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Indijski magazin "Matematika danas"

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Indijski magazin "Matematika danas"

© All Rights Reserved

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You are on page 1of 89

Vol. XXXIII

No. 1

rial

January 2015

Corporate Office

Tel : 0124-4951200

e-mail : info@mtg.in website : www.mtg.in

engineering. One does not know where suddenly one finds the need

Regd. Office

were not very much bothered about mathematics. yet there is no research

ring road, new Delhi - 110 029.

Managing Editor

Editor

:

:

How does one know whether a particular treatment is useful to get better

Mahabir Singh

anil ahlawat (BE, MBa)

cotton, jute, silk or even artificial fibres? First we have to know what is a

good cotton. One studies all the physical properties such as fibre-length,

cONteNts

Maths Musing Problem Set - 145

strength, ability to form strong threads and so on. Changes due to various

Practice Paper

JEE Main - 2015

10

JEE Main - 2015

14

Class XI (Series-8)

17

24

29

30

31

47

The minimum number of experiments that are needed to determine a

particular property even energy levels of atoms, the wavelengths of the

various lines of spectra, the calculation of energy levels are all determined

by statistics. To determine the structure of molecules or crystals, group

theory is the main tool. There are no hard-bound barriers dividing any

two branches in science. To study in a systematic manner, we divide it

into Maths, Physics, Chemistry, agriculture or Industrial research. Science

is a single field.

Anil Ahlawat

Editor

67

Chapterwise Practice Paper (Series-8)

Math Archives

75

JEE (Main & Advanced) (Series-7)

77

Practice Paper

JEE (Main & Advanced) & Other PETs

89

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aths Musing was started in January 2003 issue of Mathematics Today with the suggestion of Shri Mahabir Singh. The aim of

Maths Musing is to augment the chances of bright students seeking admission into IITs with additional study material.

During the last 10 years there have been several changes in JEE pattern. To suit these changes Maths Musing also adopted

the new pattern by changing the style of problems. Some of the Maths Musing problems have been adapted in JEE benefitting

thousand of our readers. It is heartening that we receive solutions of Maths Musing problems from all over India.

Maths Musing has been receiving tremendous response from candidates preparing for JEE and teachers coaching them. We

do hope that students will continue to use Maths Musing to boost up their ranks in JEE Main and Advanced.

Prof. Dr. Ramanaiah Gundala, Former Dean of Science and Humanities, Anna University, Chennai

Set 145

jee main

(x, y) such that A.M. of x and y exceeds their G.M.

by 2 is

(a) 42

(b) 43

(c) 44

(d) 41

1 1

1

.

2. 0 < x < y are integers such that + =

x y 2015

The number of pairs (x, y) is

(d) 11

(b) 13

(c) 14

(a) 12

3. In a right angled triangle with integer sides, the

inradius is 2015. The number of such triangles is

(a) 24

(b) 25

(c) 26

(d) 27

4. If x + 4y + 9z = 305, 4x + 9y + 16z = 310,

9x + 16y + 25z = 880, then 16x + 25y + 36z =

(d) 2010

(b) 2016 (c) 2014

(a) 2015

2

only integer roots, then the number of values of a is

(a) 7

(b) 8

(c) 9

(d) 10

jee advanced

3x 2 + 12 x 1, 1 x 2

6. If f (x ) =

, then

2<x 3

37 x ,

(a) f(x) increases in [1, 2]

(b) f(x) is continuous in [1, 3]

(c) f (x) does not exist at x = 2

(d) f(x) has maximum at x = 2

three circles internally is

40

41

(a) 13

(b)

(c)

(d) 14

3

3

integer match

m

head never occur on consecutive tosses is , in

n

lowest terms, where m is

matching list

Column-I

P.

Q.

three circles externally is

(b)

7

9

(c)

8

9

2. 0

1

sin xdx

R.

x cos 1 xdx

3. p

4

4. p

S.

x sin

xdx

5

9

(d)

2

3

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

P

3

1

2

4

Q

4

3

1

2

R

2

4

3

1

S

1

2

4

3

Prof. Ramanaiah is the author of MTG JEE(Main & Advanced) Mathematics series

Column-II

1. p

4

cos 1 xdx =

comprehension

(a)

JEE Main

1.

6.

n

n

+ ...

+ sin

lim sin

2

2

n2 + 22

n +1

n

n

=

.... + sin

n2 + n2

(a) p

(b) p/2

(c) p/4

(d) p/6

1

Let f be defined by f (x ) = sin , x 0

x

= c, x = 0

where c [1, 1]. For which value of c does there

exist an antiderivative of f ?

(c) 0

(d) 1

(a) 1/2 (b) 1/2

2.

3.

The function f () =

/2

dx

1 cos2 x

l (0, 1) is

(a) increasing

(b) decreasing

(c) increasing on (0, 1/2) and decreasing on (1/2, 1)

(d) increasing on (1/2, 1) and decreasing on (0, 1/2)

2

n

1 n

1

2

lim (log k ) log k =

4.

n n k =1

n k =1

(a) 0

(b) 1

(c) 2

(d) 4

5.

1

B(a, b) = x

a1

a 1

b 1

(1 x )

y

1 + y dy =

0

(a) B(a, 1 a)

a

(c) B 1 a,

and

b

f 2 (x )dx = 1. Then

(a) 0

xf (x) f (x)dx =

a

(b) 1/2

x [0, c],

f (t )dt +

(a) x

(c) x f (x)

8.

f (x )

f 1 (t )dt =

(b) f (x)

(d) x + f (x)

5

(x 1)

1

(a) 15

(b) 18

f (x)dx = 5 , then

1

f (x )dx =

(c) 20

(d) 0

9.

minimum?

(a) 2

(b) 2.5

x 1

is

32

x log

a

(c) 3

(d) 3.5

e

f (x)dx =

0

(b) e 1

(c) e + 1

(d) 0

on the interval [a, b] if for all x [a, b], f (x) g(x).

The maximum possible value of

(d) 1

(c) 1/2

increasing on [0, c] with f (0) = 0, then for any

(a) 1

(b) B(a, 1 + a)

a

(d) B , a

2

Integral Calculus

g (x)dx, where

1

[1, 2] is

(a)

12.

3 6

4

1

3 6

3

(b)

(c)

3 6

2

(d) 3 6

3

(a) 1/2

(b) 1/3

(c) 1/4

1/n

2n

lim =

n n

(a) 1

(b) 2

19.

(a)

bounded by the parabola y = 1 x2 and the x-axis.

For which +ve real no. c, does the parabola y = cx2

divides D into three smaller regions of equal area?

(a) 1

(b) 2

(c) 4

(d) 8

1

15.

dt

1 t

(a) 1

dt

1+ t

(b) 2

(b)

(c) primitive of f for x [2, 3) is

(d) 2 2

1 4

x .

4

k|x|

dx = 1, then constant k =

(b) 1

(c) 2

(d)

1 + cos2 tdt =

(d) 2

1 2

+ sin2

2

a (0, 1) that minimizes the integral

1

I (a) = | x n an | dx is a =

22. I1 =

(a) 7/8

(b) 1/3

/2

(c) 1/4

cos d, I2 =

(b) 8/7

/2

(d) 2/3

I

cos6 d, then 1 =

I2

(c) 8/9

(d) 9/8

l

0

77

x

+ 4x

3

12

(a) 1

= 0, x (1, 2]

(a) primitive of f (x) for x (0, 1] is x + c1.

(b) primitive of f (x) for x (1, 2] is 1 + c1.

(c) primitive of f (x) for x (1, 2] is c2.

(d) no primitive of f (x) is possible.

18. Given

(c)

(a) 1/2

16. f (x) = x,

x [1, 1]

= x3, x (1, 2)

= x2 + 4, x [2, 3)

(a) primitive of f for x [1, 1] is x3.

=

(c)

f (x ), x 0

Let g (x ) =

, then g (x ) dx =

4 f (x ), x > 0

5

(a) 0

(b) 10

(c) 20

(d) 40

(d) 4

(d) 1/5

which satisfies f (5) = 8, f (0) = 2 and is even.

(c) 1/2

l1

B

(a) l2 + l1

(c) 2l1 + l2

l2

x

(b) l2 l1

(d) 2l1 l2

dy

= y log y + ye x . If y(0) = 1, then y(1) =

dx

(a) ee

(b) ee

(c) e1/e

(d) e

25.

((e 1)

0

(a) 1

log(1 + ex x ) + e x )dx =

(b) e

(c) 1 + e

(d) e 1

11

1 + cos

26. Let I = 3 2

d . If q (0, p) and

17 8 cos

tan I =

(a) p/3

27.

/2

2

3

, then x =

(b) 2p/3

(c) p/6

(d) p/2

(a) p/4

(b) p/2

(c) p

(d) 2p

of f in the case when c = 0.

3. (a) : For 0 l1 < l2 < 1, x (0, p/2)

l1cos2x > l2cos2x

1

1

So,

<

2

1 1 cos x

1 2 cos2 x

f (l1) < f(l2), increasing.

4. (b) : Rewrite the term as

2

k 1 n1 k

1 n1

log

n n log n

n k =1

k =1

b

1 + x 2 dx = is

a

(b) 2 2

(a)

2

(c) 2 2 + 2

(d) 2 2 2

R, satisfying f (0) = g(0) = f (0) = g(0) = 1 and

f (x) g(x) = 4f (x) g(x) f (x)g(x)

g(x) f (x) = 5f(x) g(x) f (x) g(x).

If f (1) = 1, then g(1) = ae3 + be3, where a =

(a) 5/6

(b) 2/3

(c) 6/5

(d) 3/2

30. Let f : R R be a continuous non-constant

periodic function of period T and let F denote an

antiderivative of f. Let g : R R be such that

1T

F (x ) = f (t )dt x + g (x ), then

T

0

(a) g(x) is periodic with period = T.

(b) g(x) is periodic with period = 2T.

(c) g(x) is periodic with period = T/2.

(d) g(x) is not periodic.

sOlutiOns

3

1. (c) : In the inequality

< sin < , replace

3!

n

q by

, k = 1 to n .

2

n + k2

1

n

n

dx

=

=

and use lim

2

2

2

4

n k =1 n + k

1+ x

2. (c) : Define

1

1

F (x ) = x cos 2 t cos dt , x 0

x

t

0

= 0, x = 0

2

0

0

y

5. (a) : Substitute x =

and b = 1 a in B(a, b).

1+ y

b

b

1

6. (c) : x f (x ) f (x )dx = x( f 2 (x ))dx

2

1

b b

1

1

= xf 2 (x ) f 2 (x )dx =

a

2

2

a

7. (c) : Put u = f

x

f (t )dt +

1(t)

f (x )

x

= x f (x)

8. (b) : Use integration by parts to get

5

2

2

(x 1) f (x)dx = (x 1) f (x) 2 (x 1) f (x) dx

1

= 16 f

5

(5) 2(x 1) f (x ) 1

+ 2 f (x ) dx

1

= 32 24 + 10 = 18

9. (c) : Using Newton-Leibnitz formula,

a

So, for a (1, 3), I(a) < 0 and for a > 3. I(a) > 0.

So, minimum at a = 3.

10. (b) : Note that f is inverse function of

g(y) = yey and f (e) = 1

I (a) =

f (x )dx = e g ( y )dy = e ye y dy = e 1

trapezium, with area A = hm, where m is the length

of mid-line. For g(x) f (x), x [1, 2]

3

3 3

m= g f =

2

2 2

2

So,

g (x)dx hm =

1

3 6

=

4

3 6

4

1

3/2

(x 1)3 + 1 1 x 2 dx = 0

1

2 /3

3/2

(1 x )

1

dx =

5

is odd.

5

g (x ) =

So,

h(x ) + 2 =

h(x ) +

2dx = 20

4

2

14. (d) : Area of D = 2 (1 x )dx = .

3

0

2

1

1+c

1 4

((1 x 2 ) cx 2 )dx = gives c = 8

3 3

1

2

/2

1

. Hence

1+ c

d

sin

dt

4

0 1 t

. For

1

dt

1+ t

/2

, put t2 = tan(b/2) to

.

2 2 0 sin

16. (c) : Any primitive of f is of the following

simplify to

x2

form, F (x ) =

x [1, 1]

+ c1 ,

2

x4

=

+ c2 ,

x (1, 2)

4

x3

=

+ 4 x + c3 , x [2, 3)

3

1

1

+ c1 = + c2 and

2

4

16 1

8

+ + c = + 8 + c3

4 4 1 3

17. (d) : Any primitive of f is of the form

F(x) = x + c1, x [0, 1]

= c 2,

x (1, 2]

So, F continuity gives 1 + c1 = c2

So, F(x) = x + c1, x [0, 1] = 1 + c2, x (1, 2]

But this function is not differentiable.

18. (d) :

For F to be continuous,

2

2

e k|x|dx = 2 e kx dx = lim e kx = 1

k

x k

0

(given)

2

= 1 k = 2

k

19. (d) : Notice that

a

(2n + 2)! (n !)2

lim n+1 = lim

n an

n ((n + 1)!)2 (2n)!

where an = 2nCn

(2n + 1)(2n + 2)

= lim

=4

n

(n + 1)2

So, k < 0 and 0

n

of the curve y = sinx0 from (0, 0) to (q, sinq) and

2 + sin2 is the normal distance between these

same points.

21. (a) : Since f (x) = xn is an increasing function

on [0, 1].

1

2n n+1 n

=

a a +1

(n + 1)

d(I (a))

1

Now,

= 0 gives a =

da

2

22. (a) : I =

/2

cos6 (1 sin2 )d

=J

/2

/2

cos6 sin2 d

Contd. on Page No. 16

MatheMatics tODaY | January 15

13

1

1

1

that

+

+ .... +

= 10

a1a2 a2a3

a4000a4001

and a2 + a4000 = 50, then |a1 a4001| is equal to

(a) 20

(b) 30

(c) 40

(d) 10

and PR are drawn to ellipse x2 + 4y2 = 4. Locus of

circumcentre of triangle PQR is

16

(a) x 2 + y 2 = (x 2 + 4 y 2 )2

5

5 2

2

2

(b) x + y = (x + 4 y 2 )2

16

16

2

2

(c) x + 4 y = (x 2 + y 2 )2

5

5

(d) x 2 + 4 y 2 = (x 2 + y 2 )2

16

3.

x = 5 with x-axis is

35

25

(a) 16

(b)

(c)

(d) 25

2

2

4. Let a function f(x) be such that f (x) = f (x) + ex

( f (2))2

and f(0) = 0, f (0) = 1, then ln

is equal to

4

1

(d) 4

(a)

(b) 1

(c) 2

2

5. If the line y = x + 2 does not intersect any

member of family of parabolas y2 = ax, (a R+) at

two distinct points, then maximum value of latus

rectum of parabola is

(a) 4

(b) 8

(c) 16

(d) 32

6.

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(x + a)2 + (y + b)2 = 2

(x a)2 + (y b)2 = 1/2

(x a)2 + (y b)2 = 1/ 2

(x a)2 + (y b)2 = 1

(a) 64

(b) 81

(c) 30

(d) 20

8. The number of functions f from the set

A = {0, 1, 2} into the set B = {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7} such

that f(i) f(j) for i < j and i, j A is

(a) 8C3

(b) 8C3 + 2(8C2)

10

(c) C3

(d) 10C4

9. Eight straight lines are drawn in the plane such

that no two lines are parallel and no three lines are

concurrent. The number of parts into which these

lines divide the plane is

(a) 29

(b) 32

(c) 36

(d) 37

n

i =1

of ai . a j is

1i < j n

(a)

n

2

(b) n

(c)

n

2

x + 2y + 3z = 14 and 2x + 5y + lz = m, (l, m R) has

no solution, then

(a) l 8

(b) l = 8, m 36

(c) l = 8, m = 36

(d) None of these

12. A man starts from the point P(3, 3) and

reaches the point Q(0, 2) after touching the line

2x + y = 7 at R. The least value of PR + RQ is

(a) 5 2 (b) 3 2 (c) 7 2 (d) 2 2

he trains IIt and olympiad aspirants.

(d) n

3x 4y 1 = 0 and 4x 3y 6 = 0 as its asymptotes.

Then the equation of its transverse axis is

(a) x y 5 = 0

(b) x + y + 1 = 0

(c) x + y 5 = 0

(d) x y 1 = 0

x+ y 1

= ( f (x ) + f ( y )) for real x and

14. Let f

2 2

y. If f (x) exists and equals to 1 and f(0) = 1, then

the value of f (2) is

1

(a) 1

(b) 1

(c)

(d) 2

2

15.

lim

1

n

(n !)

(a) e

equals

(b) e1

(c) e2

(d) e2

1 + sin 2 A + 1 sin 2 A

is equal to

1 + sin 2 A 1 sin 2 A

(a) tanA (b) tanA (c) cotA (d) cotA

17. In DABC, orthocentre is (6,10), circumcentre

Then the radius of the circumcircle of DABC is

(a) 4

(b) 5

(c) 7

(d) 3

18. The inclination to the major axis of the

diameter of an ellipse, the square of whose length

is the harmonic mean between the squares of the

major and minor axes is

2

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

3

2

4

3

(1 + x )1/ x e

is

x

x 0

3e

2e

e

(b)

(c)

(d)

2

3

2

(a)

e

2

20. If I =

dx

, then I equals

sin x cos x

3

(d) None of these

21. Let A1, A2, A3, , A40 are 40 sets each with 7

elements and B1, B2, , Bn are n sets each with 7

elements. If

40

i =1

j =1

Ai = B j = S

then n equals

(a) 42

(b) 35

(c) 28

(d) 36

22. If x, y, z are distinct positive numbers, then

xlny lnz + ylnz lnx + zlnx lny

(a) (0, ) (b) (1, ) (c) (3, ) (d) (1, 3)

23. Let PQ be a chord of the ellipse

x2

y2

= 1,

a2

b2

which subtends an angle of p/2 radians at the

centre. If L is the foot of perpendicular from (0, 0)

to PQ, then

(a) locus of L is an ellipse

(b) locus of L is circle concentric with given

ellipse

(c) locus of L is a hyperbola concentric with given

ellipse

(d) a square concentric with given ellipse

24. A natural number is selected from 1 to 100

so that the probability, if it satisfies the number

x 2 60 x + 800

< 0 is

x 30

(a) 7/25 (b) 4/25 (c) 2/25 (d) 8/25

25. The digit at unit place in the number

171995 + 111995 71995 is

(a) 0

(b) 1

(c) 2

(d) 3

26. The range of values of the term independent

10

x

a [1, 1] is

10 C 10 10 C 20

5

5

(a)

,

5

2

220

10 C 2 10 C 2

5

5

(b)

,

20

20

2

2

(c) [1, 2]

(d) (1, 2)

MatheMatics tODaY | January 15

15

parabola y2 = 4x and its diagonals pass through

(1, 0) and having length 25/4 units each , is

75

625

sq. units

(a)

(b)

sq. units

4

16

25

25

sq. units

sq. units

(d)

4

8

28. If the sum of the slopes of the normal from

point P to the hyperbola xy = c2 is equal to

l(l R+), then locus of point P is

(a) x2 = lc2

(b) y2 = lc2

2

(c) xy = lc

(d) none of these

(c)

lines which are at a constant distance p from the

origin is

(a) y x

d2 y

dy

= p2 1 +

dx

dx 2

JEE Main

27. (b) : I =

I=

/2

(b)

(d)

(a)

(b)

(c)

(a)

3.

8.

13.

18.

23.

28.

(b)

(c)

(c)

(a)

(b)

(a)

4.

9.

14.

19.

24.

29.

(d)

(d)

(b)

(b)

(a)

(c)

5.

10.

15.

20.

25.

(b)

(a)

(b)

(b)

(b)

nn

2I =

/2

b tan 1 a =

Simplifying, b =

a +1

1 a

4

1 + a2

1 a

dl

= 0 gives a = 1 2 suitably

da

f (x) g(x) + 2f (x) g(x) + g(x) f (x) = 9 f (x)

g(x)

Define h(x) = f (x) g(x), then the above equation

becomes h (x ) = 9h(x )

30. (a) : Notice that F(x + T) F(x)

2.

7.

12.

17.

22.

27.

(b)

(b)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(b)

/2

1.

6.

11.

16.

21.

26.

Using,

2

answer KeYs

equation into a linear differential equation.

25. (b) : Transform the integral

0

2

dy 2

dy

(d) y x = p 1 +

dx

dx

Integral Calculus

l 2 l 2 + 2lx l 2

y 2 = l12 x 2 + 2 1

x

l

dy

dy

Doing

amounts to

= cos .

dx

dx

is inverse of y = ex .

2

dy 2

dy

(c) y x = p2 1 +

dx

dx

the small triangles,

l22 = (l x)2 + y2 + 2(l x)y cosq and

l12 = x2 + y2 2xycosq

Eliminating cosq from these two equations

dy 2

dy

= p 1+

(b) y x

dx

dx

...(ii)

1T

T

0

So, g(x) = F(x) h(x) = F(x + T) h(x + T)

is periodic with period = T.

nn

Series-8

statistics

Definition

A type of mathematical analysis involving the

use of quantified representation, models and

summaries for a given set of empirical data or real

world observations. Statistical analysis involves the

process of collecting and analyzing data and then

summarizing the data into a numerical form.

Measures of central tenDency

It is a measure that tells us where the middle of

a bunch of data lies. The three most common

measures of central tendency are mean, median

and mode.

Let x1, x2, ....., xn be n observations, then

Mean Deviation

The mean deviation from a central value a is given by,

M.D. (a)

Number of observations

About median, M

1 n

| x M |

n i =1 i

About mean, x

1 n

f |x x |

N i =1 i i

About Median, M

1 n

f |x M|

N i =1 i i

i =1

xi are the mid-points of the classes.

1 n

f |x x |

N i =1 i i

About mean, x

range

It is the difference between two extreme values

i.e., Range = Maximum value Minimum value.

1 n

| x x |

n i =1 i

(i) for discrete frequency distribution : Let x1, x2,

...., xn be a set of n observations occurring with

frequencies f1, f2, ......, fn respectively, then

Measures of Dispersion

It is possible to have two very different data sets

with the same means and medians. For that reason,

measures of the middle are useful but limited.

So, dispersion or variability is a very important

attribute of a data set. It measures the degree of

scatteredness of the observations in a distribution

around the central value.

The various measures of dispersion are

(a) Range

(b) Quartile Deviation

(c) Mean Deviation

(d) Standard Deviation

About mean, x

About Median, M

1 n

f |x M |

N i =1 i i

fi di

i =1

h , where A

About mean, x = A +

N

x A

.

is the assumed mean and di = i

h

mathematics today | January 15

17

\ M.D.( x ) =

1 n

f x x

N i=1 i i

N

C

About median, M = l + 2

h

f

cumulative frequency is just greater than or

N

equal to

, N is sum of frequencies, l, f, h

2

and C are respectively the lower limit, the

frequency, the width of the median class and

the cumulative frequency of the class just

preceding the median class.

1 n

M.D.( M ) = fi xi M

N i=1

variance

The mean of the squares of the deviations from

mean is called the variance and is denoted by s2.

For ungrouped data

2 =

1 n

(x x )2

n i =1 i

2 =

1 n

f (x x )2

N i =1 i i

For a

discrete

frequency

distribution

For

continuous

frequency

distribution

1 n

(x x )2

n i =1 i

1 n

f (x x )2

N i=1 i i

18 mathematics today |

n

n

1

N fi xi2 fi xi

N

i =1

i =1

January 15

coefficient of variation

stanDarD Deviation

The proper measure of dispersion about the mean of

a set of observations is expressed as positive square

root of the variance, called standard deviation and

is denoted by s.

For

ungrouped

data

n

n

h

=

N fi yi2 fi yi ,

N

i =1

i =1

x A

where yi = i

, A = assumed mean, h = width

h

of class intervals.

of units, is called coefficient of variation and

usually denoted by C.V.

C.V. = 100, x 0,

x

where s = standard deviation, x = mean.

Comparing the variability or dispersion of two

series, we calculate the coefficient of variance

for each series. The series having greater C.V. is

said to be more variable than the other.

The series having lesser C.V. is said to be more

consistent than the other.

For two series with equal means, the series

with greater standard deviation (or variance)

is called more variable or dispersed than the

other. Also, the series with lesser value of

standard deviation (or variance) is said to be

more consistent than the other.

variance of two groups of observations taken

together

Let us consider two groups of variates

containing n1 and n2 items with respective

means x1 and x2 . Let the standard deviations

for the two groups be s1 and s2 respectively.

Let s be the standard deviation of n1 + n2 items

taken together and x be the mean of two groups

taken together, then

n x +n x

x= 1 1 2 2

n1 + n2

2 =

1 2

n + n 2

n1 + n2 1 1 2 2

+

n1n2

2

x1 x2 )

(

(n1 + n2 )

Probability

Definition

A measure of uncertainty or estimation of

occurrence of an event is called probability.

Probabilities are given a value between 0 (0% chance

or event will not happen) and 1 (100% chance or

event will happen).

random experiment : An experiment is said

to be random experiment if it has more than

one possible outcomes and it is not possible to

predict the outcome in advance.

outcome : A possible result of a random

experiment is called its outcome.

sample space : The set of all possible outcomes

of an experiment is called sample space.

sample points : Elements of sample space are

called sample points.

types of event

event.

occurrence of an event : An event associated

to a random experiment is said to occur if any

one of the elementary events associated to it is

an outcome.

Impossible Event

Sure Events

Simple or

Elementary Event

sample point of a sample

space.

Compound Event

one sample point.

algebra of events

Complementary Event For every event A, complement of A is the event consisting of all sample space

outcomes that do not correspond to the occurrence of A. It is also called the event

not A or S A.

Event A or B

If A and B are two events associated with a sample space, then A B is the event

either A or B or both. This event A B is called A or B.

A B = {w : w A or w B}

Event A and B

If A and B are two events, then the set A B denotes the event A and B. A

B = {w : w A and w B}

Event A but not B

A B is the set of all those elements which are in A but not in B. Therefore, the set

A B may denote the event A but not B.

Mutually Exclusive

Events

A B = A B

Two events A and B of a sample space S are said to be mutually exclusive if the

occurrence of any one of them excludes the occurrence of the other. Hence, A

B = f i.e. A and B are disjoint sets.

Exhaustive Events

... En =

i =1

n

Mutually exclusive and

E

=

f

for

and

E

are

pairwise

disjoint

and

Ei = S,

i

j

i.e.,

events

E

If

E

i

j

i

j

exhaustive events

i =1

then events E1, E2, ..., En are called mutually exclusive and exhaustive events.

mathematics today | January 15

19

1. Find the range of the data, 35, 50, 48, 62, 27, 39,

43, 72, 56, 68.

for the following data using short cut method.

what is the S.D. of the data x1 + a, x2 + a, x3 + a, ..

..., xn + a?

3. A fair die is rolled once. Find the probability

that a number less than 7 shows up.

4. A book contains 100 pages. A page is chosen at

random. What is the probability that the sum of

the digits on the page is equal to 9?

5. Three unbiased coins are tossed once. What is

the probability of getting atleast 1 head?

short answer tyPe ( 4 marks)

6. Two cards are drawn at random from a pack of

52 cards. What is the probability that both the

cards are aces?

7. The mean and variance of the heights and

weights of the students of a class are given

below.

Mean

Variance

Height

160 cm

116.64 cm2

Weight

50.4 kg

17.64 kg2

heights.

8. Find the mean deviation about mean for the

following data.

xi

fi

3

6

5

8

7

15

9

25

11

8

13

4

deck of 52 cards. Find the probability that it

being a spade or a king.

10. Find the mean deviation about the median for

the data given below.

45, 36, 50, 60, 53, 46, 51, 48, 72, 42

20 mathematics today |

January 15

xi

fi

60 61 62 63 64

2 1 12 29 25

65 66 67 68

12 10 4 5

team A in football session.

Number of goals scored

Number of matches

0

1

1

9

2

7

3

5

4

3

per match was 2 with a standard deviation

1.25 goals. Find which team may be considered

more consistent.

