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org/

Introduction'to

Seismic Inversion

Methods

Brian Russell

Page 4 -

ntroduction

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4.1

B.r.ian Russell

Introduction

recursire inversion alogorithmin theory, we will nowlook at the problem of

inversion. We may group the key processingproblemsinto the following

categories:

( i ) Amp

1i tu de recovery.

(i i) Vertical

resolution

improvement.

(iv)

Noise elimination.

stagesandwewill look at both deterministicamplitude

recoveryandsurface

consistent

In

the resolution

improvement

obtained in migration, using a 3-D example.Finally, wewill

consider several approaches

to noiseelimination, especially the elimination

of multi pl es.

And to arrive at an

one-dimensional model given in the previous section.

approximationof this model (that is, that each trace is a vertical,

band-limited reflectivity

function) we must carefully process our data with

these

Page 4 -

Introduction

to Seismic Inversion

Methods

Brian Russell

Downloaded 09/21/14 to 199.6.131.16. Redistribution subject to SEG license or copyright; see Terms of Use at http://library.seg.org/

DETERMINISTIC

AMPLITUDE

CORRECTIONS

,.

SURFACE-CONSI STENT

AMPt:ITUDE ANAL'YSIS

_m

mlm

SURFACE-CONS ISTENT

DECONVOLUTIO,

NFOLLOWED

BY HI GH RESOIJUTI.ON DECON

i

SURFACE-CONSISTENT

STATI CS ANAIJYSIS

VELOCITY ANAUYSIS

MULTIPLE

ATTENUATION

STACK

MI GRATI ON

,

Fig.

ll

'

Simpl

i fiedi nversi

onprocessing

flow.

4.1.

11

--

,11

Page 4 -

Downloaded 09/21/14 to 199.6.131.16. Redistribution subject to SEG license or copyright; see Terms of Use at http://library.seg.org/

4.2

BrJan Russell

Am.p'l

i tu.de..P,.ecovery

is

econstuctingthe amplJtudes

of the selsmJc

taces as they wouldhavebeenJf

thee

amplJtudes

maybe put into

three main categories'spheJcaldivergence, absorptJon,and tansmJssion

loss.

Based on a consideration of

At: AO*

(b

/ t) * exp(-at),

where

anU

Thus, if

data,

formula.

the

= time,

At = recorded

amplitude,

A0 = true ampl

i tude,

a,b

= constants.

The deterministic

to

trace

mean

there may still be subtle (or even not-so-subtle) amplitude problems

associatedwith poorsurface conditions or other factors. To compensate

for

these effects, it is often advisable to computeand apply surface-consistent

a total gain value for

each trace and then decomposing

this single value in the four components

Aij=

SixRjxG

kxMkX

j,

where A = Total amplitude factor,

M = Offset

component,

S = Shot component,

X = Offset

distance,

R:

i,j

Receiver

component,

= shot,receiver

pos.,

k = CDP position.

Page 4 -

Brian Russell

SURFACE

SUEF'A

AND

CONSIb'TEh[O{

T |tVE :

,RiL-rER

Fig.

4.2.

surface-consistent decomposition. (Mike Graul).

,

Part 4 - SeismicProcessing

Considerations

Page 4 -

Introduction

Figure 4.g

Brian Russell

statics

anti aleconvolutionproblemare similar. For the statics problem,the averaging

transform the above equation into additive form using the logarithm:

InAij=

InSi +InRj+InGk+lnkMijX.

The

statics

case. Figure 4.3, fromTaner anti Koehler (1981), showsthe effect of doing

surface consistent amplitude and statics corrections.

4.3 Imp.

rov.

ement_

o.[_Ver.

t.i.ca.1..Resoluti

on

Deconvolution

is

remove the

the equation for the convolutional model

st--wt* r t

where

rt= reflection coefficient series,

* = convolution operation.

In

the

frequency domain

S(f)

The

procedure

reflection

deconvol ution

and consists

coefficients.

W(f) x R(f)

process

of

is

simply the

reverse

of the convolution

reveal

the

rt: st* o

whereOr--operator-- inverseof wt .

,

Page 4 -

Introduction

to Seismic

Inversion

Methods

ii

Brian

Russell

11

1'

ii

'..,' ,

,"

"

"

d.

