward codication for solution candidates has

been developed in order to allow PSO to deal with variable number of maintenance interventions. To

evaluate the proposed methodology, the High Pressure Injection System (HPIS) of a typical 4-loop

Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) has been considered. The optimization problem consists in maximizing

the systems average availability for a given period of time, considering realistic features such as: i) the

probability of needing a repair (corrective maintenance), ii) the cost of such repair, iii) typical outage

times, iv) preventive maintenance costs, v) the impact of the maintenance in the systems reliability as

a whole, vi) probability of imperfect maintenance, etc. Obtained results demonstrated good capability of

proposed PSO approach for automatic expert knowledge acquisition (without any a priori information),

which allowed it to nd optimal solutions.

2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords:

Particle Swarm Optimization

Preventive maintenance

Nuclear power plant

1. Introduction

Preventive maintenance (PM) scheduling planning is an important issue in nuclear power plants (NPP) operation. As PM directly

affects operations reliability, availability and cost, PM optimization

has been the focus of many investigations by nuclear engineers and

researchers in the last 15 years.

According to Duthie et al. (1998), since the beginning of the last

decade, researchers have been publishing papers addressing

preventive maintenance optimization of nuclear power plant

systems. This may be classied in three main groups. The rst one has

the focus on systems reliability (Hilsmeier et al., 1995; Vaurio, 1997).

The second one focuses on probabilistic models and perform tests

among some standard policies (Martorell et al., 1996; Duthie et al.,

1998; Martorell et al., 2004). Finally, we can mention those, which

apply expert knowledge to determine good maintenance policies

(Van Noortwijk et al., 1992). In order to avoid the optimization

R. Hlio de Almeida, 75, 21941-972, P.O. Box 68550, Ilha do Fundo, Rio de Janeiro,

Brazil. Tel.: 55 21 2173 3897.

E-mail address: cmnap@ien.gov.br (C.M.N.A. Pereira).

0149-1970/$ e see front matter 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.pnucene.2010.04.009

considered systems with few components (Harunuzzaman and

Aldemir, 1996; Billinton and Pan, 1998).

From the probabilistic point of the view, Park et al. (2000)

contributed to the solution of the class of problem under discussion by including components with very small degradation degrees,

Chiang and Yang (2001) have proposed approaches for maintenance optimization problems aiming at obtaining systems availabilities by Markovian methods and Dijkhuizen and Heijden (1999)

have optimized the distribution of availability intervals instead of

optimizing the preventive maintenance policy.

In the practice, establishing a good maintenance policy is often

a hard task, due to the large number of components and operational

constraints found in industrial systems. Aiming to better deal with

such complexity, Munz and Martorell (1997) proposed the use of

genetic algorithm as the optimization tool.

Lapa et al. (2000) proposed an innovative approach, considering

the possibility of non-periodic PM scheduling. The objective was to

maximize systems average availability during a given operation

period. To accomplish that, a PSA model has been developed. As

a consequence of considering non-periodic PM interventions,

problems complexity increased very much. In order to deal with

such complexity, a robust optimization tool was required and

genetic algorithms (GA) has been used. In that work, optimized nonperiodic scheduling demonstrated to t better to optimizations

objective and constraints than conventional periodic PM.

Lapas approach for non-periodic interventions has also been

successfully applied to surveillance tests (Lapa et al., 2002, 2003;

Pereira and Lapa, 2003; Sacco et al., 2008).

In further work (Lapa et al., 2006), the model has been extended,

considering maintenance costs. Those works considered realistic

features such as: i) the probability of needing a repair (corrective

maintenance), ii) the cost of such repair, iii) typical outage times, iv)

preventive maintenance costs, v) the impact of the maintenance in

the systems reliability as a whole, vi) probability of imperfect maintenance, etc. The genetic modeling used in such works, however,

presented a limitation due to the proposed solution candidate

(genotype) encoding, which considered a 15-days time step, allowing

only dates which are multiples of 15, and, consequently, restricting

the search space.

In this work, a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) approach for

non-periodic preventive maintenance scheduling optimization is

proposed. Such proposed model, eliminate the above mentioned

time-step limitation, allowing interventions to be scheduled with

one-day interval (if required). Such approach propitiates a better

tting of the schedules to components characteristics and maintenance policy objectives, as could be observed in preliminary results

(Pereira et al., 2009).