13. Four persons are to be chosen at random from a

group of 3 men, 2 women and 4 children. Find

the probability of selecting

(i) 1 man, 1 woman and 2 children.

(ii) exactly 2 children.

(iii) exactly 2 women.

14. Five marbles are drawn from a bag which

contains 7 blue marbles and 4 black marbles.

What is the probability that

(i) all will be blue?

(ii) 3 will be blue and 2 black?

15. Calculate the mean and standard deviation for

the following table given the age distribution of

a group of people.

Age

No. of

persons

3

51

122

141

130

51

solutions

1. Range = 72 27 = 45.

2. Remains unchanged.

3. Sample space S = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,}.

Let E be the event that the number less than 7

shows up, then E = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} = S

\ P(E) = P(S) = 1

4. Sample space S = {1, 2, ....., 100}

\ n(S) = 100

the page is equal to 9.

E ={9, 18, 27, 36, 45, 54, 63, 72, 81, 90}

\ n(E) = 10

n(E ) 10

1

So, required probability =

=

=

n(S) 100 10

HTH, THH, HHH}

\ n(S) = 8

Let E = event of getting atleast 1 head. Then,

E = {HTT, THT, TTH, HHT, HTH, THH, HHH}.

\ n(E) = 7.

n(E ) 7

\ P(getting atleast 1 head) =

=

n(S) 8

6. Let S be the sample space. Then,

n(S) = number of ways of selecting 2 cards out of 52

(52 51)

= 52C2 =

= 1326.

(2 1)

Let E = event that both the cards are aces.

Then,

n(E) = number of ways of drawing 2 aces out of 4

(4 3)

= 4C2 =

= 6.

(2 1)

P(getting 2 aces) = P(E) =

n(E )

6

1

=

=

n(S) 1326 221

Variance, s2 = 116.64 cm2

Also, mean = 160 cm

S.D.

10.8

C.V.1 =

100 =

100 = 6.75

mean

160

Variance, s2 = 17.64 kg2

S.D., = 17.64 kg = 4.2 kg

And, mean = 50.4 kg

S.D.

4. 2

C.V.2 =

100 =

100 = 8.33

mean

50.4

Hence, weights are more variable than heights.

xi

fi

fixi

| xi x |

f i | xi x |

18

30

40

24

15

105

15

25

225

25

11

88

24

13

52

20

Total

66

528

138

f i xi

x = i =1

N

528

=8

66

6

fi | xi x |

M.D.(x ) = i =1

138

= 2.09

66

Let E1 = event of getting a spade,

and E2 = event of getting a king.

Then, E1 E2 = event of getting a king of spade.

Clearly, n(E1) = 13, n(E2) = 4 and n(E1 E2) = 1

n(E1 ) 13 1

P (E1 ) =

= = ,

n(S) 52 4

P (E2 ) =

n(E2 ) 4

1

= =

n(S) 52 13

and P (E1 E2 ) =

\

n(E1 E2 ) 1

=

n(S)

52

= P(E1 E2) =P(E1) + P(E2) P(E1 E2)

1 1 1 16 4

= + = =

4 13 52 52 13

we get

36, 42, 45, 46, 48, 50, 51, 53, 60, 72

Here n = 10, which is even.

mathematics today | January 15

21

1 n

Median(M ) = observation

2 2

th

n

+ + 1 observation

2

1 th

th

M = (5 observation + 6 observation)

2

1

98

M = (48 + 50) = = 49

2

2

\ The values of (xi M) are

13, 7, 4, 3, 1, 1, 2, 4, 11, 23

th

10

| xi M |

i =1

= (13 + 7 + 4 + 3 + 1 + 1 + 2

+ 4 + 11 + 23) = 69

10

| xi M |

69

M.D.(M ) =

= = 6 .9

n

10

11. Let the assumed mean be A = 64.

Then, we prepare the table given below.

xi

fi di = (xi 64)

60

2

4

61

1

3

62

12

2

63

29

1

64 = A 25

0

65

12

1

66

10

2

67

4

3

68

5

4

Total 100

16

9

4

1

0

1

4

9

16

fi di = 64 +

N

2

fidi

fidi

8 32

3

9

24 48

29 29

0

0

12

12

20

40

12

36

20

80

0

286

0

= 64

100

2

fi di2 fi di

Variance, 2 =

N

N

286 0

=

= 2.86

100 100

\ Standard deviation, = 2.86 = 1.69

22 mathematics today |

January 15

fi

fi xi

fi xi2

0

1

2

3

4

Total

1

9

7

5

3

25

0

9

14

15

12

50

0

9

28

45

48

130

Mean = A +

xi

N = fi = 25, fi xi = 50 and

i =1

2

di

we will have to find the coefficients of variations

of two teams.

Computation of mean and standard deviation

of goals scored by team A.

xA =

1

N

=2

{ fi xi } = 50

25

fi xi2 = 130

2

1

1

f

x

and 2A = fi xi2

i i

N

N

130 50

=

= 5. 2 4 = 1 . 2

25 25

A = 1.2 = 1.095

It is given that x B = 2 and B = 1.25

Now,

Coefficient of variation of goals scored by team A

1.095

= A 100 =

100 = 54.75

xA

2

1.25

= B 100 =

100 = 62.50

xB

2

We observe that, the coefficient of variation

of goals scored by team A is lesser than that of

team B. Hence, team A is more consistent.

13. There are 9 persons i.e., 3 men, 2 women and 4

children. Out of these 9 persons, 4 persons can

be selected in 9C4 = 126 ways.

\ Total number of elementary events = 126

selected in 3C1 2C1 4C2 = 36 ways.

\ Favourable number of elementary events = 36

36 2

So, required probability =

=

126 7

(ii) Exactly 2 children means 2 children and

2 persons from 3 men and 2 women. This

can be done in 4C2 5C2 = 60 ways.

\ Favourable number of elementary events = 60

60 10

So, required probability =

=

126 21

(iii) We have to select 4 persons of which 2 are

women and the remaining 2 are chosen

from 3 men and 4 children. This can be

done in 2C2 7C2 = 21 ways.

\ Favourable number of elementary events = 21

So, required probability = 21 = 1

126 6

14. There are 7 + 4 = 11 marbles in the bag out of

which 5 marbles can be drawn in 11C5 ways.

\ Total number of elementary events = 11C5

(i) There are 7 blue marbles out of which 5

blue marbles can be drawn in 7C5 ways.

\ Favourable number of elementary

events = 7C5

Hence, required probability =

C5

11

C5

xi

fi

x 55

ui = i

10

fi ui

ui2

fi ui2

20-30 25

27

30-40 35

51

102

204

40-50 45

122

122

122

50-60 55

141

60-70 65

130

130

130

70-80 75

51

102

204

80-90 85

18

Age

Total

500

5

x = A + h fi ui = 55 + 10

= 55.1

N

500

2

1

2 1

=h

fi ui fi ui

N

N

705 5 2 14099

=

= 100

500 500

100

=

10

10

2 ! 5 ! 11! 22

C5

7 ! 5!6 ! 1

=

=

=

11

2

! 5 ! 11! 22

C5

(ii) 3 blue out of 7 blue marbles and 2 black

out of 4 black marbles can be drawn in

7C 4C ways.

3

2

\ Favourable number of elementary events

= 7C3 4C2

Hence, required probability

=

C3 C2

11

C5

7!

4 ! 5!6 ! 5

=

3 ! 4 ! 2 ! 2 ! 11! 11

705

nn

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15n3 + 4n2 + 12n + 3 is a perfect square.

2. Two dice are thrown once simultaneously.

Let E be the event Sum of numbers appearing on

the dice. What are the members of E? Can you

load these dice (not necessarily in the same way)

such that all members of E are equally likely? Give

justification.

3.

x

y

and tan are two roots of the equation:

that tan

2

2

(a2 + b2 + 2b)t2 4at + (a2 + b2 2b) = 0

4. In a triangle ABC, angle A is twice the angle

B. Show that a2 = b (b + c), where a, b and c are the

sides opposite to angle A, B and C respectively.

5. A, B, C, D are four points on a circle with radius

R such that AC is perpendicular to BD and meets

BD at E. Prove that : EA2 + EB2 + EC2 + ED2 = 4R2.

6. Suppose A1 A2 A3 .......... An is an n-sided regular

polygon such that

1

1

1

=

+

. Determine the number of

A1 A2 A1 A3 A1 A4

sides of the polygon.

7.

number

8.

2+ a

is a rational number.

3+ b

If a, b, c are positive real numbers, prove that :

a +b+c + a

a +b+c

+

b+c

c+a

+

a +b+c + c

9+3 3

a +b

2 a +b+c

ax17 + bx16 + 1 = 0.

10. Consider the equation x4 18x3 + kx2 + 174x

2015 = 0. If the product of two of the four roots of

the equation is 31, find the value of k.

sOLUtiONs

1. Case 1 : When n is even number n = 2k for

some k I.

Now, n6 + 3n5 15n3 + 4n2 + 12n + 3 becomes

64k6 + 96k5 80k4 120k3 + 16k2 + 24k + 3

4(l) + 3, where l I.

Now an odd perfect square is always of the form

4l + 1 ( (2m + 1)2 = 4(m2 + m) + 1), where

m I.

The given expression cant be perfect square for

any even integer.

Case 2 : When n is odd number n = 2k + 1

for some k I.

Now, n 6 + 3n 5 5n 4 15n 3 + 4n 2 + 12n + 3

becomes (2k + 1)6 + 3(2k + 1)5 5(2k + 1)4

15(2k + 1)3 + 4(2k + 1)2 + 12(2k + 1) + 3

Now, (2k + 1)6 (12k + 1) (mod 4) 1(mod 4)

3(2k + 1)5 (30k + 3) (mod 4) (2k + 3) (mod 4)

5(2k + 1)4 (40k + 5) (mod 4) 1 (mod 4)

4 (2k + 1)2 0 (mod 4)

12 (2k + 1) 0 (mod 4)

or, n6 +3n5 5n4 15n3 + 4n2 + 12n + 3 (1

+ 2k + 3 + 1 + 2k + 3 + 3) (mod 4)

(4 (k + 2) + 3) (mod 4)

We have n 6+ 3n5 5n4 15n3 + 4n2 + 12n + 3

= 4l + 3 (where l N)

Again the expression is not a perfect square for

all odd integers.

Consequently, the expression is not a perfect

square for any integer.

sinx + siny = a

x y

x+ y

=a

cos

(i)

2 sin

2

2

cosx + cosy = b

x y

x+ y

=b

cos

(ii)

2 cos

2

2

y

x

to prove tan and tan are roots of the equation

2

2

(a2 + b2 + 2b)t2 4at + (a2 + b2 2b) = 0

Let the roots of the equation be a and b.

4a

and product of

Sum of roots + = 2

a + b2 + 2b

are

roots =

(2,1),(2, 2),(2, 3),......,(2, 6),

.............................................

Now, E = sum of numbers on dice faces.

= {2, 3, 4, .., 12}

n(E) = 11.

Loading the dice means tampering with the

number on the faces of dice so that one result

is favoured or dismayed over other.

For a normal throw

n 1

,

2n7

36

P (n) =

n E 12 (n 1) , 7 < n 12

36

If all members of E are equally likely, then,

k

P (n) =

for some k N.

n E 36

Also, outcomes of E are mutually exclusive and

mutually exhaustive. So,

k

Pn(n)E = 1 11 36 = 1 11 k = 36

Now, k cant be a natural number

such loading is not possible.

3.

a2 + b2 2b

a2 + b2 + 2b

Now, a2 + b2 = sin2x + sin2y + 2sinx siny + cos2x

+ cos2y + 2cosx cosy.

= 2 (1 + sinx siny + cosx cosy)

x y

= 2 (1 + cos (x y)) = 4 cos2

2

Clearly, a2 + b2 + 2b =

x + y

x y x y

+ cos

4 cos

cos

2

2 2

y

x y

x

2 cos cos

= 4 cos

2

2

2

.(iii)

and a2 + b2 2b

x + y

x y x y

cos

cos

= 4 cos

2

2 2

x y

x y

2 sin sin

= 4 cos

2 2

2

4a

Now, sum of roots =

2

a + b2 + 2b

x+ y

4 2 sin

2

y

x

=

= tan + tan

x

2

2

y

8 sin .sin

2

2

& product of roots =

(iv)

a2 + b2 2b

y

x

= tan . tan

2

2

a + b + 2b

2

y

x

Thus, roots are tan and tan .

2

2

MatheMatics tODaY | January 15

25

4.

EC 2

= EA2 + EB2 +

(EA2 + EB2 )

2

EB

Let A = 2x, so B = x.

C = p 3x

By sine law, we have

a

b

c

=

=

sin 2 x sin x sin( 3x )

a

b

c

=

=

2 sin x cos x sin x sin 3x

a

b

c

=

=

2 sin x cos x sin x sin x(3 4 sin2 x )

=

=

a

c

=b=

sin x 0 as x n

2

2 cos x

4 cos x 1

a

a2

cos2 x =

2b

4b2

c

+1

c

b

2

2

and 4 cos x 1 = cos x =

4

b

a2 b + c

On comparing, we get

=

4b

4b2

a2 = b(b + c).

Now, we have cos x =

EC 2

EA2

EB2

ED 2 + EC 2

Now, ED 2 + EC 2 =

EC 2

EA2 + EB2

EB2

(applying componendo)

EC 2

EB

(EA2 + EB2 )

AB BC

EB2

BA2

(ii)

BC 2 = BD 2

(iii)

BE

Comparing (ii) & (iii), we get

EA2 + EB2 + EC2 + ED2 = (Diameter)2

= 4 (radius)2

In DDEC and DAEB

We have DEC = AEB = 90

CDB = CAB

We have DDEC ~ DAEB (by AA similarity)

ED EA

Also,

=

EC EB

ED 2

EB2

Now, in DEAB and DCDB, we have

BDC = BAC

and DCB = AEB = 90

so DAEB ~ DDCB (by AA similarity)

BA BD

or

=

BE BC

centre of circle.

AC ^ BD and AC meets BD at E.

or

(i)

vertices are A1, A2, A3, .., An.

2

and let OA1 = r1.

Clearly, A 1OA2 =

n

2 2r 2 ( A1 A2 )2

=

In DA1OA2, we have cos

n

2r 2

( A1 A2 )2 = 2r 2 1 cos A1 A2 = 2r sin

n

n

2

Similarly, in DA1OA3 we have, A1 A3 = 2r sin

n

3

and in DA1OA4, we have, A1 A4 = 2r sin

n

We have,

1

1

1

=

+

A1 A2 A1 A3 A1 A4

1

1

+

2

3

2r sin 2r sin 2r sin

n

n

n

1

1

1

3

2

sin sin sin

n

n

n

3

sin .sin

n

n

2

sin

n

2

2

3

2 sin .cos .sin = sin .sin

n

n

n

n

n

sin sin =

n

n

4

3

sin 0 sin = sin

n

n

n

4

3

4

3

=

= 2 +

or

.........

n

n

n

n

= or = 2 .........

n

n

1

n = 7 or n = .........

2

n is an integer.

Number of sides = 7.

2+ a p

7. Let N =

= , where p, q are non zero

q

3

+

b

integers.

or N =

or N =

2+ a

3+ b

3 b

3 b

(assuming b 3)

6 2b + 3a ab

3b

Case1 : 2b = 6 b = 3 (not possible)

Case 2 : ab = 6 and 3a 2b is an integer

a and b are positive integers.

\ Possible pairs of (a, b) are (1, 6), (3, 2), (6, 1)

(we cant take b = 3)

Now, for (a, b) as (1, 6), we get

3a 2b = 3

For (a, b) as (3, 2), we get

3a 2b = 1

3a 2b = 2 2

Possible solution is (3, 2)

Case 3 : 6 = 2b + ab and a = 3k12 , for some

k1 N.

6 = 2b + ab + 2b 2a

R.H.S. must be integer a = 2k22 for some k2 I.

We are contradicting our earlier specification

that a = 3k21 & also a = 2k22

Thus, no solution exists.

Possible solution of (a, b) is (3, 2).

a +b+c + a

=

b+c

8.

1

a +b+c a

a +b+c a

1

1

L.H.S. =

+

a +b+c a

a +b+c b

1

+

a +b+c c

For three positive real numbers, we have

A.M. H.M.

1

1

a +b+c a

a +b+c b

a +b+c c

= (let)

3 a + b + c a b c

Let

Also,

a+ b+ c

a + b + c 3

a +b+c

a+ b+ c

=

a +b+c

a + b + c 3 a +b+c

m

n

n

We have, 3 or 3 3 3

ai > 0, i N

27

or

or

1

1

3 3 3

9

a + b + c (3 )

9

(3 3 ) a + b + c

Also,

987 584

b 1597

+1 = 0

1597

3(3 + 3 )

a + b + c (3 ) 2 a + b + c

1

1

+

a +b+c a

a +b+c b

1

9+3 3

+

a +b+c c 2 a +b+c

Hence proved.

or a2 = a +1

(i)

Now, as (x2 x 1) divides ax17 + bx16 + 1 = 0

a is a root of ax17 + bx16 + 1 = 0

a17 + b16 + 1 = 0 16 (a + b ) + 1 = 0

(2 )8 (a + b) + 1 = 0

( + 1)8 (a + b) + 1 = 0

[putting 2 = + 1]

(2 + 2 + 1)4 (a + b) + 1 = 0

4

(3 + 2) (a + b ) + 1 = 0

[putting 2 = + 1]

(92 + 12 + 4)2 (a + b) + 1 = 0

(21 + 13)2 (a + b) + 1 = 0

[putting 2 = + 1]

987a 2 + (987b + 610a ) + 610b + 1 = 0

(987b + 610a + 987a ) + 610b + 1 = 0

or (1597a + 987b)a + 987a + 610b + 1 = 0

Also, =

1 5

2

5

or, (1597a + 987b )

+ 2584a + 1597b + 1 = 0

2

or, 1597a + 987b = 0

(i)

and 2584a + 1597b+ 1 = 0

(ii)

987

b , putting in (ii), we get

We have a =

1597

28 MatheMatics tODaY | January 15

b = 1597 a = 987

10. x 4 18 x 3 + kx 2 + 174 x 2015 = 0

Let the roots be a, b, c and d; and ab = 31

(i)

We have a + b + c + d = 18

ab + ac + ad + bc + bd + cd = k

(ii)

abc + abd + acd + cbd = 174

(iii)

abcd = 2015

(iv)

From (iii), we have ab(c + d) + cd (b + a) = 174

31 (c + d) + 65 (a + b) = 174

Let (c + d) = p and a + b = q

We have, p + q = 18 and 65 q 31p = 174

p = 4 and q = 14

c + d = 4 & a + b = 14

From (ii),

ab + a (c + d) + (c + d) + cd = k

31 + (c + d) (a + b) + 65 = k

34 + 56 = k k = 90

nn

Solution Set-144

1. (b) : 2n + 1 = (n + 1)2 n2

2

n(n + 1) n(n 1)

n3 =

2 2

\ m contains all odd numbers and the even

numbers 23, 43, 63, 83, 103, 123.

\ m = 1007 + 6 = 1013 with digit sum 5.

2. (c) : AB = b , AD = d

D

C

The line AC is

N

P

r = p(b + d )

The line MN is

r = mb + q(nd mb )

AB subtend angle 2p 10 at the centre.

2r sina = 81, 2r sin 5a = 31

31

sin 5 = sin 16 sin 4 20 sin2

81

11

Solving, sin =

6

81

243

r=

=

2 sin

11

8. (c) : BE = 2r sin 3a

243

=2

(3 sin 4 sin3 ) = 144

11

9. (3):

P is a common point p = m (1 q) = qn

mn

p=

m+n

3. (c) : z18 = 1, w48 = 1

(z w)n =1, znwn = 1 = 1 1

\ n is divisible by 18 and 48. L.C.M = 144 with

digit sum 9.

1

2

(cos 1 x + sin 1 x )

(cos1x sin1x)

1

(cos 1 x sin 1 x ), decreasing function

2

3 1

b a = f (1) f (1) = + = 1

4 4

2

2 1

2

Q. f (x ) =

sin x +

4

16

2

5 1 9

ba = =

4 8 8

R. f(x) decreases b a = f(1) f(1)

9 1 5

= + =

8 8 4

=

= dx

S.

x 2 + y 2 = x + c, y 2 = c 2 + 2 cx , parabolas

A4n + 2 + A4n + 3 = (4n + 2)2

\ N = 22 + 42 62 + 82 ...... + 20122

20142

= 4[12 22 + 32 42 + ..... 10062 + 10072]

= 4[ 503 1007 + 10072]

= 4 1007 504 = 25 32 7 19 53

3n + 5 3(n + 1) + 2

=

3n + 2

3n + 2

10. (a) : P. f (x ) =

1 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 5! = 120

\ n = 270 + 720 + 120 = 1110, digit sum 3

x2 + y2

5 = (3n + 2), a1 = 1 = 1

5an = 3n + 2, an = log 5 (3n + 2)

a41 = 3

3 4 5!

2 + 1 + 1 + 1 = 720

1 3 2!

xdx + ydy

an

an

4. (a) : AA NN RR DE

3 3 5!

= 270

2 + 2 +1

2 1 2!2!

5. (b) :

5an+1

f (x ) =

2

3 1

2

sin x +

4

48

2 2

7 1 27

ba = =

8 32 32

nn

set-144

1.

2.

3.

n. Jayanthi

:

Khokon Kumar nandi

:

Gouri Sankar adhikari Mayta :

Hyderabad

W.B.

W.B.

29

answered?

Use the vast expertise of our mtg team to get to the

bottom of the question. From the serious to the silly,

the controversial to the trivial, the team will tackle the

questions, easy and tough.

The best questions and their solutions will be printed in

this column each month.

1

- Sujatha, Thrissur

solvable if a 1.

4

Ans. We have, sin6x + cos6x = a

(sin2x + cos2x)3 3sin2xcos2x

(sin2x + cos2x) = a

3

1 3 sin2x cos2x = a 1 sin 2 2 x = a

4

3 1 cos 4 x

1

= a

4

2

1 3 + 3 cos 4 x = a

8 8

5 3

...(i)

+ cos 4 x = a

8 8

3 3

3

But 1 cos4x 1 cos 4 x

8 8

8

5 3 5 3

3 5

+ cos 4 x +

8 8 8 8

8 8

1

(by (i))

a 1

4

Q2. Find the equation of the plane passing through

the point (1, 2, 1) and perpendicular to the

line joining the points (3, 1, 2) and (2, 3, 4).

Find also the perpendicular distance of the

origin from this plane.

- Mahendra, Amritsar

Ans. The required plane passes through the point

^

^ ^

and is perpendicular to the line joining the

points A(3, 1, 2) and B(2, 3, 4).

\

A vector normal to the plane is given by

^

^

^

^ ^

^

n = AB = (2 i + 3 j + 4 k ) (3 i + j + 2 k )

^

= 5 i + 2 j+ 2 k

Vector equation of a plane passing through

30 MatheMatics tODaY | January 15

vector n is given by

(r a ) n = 0 r . n = a . n

\

Equation of the required plane is

^

^ ^

^

^

^

. ^ ^ ^

r (5 i + 2 j + 2 k ) = ( i + 2 j + k ) .(5 i + 2 j + 2 k )

^ ^ ^

r .(5 i + 2 j + 2 k ) = 5 + 4 + 2

^ ^ ^

r .(5 i + 2 j + 2 k ) = 1

We have | n | = 52 + 22 + 22 = 33

In normal form

1

5 ^ 2 ^ 2 ^

r .

i+

j+

k =

33

33

33

33

So, the perpendicular distance of the origin

1

from the plane is

.

33

Q3. On each evening a boy either watches

Doordarshan channel or Ten sports. The

4

probability that he watches Ten sports is . If

5

he watches Doordarshan, there is a chance of

3 that he will fall asleep, while it is 1 when

4

4

he watches Ten sports. On one day, the boy is

found to be asleep. Find the probability that

the boy watched Doordarshan.

- Anjali Jha, Patna

Doordarshan and Ten sports, respectively. It

is given that

P( E1 ) = 1 and P( E2 ) = 4

5

5

Let E be the event of the boy falls asleep. Again

by hypothesis

P E = 3 and P E = 1

E2 4

E1 4

Now E = E (E1 E2) = (E1 E) (E2 E)

so that P( E ) = P( E1 ) P E + P( E2 ) P E

E

E2

1

By Bayes theorem

P( E1 ) P( E / E1 )

P( E1 / E ) =

P( E1 ) P( E / E1 ) + P( E2 ) P( E / E2 )

(1 / 5) (3 / 4)

=

=3

(1 / 5) (3 / 4) + (4 / 5) (1 / 4) 7

nn

This column is aimed at Class XI students so that they can prepare for competitive exams such as JEE Main/Advanced,

etc. and be also in command of what is being covered in their school as part of NCERT syllabus. The problems here

are a happy blend of the straight and the twisted, the simple and the difficult and the easy and the challenging.

Standard reSultS

equation of a CirCle in VariouS form

z

The equation of circle with centre (h, k) and

radius r is (x h)2 + (y k)2 = r2.

z

The general equation of a circle is

x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0

with centre (g, f) & radius = g 2 + f 2 c .

Remember that every second degree equation

in x and y in which coefficient of x2 = coefficient

of y2 & there is no xy term always represents

a circle.

If g2 + f 2 c > 0 real circle.

g2 + f 2 c = 0 point circle.

g2 + f 2 c < 0 imaginary circle.

Note that the general equation of a circle contains

three arbitrary constants, g, f and c which

corresponds to the fact that a unique circle passes

through three non-collinear points.

z

The equation of circle with (x1, y1) and (x2, y2)

as end points of its diameter is,

(x x1)(x x2) + (y y1)(y y2) = 0.

Note that this will be the circle of least radius

passing through (x1, y1) and (x2, y2).

interCeptS made By a CirCle on the

axeS

The intercepts made by the circle

x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 with the coordinate

axes are 2 g 2 c and 2 f 2 c respectively.

note :

If g2 c > 0 circle cuts the x-axis at two

distinct points.

If g2 = c circle touches the x-axis.

If g2 < c circle lies completely above or

below the x-axis.

poSition of a point w.r.t. a CirCle

The point (x1, y1) lies inside, on or outside the

circle x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0, according

as x 12 + y 12 + 2gx 1 + 2fy 1 + c < = or > 0

respectively.

note : The greatest and the least distance of a

point A from a circle with centre C and radius

r is AC + r and AC r respectively.

A

(x1, y1) P

Let L = 0 be a line and S = 0 be a circle. If r

is the radius of the circle and p is the length

of the perpendicular from the centre on the

line, then

p > r the line does not meet the circle i.e.

z

the line passes outside the circle.

z

p = r the line touches the circle.

z

p < r the line is a secant of the circle.

z

p = 0 the line is a diameter of the circle.

he trains IIt and olympiad aspirants.

31

The parametric equations of a circle

(x h)2 +(y k)2 = r2 are,

x = h + r cosq; y = k + r sinq; p < q p

where (h, k) is the centre, r is the radius and

q is a parameter.

Note that equation of a straight line joining two

points a & b on the circle x2 + y2 = a2 is

a +b

a +b

a b

x cos

+ y sin

= a cos

2

2

2

tangent & normal

The equation of the tangent to the circle

x2 + y2 = a2 at its point (x1, y1) is,

xx1 + yy1 = a2. Hence equation of a tangent

at (acosa,asina) is; x cosa + y sina = a. The

point of intersection of the tangents at the

points P(a)and Q(b) is

a +b

a +b

a cos 2 a sin 2

a b

a b

cos

cos

2

2

x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 at its point (x1, y1)

is xx1 + yy1 + g(x + x1) + f(y + y1) + c = 0

y = mx + c is always a tangent to the circle

x2 + y2 = a2 if c2 = a2 (1 + m2) and the point

2

2

of contact is a m , a .

c

c

If a line is normal / orthogonal to a circle, then

it must pass through the centre of the circle.