Preliminary

stack

bet'ore

surface

consistent

static

andomplilude corrections.

Fig.

4.3.

Stockwith surfaceconsistent

staticand amplitudecorrections.

surface-consi stent

corrections. (TaneranuKoehler,1981).

Page4 - 7

Introduction

Brian Russell

R(f) = W(f) x 1/W(f) .

continuing research into the problem testifies to this. There are two main

problems. Is our convolutionalmodelcorrect, and, if the modelis correct,

can we derive the

true

wavelet

from the

data?

The

comeup with so far. The main problem is in assuming

that the wavelet does

not vary with time. In our discussionwe will assumethat the time varying

problemis negligible within the zoneof interest.

ambiguousproblemof separatinga wavelet and reflectivity sequencewhenonly

the seismic trace is known. To get around this problem, all deconvolution or

the wavelet or

the

reflectivity.

There are

,

and those

which do not

make restrictive

(1) Spiking deconvolution,

(2) Predictive

deconvolution,

(4) Surface-consi stent deconvoluti on.

Page 4 -

Introduction

Brian Russell

(a)

Fig.

decon on pre-stack data. {a) Zero-phase deconvolution.

{b) Surface-consistent soikinB dconvolution.

4.4

(b),

Fig. 4.5

(a) Zero-phase aleconvolution. (b) Surface-consistent

deconvol ution.

'--'-

,t

_ _

,,

Part 4 - .Seismic

Processing

Consioerations

,_

Page4 -

Introduction

Brian Russell

(1) Wavelet estimation using a well 1og (Strat Decon).

(Hampson

and Galbraith 1981)

(2) Maximum-1ikel ihood aleconvolution.

(Chi et al,

Let

us

illustrate

the

lg84)

effectiveness

surface-consi

stent

aleconvolution.

surface-consi

stent

scheme involves

components.

di recti

ons-

must therefore

We

common

con,non offset

Referring

the

of

one

of.

to Figure 4.,

convolutional

average

source, commonreceiver,

over

four

notice

proauct

different

that

of four

geometry

the methods,

and there

shows an actual surface-consi stent case study which was aone in the following

way'

of each trace,

average autocorrel ati OhS,

inverse of each waveform, and

() iterate through this procedure to get an optimumresult.

Two points to note

looking

at

the

in the surface-consistentapproachan

the subsequent improvementof the stratigraphic

interpretability

page.

of the stack.

be comparedare

the

Page 4 -

10

Table

4-1

METHOD

Spiking

Brian Russell

WAVELET ESTIMATION

WAVELETSHAPING

Min.imum

phase assumption

Randomrefl ecti vi ty

In practice, shapedto minimum

assumptions.

phase,higherfrequencyoutput.

Predi cti ve

No assumptions about

Deconvol uti on

wavelet

Removes

short andlong period

Deconvol ution

multiples.

..1_,

Zero

Phase

Deconvol utton

Zero phaseassumption.

Randomrefl ectt vi ty

Amplitude spectrumi$

assumption.

whi tened.

Surface-cons.

Deconvolution

Randomreflecti vi ty

assumption.

Phasecharacteri s improved.

trace

methods.

Stratigraphic

No phase assumption.

Deconvol ution

Amplitude

spectrum

not

sei smi c.

whi tened.

Maximum-

No phase assumption.

L ik el i hood

Sparse-spike assumption.

Amp

1i rude spectrumi s

deconvol ution

whi tened.

Page 4

11'

Introduction

4.4

to Seismic

Lateral

Inversion

Methods

Brian

Russell

Resol uti on

Figure 4.6 for a modelstudy taken fromHerman,et al (1982). Wewill look'at

line 108, which cuts obliquely across a fault and also cuts across a reef-like

structure.

Note that

structure.

In the stacked

section we maydistinguish two types of diffractions, or lateral events which

do not represent true geology.

The first

corners at the base of the reef structure

in

diffractions,

The

is most noticeable by the appearance of energy from the second reef booy which

was not crossed. In the two-dimensional (2-D) migration, we have correctly

removed

the

2-D

out-of-the-plane

problems.

diffraction

diffractions.