The proposed PSO is intended to search for the optimum maintenance policy considering several relevant features such as: i) the

probability of needing a repair (corrective maintenance), ii) the cost

of such repair, iii) typical outage times, iv) preventive maintenance

costs, v) the impact of the maintenance in the systems reliability as

a whole and vi) probability of imperfect maintenance.

PSO (Kennedy and Eberhart, 1995) is a population-based metaheuristic (PBM), in which solution candidates are enhanced through

the simulation of a simplied social adaptation model. Several

successful applications of PSO to nuclear problems reported in

literature (Siqueira et al., 2005; Domingos et al., 2006; Pereira et al.,

2007; Waintraub et al., 2009), in which PSO demonstrated advantages over other well-established PBM, motivated this work.

Considering that PSO works in continuous space, with xed

length real-coded vectors (to encode solution candidates) and the

proposed problem is discrete and may allow variable number of

maintenance interventions for each system component, a non-trivial

encoding of solution candidates has been developed in this work.

In order to evaluate the proposed methodology, the High Pressure Injection System (HPIS) of a typical 4-loop PWR has been

considered. Obtained results demonstrated good capability of

proposed PSO approach for automatic expert knowledge acquisition

(whithout any a priori information), which allowed it to nd optimal

solutions.

711

an

n-dimensional

search

space.

Considering

that

!

pBesti t fpBesti;1 t; .; pBesti;n tg is the best position already

found

by

particle

i

until

time

t

and

!

gBesti t fgBesti;1 t; .; gBesti;n tg is the best position already

found by a neighbor until t, the PSO updating rules for velocity and

position are given by (Kennedy and Eberhart, 1995):

vi;n t 1 w:vi;n t c1 :r1 : pBesti;n t xi;n t

c2 :r2 : gBesti;n t xi;n t

(1)

(2)

!

!

c1 and c2 are given acceleration constants towards pBest and gBest

respectively and w is the inertia weight.

The inertia weight, w, is the responsible for the scope of the

exploration of the search space. High values of w promote global

exploration and exploitation, while low values, lead to local search.

A common approach to provide balance between global and local

search is to linearly decrease w during the search process.

The swarm is randomly initialized. Then, while stopping criterion is not reached, particles move according velocity and positions

equations (Eqs. (1) and (2)). The PSO algorithm pseudo code can be

seen in Fig. 1.

2.2. Optimization problem modeling

In this work a typical PWR High Pressure Injection System

(HPIS) has been considered. The HPIS can be represented by seven

V1

2. Proposed methodology

2.1. Particle Swarm Optimization

PSO (Kennedy and Eberhart, 1995) is Population Based Metaheuristic (PBM) inspired by the behavior of biological swarms and

social adaptation. In PSO, a swarm of structures encoding solution

candidates (particles) y in the n-dimensional search space of

the optimization problem looking for optima or near-optima

regions. The position of a particle represents a solution candidate

itself, while the velocity attribute, provides information about

direction and changing rate. Particles are guided by two components: i) cognitive information based on particles own experience

and ii) social information based on observation of neighbors. Let

!

!

X i t fxi;1 t; .; xi;n tg and V i t fvi;1 t; .; vi;n tg be,

Line 1

B1

V3

B2

V4

Line 2

B3

V2

712

V1

X0

...

X22

V2

X23

...

...

X45

!

i) X i t elements are real numbers ranging from 540 to 540;

ii) each element is rounded to the closes integer;

iii ) values from 1 to 540 represent valid days for maintenance

interventions;

iv) non-positive values represent no intervention;

v) duplicate values are removed;

B3

...

X138

...

X160

Vector X i (t )

!

Fig. 3. Vector X i t.

Eq. (3) shows the objective function, which should be

minimized.

In normal operation its function is to complete the inventory of the

primary loop through the reactor coolant system, as well as to

guarantee the seal of the pumps of this system. Under accident

situations, in which the steam generators are unavailable or there is

a rupture in the primary system, the HPIS is used for removing the

decay heat. Considering that the reactor in operating with power

above 60% and at least 2 of the 3 pumps must be available during

the mission time, the top event is the unavailability to supply the

inventory by both feeders.