Using this fact normal to the circle

x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 at (x1, y1) is

y +f

y y1 = 1

(x x1 )

x1 + g

family of CirCleS

Equation of circle circumscribing a triangle

whose sides are L1 = 0; L2 = 0 & L3 = 0 is

given by; L1L2 + l L2L3 + mL3L1 = 0 provided

coefficient of xy = 0 & coefficient of x 2 =

coefficient of y2.

Equation of circle circumscribing a quadrilateral

z

whose sides in order are represented by the

z

32

L2L4 = 0 provided coefficient of x2 = coefficient

of y2 and coefficient of xy = 0.

The equation of the family of circles passing

through the point of intersection of two circles

S1 = 0 & S2 = 0 is, S1 + KS2 = 0 (K 1).

The equation of the family of circles passing

through the point of intersection of a circle

S = 0 & a line L = 0 is given by S + KL = 0.

The equation of a family of circles passing

through two given points (x 1 , y 1 ) and

(x2, y2) is (x x1) (x x2) + (y y1) (y y2)

x

y 1

+ K x1 y1 1 = 0, where K is a parameter.

x2

y2 1

a fixed line y y1 = m (x x1) at the fixed

point (x1, y1) is

(x x1)2 + (y y1)2 + K[y y1 m (x x1)]

= 0, where K is a parameter.

In case, if the line through (x1, y1) is parallel

to y-axis then the equation of the family of

circles touching it at (x1, y1) becomes

(x x1)2 +(y y1)2 + K(x x1) = 0.

Also, if line is parallel to x-axis the equation

of the family of circles touching it at (x1, y1)

becomes (x x1)2 + (y y1)2 + K(y y1) = 0.

length of a tangent and power of

a point

The length of a tangent from an external point

(x1, y1) to the circle

S x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 is given by

Square of length of the tangent from a point

P is also called the power of point w.r.t. a

circle. Power of a point remains constant

w.r.t. a circle.

Note that power of a point P is positive,

negative or zero according as the point P is

outside, inside or on the circle respectively.

direCtor CirCle

The locus of the point of intersection of two

perpendicular tangents is called the director

circle of the given circle. The director circle of

equal to 2 times the original circle.

equation of the Chord with a giVen

middle point

z

The equation of the chord of the circle

S x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 in terms of its

x +g

mid point M (x1, y1) is y y1 = 1

(x x1).

y1 + f

This on simplication can be put in the form

xx1 + yy1 + g(x + x1) + f(y + y1) + c = x12 +

y12 + 2gx1 + 2fy1 + c which is designated by

T = S 1.

Note that the shortest chord of a circle passing

through a point M inside the circle, is one

chord whose middle point is M.

Chord of ContaCt

If two tangents PT1 & PT2 are drawn from the

point P(x1, y1) to the circle S x2 + y2 + 2gx

+ 2fy + c = 0, then the equation of the chord

of contact of T1T2 is

xx1 + yy1 + g (x + x1) + f(y + y1) + c = 0.

rememBer

Equation of the circle circumscribing the

DPT1T2 is (x x1)(x + g) + (y y1)(y + f) = 0.

The joint equation of a pair of tangents drawn

z

from the point A(x1, y1) to the circle

x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 is SS1 = T 2 .

where, S x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c;

S1 x12 + y12 + 2gx1 + 2fy1 + c

T xx1 + yy1 + g(x + x1) + f(y + y1) + c.

z

Area of the triangle formed by the pair of the

R L3

tangents & its chord of contact =

R2 + L2

where R is the radius of the circle & L is the

length of the tangent from (x1, y1) on S = 0

Chord of contact exists only if the point P

z

is not inside.

2LR

Length of chord of contact T1T2 =

z

R2 + L2

.

z

Angle between the pair of tangents from

z

If through a point P in the plane of the circle,

two straight lines are drawn to meet the circle

at points Q and R, the locus of the point of

intersection of the tangents at Q and R is called

the polar of the point P; also P is called the

pole of the polar.

z

The equation of the polar of a point P(x1, y1)

w.r.t. the circle x 2 + y 2 = a 2 is given by

xx1 + yy1 = a2 , and if the circle is general,

then the equation of the polar becomes

xx1 + yy1 + g (x + x1) + f (y + y1) + c = 0.

Note that if the point (x1, y1) be on the circle,

then the chord of contact, tangent and polar

will be represented by the same equation.

z

Pole of a given line Ax + By + C = 0 w.r.t. any

Aa2

Ba2

circle x2 + y2 = a2 is

,

.

C

C

z

2RL

(x1, y1) = tan1 2

where R = radius;

2

L R

L = length of tangent.

Q, then the polar of Q passes through P.

Two lines L1 and L2 are conjugate of each other

if pole of L1 lies on L2 and vice-versa. Similarly

two points P and Q are said to be conjugate

of each other if the polar of P passes through

Q and vice-versa.

The direct common tangents meet at a point

which divides the line joining centre of circles

externally in the ratio of their radii.

z

Transverse common tangents meet at a point

which divides the line joining centre of circles

internally in the ratio of their radii.

z

When they touch each other :

(a) externally : There are three common

tangents, two direct and one is the tangent

at the point of contact .

(b) internally : Only one common tangent

possible at their point of contact.

z

When two circles neither intersect nor touch

each other , there are four common tangents,

two of them are transverse and the others are

direct common tangents.

z

When they intersect there are two common

tangents, both of them being direct.

z

33

internal common tangent to the two circles

is given by:

Lext = d 2 (r1 r2 )2 & Lint = d 2 (r1 + r2 )2

where d = distance between the centres of the

two circles, r1 and r2 are the radii of the two

circles.

z

The radical axis of two circles is the locus of

points whose powers w.r.t. the two circles are

equal. The equation of radical axis of the two

circles S1 = 0 and S2 = 0 is S1 S2 = 0

i.e. 2(g1 g2)x + 2(f1 f2)y + (c1 c2) = 0.

remarKS

z

Radical axis bisects the common tangent

between the two circles.

z

The common point of intersection of the radical

axes of three circles taken two at a time is called

the radical centre of three circles.

A system of circles , every two of which have

z

the same radical axis, is called a co-axial

system.

z

Pairs of circles which do not have radical axis

are concentric.

z

If two circles intersect, then the radical axis is

the common chord of the two circles.

z

If two circles touch each other, then the radical

axis is the common tangent of the two circles

at the common point of contact.

Radical axis is always perpendicular to the line

z

joining the centres of the two circles.

z

Radical axis need not always pass through the

mid point of the line joining the centres of the

two circles.

orthogonality of two CirCleS

z

Two circles S 1 = 0 & S 2 = 0 are said to be

orthogonal or said to intersect orthogonally

if the tangents at their point of intersection

include a right angle. The condition for two

circles to be orthogonal is 2g1g2 + 2f1f2 = c1 + c2.

remarKS

z

If two circles are orthogonal, then the polar of

a point P on first circle w.r.t. the second circle

34

end of the diameter through P. Hence locus

of a point which moves such that its polars

w.r.t. the circles S1 = 0, S2 = 0 and S3 = 0 are

concurrent in a circle which is orthogonal to

all the three circles.

Locus of the centre of a variable circle

orthogonal to two fixed circles is the radical

axis between the two fixed circles .

PROBLEMS

SEctiOn-i

single correct answer type

circle x2 + y2 ax by = 0 which subtend a right

a b

angle at , is

2 2

(a) ax + by = 0

(c) x2 + y2 ax by +

(d) x2 + y2 ax by

(b) ax + by = a2 + b2

a 2 + b2

8

=0

a 2 + b2

=0

8

2. A rhombus is inscribed in the region common

to the two circles x2 + y2 4x 12 = 0 and

x2 + y2 + 4x 12 = 0 with two of its vertices on the

line joining the centres of the circles. The area of the

rhombus is

(a) 8 3 sq. units

(b) 4 3 sq. units

(c) 16 3 sq. units

the leg AC as diameter, a semicircle is described.

The chord joining A with the point of intersection

D of the hypotenuse and the semicircle, then the

length AC equals to

(a)

(c)

AB AD

AB2 + AD 2

AB AD

(b)

(d)

AB AD

AB + AD

AB AD

AB2 AD 2

circle x2 + y2 + 4x 6y 12 = 0 which subtend an

p

angle of

radians at its circumference is

3

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(x

(x

(x

(x

+ 2)2 + (y 3)2 = 6.25

+ 2)2 + (y 3)2 = 18.75

+ 2)2 + (y + 3)2 = 18.75

and x2 + (y 2)2 = 5 intersect is

p

p

p

p

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

2

4

3

6

6. The value of 'c' for which the set,

{(x, y)|x2 + y2 + 2x 1} {(x, y)| x y + c 0}

contains only one point in common is

(a) (, 1] [3, ) (b) { 1, 3}

(c) { 3}

(d) { 1 }

7. P is a point (a, b) in the first quadrant. If the

two circles which pass through P and touch both

the coordinate axes cut at right angles, then

(a) a2 6ab + b2 = 0 (b) a2 + 2ab b2 = 0

(c) a2 4ab + b2 = 0 (d) a2 8ab + b2 = 0

8. Three concentric circles of which the biggest

is x2 + y2 = 1, have their radii in A.P. If the line

y = x + 1 cuts all the circles in real and distinct points.

The interval in which the common difference of the

A.P. will lie is

1

1

(a) 0 ,

(b) 0 ,

4

2 2

2 2

(c) 0 ,

(d) none of these

(3, 0) and (3, 0) respectively . If the vertical angle

BAC is 90, then the locus of the centroid of the

DABC has the equation

(a) x2 + y2 = 1

(b) x2 + y2 = 2

2

2

(c) 9(x + y ) = 1

(d) 9(x2 + y2) = 4

10. If two chords, each bisected by the x-axis can

be drawn to the circle, 2(x2 + y2) 2ax by = 0

(a 0, b 0) from the point (a, b/2), then

(a) a2 > 8b2

(b) b2 > 2a2

2

2

(c) a > 2b

(d) a2 = 2b2

11. Tangents are drawn to a unit circle with centre

at the origin from a point on the line 2x + y = 4.

Then the equation of the locus of the middle point

of the chord of contact is

(c) 4(x2 + y2) = 2x + y (d) none of these

12. The common chord of two intersecting circles

C1 and C2 can be seen from their centres at the

angles of 30 and 60 respectively . If the distance

between their centres is equal to 3 + 1 , then the

radii of C1 and C2 are

(a) 3 , 3 (b) 2 , 2 2 (c) 2 , 2 (d) 2 2 , 4

13. If the line xcosq + ysinq = 2 is the equation

of a transverse common tangent to the circles

x2 + y2 = 4 and x2 + y2 6 3 x 6y + 20 = 0, then

the value of q is

(a) 5p/6 (b) 2p/3 (c) p/3

(d) p/6

14. The locus of the mid-points of the chords of

the circle x2 + y2 2x 4y 11 = 0 which subtend

60 at the centre is

(a) x2 + y2 4x 2y 7 = 0

(b) x2 + y2 + 4x + 2y 7 = 0

(c) x2 + y2 2x 4y 7 = 0

(d) x2 + y2 + 2x + 4y + 7 = 0

15. The locus of the foot of the perpendicular, from the

origin to chord of the circle x2 + y2 4x 6y 3 = 0,

which subtend a right angle at the origin is

(a) x2 + y2 2x 3y 3 = 0

(b) 2x2 + 2y2 4x 6y 9 = 0

(c) 3x2 + 3y2 12x 18y 6 = 0

(d) 2x2 + 2y2 4x 6y 3 = 0

16. Tangents are drawn to x2 + y2 1 = 0 from any

arbitrary point P on the circle C1 : x2 + y2 4 = 0.

These tangent meets the circle C1 again at A and

B. Locus of point of intersection of tangents drawn

to C1 at A and B is

(a) x2 + y2 = 10

(b) x2 + y2 = 16

2

2

(c) x + y = 5

(d) x2 + y2 = 25

17. Let PQ and RS be tangents at the extremities

of a diameter PR of a circle of radius r such that PS

and RQ intersect at a point X on the circumference

of the circle, then 2r equals

PQ + RS

(a)

(b)

PQ RS

2

(c)

2PQ RS

PQ + RS

(d)

(PQ )2 + (RS )2

2

35

other externally such that q is the angle between the

direct common tangents (a > b 2), then

1 a b

1 a + b

(a) q = sin

(b) q = sin

a +b

a b

a +b

a b

(c) q = 2 sin 1

(d) q = 2 sin 1

a b

a + b

19. P is a point on the circumference of a circle

of radius r units. Chords QR are drawn parallel to

the tangent at P. The maximum area of the triangle

PQR is

3 3 2

3 3 2

3 2

3 2

r (c)

r

r

(a)

(d)

r (b)

4

2

4

4

20. A point P lies inside the circles x2 + y2 4 = 0

and x2 + y2 8x + 7 = 0. The point P starts moving

under the conditions that its path encloses greatest

possible area and it is at a fixed distance from any

arbitrarily chosen fixed point in its region. The

locus of P is

(a) 4x2 + 4y2 12x + 1 = 0

(b) 4x2 + 4y2 + 12x 1 = 0

(c) x2 + y2 3x 2 = 0

(d) x2 + y2 3x + 2 = 0

21. Tangents are drawn from (4, 4) to the circle

x2 + y2 2x 2y 7 = 0 to meet the circle at A and

B. The length of the chord AB is

(a) 2 3 (b) 3 2

(c) 2 6

(d) 6 2

22. PA and PB are tangents to a circle S touching

S at points A and B.C is a point on S in between

A and B as shown in the figure. LCM is a tangent

to S intersecting PA and PB in points L and M

respectively. Then the perimeter of the triangle PLM

depends on

(a) A, B, C and P

(c) P and C only

36

(d) the radius of S only

SEctiOn-ii

Multiple correct answer type

23. w is a variable circle which passes through the

point A = (2, 3) and which touches the x-axis; A

is the point on w diametrically opposite to A. The

curve described by A is a conic

(a) whose eccentricity is < 1.

(b) whose latus rectum has length 12 units.

(c) which has a vertex at (2, 0).

(d) which has the x-axis as a line of symmetry.

24. If the line |y| = x a; where a > 0 does not

meet the circle x2 + y2 10x + 21 = 0, then

(a) a < 5 2 2

(b) a > 5 + 2 2

a

+

(

,

)

5

2

2

5

2

2

(c)

(d) a (1, 1)

25. The line y = mx + c intersects the circle

x2 + y2 = r2 at two real and distinct points if

(a)

(c)

c 1 m2 < r

(d) r < c 1 + m2

AB = 15. If I is the incentre of the triangle ABC and

if the incircle meets the sides AB, BC & CA at the

points P, Q and R respectively, then which of the

following are correct?

(a) AP = 8.

128

(b) Area of the triangle APR is

sq. units

5

(c) Area of the quadrilateral APIR is 32 sq. units

(d) AI = 4 5

27. If the lines 3x 4y + 4 = 0 and 6x 8y 7 = 0

are tangents to the same circle, then

(a) radius of the circle = 3/4

(b) radius of the circle = 3/2

(c) centre of the circle lies on 12x 16y + 1 = 0

(d) centre of the circle lies on 12x 16y + 31 = 0

28. A circle S 0 passes through the common

points of family of circles x2 + y2 + lx 4y + 3 = 0

(l R) and have minimum area, then

(a) area of S = 0 is p sq. units

(b) radius of director circle of S = 0 is 2 units

(c) length of intercept made by S 0 from x-axis

is 1 unit.

(d) All of these

29. C1 : x2 + y2 = 25, C2 : x2 + y2 2x 4y 7 = 0 be

two circles intersecting at the points A and B

(a) Equation of common chord must be x + 2y 9 = 0

(b) Equation of common chord must be x + 2y + 7 = 0.

(c) Tangents at A and B to the circle C1 intersect

25 50

at , .

9 9

(d) Tangents at A and B to the circle C1 intersect

at (1, 2).

30. An equation of the tangent to the circle

x2 + y2 + 4x 4y + 4 = 0 which makes equal intercepts

on the coordinate axes is given by

(a) x + y = 2 2

(b) x y = 2 3

(c) x + y + 2 2 = 0

(d) x y + 2 3 = 0

31. If a, b, g are the parameters of points A, B, C

on circle x2 + y2 = a2 and if the triangle ABC be

equilateral, then

(a) Scosa = 0

(b) Ssina = 0

(c) Stana = 0

(d) Scota = 0

32. Let S1 and S2 be two circles passing through

(2,3) and touching the coordinate axes and S be the

circle having common points of S1 and S2 as the

centre and radius equal to G.M. of radius of S1 and

S2, then

(a) S 0 cuts y-axis is but not the x-axis

(b) S 0 cuts y = x

(c) radius of director circle of S 0 is 26

(d) A.M. of radius of S1 and S2 is 5

33. Common tangents are drawn to two circles

x2 + y2 = 1 and (x 4)2 + (y 4)2 = 4. If the

intersection points of transverse common tangents

with the direct common tangents are A, B, C and

D, then

(a) ABCD is a cyclic quadrilateral

(b) equation of circumcircle of DABC is

x2 + y2 4x 4y = 0

(c) equation of circumcircle of DABC is

x2 + y2 5x 5y = 0

(d) ABCD is a square

34. Let x, y be variables satisfying the equation

x2 + y2 + 8x 10y 40 = 0. Let a = max {(x + 2)2 +

(y 3)2} and b = min {(x + 2)2 + (y 3)2}, then

(a) a + b = 18

(b) a + b = 2

(c) a b = 4 2

(d) ab = 73

SEctiOn-iii

comprehension type

paragraph for question no. 35 to 37

The centres of the circles touching both the

coordinate axes lies on the straight line x y = 0 or

x + y = 0 according to the quadrant in which the

circle lies.

35. The number of circles whose centres are in

the first quadrant, touching the axes and passing

through a fixed point (h, k) is

(a) always be 1

(b) always be 2

(c) 1 or 2

(d) more than 2

36. If the difference between the radii of the circles

passing through (a, b) and touching the axes is

C > 0 and ab > 0, then the least value of a + b is

(relative minimum)

C

(a) C

(b)

(d) 2C

2C (c)

2

37. If one of the points of intersection of the two

circles touching the axes is (p, q), then the length of

the common chord is

(a) |p q|

(b) 2 | p q |

(c) 2|p q|

(d)

2 | pq |

P is a point on the circle C1 : q2(x2 + y2) = a2p2

Q is a point on the circle C2 : x2 + y2 = a2

38. If the coordinates of P are (h, k), then the locus

of the point which divides the join of PQ in the ratio

p : q is a circle C3, whose centre is at the point

h

k

hp

kq

,

(a)

(b)

,

p + q p + q

p+q p+q

hq

kq

(c)

,

p + q p + q

hp

kp

(d)

,

p

+

q

p

+ q

on the circle C1 is a circle C4

(a) Non concentric with C1

(b) Non concentric with C2

(c) Having radius equal to the radius of C3

(d) Having area equal to the area of C1

40. If the point (p, q) lies on the line y = 2x, then

radius of C1

is equal to

the

radius of C4

MatheMatics tODaY | JANUARY 15

37

(a)

2

3

(b)

3

2

(c) 3

(d)

1

3

The line x + 2y + a = 0 intersects the circle

x2 + y2 4 = 0 at two distinct points A and B.

Another line 12x 6y 41=0 intersect the circle

x2 + y2 4x 2y + 1 = 0 at two distinct points C

and D.

41. The value of a so that the line x + 2y + a = 0

intersect the circle x2 + y2 4 = 0 at two distinct

points A and B is

(a) 2 5 < a < 2 5

(b) 0 < a < 2 5

(c) 5 < a < 5

(d) 0 < a < 2 5

42. The value of a for which the four points A, B,

C and D are concyclic, is

(a) 1

(b) 3

(c) 4

(d) 2

is

(a) x2 + y2 = (r1 + r2)2 (b) x2 + y2 = (r1 r2)2

(r r )2

(c) x 2 + y 2 = 1 2

(d) None of these

4

paragraph for question no. 47 to 49

A circle C of radius 1 is inscribed in an equilateral

triangle PQR. The points of contact of C with the

sides PQ, QR, RP are D, E, F respectively. The line

PQ is given by the equation 3x + y 6 = 0 and

3 3 3

the point D is

, . Further, it is given that

2 2

the origin and the centre of C are on the same side

of the line PQ.

47. The equation of the circle C is

(a) (x 2 3 )2 + ( y 1)2 = 1

2

points A, B, C and D is

(a) 5x2 + 5y2 8x 16y 36 = 0

(b) 5x2 + 5y2 + 8x 16y 36 = 0

(c) 5x2 + 5y2 + 8x + 16y 36 = 0

(d) 5x2 + 5y2 8x 16y + 36 = 0

(b) (x 2 3 ) + y + = 1

Consider the two circles C 1 : x 2 + y 2 = r 12 and

C2 : x2 + y2 = r22 (r2 < r1). Let A(r1, 0) be a fixed point

on C1 and B be a variable point on C2. The line BA

meet the circle C2 again at C. Then

3 3

, , ( 3 , 0)

(a)

2 2

(a) 4r12

(b) 4r22

3 3 3 1

, ,

,

(c)

2 2 2 2

3 3 3 1

,

(d) ,

,

2 2 2 2

r

r2

(a) x 1 + y 2 = 2

2

4

(c) (x 3 )2 + ( y + 1)2 = 1

(d) (x 3 )2 + ( y 1)2 = 1

48. The points E and F are

3 1

, , ( 3 , 0)

(b)

2 2

2

2

x + 1, y =

x 1

(a) y =

x

3

1

x, y = 0

(b) y =

3

(c)

2

(b) x r1 + y 2 = r2

2

2

2

(c) x r2 + y 2 = r1

2

2

r

r2

(d) x 2 + y 2 = 1

2

4

38

y=

3

3

x + 1, y =

x 1

2

2

(d) y = 3x , y = 0

SEctiOn-iV

Matrix-Match type

50. Match the following.

Column-i

Column-ii

(A) If each of 4 circles touches the (p) 5

3 lines x + 2y 1 = 0, 2x 3y

+ 5 = 0 and 3x + y 1 = 0 of

radii a, b, c, d and a > b > c > d,

then d + d + d =

a b c

(B) If A(2, 0) and B(2, 0) are (q)

two points. Then the number

of integral values of a if AB

subtends obtuse angle at the

point (a, a + 1) is

from two points A & B to a

circle are 3 & 4 and A & B are

conjugate points, then AB =

4 and 2 if t wo circles are

constructed on these sides as

diameters and d is the length of

common chord, then 5d =

SEctiOn-V

point P to the circle x2 + y2 4x 8y + 8 = 0 is 60,

then the length of the tangent drawn from P to the

circle is

55. If the line 3x 4y 8 = 0 divides the

circumference of the circle with centre (2, 3) in the

ratio 1 : 2, then the radius of the circle is

56. If r1 and r2 are the radii of smallest and largest

circles which pass through (5, 6) and touches the

41

circle (x 2)2 + y 2 = 4 r1r2 = , then l =

l

57. If two circles each of unit radius intersect

orthogonally. The common area of the circles is

p

1. Then the value of l =

l

58. If the radius of circumcircle of the DTPQ where

PQ is chord of contact corresponding to point T with

respect to circle x2 + y2 2x + 4y 11 = 0 is 6 units. Then

the minimum distance of T from the director circle

of the given circle is 12 4 K K =

59. For the circle x2 + y2 = r2, the value of r for

which the area enclosed by the tangents drawn

from the point P(6,8) to the circle and the chord of

contact is maximum, is

SOLutiOnS

51. Tangents are drawn to the circle x2 + y2 = 1 at

the points where it is met by the circles x2 + y2

(l + 6)x + (8 2l)y 3 = 0, l being parameter. The

locus of point of intersection of these tangents is

px + qy + 10 = 0, then p + q =

52. C is a circle that contains all the three circles

x2 + y2 +12x + 4y + 31= 0, x2 + y2 + 6x +12y + 36

= 0, x2 + y2 4y 5 = 0 and having minimum

radius. If D is the centre of the circle C and

13 11

E=

,

, then ED 2 =

18 12

53. The radius of the circle passing through the

points (0, 0) and (2, 0) and touching the circle

x2 + y2 = 16 is

1. (c) : r =

a 2 b2

a 2 + b2

+

=

4

4

2

2

sin 45 =

a

b

h + k

2

2

a 2 + b2

2

+

1

4

4

= 4

2

a 2 + b2

(h, k)

r

C 45

(a/2, b/2)

a 2 + b2

=0

8

39

with radius 4.

y-axis is their common

4

2 3

chord.

(2,0)

l=4 (2,0)

The inscribed rhombus has

its diagonals equal to 4 and

4 3.

d d

\ A = 1 2 = 8 3 sq. units

2

AC

1

=

AD sin q

AD

p

= sin q = cos q

2

AB

2

2

AD

AD

+

=1

2

AC

AB2

3. (d) : \

B

/2

(h + 2)2 + (k 3)2 = 6.25

\ Locus is (x + 2)2 + (y 3)2 = 6.25

60

(2, 3)

C

5 120 5

p

(h, k)

5. (b) : cos q =

10 + 5 5

2 10 5

B 5

(0,2)

O

1

2

0

1

C(1, 0) 10

1 + c

= 2 | c 1| = 2 c 1 = 2

2

c = 3 or 1

xy+3=0

xy1=0

(1, 0)

(x r)2 + (y r)2 = r2

i.e. x2 + y2 2rx 2ry + r2 = 0, where r = r1 and r2.

or x2 + y2 2r1x 2r1y + r12 = 0

and x2 + y2 2r2x 2r2 y + r22 = 0

Condition of orthogonality gives

2r1r2 + 2r1r2 = r12 + r22 4r1r2 = r12 + r22.

Circle passes through (a, b)

a2 + b2 2ra 2rb + r2 = 0

i.e. r2 2r (a + b) + a2 + b2 = 0

r1 + r2 = 2 (a + b) and r1r2 = a2 + b2

x2 + y2 = 1

x2 + y2 = (1 d)2

x2+y2=1

x2 + y2 = (1 2d)2

O

solve any of circle

(0,0)

with line y = x + 1

\ x2 + (1 + x)2 = (1 d)2

2x2 + 2x + 2d d2 = 0

cuts at real and distinct

points hence D > 0

2+ 2

2 2

or d <

2d2 4d + 1 > 0 d >

2

2

9. (a) : Let A = (a, b) and G = (h, k). Now A, G,

O are collinear.

20 + a

a = 3h and similarly b = 3k.

h=

3

A(a,b)

q=

p

4

radius = 2

Line x y + c = 0

40

90

G (h,k)

C

(3, 0)

O

(0, 0)

B

(3, 0)

2h2 2ah + b2 = 0

For two distinct values of h, D > 0 a2 > 2b2

a b

,

2 2

(a, b/2)

(h, b/2)

2x1 + y1 = 4

....(1)

Chord of contact w.r.t. (x1, y1) is

xx1 + yy1 = 1

Also, equation of chord whose mid-point is (h, k)

(x1, y1)

(h,k)

C1 = (0, 0); C2 = ( 3 3 , 3) and r1 = 2, r2 = 4

C

1C 2 = r 1 + r 2

circle touch each other.

\ Equation of transverse

common tangent is,

3x + y 4 = 0

Comparing with

x cosq + y sinq = 2

p

q=

6

14. (c) : Let (h, k) be mid-point of chord.

(1 h)2 + (2 k )2

= cos 30

4

(1,2)

2

3

2

2

4

(1 h) + (2 k) =

4

2

A

h2 + 1 2h + k2 + 4 4k = 12

Hence locus is x2 + y2 2x 4y 7 = 0

60

(h,k)

15. (d) :

2x + y = 4

h2 + k2 = hx + ky

O

P(h, k)

x

y

h

k

1

\ 1= 1=

x1 =

; y1 =

h

k h2 + k 2

h2 + k 2

h2 + k 2

B

Substitute in (1), we get

Let point be P(h, k)

h

k

2

+

=4

Slope of perpendicular OP is k/h.