The final

patterns,

but

are

The full

3-D

migration

still

bothere

the

accounted for

by

incorrectly

not been intended as a complete summaryof the migration procedure, but rather

as a warning that

structural

(a)

(b)

To remove

diffracted

Although migration

events.

lateral

resolution

in that not all of the interfering

interference,

true

one-dimensional

seismic trace,

is impossible to achieve.

Page 4 -

12

Introduction

Brian Russell

71

lol

131

101

131

(a] 3-

108

D MODEL

..................................

LINE

.............................

.........................................

....................................

{hi 880

Fig.

i

4.6.

LAYOU

mm

ml

(Herman

et al, 1982).

mm

Page 4 -

13

Introduction

4.5

Notse

Attenuation

either

Brian Russell

Random noise

is

as

a coherencyenhancement

programcan be used, which usually involves sometype

of trace mixing or FK filtering.

However,the interpreter mustbe aware that

any mixing of the data will "smear" trace amplitudes, makingthe inversion

result on a particular trace less reliable.

Coherent

noise

Two of

to eliminate.

One of

major

filtering

the

are

the FK

VeiocityStackingmethod

involvesthe followingsteps:

(1) Correct the data using the proper NMOvelocity,

(2) Model the data as a linear

components

with a moveout

greaterthansome

pre-determined

limit (in the order of 30 msec),and

(4) Perform the inverse transform.

(1986), showsa comparisonbetweenthe two

methodsfor a typical multiple problemin northernAlberta. The displays are

all' coon offset stacks.

Notice

that

well on the outside traces, the Inverse Velocity Stacking methodworks best on

(1986), showsa comparison

of

final

comparison

that the result of inverting the section whichhas not had multiple

attenuation

The

be overemphasized.

,=m__

Page -

14

Brian Russell.

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tiiti

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i)tt

iltli

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I!11111111111illl

illIiIIIIIIIIIil!111111tllilil!illlllll!111illlll

[1111111111111111111111111

III!!1111

I!111111111111111

IIIIIIIilllllllll!111111111111111111111

?111[i

IIIIIIIII

!1111111111111111

IIII!IIIiillilllllillllllllllliillllllllllllh

.,

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lllllilllllll

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:illllllllllllilitiilillit!illllll

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111lllllllllllllllllllll1111llllll

Iilllllll!ll!llll

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illllllllilllllllllllllllllllllllllii{lilllllllllllll

"fillllllllll!1111illi!111

IIIIIIIII

IIIIIII1111111111

IIIIIlillilllllll!1111!1!111111111

'

Col LINE 108 - 3-D MIGRATION

in Fg. 4.6.

Part 4 - Seismic ProcessingConsiderations

Page 4 -

15

Introduction

to Seismic

Inversion

Methods

Brian

AFTER

AFTER

F-K MULTIPLE

MULTIPLE ATTENUATION

INPUT

ATTENUATION

J. '

Russell

"

' ')'%':!!t!'!11!1'1

';.m,:'!:',./--l- r'm--

all

m#l

Fig, 4.8.

Commonoffset

stacks

calculated

attenuation,

after inverse velocity

and after F-K multiple attenuation.

(Hampson, 1986)

888

Zone d

Interest

1698

-4

Secondreal-dataset conventional

stackwithout

multiple

attenuation.

'", ......

,,t./:,.t.,.

lee

,ii%' .t

---';-'

"" ""

).

;,<,:u(:'J,.J

L,..,!I',,',

,'; ,

,

, ,

.% '.

' "'

"'"t"

1%';J

'

'

,,,,

,,, ';

t,

..'t,..'"'i'

.... -....

; -'".' ,..'....

'. 2>.': '..', ;,%"'1

'" "'

Zone of

,,, .tiill).);l',"P,')'"'".r'"mm"""P"

")r'"

,,..,.,,..,,,_.

,,.,.....,...,..,...,..,...,....,,,.,.,..

gt'

..,,,. ' '" - ..... ,

Interest

.. ,,,

,,p}h?.,.,,

r.,.

.}.U.,..,

,nm,

";'

........

,,,,

../.

,.', .'-%....

,'......._

,,,,.,.,,,,,..,

.l,

), .,

' ,,{.

,,m,l,,

.''

','...r'

....

'.""::"''""""="'"""

Fig. 4.9.

multiple attenuation.

(Hampson, 1986)

stack

Page 4 -

16

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