In this optimization problem, optimum maintenance scheduling

for components B1, B2, B3, V1, V2, V3 must be found. Therefore,

solution candidates must encode all possible scheduling combinations for all components.

Considering that PSO works with real-coded xed length

vectors, its application to a discrete problem, in which solutions

may have variable length (components variable number of maintenance interventions) is not straightforward. Firstly, a maximum

of 23 interventions for each component has been established. So,

a solution candidate may comprise at most 161 (23 maintenance 7 components). Hence, it should be used a vector of 161

elements.

Then,

PSO

position

vector

is

given

by

!

!

X i t fxi;1 t; .; xi;161 tg. Fig. 3 illustrate X i t which present

23 elements for each component.

Note that, to allow variable scheduling length (components may

!

have less than 23 interventions), decoding X i t is not

straightforward.

Considering a total operation period of 540 days and a time step

!

of 1 day, the following steps are required to decode X i t into valid

scheduling.

F Wd :U Wc :C

(3)

1

T

Utdt

(4)

at time t, calculated according to Lapa et al. (2006).

C is the total cost for a given scheduling, given by:

X

X

Q 1

0/T

CTQ

(5)

where Q is the component index and j is the maintenance intervention index. C0/T

TQ is the total cost for Q during interval [0,T], also

calculated according to Lapa et al. (2006).

Wd and Wc are weights to be applied to emphasize the importance of each sub-objective (U or C).

3. Computational experiments and results

In the present investigation, 3 case studies have been carried

out. The rst one is a hypothetical situation used as benchmark, in

which global optimum is well known. The second and third ones

are situations closer to a real problem.

Vector X:

V1

x0

x1

X2

x3

x4

x5

x6

x7

x8

x9

x10 x11 x12 X13 x14 x15 x16 x17 x18 x19 x20 x21 x22

32.1 -18 95.7 200 -30 -9.1 -123 301 260 -11 -521 123 498 -23

-89 380

10

...

B3

...

...

...

...

...

B3

...

...

...

B3

...

...

V1

32

96

200

301 260

123 498

16

350 200.

380

10

V1

10

16

32

96

!

Fig. 4. Decoding X i t into a valid scheduling.

713

0.025

Table 1

Results for the second case study.

Exp.

Particles

Seed

Cost

Unavailability

Fitness

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

20

20

20

20

20

50

50

50

50

50

123,456,789

7622

777

13

13,987

123,456,789

7622

777

13

13,987

0.0056313

0.00576458

0.00571318

0.00570311

0.00583616

0.00576754

0.00570256

0.00584039

0.00570006

0.00562846

0.00448557

0.00423274

0.00429454

0.00437837

0.00408374

0.00423455

0.00430842

0.00400797

0.00432445

0.00455739

0.0101169

0.00999732

0.0100077

0.0100815

0.0099199

0.0100021

0.010011

0.00984836

0.0100245

0.0101859

Fitness (F)

Unavailability (U)

0.02

Cost (C)

0.015

0.01

0.005

0

0

500

1000

1500

2000

Iterations

3.1. First case study

In order to test efciency and consistency of proposed methodology, an investigation considering the following characteristics

have been done:

i) component is not under aging and failure rates are constant,

so, maintenance does not improve reliability;

ii) all maintenance is perfect.

Under such conditions maintenance does not provide any gain.

It only increases cost. Therefore the expected optimum scheduling

is no maintenance interventions for all components.

Ten experiments have been made with different random seeds

and typical values for C1 and C2 (both set to 2.0). Inertia weight, w,

decreased from 0.8 to 0.2 in 2000 generations.

In all cases no maintenance have been proposed, demonstrating the efciency and consistency of the proposed approach.

3.2. Second case study

In this scenario, more realistic values for failure rates, costs for

maintenance and repair, etc., have been used according to

Harunuzzaman and Aldemir (1996).

Again, ten experiments have been made with different random

seeds and typical values for C1 and C2 (both set to 2.0). Inertia

weight, w, decreased from 0.8 to 0.2 in 1000 iterations. The stopping criterion was the number of iterations equal to 2000. Tables 1

and 2 show obtained results.