2

2

2

2

h +k

h +k

Slope of chord AB is (h/k)

\ locus is 4(x2 + y2) = 2x + y

h

( x h)

Equation of line AB is ( y k) =

y

x

k

12. (c) :

=

y = 3x

2

2

ky k + hx h = 0

sin 60 sin 30

ky + hx

and x( 3 + 1) = 3 + 1 x = 1

2 2 =1

h +k

C1

O1

C2

r1

r2

30x 60 O

y M x

2

3 + 1

r1 = x 2 = 2 and r2 = 2

ky + hx

ky + hx

6y

x2 + y2 4x

2

2

h2 + k 2

h +k

...(1)

ky + hx

=0

3

h2 + k 2

\

\

coeff. of x2 + coeff. of y2 = 0

MatheMatics tODaY | JANUARY 15

41

4h

3h2

1

2

2

h + k

h2 + k 2

6k

3k 2

+ 1

=0

2

2

2

2 2

h +k

+

h

k

2(2h + 3k )

3

2

=0

2

2

2

h +k

(h + k 2 )

3

the arbitrarily chosen point should be , 0 and

2

1

P should move in a circle of radius . Locus of P

2

1

is a circle of radius .

2

y

2(h2 + k2) 4h 6k 3 = 0

So locus is; 2x2 + 2y2 4x 6y 3 = 0

16. (b) : We have, OD = 1, OA = 2

p

1

If AOD = q then cos q = q =

2

3

p

OA sec = 2 OA = 4

3

The locus of intersection of tangents is x2 + y2 = 16

p

PQ

17. (a) : In DPQR; tan q =

2

PR

PQ

cot q =

PR

RS

In DPSR; tan q =

PR

PQ RS

Now, cot q tan q =

PR PR

PQ RS

1=

PR PR

(PR)2

= (PQ)(RS)

O

2

2 1

2

2

x + ( y 0) = x + y 3x + 2 = 0

2

4

2RL

21. (b) : Length of chord of contact =

R2 + L2

Equation of circle x2 + y2 2x 2y 7 = 0

Equation of chord of contact is

4x + 4y (x + 4) (y + 4) 7 = 0

3x + 3y 15 = 0

Radius = length of perpendicular from (1, 1)

6 15

9

9

3

=

=

=

=

18

18 3 2

2

AB

(4,4)

\ Length

2

A

3

3

= r2

=

2

2

(1,1)

2r = PQ RS

\ AB = 3 2

a b

sin a =

a +b

a b

a = sin 1

a + b

= PL + LA + BM + MP = PA + PB.

a b

q = 2a = 2 sin 1

a + b

19. (b) : Maximum area is possible when the triangle

PQR is an equilateral triangle of side 3r .

3 2

(3r )

\ Maximum area =

4

42

(x x1)(x 2) + (y y1)(y 3) = 0.

y = 0 x2 (x1 + 2)x + (2x1 + 3y1 ) = 0

This equation has equal roots.

D = 0 ( (x1 + 2) )2 = 4(2x1 + 3y1)

(x1 2)2 = 12y1

7

C(5, 0), r = 25 21 = 2

2 = 1 15 1 = 3

9 + 16 2 2 5 4

d > r 5 a > 2 2 5 a > 2 2 or 5 a < 2 2

The centre of the circle lies on the line parallel to

a > 2 2 or 5 a < 2 2

the given lines at a distance of 3/4 from each of

\ a < 5 2 2 or 5 + 2 2 < a

them. So let the equation be 3x 4y + k = 0 ...(i)

25. (a, b) : The x-coordinates of the points of Then k 4 = 3 k = 4 15 k = 1 or 31

4

4

4

4

intersection of the line y = mx + c and the circle

9 + 16

2

2

2

2

2

2

1

x + y = r are given by x + (mx + c) = r

For k = , distance of (i) from the other line is

or (1 + m2)x2 + 2mcx + c2 r2 = 0

.(i)

4

which, being quadratic in x, gives two values of x 3

4

and hence two points of intersection.

Thus

the centre lies on the line 12x 16y + 1 = 0

These points will be real and distinct if the

discriminant of (i) is positive i.e.,

28. (a, b) : x2 + y2 4y + 3 + lx = 0

4m2c2 4(1 + m2)(c2 r2) > 0 c2 < r2(1 + m2) common points are (0, 1), (0, 3)

1

r 1 + m2 < c < r 1 + m2

BP = BQ = y and CQ = CR = z

B y

z

z

a +b +c

= 21

2

Also, y + z = 13, z + x = 14, x + y = 15

x = 8, y = 7, z = 6

Also area of the triangle ABC is

D = s(s a)(s b)(s c) = 21 8 7 6 = 84

D 84

\ The inradius is r = =

=4

s 21

r (s11 )3/2

Area of the triangle APR is

s11 + r 2

4 (8)3 128

=

=

64 + 16

5

Area of the quadrilateral APIR = r s11 = 4 8 = 32

Then x + y + z =

And AI =

AP 2 + PI 2 = 64 +16 = 4 5

to a circle, the diameter of the circle is equal to the

distance between these lines, so the required radius

is

4+

i.e. x2 + y2 4y + 3 = 0

\ Area of S = 0 is p and

radius of director circle = 2 (1) = 2 units

the line joining the two points at which tangents are

drawn is

(i) common chord of C1 and C2 is C1 C2 = 0

2x + 4y 18 = 0.

(ii) chord of contact when tangents are drawn from

(a, b) to C1

Equations 2x + 4y 18 = 0 and ax + by 25 = 0

must be identical. On comparing, we get

a b 25

= =

2 4 18

x y

30. (a, c) : Equation of tangent is + = 1

a a

x+y=a

r = a a = 2 2

31. (a, b) : A(a) = (acosa, asina)

B(b) = (acosb, asinb)

C(g) = (acosg, asing)

DABC is equilateral S = G

a (cos a + cos b + cos g )

(0, 0) =

,

3

a

3

cosa + cosb + cosg = 0,

sina + sinb + sing = 0

MatheMatics tODaY | JANUARY 15

43

equation

r2 10r + 13 = 0

r1 + r2 = 10, r1r2 = 13

(x 2)2 + 4(y 3)2 = 13

Equation of S is (x 2)2 + (y 3)2 = 13

x2 + y2 4x 6y = 0

r +r

\ 1 2 = 5 . Also it cuts y = x

2

33. (a, b) : From the figure it is clear that C1AC2 = 90

Similarly C1BC2 = C1CC2 = C1DC2 = 90

Thus ABCD is a cyclic quadrilateral with C1C2 as

diameter ABCD is clearly not a square.

pq

line x y = 0 is

2

Hence the length of the common chord is

pq

2

= 2 pq

2

38. (c)

39. (c)

40. (c)

Let (x1, y1) be a point on C2

Let (m, n) be the point which divides PQ in the

ratio p:q, then

hq + x1 p

kq + y1 p

m=

and n =

p+q

p+q

x1 =

C2

C1

2

A

2 2

\ C(4, 5), r = 9

Also, on putting (2, 3) in the

(4, 5)

given circle, we get

(2, 3)

x2 + y2 + 8x 10y 40 < 0

Distance of (4, 5) from the

point (2, 3) is 2 2

\ a = 2 2 + 9, b = 2 2 + 9

So, a + b = 18, a b = 4 2 , ab = 73

35. (c) : Consider the circle in the first quadrant

as x2 + y2 2rx 2ry + r2 = 0. It passes through

(h, k), then r2 2r(h + k) + (h2 + k2) = 0

Discriminant, D = 4(h + k)2 4(h2 + k2) = 8hk 0

\ The roots of r are real. But may be equal so 1

or 2 such circles will exist.

36. (c) : As like above, we get

r2 2r (a + b) + (a2 + b2) = 0

We have |r1 r2| = C (r1 + r2)2 4r1r2 = C2

8ab = C2 C = 2 2ab

a +b

C

ab a + b

2

2

44

m( p + q) hq

n( p + q) kq

and y1 =

p

p

we have [m(p + q) hq]2 + [n(p + q) kq]2 = a2p2

2

hq

kq

a 2 p2

m

+ n

=

p+q

p+q

( p + q)2

Locus of (m, n) is

hq

kq

a 2 p2

x

+

y

p+q

p+q

( p + q)2

kq

hq

of C 3 , t h e n a =

an d b =

. Since

p+q

p+q

P(h, k) lies on C1,

2

p+q

2

2

2 2

\ q2

(a + b ) = p a

q

\ Locus of (a, b) is x 2 + y 2 =

radius of C1

radius of C4

a 2 p2

q

( p + q)2

2 2

a p

p2 a 2

( p + q)2

=

p+q

p 3

= 1+ =

q

q 2

x2 + y2 = 4 is

0+0+a

< 2 2 5 < a < 2 5

1+ 4

42. (d) : Let lines x + 2y + a = 0 and 12x 6y 41 = 0

2

intersect at p, then PAPB = PT2 and PCPD = PT1

1

where T and T are the points on the respective

circles. A, B, C and D are concyclics.

Hence point P will lie on the radical axis of

both the circles. Now equation of radical axis is

4x + 2y 5 = 0

Since, radical axis and the lines x + 2y + a = 0 and

12x 6y 41 = 0 are concurrent at P, we have

4 2 5

1 2

a =0a=2

12 6 41

43. (a)

44. (b) : (BC)2 = (AC AB)2 = (AC + AB)2 4ACAB

\ max. (BC)2 = 4r22 , i.e., BC becomes diameter

of C2.

C

3 3

y 1

x 3

=

=1 E =

,

cos 150 sin 150

2 2

and

y 1

x 3

=

= 1 F = ( 3 , 0)

cos(90) sin(90)

given in option (d).

50. (a s; B q; C p; d r)

(a) Let a = r1, b = r2, c = r3, d = r

1 1 1

d d d

1

+ + = r + + = r =1

r

a b c

r1 r2 r3

B

A

of AB is given by

h + r1 k

2 , 2 = (x , y ) h = 2 x r1 , k = 2 y

2

r

r2

2

4

x2 + y2 = 4

S11 < 0

(a, a + 1)

a2 + (a + 1)2 4 < 0

2a2 + 2a 3 < 0

1 7 1 + 7

,

a

2

2

(2, 0)

A

AB2 = l12 + l22

AB2 = 9 + 16 AB = 5

(0, 2)

(d) Common chord

D

2r1r2 2 2 1

=

=

C1C2

5

4

A

d=

(0, 0)

5

3

1

1

2

the point D is tan q =

=

3 3

3

3

2

It makes an angle 30 with x-axis.

The points E and F will make angles 150 and 90

with x-axis.

Then E and F are

S S = 0

(l + 6)x + (2l 8)y + 2 = 0

(1) and (2) represent the same line.

\ 2x1 = l + 6, 2y1 = 2l 8

\ 2x1 6 = y1 + 4

2x y + 10 = 0

p=2

\

p+q=1

q = 1

of AB is a fixed point only.

47. (d) : Let C(h, k) be the centre, then

3h + k 6

3 +1

= 1 3h + k 6 = 2

3h + k = 4

(2, 0)

B

C (4, 2)

B

(4, 0)

...(1)

...(2)

45

31 23

13 11

,

, E=

,

52. (2) : D =

18 12

18 12

DE2 = 2

53. (2) : Centre of the required circle be (1, y1)

(2, 2y1) lies in x2 + y2 = 16 y12 = 3

radius = 1 + 3 = 2

(2, 2y1)

(1, y1)

(0, 0)

ABCD is square

\ Required area = Area of sector ABC + Area of

sector BDA Area of square ABCD

p

p

= 2 1 = 1

4

2

58. (2) : OS = 4 2

Required distance TS = OT SO = 12 4 2

(2, 0)

54. (6) : r = 4 + 16 8 = 2 3

\ Required length of tangent =

r

tan 30

=2 3 3 = 6

P

55. (4) : d =

O

(1, 2)

(x 1)2 + (y 2)2 = 16

x12 + y12

2 3

30

6 + 12 8

=2

32 + 42

d

1

2q = (360) = 120 \ cos 60 = r = 4

r

3

56. (4) :

(5, 6)

(x 1)2 + (y 2)2 = 32

(2, 0)

Distance between (2,0) and (5, 6) is

r .(100 r 2 )3/2

100

3

r . (100 r 2 )1/2 (2r ) + (100 r 2 )3/2

dA

2

=

dr

100

(100 r 2 )1/2

=

(3r 2 + 100 r 2 ) = 0 r = 5

100

A=

nn

9 + 36 = 45 = 3 5

\ r1r2 =

3 5 2 3 5 + 2 41

=

2

2

4

57. (2) :

A

D

C

B

46

Practice Part Syllabus/ Full Syllabus

Mock Test Papers for

JEE Main

Log on to http://test.pcmbtoday.com

This column is aimed at Class XII students so that they can prepare for competitive exams such as JEE Main/Advanced,

etc. and be also in command of what is being covered in their school as part of NCERT syllabus. The problems here

are a happy blend of the straight and the twisted, the simple and the difficult and the easy and the challenging.

VectOrs

DEFINITIONS

A vector may be described as a quantity having

both magnitude and direction. A vector is

generally represented by a directed line segment,

called the terminal point. The magnitude of

vector AB is expressed by | AB | .

z

Zero vector : A vector of zero magnitude i.e.

which has the same initial and terminal point,

is called a zero vector. It is denoted by O .

z

Unit vector : A vector of unit magnitude in

a

is denoted by a^ . Symbolically a^ = .

|a |

z

Equal vectors : Two vectors are said to be equal,

if they have the same magnitude, direction and

represent the same physical quantity.

Collinear vectors : Two vectors are said to be

z

collinear, if their directed line segments are

parallel disregards to their direction. Collinear

vectors are also called parallel vectors. If they

have the same direction they are named as like

vectors otherwise unlike vectors.

K R.

z

Coplanar vectors : A given number of vectors

are called coplanar if their all line segments are

Note that Two vectors are always coplanar.

and B respectively, then

AB = b a = P.V. of B P.V. of A

VECTOR ADDITION

z

represented by a + b where OC is the diagonal

of the parallelogram OACB.

z

a + b = b + a (commutative)

z

(a + b ) + c = a + (b + c ) (associative)

z

a +0 = a = 0+a

a + (a ) = 0 = (a ) + a

z

MULTIPLICATION OF VECTOR BY SCALARS

This multiplication is called scalar multiplication. If

m (a ) = (a ) m = ma

(m + n) a = ma + na

m(a + b ) = ma + mb

he trains IIt and olympiad aspirants.

47

SECTION FORMULA

A and B, then the position vector of a point which

na + mb

.

divides AB in the ratio m : n is given by r =

m + n

a +b

Note : Position vector of mid-point of AB =

.

2

DIRECTION COSINES

^

^

^

Let a = a1 i + a2 j + a3 k and a, b, g are the angles

which this vector makes with the +ve directions of

OX, OY and OZ called direction angles, then their

cosines are called the direction cosines.

a

a

a

i.e., cos a = 1 , cos b = 2 , cos g = 3

|a |

|a |

|a |

Note that, cos2a + cos2b + cos2g = 1

VECTOR EQUATION OF A LINE

Parametric vector equation of a line passing

r = a + t (b a ), where t is a parameter.

z

If the line passes through the point A(a ) and

r = a + t b.

z

Note that the equations of the bisectors of the

angle between the lines,

r = a + b and r = a + mc is

r = a + t (b + c ) and r = a + p(c b )

z

A(

a)

R(r )

B(b )

A(

a)

R( r )

z

z

z

z

z

z

^ ^

^ ^

^ ^

^ ^

^ ^

^ ^

i i = j j = k k = 1 ; i j = j k = k i = 0

a b

Projection of a on b =

.

|b |

REMARKS

a b

| b |2

a b

perpendicular to b = a b .

| b |2

z

The angle f between a and b is given by

a b

cos f = , 0 f p.

| a || b |

^

^

^

z

If a = a1 i + a2 j + a3 k and

^

^

^

b = b1 i + b2 j + b3 k , then

a b = a 1b 1 + a 2b 2 + a 3b 3

|b | =

REMARKS

z

z

z

B(

b)

a a = | a |2

a b = b a (commutative)

a (b + c ) = a b + a c (distributive)

a b = 0 a ^ b (a 0, b 0)

Maximum value of a b = | a || b |.

Minimum value of a b = | a || b |.

^^ ^^ ^ ^

a = (a i ) i + (a j ) j + (a k) k .

a

b

|a | |b |

TEST OF COLLINEARITY

|a | |b |

respectively are collinear, if and only if their exist z

scalars x, y, z not all zero simultaneously such that

Hence, bisector of the interior angle between

^

xa + yb + zc = 0 , where x + y + z = 0.

the two vectors a and b is (a^ + b) , where

SCALAR

PRODUCT OF TWO VECTORS

R+.

z

,

a b = | a || b | cos (0 p)

Bisector of the exterior angle between two

^

vectors a and b is (a^ b), R + .

is obtuse, then a b < 0

O

48

z

If a and b are two vectors and is the angle

between them, then a b = | a || b |sin n^,

where n^ is the unit vector perpendicular to

right handed screw system .

z

2

2 2 2 a a a b

(a b ) = | a| | b| (a b ) =

a b b b

z

z

z

z

z

z

z

scalar product

such that

2 2 2

(i) | c | = | a | | b | (a b )

(ii) c a = 0, c b = 0 and

(iii) a , b , c form a right handed system

parallel (collinear)

a b = 0 a and b are

a b b a (not commutative)

(ma ) b = a (mb ) = m(a b ) , where m is a

scalar.

a (b + c ) = (a b ) + (a c ) (distributive)

^ ^

i i = j j =k k =0

^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^

i j = k, j k = i , k i = j

^

^

^

^

^

^

If a = a1 i + a2 j + a3 k and b = b1 i + b2 j + b3 k ,

^

|a b |

sin =

|a | |b |

VECTOR AREA

z

If a , b and c are the position vectors of 3 points

A, B and C, then the vector area of triangle ABC

1

= a b + b c + c a

2

The points A, B and C are collinear if

a b + b c + c a = 0

Area of any quadrilateral whose diagonal vectors

1

are d1 and d2 is given by | d1 d2 | .

2

SHORTEST DISTANCE BET WEEN T WO

LINES

at a point, then obviously the shortest distance

between them is zero. Lines which do not intersect

& are also not parallel are called skew lines. For Skew

lines, the direction of the shortest distance would be

perpendicular to both the lines. The magnitude of

the shortest distance vector would be equal to that of

of shortest distance, LM is parallel to p q.

i.e. LM = |Projection of AB on LM |

= |Projection of AB on p q |

(b a ) ( p q )

AB ( p q )

=

=

|p q|

|p q|

z

i

j k

z

The two lines will intersect only if shortest

then a b = a1 a2 a3

distance

=

0

i.e.

(

b

a

)

(

p

q

)

=

0

i

.

e

.

b

a

b1 b2 b3

p

and

q

lies

in

the

plane

containing

Geometrically | a b | = area of the parallelogram

[(b a ) p q] = 0

whose two adjacent sides are represented by z If two lines are given by r = a + Kb and r = a + Kb

1

1

2

2

a and b .

r1 = a1 + Kb and r2 = a2 + Kb i.e. they are parallel then,

Unit vector perpendicular to the plane of

b (a2 a1 )

d=

a b

a and b is n^ =

|b |

|a b |

SCALAR TRIPLE PRODUCT / BOx PRODUCT

A vector of magnitude r and perpendicular to

/ MIxED PRODUCT

r (a b )

z

The scalar triple product of three vectors

|a b |

a , b and c is defined as

MatheMatics tODaY | january 15

49

(a b ) c = | a || b || c |sin cos f

z

z

defined as [a b c ] , spelled as box product.

Scalar triple product geometrically represents

the volume of the parallelopiped whose

three coterminous edges are represented by

a , b and c i.e. V = [ a b c ]

In a scalar triple product, the position of dot and

cross can be interchanged

i.e. a (b c ) = (a b ) c

or [ a b c ] = [ b c a ] = [ c a b ]

a (b c ) = a (c b ) i.e. [ a b c ] = [ a c b ]

^

^

^

If a = a1 i + a2 j + a3 k ; b = b1 ^i + b2 ^j + b3 k^ and

a1 a2 a3

^

^

^

c = c1 i + c2 j + c3 k , then [a b c ] = b1 b2 b3

c1 c2 c3

In general,

if

+ b3n

a1 a2 a3

[a b c ] = b1 b2 b3 [l mn] ; where l , m, n

c1 c2 c3

are non-coplanar vectors .

If a , b, c are coplanar [ a b c ] = 0 .

z

z

Scalar product of three vectors, two of which are

REMARKS

If a , b , c are non-coplanar, then [a b c ] > 0 for

right handed system and [a b c ] < 0 for left handed

system.

z

z

z

z

50

^^ ^

[ i j k] = 1

[ K a b c ] = K[ a b c ]

[(a + b ) c d ] = [ a c d ] + [ b c d ]

The volume of the tetrahedron OABC with O

as origin and the position vectors of A, B and

1

V = [a b c ]

6

MatheMatics tODaY | january 15

if the position vectors of its angular vertices are

1

a , b , c and d are given by [ a + b + c + d ] .

4

Note : This is also the point of concurrency of

the lines joining the vertices to the centroids of

the opposite faces and is also called the centre

of the tetrahedron. In case, the tetrahedron is

regular it is equidistant from the vertices and

the four faces of the tetrahedron .

Remember that : [a b b c c a] = 0 and

[a + b b + c c + a] = 2 [a b c ]

Let a , b , c be any three vectors, then the expression

a (b c ) is a vector and is called a vector triple

product .

Geometrical Interpretation of a (b c )

Consider the expression a (b c ) which itself

is a vector, since it is a cross product of two

but b c is a vector perpendicular to the plane of

b and c ,therefore a (b c ) is a vector lies in the

scalars.

a ( b c ) = (a c ) b (a b ) c

z

z

(a b ) c = (a c ) b (b c ) a

z

(a b ) c a (b c )

LINEAR COMBINATIONS

Linearly independence and dependence of

vectors :

Given a finite set of vectors a , b , c , .... , then

z

a linear combination of a , b , c ,..... for any

x, y, z, ... R. We have the following results :

Fundamental theorem in plane : Let a , b

z

be non-zero, non-collinear vectors. Then any

uniquely as a linear combination of a , b

xa + yb = r .

Fundamental theorem in space : Let a , b , c be

non-zero, non-coplanar vectors in space. Then

linear combination of a , b , c i.e. there exist some

unique x,y,z R such that xa + yb + zc = r .

k1, k2, ....., kn are n scalars and if the linear

k1 = 0, k2 = 0, ..., kn = 0

linearly independent vectors.

they are said to be linearly dependent vectors.

said to be linearly dependent.

REMARKS

^

^

^

If a = 3 i + 2 j + 5 k , then a is expressed as a

z

^ ^ ^

^^ ^

a , i , j, k form a linearly dependent set of

vectors. In general, every set of four vectors is a

linearly dependent system.

^ ^ ^

i , j, k are linearly independent set of vectors.

^

^

^

For K1 i + K 2 j + K 3 k = 0 K1 = 0 = K2 = K3.

a is parallel to b i.e. a b = 0 linear

dependence of a and b . Conversely if a b 0

If three vectors a , b , c are linearly dependent,

then they are coplanar i.e. [a b c ] = 0. Conversely,

independent.

z

of nona , b , c and a , b , c are two sets

coplanar vectors such that a a = b b = c c = 1,

then the two systems are called reciprocal

system of vectors.

c a

a b

b c

Note : a = ; b = ; c =

[a b c ]

[a b c ]

[a b c ]

EQUATION OF A PLANE

z

The equation (r r0 ) n = 0 represents a plane

r n = d is the general equation of a plane.

z

Angle between the 2 planes is the angle between

2 normals drawn to the planes and the angle

between a line and a plane is the complement

of the angle between the line and the normal

to the plane.

APPLICATION OF VECTORS

z

displacement s is defined as W = F s .

position vector of the point P.

L

w

A

z

a , b , c , d respectively are coplanar if and

only if there exist scalars x, y, z, w not all zero

simultaneously such that xa +yb + zc + wd = 0

where, x + y + z + w = 0.

vector of

M = r F , where r is the position

normal to the plane OPN such that r , F and M

form a right handed system.

O

COPLANARITY OF VECTORS

z

MatheMatics tODaY | january 15

51

z

General

Distance (d) between two points (x1, y1, z1)

and (x2, y2, z2) is

(x1, y1, z1)

d.c.s

<l, m, n>

d = (x2 x1 )2 + ( y2 y1 )2 + (z2 z1 )2

z

Section formula

A

(x1, y1, z1) m1

m2 x1 + m1 x2

x=

m1 + m2

z=

P(x, y, z)

m2 (xB, y , z )

2 2 2

, y=

m2 y1 + m1 y2

m1 + m2

m2 z1 + m1 z2

m1 + m2

Direction cosines and direction ratios of a

line

(i) Direction cosine of a line has the same

meaning as d.c's of a vector.

(ii) Any three numbers a, b, c proportional

to the direction cosines are called the

direction ratios i.e.

l m n

1

=

= =

a b c

a 2 + b2 + c 2

same sign either +ve or ve should be

taken through out.

Note that d.r's of a line joining (x1, y1, z1)

and (x2, y2, z2) are proportional to x2 x1,

y2 y1 and z2 z1.

(iii) If is the angle between the two lines

whose d.c's are <l1, m1, n1> and <l2, m2, n2>,

then cos = l1l2 + m1m2 + n1n2

Hence if lines are perpendicular, then

l 1l 2 + m 1m 2 + n 1n 2 = 0

PLANE

General equation of degree one in x, y, z, i.e.

ax + by + cz + d = 0 represents a plane.

z

Equation of a plane passing t hroug h

(x1, y1, z1) is a(x x1) + b(y y1) + c(z z1) = 0

where a, b, c are the direction ratios of the

normal to the plane.

z

Equation of a plane if its intercepts on the

y z

x

coordinate axes are x1, y1, z1 is

+

+ = 1.

x1 y1 z1

z

l m n

If lines are parallel, then 1 = 1 = 1

l2 m2 n2

52

m1

m2

m3

n1

n2 = 0

n3

perpendicular from the origin on the plane is

p and d.c's of the perpendicular as <l, m, n> is

lx + my + nz = p

Parallel and perpendicular planes : Two

planes a1x + b1y + c1z + d1 = 0 and a2x + b2y +

c2z + d2 = 0 are

(i) perpendicular if a1a2 + b1b2 + c1c2 = 0

a b c

(ii) parallel if 1 = 1 = 1

a2 b2 c2

a b c d

(iii) coincident if 1 = 1 = 1 = 1

a2 b2 c2 d2

Angle between a plane and a line is the

complement of the angle between the normal to

the plane and the line. If line : r = a + b and

plane : r n = d , then

b n

line

cos(90 ) = sin =

| b || n |

l1

then l2

l3

and(x2, y2, z2) on a line with d.c's <l, m, n> are

l(x2 x1) + m(y2 y1) + n(z2 z1)

w h e re i s t h e a n g l e

plane

between the line and

normal to the plane.

Length of the perpendicular from a point

(x1, y1, z1) to a plane ax + by + cz + d = 0 is

p=

z

perpendicular to the line of intersection of the

given plane with any horizontal plane.

a 2 + b2 + c 2

cz + d1 = 0 and ax + by + cz + d2 = 0 is

d1 d2

Planes bisecting the angle between two planes

a1x + b1y + c1z + d1 = 0 and

a2x + b2y + c2z + d2 = 0 is given by

a1x + b1 y + c1z + d1

a12 + b12 + c12

a2 x + b2 y + c2 z + d2

a22 + b22 + c22

acute and the other obtuse angle between the

given planes.

Equation of a plane through the intersection of

two planes P1 and P2 is given by P1 + P2 = 0

z

Equation of a line through A(x1, y1, z1) and

having direction cosines <l, m, n> are

x x1 y y1 z z1

=

=

l

m

n

and the equation of a line through (x1, y1, z1) and

(x2, y2, z2) is

x x1

y y1

z z1

=

=

x2 x1 y2 y1 z2 z1

z

+ d1 = 0 and a2x + b2y + c2z + d2 = 0 together

represent the unsymmetrical form of the

straight line.

General equation of the plane containing the

x x1 y y1 z z1

line

is

=

=

l

m

n

A(x x1) + B(y y1) + C(z z1) = 0,

where Al + Bm + Cn = 0.

AB is the line of intersection of plane G and H

is the horizontal plane. Line of greatest slope

on a given plane, drawn through a given point

A

Q

a 2 + b2 + c 2

z

G-plane

H-plane

PrObleMs

sectiOn-i

Single Correct Answer Type

magnitudes 1, 5 and 3 respectively such that the

then tan is equal to

(a) 0

(b) 2/3

(c) 3/5

(d) 3/4

2. The perpendicular distance of a corner of a

unit cube from a diagonal not passing through it is

4

2

3

3

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

3

3

4

2

3. If p, q are two non-collinear vectors such that

(b c)( p q ) + (c a) p + (a b)q = 0 where a, b, c

are lengths of sides of a triangle, then the triangle is

(a) right angled

(b) obtuse angled

(c) equilateral

(d) right angled isosceles

^ ^ ^

^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^

4. Let a = i + j + k , b = i + j + k , c = i j + k

^ ^ ^

and d = i + j k . Then, the line of intersection

of planes one determined by a , b and other

determined by c , d is perpendicular to

(a) x-axis

(b) y-axis

(c) both x and y-axes (d) both y and z-axes

5. A parallelopiped is formed by planes drawn

parallel to coordinate axes through the points

A = (1, 2, 3) and B = (9, 8, 5). The volume of

parallelopiped is equal to ( in cubic units )

(a) 192

(b) 48

(c) 32

(d) 96

6. A line passing through A(1, 2, 3) and having

direction ratios (3, 4, 5) meets a plane x + 2y 3z = 5

at B, then length of AB is equal to

45 2

11

9

13

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

4

4

4

4 2

MatheMatics tODaY | january 15

53

7. Let a , b , c be three non-coplanar vectors and

20 ^ 30 ^ 10 ^

20 ^ ^ 10 ^

(d) i j + k

d be a non-zero vector, which is perpendicular to (c) 7 i + 5 j 7 k

7

7

7

a + b + c . Now, if d = (sin x )(a b ) + (cos y )(b c ) + 214.

a)

(c Angle

between

the

lines

3x

+

2y

+

z

5

=

0=

s y )(b c ) + 2(c a ) ,then minimum value of x2 + y2 is equal to x + y 2z 3 and x y + 4z = 0 = x + y 4z is equal to

p2

p2

5 p2

(c)

(d)

2

4

4

8. If the four faces of a tetrahedron are represented

^

^

^

^

by the equations r (a i + b j) = 0, r (b j + g k) = 0,

^

^

^

^

^

r ( g k + a i ) = 0 and r (a i + b j + g k ) = p, then

volume of the tetrahedron (in cubic units) is

(a) p2

(b)

(a)

p3

6abg

(b)

(c)

3 p3

6abg

4 p3

6abg

(1, 2, 3) and is at maximum distance from (1, 1, 1) is

(a) 2x y + 2z = 6

(b) 2x y + z = 3

(c) 2x + y + 2z = 10

(d) none of these

10. The distance of the point P(3, 8, 2) from the

x 1 y 3 z 2

line

measured parallel to the

=

=

2

4

3

plane 3x + 2y 2z + 15 = 0 is

(a) 7

(b) 2

(c) 9

(d) 5

11. The locus of a point which moves in such a way

x y z

that its distance from the line = =

is twice

1 1 1

the distance from the plane x + y + z = 0 is

(a) x2 + y2 + z2 5x 3y 3z = 0

(b) x2 + y2 + z2 + 5x + 3y + 3z = 0

(c) x2 + y2 z2 5xy 3yz 3zx = 0

(d) x2 + y2 z2 + 5xy + 3yz + 3zx = 0

12. A variable plane intercepts on the axes,

the sum of whose squares is 9. Then locus of the

foot of the perpendicular from origin to plane is

(x2 + y2 + z2)(x2 + y2 + z2)2 = K. Then K is

(a) 3

(b) 9

(c) 27

(d) 81

13. A triangle ABC has vertices A(1, 2, 2),

B(1, 4, 0) and C(4, 1, 1). The vector BM, where M is

the foot of the altitude drawn from B to AC is

10 ^ 30 ^ 10 ^

20 ^

^ 10 ^

(a) i 10 j + k (b) i j + k

7

7

7

3

3

54

51

(a) cos 1

5 29

1

(c) cos 1

3

29

(b) cos 1

5 51

p

2

15. Let A(0, 0, 1), B(0, 1, 0) and C(1, 1, 1) are the

points in a plane. Then the equation of the plane

perpendicular to the plane ABC and passing

through A and B is

(a) x + y + z + 1 = 0 (b) x y z 1 = 0

(c) x + y + z 1 = 0 (d) 2x + y + z 1 = 0

(d)

P(1, 2, 3) and is reflected on the XY plane. If the

reflected ray passes through the point Q(3, 2, 5),

then the equation of the reflected ray is

x 3 y 2 z 5

x 3 y 2 z 5

=

=

=

=

(b)

(a)

1

0

1

1

0

4

x 3 y 2 z 5

x 1 y 2 z 3

=

=

=

=

(d)

1

0

4

1

0

4

17. The intercepts made by a plane, P, on the coordinate axes are a, b, c. The co-ordinate axes are

rotated about the origin by an angle . The plane P

now makes the intercepts a, b, c on the (new) coordinate

axes. Which of the following statements is true?

(a) a + b + c = a + b + c

(b) abc = a b c

1

1

1

1

1

1

+

+

=

+

+

(c)

2

2

2

2

2

a

b

c

a

b

c 2

(d) bc + ca + ab = bc + c a + a b.

(c)

plane x + y + z = 2 measured parallel to the line

2x = y = z is

(a) 4 3 (b) 6

(c) 5 2 (d) 12

x 1 y +1 z 3

and the

=

=

3

2

1

plane P : x 2y z = 0; which of the following

statements is true?

(a) l lies in P

(b) l is parallel to P

(c) l is perpendicular to P (d) none of these

19. For the line l :

XY, YZ and ZX planes respectively and G is the

centroid of DPQR, then area of DAOG = (O refers

to origin)

(a) 0

(b) a2 + b2 + c2

3 2 2 2

2 2 2 2

(a + b + c )

(c)

(d)

(a + b + c )

4

3

21. The equation of plane through points (1, 0, 1),

x 1 1 y z 2

(3, 2, 2) and parallel to the line

=

=

1

2

3

is

(a) 4x y 2z 6 = 0 (b) 5x + y 2z 7 = 0

(c) 4x + y 2z 7 = 0 (d) 4x y + 2z + 1 = 0

sectiOn-iI

More than One Correct Answer Type

22. If a (a b ) + b(b c ) + g(c a ) = 0, then

(a) a , b, c are coplanar if all of a, b, g 0

(b) a , b, c are coplanar if any one of a, b, g 0

(c) a , b , c are non-coplanar for any a, b, g

(d) none of these

23. If a , b , c are three non-zero vectors, then which

of the following

statement(s) is/are true ?

(a) a (b c ), b (c a ), c (a b ) form a right

handed system.

(b) c , (a b ) c , a b f o r m a r i g h t h a n d e d

system.

(c) a b +b c+ c a < 0, if a + b + c = 0.

(a b ) (b c )

(d) = 1, if a + b + c = 0.

(b c ) (a c )

a b

(a b )

(a) b

(b) 2b

| b |2

| b |2

(a b )

(a b )

(c) | a | b 2

(d) | b | b 2

|b |

|b |

possible integer(s) in the range of

3|a + b |

+ 2 | a b | is

2

(a) 2

(b) 3

(c) 4

(d) 5

of intersection of the plane determined by the

^ ^

^ ^ ^ ^

^ ^ ^

b = i 2 j + 2 k is

(a) p/3

(b) p/4

(c) 2p/3 (d) 3p/4

27. If a is perpendicular

to

and p is a non-zero

b

scalar such that pr + (r b ) a = c , then

2

(a) [r a c ] = 0

(b) p r = pa (c a )b

2

2

(c) p r = pb (a b )c (d) p r = pc (b c )a

28. In a four-dimensional space where unit vectors

^ ^ ^

^

along axes are i , j, k and l and a1 , a2 , a3 , a4

are four non-zero vectors such that no vector can

be expressed as linear combination of others and

( 1)(a1 a2 ) + m(a2 + a3 ) + g(a3 + a4 2a2 ) + a3 + da4 = 0

then

2

(a) = 1

(b) m =

3

2

1

(c) =

(d) d =

3

3

29. The equation of a plane is 2x y 3z = 5 and

A(1, 1, 1), B(2, 1, 3), C(1, 2, 2) and D(3, 1, 2) are

four points. Which of the following line segments

are intersected by the plane?

(a) AD

(b) AB

(c) AC

(d) BC

30. The plane x 2y + 7z + 21 = 0

x +1 y 3 z + 2

=

=

.

3

2

1

(b) contains the point (0, 7, 1).

x y z

= .

(c) is perpendicular to the line =

1 2 7

(d) is parallel to the plane x 2y + 7z = 0.

(a) contains the line

diagonals of a cube, then

2

2

2

2

(a) cos a + cos b + cos g + cos d = 1

8

(b) sin2 a + sin2 b + sin2 g + sin2 d =

3

4

2

2

2

2

(c) cos a + cos b + cos g + cos d =

3

2

2

2

2

sin

a

+

sin

b

+

sin

g

d

3

+

sin

=

(d)

55

OA2 + BC 2 = OB2 + CA2 = OC 2 + AB2 , then

(a) OA ^ BC

(b) OB ^ AC

(c) OC ^ AB

(d) AB ^ AC

33. If A(3, 5, 3), B(2, 3, 1), C(1, 2, 3) and

D(3, 5, 7) are four points, then

(a) AB is parallel to CD .

(b) AB ^ CD.

(c) projection of AB on CD is zero.

(d) a, b, c, d are coplanar.

x y z

34. If the line = = intersects the line

1 2 3

1

2

3b x + 3(1 2a) y + z = 3 = {6a2 x + 3(1 2b) y + 2z },

2

then point (a, b, 1) lie on the plane

(a) 2x y + z = 4

(b) x + y z = 2

(c) x 2y = 0

(d) 2x y = 0

35. Let PM be the perpendicular from the point

angle f with the positive direction of x-axis, where

O is the origin and and f are acute angles, then

(a) tan =

5

3

14

1

(c) tanf = 2

14

sectiOn-iII

Comprehension Type

Paragraph for Question No. 36 to 38

^

^

^2

2

and p1 = max {| r + 2 i 3 j | }, p2 = min{| r + 2 i 3 j | }.

8

A tangent is drawn to curve y = 2 at a point D with

x

36. Locus of r is

(a) a circle with centre (4, 5)

(b) a circle with ends of diameter (0, 0) and (8, 10)

(c) a circle with radius 1

(d) an ellipse whose major axis is '40'.

56

(a) 8 2 (b) 8

(c) 4 2

38. DE OE is

(a) 3

(b) 3 2 (c) 4 2

(d) 18

(d) 18

Let L1 and L2 be the lines whose equations are

x 3 y 8 z 3

=

=

3

1

1

x +3 y +7 z 6

=

=

3

2

4

respectively. A and B are two points on L1 and L2

respectively such that AB is perpendicular to both

the lines L1 and L2.

and

L2 is

30

(a)

(b) 6 10

(c) 3 30

(d) 9 10

(a) (1, 8, 2)

(b) (3, 8, 3)

(c) (3, 8, 3)

(d) none of these

41. Equation of line of shortest distance is

(a)

x 3 y 8 z 3

=

=

(b)

2

5

1

(c)

x 2 y 1 2z 9

(d) none of these

=

=

2

10

1

x+3 y + 7 z + 6

=

=

2

5

1

O, A, B are non-collinear points. OA = a and OB = b

C is a point such that OC = 10a + 2b . Let D1 be

the area of o OACB and D2 be the area of the

parallelogram whose adjacent sides are represented

by a and b .

42. An expression for D1 is

(a) 12 | a b |

(b) 3| a b |

(c) 10 | a b |

(d) 6 | a b |

43. An expression for D2 is

1

|a b |

(a) | a b |

(b)

2

(c) 2 | a b |

(d) 4 | a b |

44.

D1

equals

D2

(a) 3

(b) 5

(c) 6

(d) 12

53. Projection of AB on BC is

8 3

8 3

(a)

(c) 48

(b)

(d) 48

system, if a b = c , b c = a , c a = b .

11

11

45. If x = a + b c , y = a + b 2c , z = a + 2b c ,

Paragraph for Question No. 54 to 56

then a unit vector normal to the vector x + y and y +Consider

z

a plane x + y z = 1 and the point

x + y and y + z is

A(1,

2,

3).

A line L has the equation x = 1 + 3r,

(a) a

(b) b

y = 2 r and z = 3 + 4r.

(c) c

(d) none of these

54. The coordinate of a point B on line L such that

AB is parallel to the plane is

xa

b

+

2

c

46. Vectors 2a 3b + 4c , a + 2b c and

(a)

(10, 1, 15)

(b) (5, 4, 5)

are coplanar, then x =

(c) (4, 1, 7)

(d) (8, 5, 9)

(a) 8/5

(b) 5/8

(c) 0

(d) none of these

55. The equation of the plane containing the line L

and the point A has the equation

47. Let x = a + b , y = 2a b , then the point of

(a)

(b) x + 3y 7 = 0

intersection of straight lines r x = y x and r y = x yx 3y + 5 = 0

(c) 3x y 1 = 0

(d) 3x + y 5 = 0

y x and r y = x y is

(a) 2b

(b) 3b

(c) 3a

(d) none of these

which are at a distance of 4 / 3 from the plane is

(a) 4 26

(b) 20

48. a (b c ) + b (c a ) + c (a b ) is equal to

(a) 1

(c) 0

(b) 3

(d) none of these

Let a plane P1 passes through the point (1, 2, 3) and

is parallel to the plane P2 given by 2x 2y + z = 0.

49. The distance of the point (1, 2, 0) from the

plane P1 is

(a) 2 units

(b) 3 units

(c) 5 units

(d) 7 units

50. The coordinate of the foot of perpendicular

drawn from point (1, 2, 3) to the plane P2 is

(a) (0, 0, 0)

(b) (1, 0, 2)

(c) (1, 0, 2)

(d) (2, 0, 4)

51. The distance between parallel planes P1 and P2

is

(a) 2 units (b) 3 units (c) 5 units (d) 7 units

Paragraph for Question No. 52 and 53

Let A(2, 3, 5), B(1, 3, 2), C(, 5, m) are the vertices of

a triangle and its median through A i.e, AD is equally

inclined to the coordinate axes.

52. The value of 2 m is equal to

(a) 13

(b) 4

(c) 3

(d) none of these

(c) 10 13

(d) 30

sectiOn-iV

^

^

^

57. Given two vectors a = i + 2 j + 2 k

^ ^

^

b = 2 i + j + 2 k .

and

Column I

Column II

(A) A vector coplanar (p) 3 ^i + 3 ^j + 4 k^

with a and b is

(B)

perpendicular to

both a and b is

2 i 2 j + 3k

equally inclined to

a and b is

^ ^

(D) A v e c t o r w h i c h (s)

forms a triangle with

a and b is

^ ^

i+j

i j + 5k

57

Column I

Column II

then

| a b |2 + | b c |2 + | c a |2

does not exceed

(B) The perpendicular distance (q) 9

from the point (2, 4, 1) to the

x +5 y +3 z 6

=

=

line

is

1

4

9

(C) If a = 2 i^ + 2 ^j + k^,

(r) 7

^

^

^

b = x i + y j + z k , a b = 14

^ ^

^

a b = 3 i + j 8 k , then

x+y+z=

(s) 8

Column I

Column II

(A) P is a point on the segment of the (p) 19

line joining (3, 3, 5) and (4, 6, 7)

dividing it in the ratio k : 1 and

also projection OP (O, origin) on

32 42 55

coordinate axes are

, , ,

9 9 9

then value of k is

(B) A(3, 4, 6), B(0, 4, 3), C(a, 6, b) (q) 35

are the vertices of a triangle ABC

such that the median through A is

equally inclined to the coordinate

axes, the a + b is

(C)

x + 1 y 12 z 7 (r) 15

=

=

1

5

2

intersects the curve yz = k, x = 0,

then the value of k is

The line

(s) 12

(D) Given

| p | = 2 2 , | q | = 3. Angle

a = p 3q , b = 5 p + 2q form the

adjacent sides of a parallelogram

then the length of a diagonal is

(t) 5/4

58

sectiOn-V

Integer Answer Type

60. Let the lines

^

^

^

^

^

^

= (7 i + 6 j + 2 k) + s(3 i + 2 j + 4 k) and

^

^

^

^ ^

^

= (5 i + 3 j + 4 k) + t (2 i + j + 3 k)

be intersected by a line parallel to the vector

^

^ ^

2 i 2 j k at P, Q respectively. Then | PQ | =

61. If a b = c , b c = a , c a = b and if vectors

then the volume of tetrahedron formed

by vectors

and 2a 3b + 4c is

3a 2b + 2c , a 2c

62. The position vectors of the vertices A, B, C

^ ^ ^ ^

^

of a tetrahedron ABCD are i + j + k , i and 3 i

respectively and the altitude from the vertex D to

the opposite face ABC meets the face at E. If the

length of the edge AD is 4 and the volume of the

tetrahedron is

2 2

,then the length of DE is

3

63. If a , b are vectors perpendicular to each other

and | a | = 2, | b | = 3, c a = b , then the least value

of 2 | c a | is

64. The square of the distance between the

^

^

^

^

^ ^

line = 2 i 2 j + 3 k + ( i + 5 j + k ) and the plane

^ ^

^

( i j + 4 k ) = 10 , is

65. If lx + 13y + mz + n = 0 is the plane through

the intersection of the planes 2x + 3y z + 1 = 0 and

x + y 2z + 3 = 0 and is perpendicular to the plane

3x y 2z = 4 then, l + m + n =

SOLUTIONS

1. (d) : a (a b ) = c | a | | a b | = | c |

3

3

1(1 5)sin = 3 sin = gives tan =

5

4

2. (b) : From the figure, the vector equation of OP

^ ^ ^

is r = i + j + k .

\ OM = projection of OC on OP

^ ^ ^i + ^j + k^

1

=

= OC OP = k

3

3

1 2

Now CM = OC OM = 1 =

3 3

2

\ CM =

3

2

p

x = (4n 1) , y = (2n 1)p, n Z

2

p

2

2

, y = p and least

For least value of x + y , x =

2

2

5p

value is

.

4

A

x

3. (c) : p q, p, q are non-coplanar vectors.

b c = 0, c a = 0, a b = 0

a = b = c D is equilateral.

4. (d) : (a b ) (c d ) = [a b d ]c [a b c ]d

= 4c 4 d

= 8i ^ to both y and z-axes.

5. (d) : Translating the axes through A(1, 2, 3)

A changes to (0, 0, 0), B changes to (8, 6, 2)

\ Coterminous edges are of lengths 8, 6, 2

\ Volume of parallelopiped = 862 = 96 cu.units

6. (d) : The line through A(1, 2, 3), having drs

Any points on it = (1 + 3t, 2 + 4t, 3 + 5t), t being

scalar.

If (1 + 3t, 2 + 4t, 3 + 5t) lies on the plane, then

1 + 3t + 2(2 + 4t) 3(3 + 5t) = 5

9

4t = 9 t =

4

23 28 33

,

,

=B

So the point is

4

4

4

2

2

2

23 28 33

AB = 1 + + 2 + + 3 +

4

4

4

1

45 2

272 + 362 + 452 =

4

4

Also a b , b c , c a are non-coplanar. Given,

d = sin x(a b ) + cosy(b c ) + 2(c a ) . Taking dot

=

ax + by = 0

... (1)

by + gz = 0

... (2)

gz + ax = 0

... (3)

ax + by + gz = p

... (4)

p

(4) cuts (1) at 0, 0, ; (4) cuts (2) at , 0, 0

g

p

(4) cuts (3) at 0, , 0

b

(1), (2), (3) are coordinate planes intersecting at

(0, 0, 0). So, lengths of the coterminous edges are

p p p

, , .

a b g

p3

So volume of tetrahedron is

cu.units.

6abg

9. (c) : Required plane is passing through (1, 2, 3)

and normal to the line joining (1, 2, 3) and (1, 1, 1)

Hence 2(x 1) + 1(y 2) + 2(z 3) = 0

i.e. 2x + y + 2z = 10

10. (a) : Q = (2r + 1, 4r + 3, 3r + 2)

drs of PQ = (2r 2, 4r 5, 3r)

drs of normal to plane = (3, 2, 2)

0

5=

P(3, 8, 2)

+1

2z

+2

3x

x 1= y 3 = z 2

2

4

3

3(2r 2) + 2(4r 5) 2(3r) = 0 r = 2

\ Q = (5, 11, 8) = \ Required distance PQ = 7

11. (d) : Let Q = (r, r, r) lie on given line such that

x y z

PQ is perpendicular to = =

1 1 1

MatheMatics tODaY | january 15

59

\ (a r ) 1 + (b r ) 1 + ( g + r )(1) = 0

a +b g

3

2

\ PQ 2 = {a2 + b2 + g 2 ab + bg + ga}

3

but PQ = 2 {^ distance from P(a, b, g) to plane

x + y + z = 0}

r=

a + b + g

2 2

2

2

(a + b + g ab + bg + ga) = 4

3

3

\ a2 + b2 + g 2 + 5ab + 3bg + 3 ga = 0

12. (b) : Equation of given plane is

Given, a2 + b2 + c2 = 9

x y z

+ + =1

a b c

1 1 1

dr's of normal to the plane is , ,

a b c

Let P be the foot of the perpendicular then

dr's of OP = (x1, y1, z1)

OP is parallel to normal

k

k

k

x1

y

z

= 1 = 1 = k a = ,b = ,c =

x1

y1

z1

1/ a 1/ b 1/ c

1

1

1

Since a2 + b2 + c 2 = 9 k 2 2 + 2 + 2 = 9 ... (i)

x1 y1 z1

k

k

k

in

By substituting a = , b = , c =

x1

y1

z1

x1 y1 z1

+ + = 1 , we get x12 + y12 + z12 = k

a b c

13. (d) : Suppose M divides AC in the ratio : 1.

Then

4 + 1 2 + 2

M=

,

,

+ 1 + 1 + 1

5 3 6 + 2

Hence BM =

,

,

+ 1 + 1 + 1

and AC = (5, 3, 1) . Now BM ^ AC

25 9 18 2 = 0

4

15 = 20 =

3

20 30 10

\ BM =

,

,

7

7 7

60

i j k

^

^

^

3 2 1 = i (5) j(7) + k(1) = (5, 7, 1)

1 1 2

Direction ratios of line II is

^

i j

k

^

^

^

1 1 4 = i (0) j(8) + k(2) = (0, 8, 2)

1 1 4

Let be angle between the lines, then

(5 0) + (7 8) + (1 2)

cos =

25 + 49 + 1 0 + 64 + 4

58

1 29

= cos 1

= cos

5 51

(5 3 )(2 17 )

15. (d) : If P is a variable point on the required

plane , t hen t he e quat ion of t he plane is

[ AP AB AB AC] = 0

16. (c) : Here P and Q lie on the same side of XY

plane.

Image of P(1, 2, 3) on the XY plane is P(1, 2, 3)

x 3 y 2 z 5

Reflected ray P Q is

=

=

2

0

8

x 3 y 2 z 5

=

=

1

0

4

17. (c) : Observe that the distance from the origin

to the plane is invariant, since the origin and the

plane are fixed.

18. (b) : Required distance

ax1 + by1 + cz1 + d

=

a cos a + b cos b + c cos g

=

3+ 4+52

=6

1 2 2

+ +

3 3 3

1 2 2

Using (cos a, cos b, cos g ) = , ,

3 3 3

19. (a) : Point (1, 1, 3) lies on plane,

x 2y z = 0 . So l lines in P.

20. (a) : P(a, b, c); Q(a, b, c) ; R(a, b, c)

a b c

G= , ,

3 3 3

\ OAG are collinear.

a(a b ) + b(b c ) + g(c a ) = 0

i.e. a[a b c ] + 0 + 0 = 0 a[a b c ] = 0

g[a b c ] = 0, b[a b c ] = 0

Now, even if one of a, b, g 0, then we have

[a b c ] = 0

a , b , c are coplanar.

23. (b, c, d) :

(a) a (b c ) + b (c a ) + c (a b ) = 0

vectors are coplanar, so do not form right handed

system.

(b) (a b ) c , a b , c in that order form right

handed system.

c , (a b ) c , a b also form right handed

system as they are in same cyclic order.

(c) a + b + c = 0 (a + b + c )2 = 0

a 2 + b 2 + c 2 = 2(a b + b c + c a )

Hence a b + b c + c a < 0

(d) a + b + c = 0 a b = b c = c a

Using this we get result.

24. (a,b,c,d)

: Since a,b, a b are non - coplanar,

r = xa + yb + z (a b )

r b = a x(a b ) + z (a b ) b = a

x(a b ) + z {(b a )b (b b )a} = a

x(a b ) a(1+ | b |2 z ) = 0

1

x = 0, z =

| b |2

| b |2

We have, | a | = | b | = 1

asi

ng

Y

(0, 5)

In

cre

be a(x 1)+ b(y 0) + c(z + 1) passing through

(3, 2, 2) gives 2a + 2b + 3c = 0 and parallel to given

a b

c

=

=

line gives a 2b + 3c = 0

4 1 2

\ Equation of plane will be 4x y 2z 6 = 0

2tan1 4 , 5

3

De

cr

ea

sin (, 4)

g

(0, 3)

=0

= 2tan1 43 =

Now, | a + b | = 2 cos and |a b | = 2 sin

2

2

3

2

2

2

\

2

2

3

sin + 2 cos

2

2

2

4

Now, F() = 0 tan =

2 3

Clearly, F(0) = 3

4

3

4

F = 2 tan 1 = 3 + 4

5

3

5

\ F () =

9 16 25

= + = =5

5 5

5

F( = p) = 4. \ Range = [3, 5]

Hence possible integer(s) in the range of F() in

[0, p] are 3. viz. 3, 4 and 5.

^ ^ ^ ^

^

^ ^

containing i and i + j then r i , i , i + j will be

coplanar i.e. z = 0

^

x+yz=0

^

^

^

Let a = a1 i + a2 j + a3 k

a3 = 0, a1 + a2 = 0

^ ^

1

\ a = a1 ( i j) cos =

2

27. (a, d) : Let r = xa + yb + z (a b ).

r b = 0 + y | b |2 ; a(r b ) = y(b )2 a

61

31. (b, c) : d.c's of diagonals are

2

1 y | b |2

c pr = y | b | a r = c

a

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

p

p

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

\ [r a c ] = 0. Now r b = c b

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

p

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

2 b c

1 1

\ r = c (b c )a

\ y |b | =

Let <l, m, n>be the d.c's of line which makes an

p

p

p2

angle a, b, g, d with

the diagonals, then

28. (a, b, d) : ( 1)(a1 a2 ) + m(a2 + a3 ) + g(a3 + a4 2a2 ) + a3 + da4 = 0

l +m+n

l + m + n

cos a =

, cos b =

,

( 1)(a1 a2 ) + m(a2 + a3 ) + g(a3 + a4 2a2 ) + a3 + da4 = 0

3

3

1

2

3

4

l m+n

l +mn

cos

g=

, cos d =

( 1)a1 + (1 + m 2 g )a2 + (m + g + 1)a3 + ( g + d)a4 = 0

3

3

Since a1 , a2 , a3 , a4 are linearly independent.

4

\ cos2 a + cos2 b + cos2 g + cos2 d =

\ 1 = 0, 1 + m 2g = 0, m + g + 1 = 0,

3

g+d=0

8

sin2 a + sin2 b + sin2 g + sin2 d =

i.e. = 1, m = 2g, m + g + 1 = 0, g + d = 0

3

2

1

1

i.e. = 1, m = , g = , d =

32. (a, b, c) : Let OA = a , OB = b , OC = c , then

3

3

3

a + (b c ) (b c ) = b b + (c a ) (c a )

a

29. (b, c) : For A(1, 1, 1),

2x y 3z 5 = 2 1 3 5 < 0

2b c = 2c a (a b ) c = 0

For B(2, 1, 3), 2x y 3z 5 = 4 1 + 9 5 > 0

AB ^ OC

or

Hence

BA

OC

=

0.