In Table 1 it can be observed the consistency of the method in

nding solutions very close to each other (a near-optimum region).

Note that Valve 1 and Pump 1 which are inline to each other stop

at coincident time (t 228). The PSO was able to discover itself that

such fact improves availability. The same occurs with Valve 2 and

Pump 3 (in italic bold). Also, pumps undergo fewer interventions

due to the higher cost and outage time for maintenance.

Fig. 5 shows the PSO evolution during 2000 generations.

In Fig. 5 it can be observed a stagnation (or very slight minimization) of the unavailability (U). This stagnation occurs due to the

emphasizes the minimization of the cost term (C). Such relatively

high value of Wc also made maintenance not so interesting (high

cost/availability relation), leading to a relatively low number of

maintenance interventions.

3.3. Third case study

Aiming to decrease the relatively higher inuence of cost on the

overall tness value and, therefore, allowing unavailability to be

minimized, Wc has been decreased 25 times. The optimization

parameters were the same used in the second case study.

Fig. 6 shows the PSO evolution (for the best run) during 2000

iterations. In this case, the unavailability (U) inuence over the

tness is more accentuated, and, although the compromise

between U and C imposes some oscillation in evolution, U could be

decreased along the time.

Results for 5 experiments are shown in Table 3 while best

solution found by the PSO can be seen in Table 4.

As expected, the lower weight (Wc) applied to the cost (C) made

maintenance more interesting and led to a higher number of

(maintenance) interventions. Although such fact increases problems

complexity, the proposed PSO could deal with that, nding good

schedules. Again, in this more complex situation, PSO ratied its

great capacity of knowledge discovery: as occurred in the second

case study, all interventions in Pump 1 occur together with (at same

time) Valve 1 (see underlined bold values in Table 4) and most

interventions on Pump 3 are coincident with Valve 2 (see italic bold

values in Table 4).

0,0035

Fitness (F)

Unavailability (U)

Cost (C)

0,003

0,0025

0,002

Table 2

Best solution found for second case study.

0,0015

Fitness 0.00984836

Component

Number of interventions

Valve 1

Valve 2

Valve 3

Valve 4

Pump 1

Pump 2

Pump 3

4

4

3

3

1

2

1

72-146-228-326

73-148-226-331

108-218-343

107-216-342

228

132-281

226

0,001

0,0005

0

0

500

1000

1500

Iterations

Fig. 6. PSO evolution in third case study.

2000

714

Table 3

Results for the third case study.

Exp.

Particles

Seed

Cost

Unavailability

Fitness

1

2

3

4

5

50

50

50

50

50

123,456,789

7622

777

13

13,987

0.000422884

0.000498632

0.000497344

0.000459859

0.000450358

0.00206422

0.00168114

0.00157986

0.00175532

0.00171411

0.0024871

0.00217977

0.0020772

0.00221518

0.00216447

Table 4

Best solution found for third case study.

Fitness 0.0020772

Component

Number of

interventions

Valve 1

Valve 2

Valve 3

6

9

12

Valve 4

Pump 1

Pump 2

Pump 3

8

4

5

6

48-92-145-202-287-368

47-91-136-177-208-240-273-310-360

46-90-138-178-212-250-288-319-347385-426-463

57-112-174-223-277-329-382-447

92-202-287-368

55-111-171-239-329

60-115-177-240-273-360

4. Conclusions

This work demonstrates the feasibility of using PSO for preventive maintenance optimization. The non-conventional approach to

encode solution candidates into xed length real-coded vector

demonstrated to be efcient to deal with a 1-day step scheduling

optimization with variable number of interventions, allowing PSO to

better t schedules to optimization objectives and, therefore, to nd

good solutions.

The efciency and consistency of the method has been observed,

not only in terms of the achieved tness values, but principally in the

knowledge acquired in different situations to which it has been

submitted. Such fact demonstrated a great ability of the proposed

PSO in dealing with complex, deceptive and multimodal search

spaces.

As a future work, such approach could be extended to a more

useful but complex approach, involving Pareto based multi-objective optimization in order to provide a more effective and practical

tool for multi-criteria optimization problems.

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