For C(1, 2, 2), 2x y 3z 5 = 2 + 2 + 6 5 > 0

For D(3, 1, 2), 2x y 3z 5 = 6 1 6 5 < 0 Similarly BC ^ OA and CA ^ OB

\ A, D are on one side of the plane and B, C are on 33. (b, c) : d.r's of AB = (1, 2, 2)

the other side.

d.r's of CD = (2, 3, 4). \ AB ^ CD

\ The line segments AB, AC, BD, CD intersect the

2

3

4

d.c's of CD =

plane.

,

,

29 29 29

30. (a, b, c, d) : C onditions for the plane

ax + by + cz + d = 0 to cont ain t he line \ Projection of AB on CD is zero.

34. (a, b, c) : Intersection of line with both the

x a y b z g

are aa + bb + cg + d = 0

=

=

planes are same

l

m

n

6

3

and al + bm + cn = 0.

=

3b2 + 6(1 2a) + 3 6a2 + 6(1 2b) + 6

Here the condition is satisfied for option (a).

For option (c), normal to plane and given line

3(b 1)2 + 3(a 2)2 = 0 a = 2, b = 1 .

have same d.rs.

z

35. (a, b, c) :

\ The line is ^ to the given plane.

P(x, y, z)

For option (b), clearly the point satisfies the given

r

plane.

O 90

y

(1, 2, 7) which are same as the d.rs of normal to

\ The plane given in option (d) is parallel to given

x

M

plane.

62

\ Equation of line AB passing through (3, 8, 3) is

x 3 y 8 z 3

=

=

2

5

1

42. (d) :

OM = rcos(90 ) = r sin

x = rsin cosf, y = rsin sinf, z = rcos

1 = rsin cosf, 2 = rsin sinf, 3 = rcos

12 + 22 + 32 = r 2 r = 14

\ sin cos f =

, sin sin f =

, cos =

C(c)

14

14

14

(Neglecting negative sign as and f are acute).

sin sin f 2

\

= tan f = 2 .

sin cos f 1

5

.

3

^ ^

We have, r .(10 j 8 i r ) = 40

x2 + y2 + 8x 10y + 40 = 0

Centre (4, 5), radius = 16 + 25 40 = 1

Also, tan =

p1 = (2 2 + 1)2 , p2 = (2 2 1)2 p1 + p2 = 18

38. (a) : Equation of tangent at D(2, 2) to y = 8/x2

is 2x + y = 6

^

\ E = (3, 0) OE = 3 i ( point E lies on X -axis)

^

^ ^

^

OD = 2 i + 2 j; DE = i 2 j ; DE OE = 3.

^

^

b = 3 ^i ^j + k , d = 3 ^i + 2 ^j + 4 k

Shortest distance between L1, L2 is

270

270

(c a ) (b d )

=

= 270

=

270

b d

^ ^

^

6 i 15 j + 3k

40. (b) : Notice that line joining the points (3, 8, 3)

and (3, 7, 6) is line with d.r's (6, 15, 3) & is

perpendicular to both L1 & L2.

So take A = (3, 8, 3), B = (3, 7, 6)

41. (a) : Line of shortest distance is line joining AB

only in this case (given in passage)

B(b )

A(a )

1

| BA OC |

2

= (a b ) (10a + 2b ) = 6 | a b |

2

43. (a) : D 2 = | a b |

D1 6 | a b |

44. (c) :

= =6

D2 | a b |

45. (d) : x + y = 2b 3c and y + z = 2a + 3b 3c

a b c

\ (x + y ) ( y + z ) = 0 2 3 = 3a + 6b + 4c

2 3 3

3a + 6b + 4c

\ Required unit vector =

61

2 3 4

46. (a) : 1 2 1 = 0

x 1 2

8

2(4 1) + 3(2 + x ) + 4(1 2 x ) = 0 x =

5

47. (c) :

r x = y x (r y ) x = 0 r = y + x

r y = x y (r x ) y = 0 r = x + my

y + x = x + my

(2a b ) + (a + b ) = (a + b ) + m(2a b )

D1 =

2 + = 1 + 2m, 1 + = 1 m m = 1, = 1

48. (b) :a b = c c (a b ) = c c = 1 [a b c ] = 1

\ a (b c ) + b (c a ) + c (a b ) = 3

MatheMatics tODaY | january 15

63

49. (c)

50. (b)

51. (b)

The equation of the plane P1 is 2x 2y + z =

Since, it passes through (1, 2, 3) \ = 9

So, P1 is 2x 2y + z = 9

Its distance from point (1, 2, 0) is

2 (1) 2 (2) + 0 9

= 5 units

3

Now, the line perpendicular to plane P2 and passing

through (1, 2, 3) is given by

x 1 y + 2 z 3

=

=

2

2

1

Any point on this line can be taken as

(2t + 1, 2t 2, t + 3)

If it lies on plane P2 then, we have

2(2t + 1) 2(2t 2) + t + 3 = 0

9t + 9 = 0 t = 1

So, the coordinate of the foot of perpendicular drawn

from point (1, 2, 3) to the plane P2 is (1, 0, 2).

Again, the distance between the parallel planes

2x 2y + z 9 = 0 and 2x 2y + z = 0 is given by

90

9

= = 3 units

22 + (2)2 + 1 3

1 m + 2

, 4,

52. (b) : Mid point of BC, D =

2

2

5 m8

d.r's of AD =

, 1,

2

2

Since AD is equally inclined to axes

= 7, m = 10 2 m = 4

53. (b) : A(2, 3, 5), B(1, 3, 2) C(7, 5, 10)

^

^

^

^

^

\ AB = 3 i 3 k , BC = 8 i + 2 j + 8 k

AB BC 8 3

Projection of AB on BC = =

11

BC

x 1 y 2 z 3

=

=

=r

3

1

4

Any point say B (3r + 1 , 2 r, 3 + 4r) (on the line L)

AB = (3r , r , 4r + 6)

Since AB is parallel to x + y z = 1.

3r r 4r 6 = 0 r = 3

\ B = (8, 5, 9)

55. (b) : The equation of plane containing the line

L is a(x 1) + b(y 2) + c(z 3) = 0....(i), where

3a b + 4c = 0

54. (d) : The given line is

64

Hence c = 0 and 3a = b

\ The equation of the plane is x 1 + 3(y 2) = 0,

or x + 3y 7 = 0

56. (a) : The distance of point

(1 + 3r, 2 r, 3 + 4r) from the plane is

| 1 + 3r + 2 r 3 4r | | 2r | 4

=

=

1+1+1

3

3

r=2

Hence, the points are A(7, 0, 11) and B(5, 4, 5)

AB = 416 = 4 26

57. (A r; B q; C s; D p)

^ ^

(A) Vector i + j is coplanar with a and b .

^

i j k

^

^

^

(B) a b = 1 2 2 = 2 i 2 j + 3 k

2 1 2

^ ^ ^

have a c = b c , which is true for c = i j + 5 k

Then

^

^

^

c = a + b = 3 i + 3 j + 4 k .

58.

(A q; B r; C s)

2

(A) (a + b + c ) 0 2(a b + b c + c a ) 3

2 2 2

a b + b c + c a 2(1 + 1 + 1) + 3 = 9

(B) P = (5, 3, 6), Q = (2, 4, 1), PQ = 147 and

Projection of PQ = 98 \ QM = 147 98 = 7

^

^

^

(C) a (a b ) = 17 i + 19 j 4 k

^

^

^

(a b )a (a a )b = 17 i + 19 j 4 k

^

^

^

14a 9b = 17 i + 19 j 4 k

^

^

b = 5 ^i + j + 2 k x + y + z = 8

59.

(A t; B p; C q; D r)

32

42

55 ^

(A) OP = ^i + ^j + k

9

9

9

4k + 3 32 6k + 3 42 7k + 5 55

\

= ,

= ,

=

k +1

9 k +1 9 k +1 9

65

61. (2) : | a | = | b | = | c | = 1; [a b c ] = 1

5

All these gives k =

4

a b+3

(B) Mid point D of BC = , 5,

2

2

1

Volume of the tetrahedron = [a b c ]

6

3 2 2

1

= 1 0 2 = 2

6

2 3 4

a

b + 3

3 2 , 1, 6 2

1

Area of DABC = 2 2 = 2

2

1

2 2

Volume = 2 DE =

DE = 2

3

3

63. (3) : c a = b c a = b c a sin = 3,

3

2 2 2

c=

c a = c + a 2c a

2sin

2

= c + 4 2 c a cos

\ 3

a

b +3

= 1, 6

= 1

2

2

a = 8, b = 11 a + b = 19

(C) Solve with x = 0

y 12

z 7

= 1 z = 5

= 1 y = 7 ,

2

5

yz = k k = 35

(D) One diagonal is given by a + b = 6 p q

2 2

p

(Length)2 = 36 p + q 12. p q cos = 225

4

Length = 225 = 15

\ Other diagonal = 4 p + 5q

(Length)2 = (16 8) + (25 9) + 40 2 2 3

Length = 593

1

2

= 593

Q = (5 + 2t, 3 + t, 4 + 3t)

^

PQ is parallel to r = (2 ^i 2 ^j k)

^

i.e. PQ = (2 ^i 2 ^j k)

\ 2 + 2t + 3s = 2; 3 + t 2s = 2;

2 + 3t 4s =

^ ^

^

Solving, we get = 3, \ PQ = 3 | 2 i 2 j k |= 9

66

9

2

4 sin

+ 4 2

3

2 cos

2 sin

9 3

9

= 4 + cosec2 6 cot = + cot 2

4 2

4

2 9

3

c a c a

4

2

2 c a 3 \ Min. of 2 c a = 3

^

^

( i^ + 5 ^j + k ) i^ ^j + 4 k = 1 5 + 4 = 0

(2, 2, 3) to the plane x y + 4z = 10

2 + 2 + 12 10

=

= 2

1 + 1 + 16

\ Square of the distance = 2

65 (2) : The given plane will be of the form

2x + 3y z + 1 + (x + y 2z + 3) = 0. If this is

perpendicular to 3x y 2z 4 = 0, then

3( + 2) + (1) (3 + ) + (2) (1 2) = 0

6 + 5 = 0 = 5/6

\ The plane is 7x + 13y + 4z 9 = 0

nn

linear programming

OptimiSatiOn prOblem

A problem in which a linear function is to be

optimised (maximise or minimise) satisfying certain

linear inequalities is called optimisation problem.

z

It is a method of determining a particular program

or plane of action to optimise a linear function of two

variables (say x and y) known as objective function

subject to the conditions that the variables are

non-negative and satisfy a set of linear inequalities

(called linear constraints).

fOrmatiOn Of linear prOgramming

prOblem (l.p.p.)

Let x1, x2, x3, ...., xn be n variables. Let the objective

function to be optimised (i.e., minimised or

maximised) is given by Z.

(i) Z = c1x1 + c2x2 + ... + cnxn, where ci,s(i = 1, 2, ..., n)

are constants.

(ii) Let there be mn constants and let bi be a set of

constants such that

a11 x1 + a12 x2 + ..... + a1n xn (, = or )b1

a21 x1 + a22 x2 + ..... + a2n xn (, = or )b2

.....

.....

.....

.....

.....

.....

aml x1 +am2 x2 + ..... + amn xn (, = or )bm

(iii) Finally, let x1 0, x2 0, ..., xn 0, are called

non-negative constraints.

The problem of determining the values of

x1, x2, ....., xn which makes Z, a minimum or maximum

and which satisfies (ii) and (iii) is called the general

linear programming problem.

is to be optimised (maximised or minimised)

is called linear objective function.

For example, linear function Z = ax + by, where

a and b are constants is a linear objective

function.

decision variables : The variables that enter

into the problem are called decision variables.

In the objective function Z = ax + by, x and y

are called decision variables.

linear constraints : The linear inequations

(inequalities) or restrictions on the decision

variables of a linear programming problem is

called linear constraints. The conditions x 0,

y 0 are called non-negative constraints.

Convex region : A region or a set of points is

said to be convex if the line joining any two of

its points lies completely in the region.

feasible region : The common region

determined by all the constraints including

non-negative constraints of a L.P.P. is called

the feasible region or solution region. Feasible

region is always a convex set. Feasible region

may be bounded or unbounded.

bounded and unbounded feasible regions :

A feasible region of a system of linear

inequations is said to be bounded if it can be

enclosed within a circle. But if the feasible

region extends indefinitely in any direction,

then the feasible region is called unbounded.

mathematics today

| january 15 67

in the region which is the intersection of two

boundary lines are called corner points.

z

feasible solutions : Points within and on

the boundary of the feasible region of a L.P.P.

represent feasible solutions.

z

infeasible solutions : Any point outside the

feasible region is called infeasible solution.

z

Optimal (feasible) solution : Any point in

the feasible region that gives the optimal value

(maximum or minimum) of the objective

function is called optimal solution.

fundamental theOremS

z

for a L.P.P. and let Z = ax + by be the objective

function. When Z has an optimal value

(maximum or minimum), where the variables

x and y are subject to constraints described

by linear inequalities, this optimal value must

occur at a corner point (vertex) of the feasible

region.

Z = ax + by be the objective function.

(i) If R is bounded, then the objective function

Z has both a maximum and a minimum

value on R and each of these occurs at a

corner point of R.

(ii) If the feasible region R is unbounded, then

a maximum or a minimum value of the

objective function may or may not exist.

However, if it exists, it must occur at a

corner point of R.

graphiCal methOdS fOr SOlving l.p.p.

method comprises of the following steps :

1. Find the feasible region of the L.P.P. and

determine its corner points (vertices).

2. Evaluate the objective function Z = ax + by at

each corner point. Let M and m respectively

be the largest and smallest values at these

points.

3. If the feasible region is bounded, M

and m respectively are the maximum

and minimum values of the objective

function.

68 mathematics today |

january 15

(i) M is the maximum value of the objective

function, if the open half plane determined

by ax + by > M has no point in common

with the feasible region. Otherwise, the

objective function has no maximum value.

(ii) m is the minimum value of the objective

function, if the open half plane determined

by ax + by < m has no point in common

with the feasible region. Otherwise, the

objective function has no minimum value.

z

If two corner points of the feasible region

are both optimal solutions of the same type,

i.e., both produce the same maximum or

minimum, then any point on the line segment

joining these two points is also an optimal

solution of the same type.

z

iso-profit or iso-Cost method : This is

an alternate and more general method for

finding the optimal solution of a L.P.P. In this

method, we first give any suitable constant

value, say Z1 to the objective function and

draw the corresponding line of the objective

function. This line is called iso-profit or

iso-cost line. Since every point on this line will

yield the same profit or cost Z. After that we

draw another line by giving another value say

Z2 to the objective function. The two lines are

parallel to each other. If the objective function

is of maximisation type, then we move the line

corresponding to Z1 to the line corresponding

to Z2 farthest from the origin and has atleast

one point common to the feasible region.

If the objective function is of minimisation

type, then we move the line corresponding to

Z1 to the line corresponding to Z2, nearest to

the origin and has atleast one point common

to the feasible region. The optimal solution

will be obtained by the common point and the

value of the objective function at these points

gives the optimal solution.

different typeS Of linear prOgramming

prOblemS

z

different kinds of nutrients/constituents which

are to be included in a diet are determined so

that it contains a certain minimum amount of

each nutrient/constituents.

problems, a transportation schedule, so as

to find the cheapest way of transporting

manufacturing problems (optimal product

a product from plants/factories situated

line problems) : In such type of problems, the

at different locations to different markets

number of units of different products which is to

is to be determined so as to minimise the

be produced and sold by a firm when each product

cost of transportation subject to limitations

requires a fixed manpower, machine hour, labour

(constraints) of demand of each market and

hour per unit of product, warehouse space per

supply from each plant or factory.

unit of the output etc., are to be determined so as

proBaBility

COnditiOnal prObability

Let A and B be two events associated with a random

experiment. Then the probability of occurrence of

A under the condition that B has already occurred

and P(B) 0 is called conditional probability and it

is denoted by P(A|B).

P(A|B) = Probability of occurrence of A given

that B has already occurred.

P(B|A) = Probability of occurrence of B given

that A has already occurred.

P ( A | B) =

P (B | A) =

P ( A and B)

P ( B)

P ( A and B)

P ( A)

P ( A B)

; P ( B) 0

P ( B)

P ( A B)

; P ( A) 0

P ( A)

z

Let E and F be events of a sample space S of an

experiment, then

P(S|F) = P(F|F) = 1

If A and B are any two events of a sample space

z

S and F is an event of S such that P(F) 0,

then

P((A B)|F) = P(A|F) + P(B|F) P((A B)|F)

In particular, if A and B are disjoint events,

then P((A B)|F) = P(A|F) + P(B|F)

P(E|F) = 1 P(E|F)

z

multipliCatiOn theOrem On prObability

If A and B are two events associated with a random

experiment, then

P(A B) = P(A) P(B|A) ; P(A) 0

P(A B) = P(B) P(A|B) ; P(B) 0

If A1, A2, A3, ...., An are n events related to a

random experiment, then

P(A3|(A1 A2)) .... P(An|(A1 A2 ... An 1)),

where P(An|(A1 A2 ..... An1)) represents

the conditional probability of the event An,

given that the events A1, A2, ....., An1 have

happened.

independent eventS

Two events are said to be independent events iff

the probability of occurrence or non-occurrence

of one does not affect the probability of occurrence

or non-occurrence of the other. A and B are two

independent events if and only if

(i) P(A|B) = P(A)

(ii) P(B|A) = P(B)

(iii) P(A B) = P(A) P(B) or P(A) P(B|A)

(Multiplication theorem for independent events)

(iv) P ( A B) = 1 P ( A) P (B)

(Addition theorem for independent events)

note : (i) Two events A and B are said to be

dependent if they are not independent, i.e. if

P(A B) P(A) P(B)

(ii) Three events A, B and C are said to be mutually

independent if

P(A B) = P(A) P(B), P(A C) = P(A) P(C)

P(B C) = P(B) P(C) and

P(A B C) = P(A) P(B) P(C)

If atleast one of the above is not true for three

given events, we say that the events are not

independent.

tOtal prObability law

If {E1, E2, ...., En} be a set of n mutually exclusive

and exhaustive events associated with a random

experiment and A be any event associated with

same experiment, then

mathematics today

| january 15 69

i =1

bayeS theOrem

and exhaustive events and A be any event associated

with the same experiment, then

P (E1 | A) =

P ( A | E1 )P (E1 )

{P ( A | E1 )P (E1 ) + P ( A | E2 )P (E2 ) + .....

....... + P ( A | En )P (En )}

P (Ei | A) = P ( A | Ei )P (Ei )

n

P(A | Ei )P(Ei )

i =1

randOm variableS

z

A random variable is a real valued function

X defined on the sample space S of a random

experiment which associates a unique real

number X(x) to each x S.

Domain of X = S, Range of X = {X(x) : x S}.

z

bernOulli trialS

Trials of a random experiment are called Bernoulli

trials, if they satisfies the following conditions:

(i) They should be finite in number.

(ii) They are independent of each other.

(iii) Each trial has exactly two outcomes : success

or failure.

(iv) The probability of success or failure remains

the same in each trial.

binOmial diStributiOn

z

infinite but countable values, then it is called a

discrete variable, and it is said to be continuous

if it can assume any real value.

probability distribution of a random

variable X : Let X be a random variable defined

on the sample space S of a random experiment,

assume values x1, x2,...., xn R with respective

probabilities p1, p2, ......., pn , then

X

:

x1 x2

x3 ..... xn

P(X) :

p1 p2

p3 ..... pn

is known as the probability distribution of X.

mean of a discrete random variable

The mean of a random variable X is also called

the expectation of X. i.e.,

E( X ) = = p1x1 + p2 x2 + ....... + pn xn or

i =1

pi xi

i =1

n

Var( X ) = (xi )2 pi

i =1

OR

2

n

2

p

x

Var( X ) = pi xi i i = E( X 2 ) [E( X )]2

i = 1

i =1

n

70 mathematics today |

january 15

we shall obtain 2n mutually exclusive and

exhaustive outcomes. Define a random variable

X on the sample space S as the number of

successes in n trials, then X can take values

0, 1, 2, 3, ........., n. If r be any number from

{0, 1, ..., n}, then P(X = r) equals the probability

of r successes ((n r) failures) in any specified

order multiplied by the number of times r

success can occur in n trials.

P(X = r) = nCr prqn r, where p is the probability

of success and q is the probability of failure.

mean and variance of binomial distribution :

Mean = np and Variance = npq

Very short answer type (1 mark)

distribution are 12 and 3 respectively. Find the

binomial distribution.

2. A fair coin and an unbiased die are tossed.

Let A be the event head appears on the coin

and B be the event 3 on the die. State whether

A and B are independent event or not.

3. If A and B are mutually exclusive events, find

P(A|B).

4. The corner points of the feasible region

determined by the system of linear constraints

are (0, 10), (5, 5), (15, 15), (0, 20). Let Z = px + qy,

where p, q > 0. Find the condition on p and q so

that the maximum of Z occurs at both the points

(15, 15) and (0, 20).

X

P(X)

0

0.2

1

k

2

k

3

2k

short answer type (4 marks)

6. A student is given a test with 8 items of truefalse type. If he gets 6 or more items correct,

he is declared a pass. Given that he guesses the

answer to each item, compute the probability

that he will pass in the test.

7. Determine the maximum value of Z = 4x + 3y

if the feasible region for an L.P.P. is shown in

figure.

will graduate is 0.4. Find the probability that

out of 3 students of the university :

(i) none will graduate,

(ii) only one will graduate,

(iii) all will graduate.

9. A family has two children. What is the

probability that both the children are boys,

given that atleast one of them is a boy?

long answer type (6 marks)

10. A manufacturer has three machines, I, II and

III installed in his factory. Machines I and II are

capable of being operated for atmost 12 hours

whereas machine III must be operated for atleast

5 hours a day. He produces only two items M

and N each requiring the use of all the three

machines. The number of hours required for

producing 1 unit each of M and N on the three

machines are given in the following table :

items

M

N

i

ii

iii

1

2

2

1

1

1.25

M and N respectively. How many of each item

should he produce so as to maximise his profit

assuming that he can sell all the items that he

produced? What will be the maximum profit?

11. A doctor is to visit a patient. From the past

experience it is known that the probabilities

of the doctor coming by train, bus, scooter

or taxi are 1 , 1 , 3 and 2 respectively.

10 5 10

5

The probabilities that he will be late are

1 1

1

if he comes by train, bus or

, and

4 3

12

scooter respectively, but by taxi he will not be

late. When he arrives, he is late. What is the

probability that he comes by bus?

12. Find the probability distribution of the number

of successes in two tosses of a dice, where

success is defined as getting a number greater

than 4. Also, find the mean and variance of the

distribution.

13. A man has ` 1,500 for purchasing rice and wheat.

A bag of rice and a bag of wheat cost ` 180 and

` 120 respectively. He has the storage capacity of

atmost 10 bags. He earns a profit of ` 11 and ` 9

per bag of rice and wheat respectively. Formulate

the above problem as an L.P.P. to maximise the

profit and solve it graphically.

14. Determine graphically the minimum value of

the objective function

Z = 50x + 20y

... (i)

Subject to the constraints :

2x y 5

...(ii)

3x + y 3

...(iii)

2x 3y 12

...(iv)

x 0, y 0

... (v)

mathematics today

| january 15 71

is tossed. He reports that it was 5. What is the

probability that it was actually 5?

solutions

1.

3

4

3

As np = 12 n = 12 n = 16

4

16

1 3

\ Binomial distribution is (q + p)n = +

4 4

1

1

We have, P ( A) = and P (B) =

2

6

Also, P(A B) = P (head appears on coin and

1

3 on the die) =

12

Clearly, P(A B) = P(A) P(B)

Thus, A and B are independent events.

Since A and B are mutually exclusive events,

therefore A B = f

P ( A B ) P ()

Now, P ( A | B) =

=

=0

P ( B)

P ( B)

Since maximum of Z occurs at (15, 15) and

(0, 20) \ 15p + 15q = 0p + 20q q = 3p.

We have, SP(X) = 1

0.2 + 4k = 1 4k = 0.8 k = 0.2

Let

E1 : Student makes a guess and gets true answer.

E2 : Student makes a guess and gets false answer.

A : The event that the student will pass the test.

1

P (E1 ) = P (E2 ) =

2

5

3

P ( A | E1 ) = , P ( A | E2 ) =

8

8

P (E1 ) P ( A | E1 )

P (E1 | A) =

P (E1 ) P ( A | E1 ) + P (E2 ) P ( A | E2 )

1 3

3

2 8

=

=

1 3 1 5 8

+

2 8 2 8

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

npq 3

1

=

q=

np 12

4

p =1 q =

maximum of Z must occur at the corner points

of the feasible region.

72 mathematics today |

january 15

8. Let X denote the number of students who

graduated.

Now, the probability that a student graduates,

p = 0.4 \ q = 1 p = 1 0.4 = 0.6

(i) P(none will graduate) = P(X = 0)

= nC0 p0qn 0 = 3C0(0.4)0 (0.6)3 = 0.216

(ii) P (only one will graduate) = P(X = 1)

= nC1 p1q n 1 = 3C1(0.4)1 (0.6)2 = 0.432

(iii)P (all will graduate) = P(X = 3)

= nC3 p3q n 3 = 3C3(0.4)3 (0.6)0 = 0.064

9. Let B denote boy and G denote girl. Thus, we

have

Sample Space (S) = {(B, G), (G, B), (B, B), (G, G)}

Now, let E be the event that both the children

are boys and F be the event that atleast one of

the child is a boy.

\ E = {(B, B)} n(E) = 1

F = {(B, G),(G, B), (B, B)} n(F) = 3

E F = {(B, B)} n(E F) = 1 and n(S) = 4

1

3

1

P ( E ) = , P (F ) = , P ( E F ) =

4

4

4

Thus, required probability = P(E|F)

1

P (E F ) 4 1

=

= = .

3 3

P (F )

4

10. Let x and y be the number of items of M and N

produced by the three machines respectively.

Mathematical formulation of the given problem

is as follows :

Maximise, Z = 600x + 400y

subject to the constraints :

x + 2y 12

... (i)

2x + y 12

... (ii)

5

... (iii)

x+ y 5

4

x, y 0

...(iv)

Let us draw the graph of constraints (i) to (iv).

ABCDEA is the feasible region (shaded) as

region is bounded, and coordinates of the

corner points A, B, C, D and E are (5, 0), (6, 0),

(4, 4), (0, 6) and (0, 4) respectively.

1 1

5 3

=

1 1 1 1 3 1 2

+ +

+ 0

10 4 5 3 10 12 5

1

4

15

=

=

3+8+3 7

120

points.

maximum value of Z. Hence, the manufacturer

has to produce 4 units of each item to get the

maximum profit of ` 4000.

11. Let A, B, C and D be the events that the

doctor come by train, bus, scooter and taxi

respectively.

1

1

3

P ( A) = , P (B) = , P (C ) =

and

10

5

10

2

5

Let E be the event that doctor comes late.

1

1

Thus, P (E | A) = , P (E | B) = ,

4

3

1

P (E | C ) =

and P (E | D) = 0

12

\ Probability that doctor comes late by bus,

P ( B) P ( E | B)

P (B | E ) =

{P ( A) P (E | A) + P (B) P (E | B)

+ P (C ) P (E | C ) + P (D) P (E | D)}

P (D ) =

tosses of a dice, then X can take values 0, 1, 2.

Now, let Si = Getting a success in ith toss and ,

Fi = Getting a failure in ith toss.

2 1

Then, P (S1 ) = =

6 3

1

Also, P (S2 ) =

3

2

P (F1 ) = P (F2 ) =

3

Now, P(X = 0) = Probability of getting no success

in two tosses of a dice.

2 2 4

P ( X = 0) = P (F1 ) P (F2 ) = =

3 3 9

P(X = 1) = Probability of getting one success in

two tosses of a dice.

P(X = 1) = P(S1) P(F2) + P(F1) P(S2)

1 2 2 1 4

= + =

3 3 3 3 9

P(X = 2) = Probability of getting two successes

in two tosses of a dice.

1 1 1

P ( X = 2) = P (S1 ) P (S2 ) = =

3 3 9

Thus, the probability distribution of X is given

by

X

0

1

2

P(X)

4

9

Now,

Mean = = pi xi

4

9

1

9

4 4 1 6 2

= 0 + 1 + 2 = =

9 9 9 9 3

and Variance, 2 = pi xi2

( pi xi )2

2

4

4

4 1

2

= 0 + 1 + 4 =

9 9

3

9

9

mathematics today

| january 15 73

number of wheat bags be y.

Maximise Z = 11x + 9y

subject to the constraints,

180x + 120y 1500

... (i)

x + y 10

... (ii)

x, y 0

... (iii)

Now, plotting the graph of (i), (ii) and (iii), we

get the required feasible region (shaded) as

shown below. Also, feasible region is bounded.

25

A , 0 , B(5, 5) and C(0, 10)

3

Corner points

Z = 11x + 9y

25

A , 0

3

25

11 + (9 0) = 91.67

3

B(5, 5)

(11 5) + (9 5) = 100

(Maximum)

C(0, 10)

(11 0) + (9 10) = 90

\ Number of rice bags = 5 and

number of wheat bags = 5

14. First of all, let us graph the feasible region of the

system of inequalities (ii) to (v). The feasible

region (shaded) is shown in the figure. Observe

that the feasible region is unbounded.

Let us evaluate Z at the corner points.

value of Z at the corner point D(6, 0). As we

know, if the region would have been bounded,

then smallest value of Z is the minimum value

of Z. But here we see that the feasible region is

unbounded. Therefore, 300 may or may not

be the minimum value of Z. To decide this, we

graph the inequality,

50x + 20y < 300 i.e., 5x + 2y < 30

Since, open half plane has points in common

with feasible region. Therefore, 300 will not

be the minimum value of Z.

Therefore, Z = 50x + 20y has no minimum

value subject to the given constraints

15. Let E be the event that A reports that five

occurs in the throwing of the dice and let S1 be

the event that five occurs and S2 be the event

that five does not occur. Then

1

P(S1) = Probability that five occurs =

6

5

P(S2) = Probability that five does not occur =

6

P(E|S1) = Probability that the man speaks the

8 4

truth =

=

10 5

P(E|S2) = Probability that the man does not

4 1

speaks the truth = 1 =

5 5

Thus, by Bayes theorem, we get

P (S1 ) P (E | S1 )

P (S1 | E ) =

P (S1 ) P (E | S1 ) + P (S2 ) P (E | S2 )

1 4

4

4

6 5

=

=

=

1 4 5 1 4+5 9

+

6 5 6 5

74 mathematics today |

january 15

nn

th

rchives

10 Best Problems

10 Best Problems

Prof. Shyam Bhushan*

Math archives, as the title itself suggests, is a collection of various challenging problems related to the topics of IIT-JEE Syllabus.

This section is basically aimed at providing an extra insight and knowledge to the candidates preparing for IIT-JEE. In every issue

of MT, challenging problems are offered with detailed solution. The readers' comments and suggestions regarding the problems

and solutions offered are always welcome.

to 2, 1, 2 meets each of the lines x = y + 1 = z

andx + 1 = 2y = 2z. The coordinates of

each of the points of intersection are given by

(a) (3, 3, 3), (1, 1, 1) (b) (3, 2, 3), (1, 1, 1)

(c) (3, 2, 3), (1, 1, 2) (d) (2, 3, 3), (2, 1, 1)

2. Total number of common tangents of y2 = 4ax

and xy = c2, is equal to

(a) 1

(b) 2

(c) 3

(d) 4

3. Let f : R R be a function defined by

f(x) = [x]2 + [x + 1] 3 {where [] denotes

greatest integer function}, then f(x) is

(a) manyone into (b) manyone onto

(c) oneone into

(d) oneone onto

4. If 23n an b is divisible by 49, then (a, b) is,

nN

(a) (7, 1)

(b) (7, 1)

(c) (49, 1)

(d) (49, 7)

5. The length of projection of the line segment

joining the points (1, 1, 0) and (1, 0, 1) to the

plane 2x + y + 6z = 1 is equal to

6.

(a)

255

units

41

(b)

237

units

41

(c)

137

units

41

(d)

155

units

41

15

r 2r

(r + 2)!

r =1

is equal to

(a)

(c)

17 ! 216

17 !

15

16 ! 2

16 !

(b)

(d)

18 ! 217

18 !

15 ! 214

15 !

locks and keys are to be perfectly matched, then

maximum number of trials is equal to

(a) nC2

(b) n 1C2

(c)

n+1

C2

x2

y2

a 2 b2

2

+

(a) a 2

(b) b 2

(c) ab 2

2, ., 20}) such that 3m + 7n is a multiple of 10,

is

(a) 100

(b) 200

(c) 4! 4!

(d) none of these

10. If the length of the tangent drawn from a

variable point to one given circle is k( 1) times

the length of the tangent from it to another

circle, then the locus of the variable point is

a/an

(a) ellipse

(b) parabola

(c) circle

(d) hyperbola

By : Prof. Shyam Bhushan, Director, Narayana IIT Academy, Jamshedpur. Mob. : 09334870021

MatheMatics tODaY | January 15

75

sOLUtiONs

\ Length of projection

general point as (m, m 1, m). Second line

x + 1 = 2y = 2z = l gives general point as

(l1, l/2, l/2). The ratios of direction

ratios of line joining points of intersection

to direction cosines proportional to 2, 1, 2

are same.

+1

2 =

2

=

2

1

2

+ 1 = 2 2 =

2

Solving, we get m = 3, l = 2

\ Coordinates of point of intersection are

(3, 2, 3), (1, 1, 1)

x

2. (a) : Any tangent to xy = c2 is + yt = 2c

t

x 2c

i.e. y = +

t2 t

a

Comparing it with y = mx + , we get

m

2

at

1

at

1 mt

m= , m=

=

=

2

2

c

1 1 2cm

t

1/3

= AB sin = 6 1

6. (a) :

9

237

=

units

246

41

r 2r

(r + 2 2)2r

=

(r + 2)!

(r + 2)!

=

2r +1

2r +1

2r

2r

(r + 1)! (r + 2)!

(r + 2)! (r + 1)!

= (Vr Vr+1)

15

r 2r

216

216

(r + 2)! = 17 ! 2 ! = 1 17 !

r =1

trials needed is n. For second key, it will be

(n 1).

In general, for rth key, maximum number of

trials needed is (n r + 1).

Thus total number of trials needed

n(n + 1) n+1

= C2 .

2

8. (a) : Let the extremities of the chord be

P1 (a cosq, b sinq) and P2 (a sinq, b cosq)

= n + (n 1) + (n 2) + .... + 1 =

at 1

2c

=

t =

a

2c t 2

Now, (P1P2 )2 = a2 (cos + sin )2 + b2 (sin cos )2

So, there is only one common tangent.

(P1P2 )2 = a2 + b2 + (a2 b2 )sin 2 a2 + b2 + a2 b2

3. (a) : f(x) = [x]2 + [x] 2

(P1P2 )2 = a2 + b2 + (a2 b2 )sin 2 a2 + b2 + a2 b2

= ([x] + 2)([x] 1)

Now, f(x) = 0 for x [1, 2) and x [2, 1) (P1P2 )2 2a2 P1P2 a 2

So f(x) is many-one. As f(x) will take only

9. (a) : The last digit of any power of 3 can be

integral values, so it is into.

n

n

3, 9, 7, 1. Similarly last digit of any power of

4. (b) : 8 an b = (1 + 7) an b

n

2 n

3

n

n

7 can be 7, 9, 3, 1.

= 1 + 7n + C27 + C37 + ... + Cn7 an b

Total number of ways = (5 5) + (5 5) +

= (1 b) + (7 a)n + 49(nC2 + nC37 + ...)

n

(5 5) + (5 5) = 100.

\ If 8 an b is divisible by 49, then

1 b = 0, 7 a = 0

10. (c) : S1 = k S2

b = 1, a = 7.

S1 = k 2 S2

5. (b) : A (1, 1, 0), B (1, 0, 1)

Direction ratios of segment AB are

So locus is x2 + y2 + 2g1x + 2f1y + c1

(2, 1, 1).

= k2(x2 + y2 + 2g2x + 2f2y + c2)

If q be the acute angle between segment AB

(x2 + y2)(1 k2) + 2x(g1 k2g2)

and normal to plane

+ 2y(f1 k2f2) + c1 k2c2 = 0

(2 2) (1 1) (1 6)

3

cos =

=

which is a circle.

4 + 1 + 36 4 + 1 + 1

246

nn

Co-ordinate Geometry of Two Dimensions : Definition of conic section, Directrix, Focus and Eccentricity, classification based

on eccentricity.

Co-ordinate Geometry of Three Dimensions : Direction cosines and direction ratios, distance between two points and section

formula, equation of a straight line, equation of a plane, distance of a point from a plane.

Application of Calculus : Tangents and normals, conditions of tangency. Determination of monotonicity, maxima and minima.

Vectors : addition of vectors, scalar multiplication, dot and cross products, scalar triple product.

PaPer-i

sectiOn-i

Single Correct Option

This section contains 10 multiple choice questions.

Each question has 4 choices, out of which only onE

is correct.

decreasing function such that g(f(x)) exist, then

(a) g(f(x)) is an increasing function.

(b) g(f(x)) is a decreasing function.

(c) nothing can be said.

(d) g(f(x)) is a constant function.

2. The number of tangents to the curve x2/3 + y2/3

= a2/3 which are equally inclined to the axes, is

(a) 4

(b) 3

(c) 2

(d) 1

3. The equation of one of the tangents to the curve

y = cos(x + y), the normal at which is parallel to the

line 2x y = 0 in 2p < x < 2p is

(a) x + 2y = 1

(b) x + 2 y =

2

(c) x + 2 y =

(d) x + 2 y =

3

4

4. In (0, 2p), the expression sinq + cos2q has

(a) one point of maximum and one point of

minimum.

5

(b) the highest value = .

4

(c) only one point of maximum.

(d) neither a point of maximum nor a point of

minimum.

5.

dx

given by

= x + 1 (x is the distance travelled). The

dt

time taken by a particle to travel a distance of 99

meters is

(a) log10e

(b) 2 loge10

(c) 2 log10e

(d) 1/2 log10e

6. For all x in [0, 1], let the second derivative

f (x) of a function exist and satisfy |f (x)| 1. If

f(0) = f(1), then in (0, 1)

(a) |f(x)| > 1

(b) |f(x)| < 1

(c) |f (x)| > 1

(d) |f (x)| < 1

7. f(x) = 1 + kx + k neither touches nor cuts the

curve f(x) = ln x, then minimum value of k

1 1

(a) ,

(b) (e, e2)

e e

1

(c) , e

(d) none of these

e

8. If u = a b , v = a + b and | a | = | b | = 2, then

| u v | is

(a) 2 16 (a b )2

(b) 2 4 (a b )2

(c)

(d)

4 (a b )2

16 (a b )2

9. A straight line r = a + b meets the plane

r n = 0 at P. The position vector of P is

MatheMatics tODaY | January 15

77

a n

(a) a + b

b n

a n

(c) a b

b n

a n

(b) b a

b n

(d) none of these

x 2

y +1

z 2

3

4

meets the plane x 2y + z = 20 is

(a) (7, 8, 26)

(b) (8, 7, 26)

(c) (7, 8, 26)

(d) none of these

12

sectiOn-ii

Multiple Correct Option

This section contains 5 multiple choice questions. Each

question has 4 choices, out of which onE or morE is/

are correct.

^ ^ ^ ^

^ ^

11. Let a = 2 i j + k, b = i + 2 j k and

^

c = i^ + ^j 2 k be three vectors. A vector in the

magnitude

2

is

3

^

(a) 2 i^ + 3 ^j 3 k

(b) 2 i^ + 3 ^j + 3 k

^

^ ^

^

^ ^

(c) 2 i j + 5 k

(d) 2 i + j + 5 k

If u = a (a b )b and v = a b , then | v | is

(a) | u |

(b) | u | + | u a |

(c) | u | + | u b |

(d) | u | + u (a + b )

x 4 y 3 6z

x 3 y 4 z 7

=

=

and

=

=

1

1

k

k

2

1

are coplanar if k equals,

(a) 0 or 3

(b) 1 or 3

(c) 2 or 3

(d) 3 or 2

14. The plane 7x 2y + z + 21 = 0

(a) contains the point (1, 7, 0).

x + 2 3 y z +1

(b) contains the line

.

=

=

1

2

3

x y z

(c) is perpendicular to the line =

= .

7 2 1

(d) is parallel to the plane 7x 2y + z + 5 = 0.

15. The tangent PT and normal PN to the parabola

y2 = 4ax at a point P on it meet its axis at points

T and N, respectively. The locus of the centroid of

D PTN is a parabola whose

78 MatheMatics tODaY | January 15

2a

(a) vertex is , 0

(b) directrix is x = 0

3

2a

(c) latus rectum is

(d) focus is (a, 0)

3

sectiOn-iii

Assertion and Reason Type

In each of the following questions two statements are

given. Statement-1 (Assertion) and Statement-2 (reason).

Examine the statements carefully and answer the

questions according to the instructions given below.

(a) If both Statement-1 and Statement-2 are correct

and Statement-2 is the proper explanation of

Statement-1.

(b) If both Statement-1 and Statement-2 are correct

and Statement-2 is not the proper explanation of

Statement-1.

(c) If Statement-1 is correct and Statement-2 is wrong.

(d) If Statement-1 is wrong and Statement-2 is correct.

the line of greatest slope on a plane with normal

^

^

b = 2 ^i ^j + k is along ^i 4 ^j + 2k .

(a b ) b .

17. Statement-1 : If Rolle's theorem is applicable

for function f(x), then f(x) is many-one function.

Statement-2 : L.M.V. theorem is applicable for f(x),

then f(x) is one-one.

18. Statement-1 : If f(x) = (x 5)3, f(x) has neither

maximum nor minimum at x = 5.

Statement-2 : f (x) = 0, f (x) = 0 when x = 5.

19. Statement-1 : A tangent parallel to x-axis can

be drawn for f(x) = (x 2)(x 3)(x 4)"x [2, 4].

Statement-2 : A horizontal tangent can be drawn

in case of Rolle's theorem.

20. Statement-1 : Angle between the planes

2x y + z = 6 and x + y + 2z = 7 is 90.

Statement-2 : Angle between the two planes is

same as the angle between their normals i.e., if q

n .n

cos = 1 2 .

| n1 || n2 |

sectiOn-iV

This section contains 5 questions. The answer

to each of the questions is a single-digit integer,

ranging from 0 to 9. The appropriate bubbles

below the respective question numbers in the

OrS have to be darkened. For example, if the

correct answers to question numbers X, y, Z

and W (say) are 6, 0, 9 and 2, respectively, then

the correct darkening of bubbles will look like

as given.

X Y Z W

and the plane containing the lines

x 1 y 2 z 3

x 2 y 3 z 4

=

=

and

=

=

2

3

4

3

4

5

is

P (x )

extremum at x = 1, 2 and lim 1 +

= 2. Then

2

0

x

the value of P(2) is

22. The maximum value of the function

f(x) = 2x3 15x2 + 36x 48 on the set

A = {x |x2 + 20 9x} is

6 , then |d| is

^

^

2 ^i + ^j + 3 k^

i 2j

a=

and b =

, then the value of

5

14

(2a + b ) [(a b ) (a 2b )] is

25. The line 2x + y = 1 is tangent to the hyperbola

x2 y2

a 2 b2

intersection of the nearest directrix and the x-axis,

then the eccentricity of the hyperbola is

PaPer-ii

sectiOn-i

Single Correct Option

This section contains 10 multiple choice questions.

Each question has 4 choices, out of which only onE

is correct.

conditions of the Rolle's theorem on the interval

[1, 1]?

(a) f(x) = |x|[x]

(b) f(x) = [x] + [x]

sin x

(c) f (x ) =

for x 0, f (0) = 0

x

(d) f(x) = |x| |sinx|

2. The direction cosine of a line which are

connected by the relation l 5m + 3n = 0 and

7l2 + 5m2 3n2 = 0 are

2 1 1

1 1 2

,

,

,

,

(a)

(b)

6 6 6

6 6 6

3

1 2

2

3

1

,

,

(c)

(d)

,

,

4 14 14

4 14 14

^

3. If OA = i^ + 3 ^j 2 k and OB = 3 i^ + ^j 2 k^, then

^ ^ ^

^ ^ ^

(a) i j k

(b) i + j + k

^

^ ^

(c) i + j k

^ ^

(d) i + j k

x 2y + 2z 4 = 0 = x + 3z 11 is

(a) 1

(b) 2

(c) 3

(d) 4

5.

^

^

^

^ ^ ^

r = s(2 i + 3 j + 4 k ) ( i + j + k )

^

^

^

^

and r = t (3 i + 4 j + 5 k ) i is

1

1

1

2

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

6

3

3

2

6. Let f(x), a polynomial of degree 3 has maximum

at x = 1. If f (x) has minimum at x = 1, then f(x) has

minimum at x =

(a) 0

(b) 1

(c) 2

(d) 3

7. The slope of the straight line which is both

tangent and normal to the curve 4x3 = 27y2 is

1

1

(a) 1

(b)

(c)

(d) 2

2

2

x

8. Let g (x ) = 2 f + f (2 x ) and f (x) < 0

2

" x (0, 2). Then g(x)

(a) increases in (0, 1) and decreases in (1, 2).

(b) decreases in (0, 1) and increases in (1, 2).

(c) increases in 0, 4 and decreases in 4 , 2 .

3

3

4

4

(d) decreases in 0, and increases in , 2 .

3

3

MatheMatics tODaY | January 15

79

2. The maximum area of the trapezium is

(a) 5 3 (b) 4 3 (c) 3 3 (d) 2 3

x = a is the point of local minima is 2 5 .

source P(1, 3, 2) and travelling parallel to the line

x 2 y z +1

is incident on the plane x + y 3z = 0

= =

1

3

2

at the point Q. After reflecting from the plane the

ray travels along the line QR. It is also known that

the incident ray, reflected ray and the normal to

the plane at the point of incidence are in the same

plane. The point Q is

(a) (3, 15, 6)

(b) (3, 6, 3)

(c) (3, 6, 3)

(d) (3, 15, 6)

(d) the value of f(0) = 5.

sectiOn-ii

Multiple Correct Option

This section contains 5 multiple choice questions. Each

question has 4 choices, out of which onE or morE

is/are correct.

sides having their lengths in the ratio 8 : 15 is

converted into an open rectangular box by folding

after removing squares of equal area from all four

corners. If the total area of the removed squares is

100, the resulting box has maximum volume. The

lengths of the sides of the rectangular sheet are

(a) 24

(b) 32

(c) 45

(d) 60

12. The circle x2 + y2 = 1 cuts the x-axis at P and Q.

Another circle with centre at Q and variable radius

r, intersects the first circle at R above the x-axis and

the line segment PQ at S.

2

2 r2 r 4 r

.

(a) Coordinate of R is

,

2

2

2

1 r 4r

(b) Area of QRS = r

.

2

2

2 2

(c) QRS is maximum, when r =

.

3

(d) Maximum area of QRS = 4 3 .

9

13. f(x) is a cubic polynomial with f(2) = 18 and

f(1) = 1. Also, f(x) has local maxima at x = 1 and

f (x) has local minima at x = 0, then

is touched by the line y = x at the point where x = 1.

Then

(a) f (0) = f (1)

(b) f (1) = 1

(c) f(0) + f (0) + f (0) = 1

(d) 2f(0) = 1 f (0)

15.

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

a maximum at x = 1, if n is odd.

a maximum at x = 1, if n is even.

a minimum at x = 2, if n is even.

a maximum at x = 2, if n is odd.

sectiOn-iii

This section contains 4 paragraphs. Based upon each

paragraph, 2 multiple choice questions have to be

answered. Each question has 4 choices, out of which

onE or morE is/are correct.

Let L1 be the line 2x 2y + 3z 2 = 0 = x y + z + 1 and

L2 be the line x + 2y z 3 = 3x y + 2z 1 = 0.

16. The distance of the origin from the plane

through L1 and L2 is

1

1

1

1

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

15

2 2

3 2

2

17. L1 and L2 meet at a point P whose distance

from the origin is

(a)

33

(b)

22

(c)

25

(d) 2 41

Let f : [0, 1] R (the set of real numbers)

be a function. Suppose the function f is twice

differentiable, f(0) = f(1) = 0 and satisfies

f (x) 2f (x) + f(x) ex, x [0, 1].

18. Which of the following is true for 0 < x < 1?

1

1

(a) 0 < f(x) <

(b) < f (x ) <

2

2

(c) 1 < x < 1

(d) < f(x) < 0

4

1

the interval [0, 1] at x = , which of the following

4

is true?

1

3

(a) f (x ) < f (x ), < x <

4

4

1

(b) f (x ) > f (x ), 0 < x <

4

1

(c) f (x ) < f (x ), 0 < x <

4

3

(d) f (x ) < f (x ), < x < 1

4

Paragraph for Question 20 and 21

Perpendiculars AP, AQ and AR are drawn to

x, y and z-axes, respectively, from the point

A(1, 1, 2).

20. The A.M. of AP2, AQ2 and AR2 is

(d) 2

(a) 4

(b) 5

(c) 3

21. The equation of the plane PQR is

(a) 2x + 2y z = 2

(b) 2x 2y + z = 2

(c) 2x y + z = 2

(d) x 2y + z = 2

Paragraph for Question 22 and 23

Let a , b , c be three non-coplanar vectors where

= b c , = c a and = a b .

22. ( ) =

23. [ ] =

(a) [a b c ] (b) [a b c ]2 (c) [a b c ]4 (d) 0

Column I

Column II

(A) Vo l u m e o f p a r a l l e l o p i pe d (p) 100

determined by vectors a , b c

is 2. Then, the volume of the

parallelopiped determined

by

v e c t o r s 2(a b ), 3(b c ) a n d

(c a ) is

(B) Vo l u m e o f p a r a l l e l o p i p e d (q) 30

d e t e r m i n e d by t h e v e c t or s

a , b and c is 5. Then, t he

volume of the parallelopiped

d e t e r m i n e d b y v e c t o r s

3(a + b ), (b + c ) and 2(c + a ) is

(C) Area of the triangle with adjacent

(r) 24

is 20. Then, the area of the triangle

with adjacent sides

by

determined

vectors (2a + 3b ) and (a b ) is

(D) Area of the parallelogram with (s) 60

adjacent sides determined

by the

area of the parallelogram with

adjacent sides

determined by

vectors (a + b ) and a is

25. Match the following:

(A)

sectiOn-iV

This section contains 2 questions.

Each question contains statements

given in two columns, which have

to be matched. The statements in

Column-I are labelled as A, B, C

and D, while the statements in

Column-II are labelled as p, q, r and s. Any given

statement in Column-I can have correct matching

with ONE OR MORE statement(s) in Column-II. The

appropriate bubbles corresponding to the answers to

these questions have to be darkened as illustrated in

the following example. If the correct matches are A-p

and s ; B-q and r; C-p and q; and D-s, then the correct

darkening of bubbles will look like the above.

(B)

(C)

(D)

Column I

The plane containing the (p)

points (1, 1, 2), (1, 2, 1),

(2, 1, 1) and (1, 1, 4) is

The plane through origin (q)

and containing the line

x 1 y 2 z 3

is

=

=

5

4

5

The plane containing (r)

the line

r = 3i + 5k + s(i + 2 j + 3k )

is at right angle to the plane

2x + 7y 3z = 0 is

The plane containing the (s)

point (3, 4, 5) and the

line of intersection of the

planes 2x 3y + z 11 = 0

and x + 4y 2z + 6 = 0 is

Column II

x 5y + 3z = 0

9x 3y z

22 = 0

r (i + j + k ) = 4

4x + 5y 3z

+ 23 = 0

81

sOlutiOns

PaPer-i

Therefore f(x) > 0 and g(x) is a decreasing function

\ g(x) < 0

Now g(f(x)) = g (f(x))f (x) < 0

\ g(f(x)) is a decreasing function.

2. (a) : G i v e n t h a t ,

the tangent is equally

inclined to the axes.

\ It must be either AB

or BA as shown in the

figure.

\ Slope of the tangents are is 1, i.e.,

Now, the given curve is x2/3 + y2/3 = a2/3

dy

2

2

x 1/3 + y 1/3

=0

dx

3

3

dy

=

dx

1/3

x 1/3

y

=

1/3

x

y

y=x=

dy

= 1.

dx

1/3

y

x

1

1 5

1

= 1 sin + = sin

2

4 4

2

Thus, the given expression sinq + cos2q will be

2

1

2

sin =

= sin =

2

6

6

1

5 = 5

= sin = sin

6

2

6

6

Thus the given function has two points of maximum,

5

namely = and .

6

6

Also sin =

dx

= x + 1 log e (x + 1) = t + c

dt

Putting t = 0, x = 0, we get c = 0

\ t = loge(x + 1) t = loge100 [Putting x = 99]

t = 2 loge10

6. (d) : f(0) = f(1) f (c) = 0, 0 < c < 1

(by Rolle's theorem)

5. (b) : We have,

= 1

2 2

\ There are four points of contact, one each in 4

quadrants.

3. (b) : We have, y = cos(x + y)

dy

dy

= sin(x + y ) 1 +

dx

dx

The normal is parallel to 2x y = 0

The tangent is parallel to x + 2y = 0

dy

1

= .

dx

2

1

1

1

1

So, sin(x + y ) 1 = sin(x + y ) =

2

2

2

2

sin(x + y ) = 1 cos(x + y ) = 0

3

x+y=

or

2

2

3

\ The point of contact is , 0 or , 0 .

2 2

At , 0 , the equation of tangent is x + 2 y = .

2

2

82 MatheMatics tODaY | January 15

= 1 (sin2q sinq)

2

2

1 1

1

= 1 (sin )2 2 sin +

2

2 2

By Lagrange's theorem,

f (x) f (c) = (x c) |f(c1)|

|f (x)| = |x c| |f (c1)| < 1 Q |x c| < 1 and

|f (x)|< 1 |f (c1)| 1

7. (a) : We have, f(x) = kx + k 1

(i)

Clearly the above line always passes through (1, 1).

Maximum slope can go upto . For minimum slope

this line should touch y = ln x

For minimum slope,

dy 1

1

= =k x=

dx x

k

1

1

1

, ln i.e., , ln k

k

k

k

is the point of tangency.

ln k + 1

= k ln k + 1 = 1 + k ln k = k

1

+1

k

Let f(k) = k + ln k

1 1

1 1 1

f = 1< 0 , f =

>0

e e

e

e 2

1

1

So, one root must lie between and

.

e

e

u v = (a b ) (a + b )

= (a a ) + (a b ) (b a ) (b b )

u v = 2 (a b )[ a a = 0 and a b = b a]

| u v | = 2 | a || b |sin , (where q is the angle

between a and b )

2

a b

2

= 8 sin = 8 1 cos = 8 1

4

= 2 16 (a b )2

9. (c) : The straight line r = a + b meets the

plane r n = 0 at P for which l is given by

(a +b ) n = 0 a n + b n = 0

a n

=

b n

a n

Thus, the position vector of P is r = a b

b n

x 2 y +1 z 2

10. (b) : Any point on the line

=

=

3

4

12

is (3r + 2, 4r 1, 12r + 2).

Since the point lies in the plane x 2y + z = 20

\ (3r + 2) 2(4r 1) + 12r + 2 = 20

7r = 6 + 20 = 14 \ r = 2

Hence, the required point is (8, 7, 26)

c.

^

^ ^

^ ^

^

r = ( i + 2 j k) + ( i + j 2 k)

^

= (1 + ) i + (2 + ) j (1 + 2 ) k

a r

Now, the projection of r on a =

|a |

=

{(1 +) i + (2 +) j (1 + 2 ) k} (2 i j + k)

22 + 12 + 12

( + 1)

2(1 + ) (2 + ) (1 + 2 )

=

=

6

6

( + 1)

2

2

=

3

2 3

3

6

(l + 1) = 2 l = 1, 3

^

^

r = 2 ^i + 3 ^j 3 k and 2 ^i ^j + 5 k

Now,

( + 1)

vectors a and b .

q p. We

have

a b = | a || b | cos = cos

Now, | u |2 = | a (a b )b |2 = | a cos b |2

= | a |2 + cos2 | b |2 2 cos (a b )

= 1 + cos2q 2 cos2q = 1 cos2q

2

2

| u | = sin

...(i)

2 2 2

2 2

Also, | v | = | a b | = | a | | b | sin

2

2

| v | = sin

...(ii)

\ From (i) and (ii), we have

| v |2 = | u |2 or | v | = | u |

Also u a = (a (a b )b ) a = a a (a b )(b a )

| u | + | u a | = sin + sin2 | v |

Now, u b = (a (a b )b ) b

= a b (a b )(b b ) = a b (a b ) = 0

| u | + | u b | = | u | + 0 =| u | = | v |

[ u b = 0]

Also u (a + b ) = u a + u b = u a

| u | + u (a + b ) = | u | + u a | v |

13. (a) : The two straight lines

x 4 y 3 6z

x 3 y 4 z 7

=

=

and

=

=

1

1

2

1

k

k

are said to be coplanar, if

3 (4) 4 (3) 7 (6)

1

1

k

=0

k

2

1

1 1 1

1 1 k = 0

k 2 1

1(1 + 2k) + 1 (1 + k2) 1 (2 k) = 0

k2 + 3k = 0 k(k + 3) = 0 k = 0, 3

MatheMatics tODaY | January 15

83

Now 7(1) 2(7) + 0 + 21 = 0

\ The plane contains the point (1, 7, 0)

Now the plane 7x 2y + z + 21 = 0 will contain the

x + 2 3 y z +1

straight line

=

=

1

2

3

When the normal to the plane is perpendicular to the

straight line

\ 7(1) 2(2) + 1(3) = 0

Thus the plane contains the straight line.

Also, the plane 7x 2y + z + 21 = 0 will be

x y 7

perpendicular to the straight line =

= ,

7 2 1

when the direction ratios of the normal to the plane

are same as that of the straight line. In this case, it

is true.

Clearly, the plane 7x 2y + z + 21 = 0 and

7x 2y + z + 5 = 0 are parallel.

15. (a, d)

^

i^ ^j k

16. (d) : a b = 1 1 1 = 2 i^ + ^j 3 ^k

2 1 1

^

i^ ^j k

^

^

(a b ) b = 2 1 3 = 2 i^ 8 j 4 k

2 1 1

which is along, i^ + 4 ^j + 2 k^ .

17. (c) : The Rolle's theorem is applicable in [a, b]

if f(a) = f(b) = l

For two different values of x, the value of f(x) is

same, so f(x) is many-one function.

\ Statement-1 is true.

Again for L.M.V theorem

f (c) =

f () f ()

c (, )

f(x) is 1 1 function. If f(a) = f(b), then Rolle's

theorem is special case of L.M.V.

\ Statement-2 is false.

18. (b) : f(x) = (x 5)3 f (x) = 3 (x 5)2

f (x) = 0 for maximum or minimum x = 5

84 MatheMatics tODaY | January 15

\ f (5) = 0 but f (5) 0

f(x) has neither maximum nor minimum value

at x = 5.

19. (b) : We have, f(x) = (x 2)(x 3)(x 4)

= x3 9x2 + 26x 24

2

f (x) = 3x 18x + 26

Put f (x) = 0 for tangent parallel to x-axis

3x2 18x + 26 = 0

9 3

1

1

x=

=3

23

4

3

3

3

Statement-1 & Statement-2 both are correct as

1

(2, 4),

f(2) = f(4) = 0 and f (c) = 0 gives c = 3

3

but these conditions are not given in Statement-2.

20. (d) : Let q be the angle between the normals

^

^

n1 = 2 i^ ^j + k and n2 = i^ + ^j + 2 k

2(1) + (1)(1) + 1(2) 1

n1 n2

cos = =

=

| n1 || n2 |

2

6 6

q = 60

21. (0) : Let P(x) = ax4 + bx3 + cx2 + dx + e

\ P(x) = 4ax3 + 3bx2 + 2cx + d

P(1) = 0, P(2) = 0

x 2 + P (x )

P (x )

Now, lim 1 +

=

2

lim

=2

x 0

x 0

x2

x2

So, P(0) = 0 e = 0

2 x + P (x )

Again lim

= 2

2x

x 0

\ P(0) = 0 d = 0

2 + P (x )

Again lim

= 2

2

x 0

\ P(0) = 2 2c = 2 \ c = 1

1

Since, P(2) P(2) = 0 gives a = , b = 1

4

4

x

P (x ) =

x3 + x2

4

Hence P(2) = 0

22. (7) : As A = {x : x2 + 20 9x}

= {x : x2 9x + 20 0}

= {x : (x 4)(x 5) 0}

We have, A = [4, 5]

Now f(x) = 2x3 15x2 + 36x 48

= 6(x 2)(x 3)

Thus f has no critical point in[4, 5] as f (0) 0 in

(4, 5) and f (x) exists at all points.

f(4) = 243 1542 + 364 48 = 16

f(5) = 253 1552 + 365 48 = 7

Thus maximum value of f on [4, 5] is 7.

23. (6) : Equation of the plane containing the lines

\ 1 = 4a2 b2 b2 = 4a2 1

4

b2

=5

Now, e 2 = 1 +

2

e2

a

e4 5e2 + 4 = 0 (e2 1)(e2 4) = 0

\ e2 = 4 e = 2

x 1

y 2

3

z 3

4

and

x 2

3

y 3

4

z4

5

is

x 1 y 2 z 3

2

3

4 = 0 x 2y + z = 0

3

4

5

Comparing with Ax 2y + z = d, we have A = 1

\ The distance between the planes

d

d

d

=

=

= 6 |d | = 6

2

2

2

6

6

1 + 2 +1

^

i 2j 1 ^ 2 ^

24. (5) : Here a =

i

j

=

5

5

5

2

1 4

1

2

|a | =

+

=

+ =1

5

5

5 5

2 i^ + ^j + 3 k^

2 ^

1 ^

3 ^

and b =

i+

j+

k

=

14

14

14

14

2

2

2

2

1

3

|b | =

+

+

=1

14

14

14

^

^

^ ^

^

( i 2 j) (2 i + j + 3 k )

Now, a b =

=0

5 14

= (2a + b ) [(a a )b (a b )a 2(b a )b + 2(b b )a]

= (2a + b ) [| a |2 b + 2 | b |2 a]

( a = 1, b = 1)

= (2a + b ) (b + 2a ) = (2a + b )2

= 4 | a |2 + | b |2 = 4 + 1 = 5

a 1

2a

2a

=

e = 2a

0=

+1

= 1

e 2

e

e

PaPer-ii

when 0 x < 1

{ x,0,when

1 x < 0

0, when x I

(b) f(x) = [x] + [x] = 1, when x I

and f(0) = 0, so f(x) is not continuous at x = 0

sin x

= 1 and f (0) = 0

x 0

x 0 x

So f(x) is not continuous at x = 0

(d) f(x) = |x| |sinx|, f(1) = f(1)

x sinx, 0 x 1

and f(x) =

x + sinx, 1 x < 0

\ f(x) is both continuous and differentiable at x = 0.

2. (a)

3. (d) : We know that equation of bisector of vectors

^

are respectively a , b and c is r = a + t (b c^).

Here A is origin, thus the required equation is

^

^

^ ^ ^

^

i + 3 j 2 k 3i + j 2 k

r =t

14

14

^

^

^

^

^

r=

(4 i + 4 j 4 k )

(2 i + 2 j) or r =

14

14

At t =

14

^ ^ ^

, the second bisector is i + j k .

4

4. (c)

5. (d) : The shortest distance between

r = a + sb and r = c + td is

|(c a ) (b d )|

|b d |

^ ^ ^

^

^

^

Here a = ( i + j + k), b = 2 i + 3 j + 4 k

^

^

^

^

c = i, d = 3 i + 4 j + 5k

MatheMatics tODaY | January 15

85

^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^

Now, c a = i + i + j + k = j + k

^

i j k

^

^ ^

b d = 2 3 4 =i +2jk

3 4 5

and | b d | = 1 + 4 + 1 = 6

\ The required distance is

^

^ ^

(0 i + j + k) ( i + 2 j k)

0 + 2 1

6

6

6

3

2

6. (d ): Let f(x) = ax + bx + cx + d

Since f (x) has minimum at x = 1

\ f (1) = 0 6a + 2b = 0 3a + b = 0

Again f(x) has maximum at x = 1

f (1) = 0 3a 2b + c = 0

3a + 6a + c = 0 9a + c = 0 c = 9a

\ f(x) = 3ax2 6ax 9a = 3a(x2 2x 3)

= 3a (x + 1)(x 3)

\ f(x) has minimum at x = 3.

dy

=t

7. (d) : Let x = 3t2 and y = 2t3

dx

Equation of the tangent at t is

y 2t3 = t(x 3t2) tx y = t3

...(i)

The normal at t1 is

1

y 2t13 = (x 3t12 )

t1

t1y + x = 2t14 + 3t12

...(ii)

(i) & (ii) are identical.

1

t 3 = 2t13 + 3t1 and t1 =

t

Therefore, we get t 2 = 2, t = 2

The lines are y = 2 (x 2)

x

8. (c) : g (x ) = 2 f + f (2 x )

2

x

g (x ) = f f (2 x )

2

x

x

Now g (x ) > 0 if f > f (2 x )

<2x

2

2

[Q f (x) is a decreasing function, as f (x) < 0]

4

3x < 4 x <

3

4

Thus, if x 0, , g(x) increases.

3

86 MatheMatics tODaY | January 15

9. (c) : Here BC = CD = DA = 2.

Draw CE parallel to DA.

ABC = q

EB = 4cosq,

AB = 2 + 4cosq

1

\ Area A = ( AB + DC )CM

2

1

= (2 + 4 cos + 2)2 sin = 4(1 + cos ) sin

2

A = 4sinq + 2sin2q

dA

= 0 4 cos + 4 cos2 = 0 =

d

3

2

2

d A

Now,

= (4 sin + 8 sin 2) , d A

<0

2

d

d2 =

\ The area is maximum at =

1 3

A max = 4 1 +

= 3 3.

2 2

.

3

x 1 y + 3 z 2

=

=

1

3

2

Any point on PQ has coordinates (1 + r, 3 + 3r, 2 + 2r)

Since Q is a point on the plane x + y 3z = 0

\ 1 + r 3 + 3r 3(2 + 2r) = 0 r = 4

\ Q (3, 15, 6)

11. (a, c) : The volume is given by

V = (15a 2x)(8a 2x)x

And it is given that volume

V is maximum at x = 5 i.e.,

2x = 10. We have,

t

V(t) = (15a t)(8a t)

2

1

= (t 3 23at 2 + 120a2t )

2

dV 1 2

dt 2

dV

Now

= 0 120a2 460a + 300 = 0

dt t = 10

6a2 23a + 15 = 0 (6a 5)(a 3) = 0

5

\ a = 3,

6

Also,

d 2V

1

= {6t 46a} = 3t 23a

dt 2 2

Since

d 2V

<0

dt 2 t= 10, a = 3

\ V is maximum at a = 3. Thus the sides are 24 and 45.

12. (a, b, d) :

It cuts the x-axis at P(1, 0) and Q(1, 0)

Equation of a circle with Q(1, 0) as centre and radius

r is (x 1)2 + (y 0)2 = r2, r being the variable

i.e. x2 + y2 2x + (1 r2) = 0, (0 < r < 2)

...(ii)

Solving (i) and (ii), we get

x=

2 r2

2

, y=

r 4 r2

2

2

2 r2 r 4 r

,

But R is above the x-axis. R

2

2

Now SQ = r, MR = ordinate of R =

1 r 4r

Area of QRS = r

2

2

=

r2 4 r2

, =

r 4 r2

r 4 (4 r 2 )

4

16

2

dA 1

d

A

1

= (16r 3 6r 5 ),

= (48r 2 30r 4 )

dr 16

dr 2 16

For maximum or minimum dA = 0 r 2 = 8

dr

3

2

d A

1

8

64

= 48 30 < 0

2

8

16

3

9

dr r =

\ A is maximum and D is maximum at r =

1 8

max . =

2 3

8

3 =4 3

2

9

at x = 1 \ y = a + b + c and y = 1 a + b + c = 1

dy

Also,

= 2ax + b

dx

dy

dx x = 1

Now, f(x) = ax2 + bx + c f (x) = 2ax + b and

f (x) = 2a

\ f(0) = c, f (0) = b, f (0) = 2a, f (1) = 2a + b = 1

But a + b + c = 1 2a + 2b + 2c = 2

1 + b + 2c = 2 2c = 1 b

15. (a, c)

16. (c) : L1 : 2x 2y + 3z 2 = 0 = x y + z + 1

L2 : x + 2y z 3 = 0 = 3x y + 2z 1

The above two equations in symmetric form are

5

8

x

y

x +5 y z 4

z

7

7

=

and

=

= =

3

5

7

1

1

0

= A (say )

f(2) = 18 \ 8a + 4b + 2c + d = 18

...(i)

Again, f(1) = 1 \ a + b + c + d = 1

...(ii)

and f(x) has local maximum at x = 1

\ f (1) = 0 3a 2b + c = 0

...(iii)

Moreover f (x) has local minimum at x = 0

f (0) = 0 b = 0

...(iv)

Solving (i), (ii), (iii) and (iv), we get

17

1

f (x ) = (19 x 3 57 x + 34) f (0) =

2

4

57 2

Also, f (x ) = (x 1) > 0, x > 1

4

Also f (x) = 0 x = 1, 1

f (1) < 0, f (1) > 0 x = 1 is a point of local

maximum and x = 1 is a point of local minimum.

f(x) is increasing f (x) 0 x2 1 0

x 1 or x 1.

\ Distance between (1, 2) and (1, f(1)) i.e. (1, 1)

is 13 .

8

.

3

x +5 y z 4

1

1

0 = 7 x 7 y + 8z + 3 = 0 ...(i)

3

5 7

\ The distance of plane (i) from the origin

3

1

=

=

.

162 3 2

MatheMatics tODaY | January 15

87

and L2 is given by

8

5

( 5, , 4) and 3 + , 5 + , 7

7

7

respectively, where l and m are real parameters. If

the above two straight lines intersect, then for some

l and m we must have,

8

5

...(ii)

5 = 3 +

...(i), = 5 +

7

7

4 = 7m

...(iii)

4

From (iii), we get =

7

4

Putting = in (ii), we get l = 4

7

Putting these values of l and m in (i), we get

4 5

L.H.S = 1, R.H.S = 3 + = 1

7 7

Therefore two lines intersect each other.

Hence the point of intersection is P(1, 4, 4)

\ OP = 33

18. (d)

19. (c)

Similarly AP2 = (1)2 + 22 = 5

and AR2 = 12 + (1)2 = 2

5+5+2

A.M. =

=4

3

21. (b) : P (1, 0, 0), Q(0, 1, 0), R(0, 0, 2)

Any plane through P is

a(x 1) + b(y 0) + c(z 0) = 0

It passes through Q

a(0 1) + b(1 0) + c(0 0) = 0

It passes through R

a(0 1) + b(0 0) + c(2 0) = 0

\ The equation of the plane PQR is

x 1 y z

1 1 0 = 0

1

0 2

2(x 1) y(2) + z(0 1) = 0

2x 2y + z = 2

22. (b) : ( ) = ( )

= (b c ) [(c a ) (a b )]

88 MatheMatics tODaY | January 15

= (b c ) [((c a ) b ) a ((c a ) a )b ]

= (b c ) [c a b ] a = [b c a][c a b ]

= [c a b ][c a b ] = [a b c ][a b c ]

\ ( ) = [a b c ]2

23. (c) : [ ]

= ( ) (( ) ( ))

= ( ) {(( ) ) (( ) )}

= ( ) [ ]

= [ ][ ] = [ ][ ]

2 2

= [ ]2 = {[a b c ] } = [a b c ]4

24. A r, B s, C p, D q

(A) Volume of a parallelopiped determined by

vectors a , b , c is 2.

[a b c ] = 2

[2 (a b ) 3(b c ) (c a )] = 6 [a b c]2 = 6 4 = 24

(B) [a b c ] = 5

[3(a + b ) (b + c ) 2(c + a )]

= 3(a + b ) ((b + c ) 2(c + a ))

= 6(a + b ) ((b c ) + (b a ) + (c c ) + (c a ))

= 6(a + b ) ((b c ) + (b a ) + (c a ))

= 6(a (b c ) + a (b a ) + a (c a )

+ b (b c ) + b (b a ) + b (c a ))

= 6 2[a b c ] = 12[a b c ] = 12 5 = 60

1

| a b | = 20

2

1

1

|(2a + 3b ) (a b )| = | 3(b a ) 2 (a b )|

2

2

1

1

= 3(a b ) 2(a b ) = 5| a b |

2

2

= 5 20 = 100

(D) | a b | = 30

|(a + b ) a | = | b a | = | a b | = | a b | = 30

(C) Since area of triangle =

25. A r; B p; C q; D s

nn

PaPer-1

sectiOn-i

Multiple CorreCt ChoiCe type

this section contains 10 multiple choice questions. each

question has four choices (a), (b), (c) and (d) out of which

oNe or More may be correct.

| x 3 |, x 1

2

is

1. The function f (x ) = x

3x 13

1

+

,

x

<

4

2 4

(a) continuous at x = 1

(b) derivable at x = 1

(c) not derivable at x = 1 (d) not derivable at x = 3

2. The solutions of the quadratic equation

(3|x| 3)2 = |x| + 7, which belongs to the domain of

definition of the function y = (x 4)x is/are

1

1

(a)

(b)

2 (c)

2 (d)

9

9

3. Which of the following functions (is) are

injective maps?

(a) f(x) = |x + 1|, x [1, )

1

(b) g(x) = x + , x (0, )

x

(c) h(x) =x2 + 4x 5, x (0, )

(d) k(x) = ex, x [0, )

x +2

, then

x 1

g(1) = 3

(b) x = g(y)

y increases with x for x > 1

g is a rational function of x

For all x (0, 1)

ex < 1 + x

(b) loge(1 + x) < x

sin x > x

(d) loge x > x

4. Let y = g (x ) =

(a)

(c)

(d)

5.

(a)

(c)

f(x + y) = f(x)f(y) for all x, y R and f(x) 0

for any x in R. Let function be differentiable at

x = 0 and f (0) = 2. Then

(a) f(x) is continuous at x = 0.

(b) f(x) is not differentiable at infinitely many points.

(c) f(x) = e2x

(d) None of these

7.

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

continuous everywhere.

not differentiable at an infinite number of points.

differentiable nowhere.

not differentiable at x = 0.

equal to x. If f(x) = [x sinpx], then f(x) is

(a) continuous at x = 0

(b) continuous in (1, 0)

(c) differentiable at x = 1

(d) differentiable in (1, 1)

9. If f(x) = 1 + 2sinx + 2cos2x, 0 x p/2, then f(x) is

(a) greatest at x = p/6

(b) least at x = p/6

(c) increasing in 0, and decreasing in

6

,

6 2

(d) least at x = 0 and x = p/2

2

2

(a) f(x) has a point of inflexion if l = 0

(b) f(x) has exactly one point of maximum and

exactly one point of minimum if |l| < 3/2

10. If f(x) = sin3x + l sin2x,

By : Vidyalankar Institute, Pearl Centre, Senapati Bapat Marg, Dadar (W), Mumbai - 28. Tel.: (022) 24306367

MatheMatics tODaY | January 15

89

exactly one point of minimum if

3 3

, 0 0,

2 2

equal to x, is

a cos x b sin x

15. The derivative of tan 1

is at

b cos x + a sin x

x = is k 5, if k =

3

sectiOn-ii

16. If f(x) = |cosx sinx|, then f is equal to

2

this section contains 10 questions. each question,

17.

If

f(x

+

y)

=

f(x)f(y)

for

all

x

and

y and f(5) = 2,

when worked out will result in one integer from 0 to 9

(both inclusive).

f (0) = 3, then f (5) is equal to

18. A food company produces x quality A and y

sin x

11. lim

, where [] denotes the greatest

quality

B items per day, where y(5 x) = 10(4 x),

x 0 x

0 x 4. If the profit on each quality A item is twice

integer function is

the profit on quality B item, then the most profitable

12. Consider the function f(x) = x |x x2|, 1 x number of quality A items per day to manufacture is

2. Find the number of points of non-differentiability of

2 | x 2 + 5x + 6 |, x 2

f(x) for x [1, 2]

,

19. If f (x ) =

2

+

=

,

a

x

1

2

2

2

2

2

13. lim

= , then the minimum value of |a| so that f(x) has

x 0

x + 4 2

maxima at x = 2 is

sin

20.

From a fixed point A on the circumference

where k =

fall on the tangent at P. The maximum area of the

| x |3 x 3

, DAPY is 3 3 r 2 , for k =

14. The left hand limit of f (x ) =

3

3

k

PaPer-2

sectiOn-i

this section contains 10 multiple choice questions. each

question has four choices (a), (b), (c) and (d) for its answer,

out of which oNly oNe is correct.

1.

lim

x n+1 (n + 1)x + n

2

(x 1)

x 1

(c) n + 1

lim

x 0

3

5

3

(c)

5

(a)

tan x ln(1 + 3x )

(tan 1 x )2 e 5

4.

n(n +1)

(b)

2

3n

(d)

2

(a) n(n + 1)

2.

n

x

3. Value of lim cos is

2i

n

i =1

(a) sinx

(b) (sinx)/x

(c) x/sinx

(d) 1

(b) 1

(d) 0

x 0

(a) n

(b) n2

5. If y = sinx, then

(c) 0

2

d cos x

dy 2

(d) 1

is equal to

(b) 35cos3x + 42cos5x

(c) 42cos3x 35cos5x

(d) 35cos3x 42cos5x

1

6. If 5f(x) + 3f = x + 2 and y = x f(x), then

x

dy

is equal to

dx x=1

(a) 14

(b) 1

(c) 1

(d) 7/8

x

x

and g (x ) =

where 0 < x 1,

sin x

tan x

then in this interval

(a) both f(x) and g(x) are increasing functions

(b) both f(x) and g(x) are decreasing functions

(c) f(x) is an increasing function

(d) None of these

8. A square piece of tin of side 18 cm is to be made

into a box without top, by cutting a square from

each corner and folding up the flaps to form the

box. The maximum possible volume of the box is

given by (in cm2)

(a) 420

(b) 338

(c) 432

(d) None of these

x

9. The function f (x ) =

has

1 + x tan x

(a) one point of minimum in the interval (0, p/2)

(b) one point of maximum in the interval (0, p/2)

(c) no point of maximum, no point of minimum in the

interval (0, p/2)

(d) two points of maxima in the interval (0, p/2).

7. If f (x ) =

10. lim

f (2h + 2 + h2 ) f (2)

f (h h2 + 1) f (1)

and f (1) = 4

(a) does not exist

(b) is equal to 3/2

(c) is equal to 3/2

(d) is equal to 3

h0

sectiOn-ii

paragraph type

this section contains 3 paragraphs. Based upon each of

the paragraphs 3 multiple choice questions have to be

answered. each of these questions has four choices (a),

(b), (c) and (d) out of which oNly oNe is correct.

In calculus, the derivative of any function y = f(x) is

f ( x + h) f ( x )

defined as Df (x ) = lim

h 0

h

Now instead, of this usual definition of derivative

Df(x), define a new kind of derivative D*f(x), which

can be calculated by the formula

f 2 ( x + h) f 2 ( x )

D * f (x ) = lim

,where f 2(x) = (f(x))2.

h 0

h

x

11. If f (x ) =

; then D*f(x) is

ln x

ln x 1

2 x(ln x 1)

(a)

(b)

2

(ln x )

(ln x )

(c)

2 x(ln x 1)

(d)

2 x(ln x 1)

(ln x )

(ln x )3

12. If function g(x) = xx, then D*g(x)|x=1 is

(a) 1

(b) 2ee

(c) 2

(d) Not defined

Paragraph for Q. No. 13 and 14

Given a function g which has a derivative g(x)

for every real x and which satisfy g(0) = 2 and

g(x + y) = ey g(x) + exg(y) for all x and y.

13. The function g(x) is

(a) x(2 + xex)

(c) 2x ex

(b) x(ex + 1)

(d) x + ln(x + 1)

2

(a) R

(b) ,

e

1

(c) ,

(d) [0, )

e

Paragraph for Q. No. 15 and 16

Consider a function defined in [2, 2] is

f(x) = {x},

2 x < 1

= |sgn(x)|, 1 x 1

= {x},

1 < x 2, where {x} denotes the

fractional part function

15. The function f(x) is continuous at

(a) x = 2

(b) x = 3/2

(c) x = 1

(d) All of these

16. The total number of points of discontinuity of

f(x) in x [2, 2] are

(a) 1

(b) 3

(c) 4

(d) infinite

sectiOn-iii

MatChiNg liSt type (oNly oNe optioN CorreCt)

this section contains 4 questions, each having two

matching lists. Choices for the correct combination of

elements from list-i and list-ii are given as options (a),

(b), (c) and (d), out of which oNe is correct.

Column I

Column II

(P) Period of the function 1. p/2

f(x) = |sin(cos x)| + cos(sin x)

(Q) Period of the function 2. cant be

f(x) = [sin(4x)] + |cos 4x|

determined

([] denotes the greatest

integer function)

MatheMatics tODaY | January 15

91

be such that f(x) = px

[px], where [] denotes the

greatest function, then the

period of the function f

1(x)

(R)

(S)

min.{sin x, |x|}

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

P

1

4

1

1

Q

2

1

2

4

18. If

R

1

2

4

2

L = lim

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

S

1

3

3

3

Column I

2

a sin x bx + cx + x

x 0 2 x 2

log(1 + x ) 2 x + x

and is

(P)

(Q) c

2. 6

(S)

4.

{0, 1}

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

S

4

3

2

3

P

3

2

1

4

Q

1

1

2

1

R

4

2

4

2

S

2

3

3

3

Answers Keys

Column II

radius of the cylinder of

maximum value that can be

inscribed in a given sphere is

altitude of the cone of the

greatest volume which can be

inscribed in a given sphere is

92 MatheMatics tODaY | January 15

2 x +3

{0, 1}

4. 1.5

(P)

{1}

3.

Column I

2.

2

log(cos(sin x ))

(S)

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Range of

3. 12

R

1

1

4

2

x2 +4x

(R)

20 L

Q

2

4

1

4

Column II

1. {1, 2, 3}

Column II

1. 0

(R)

P

1

2

3

1

(P)

(Q) Domain of

Column I

a+b

P

1

1

1

2

sphere of radius r has the

3

minimum volume if its semi

vertical angle is q is such that

33 sin q =

The greatest value of x3y4 if 4. 11

2x + 3y = 7 and x 0, y 0.

Q R

S

2

1

1

4

2

3

2

3

4

1

4

3

1

2

1. (a, b, d)

4. (b,d)

7. (a, b, c)

10. (a, c)

13. (4) 14. (9)

18. (3) 19. (1)

paper-1

2. (c, d)

5. (b)

8. (a, b, d)

11. (0)

15. (4) 16. (1)

20. (8)

3. (a, c, d)

6. (a, c)

9. (a, c, d)

12. (2)

17. (6)

paper-2

1. (b)

7. (c)

13. (c)

19. (d)

2. (c) 3. (b)

8. (c) 9. (b)

14. (b) 15. (d)

20. (a)

10. (d) 11. (d) 12. (c)

16. (b) 17. (b) 18. (c)

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