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Introduction

Part

## to Seismic Inversion Methods

2 - The Convolutional

Model

Brtan Russell

PART
2 - THECONVOLUTIONAL
MODEL

Page 2 -

Introduction

## to Seismic Inversion Methods

Part 2 -

Brian Russell

The Convolutional

Mooel

## The mostbasic and commonly

used one-Oimensionalmoael for the seismic
trace is referreU

to as the convolutional

source function

equation

form,

where

and

s (t)

## = the sei smic trace,

w(t)

: a seismic wavelet,

r (t)

n(t)

noise.

## An even simpler assumptionis to consiUerthe noise component

to be zero,
in which case the seismic tre is simply the convolution of a seismic wavelet
with te earth ' s refl ecti vi ty,
s(t)

In

= w{t) * r(t).

## seismic processingwe deal exclusively with digital data, that

data sampled
at a constanttime interval.

is,

If weconsiUerthe relectivity to

## zero), and the wavelet to be a smooth function in time, convolutioncan be

thoughtof as "replacing"eachreflection. coefficient with a scaledversion of
the waveletandsumming
the result. The result of this processis illustrated

coefficients.

with

is the ability

## Part 2 - The Convolutional

Model

Page

Introduction

to Seismic Inversion

Nethods

Brian Russell

WAVELET:

(a) '*

-' ':'

REFLECTIVITY

TRACE:

Figure 2.1

(a)

## Convolutionof a wavelet with a sparse"reflectivity.

(a) avelet. (b) Reflectivit.y. (c) Resu1ting Seismic Trace.

'?t

(b')

Fi ure 2.2

## Convolution of a wavelet with a sonic-derived

reflectivity.
,

Par

, ....

2 - The Convolutional

i

L_

Model

"dense"

(c) SeismicTrace

'

Page 2 -

Introduction

to Seismic

An alternate,

Inver'sion

Methods

Brian

Russell

the previous

## equati on, we may write

S(f)
where

= W(f) x R(f),

S(f) = Fouriertransform
of s(t),
W(f) = Fourier transform of w(t),
R(f) = Fourier transform of r(t),

## In the above equation we see that

ana f = frequency.

convolution becomesmultiplication

in

and it

where

I ndicates
amplitude
spectrum,
and
0

In
the

Figure 2.3

illustrates

## resolution becomesone of loss of

reOuceo by the effects

2 - The Convolutional

loss

of

Part

in

Mooel

Page ?. -

## Introduction to Seismic Inversion Methods

AMPLITUDE

Brian Russell

SPECTRA

PHASE SPECTRA

w (f)
I

-tR (f)

i i

,
i.

I
iit

loo

|11

s (f)
i

i!

Figure 2.3

Part

2 - The Convolutional

## Convolution in the frequency domain for

the time series shown in Figure 2.1.

Model

Page 2 -

Introduction

2.g

The Reflection
l_

to Seismic

,m

Inversion

Coefficient
_

m_

_,

Methods

Brian

Russell

Series
_ _

el

## 'The reflection coefficient series (or reflectivity,

as it is also called)

describedin theprevious
sectionis oneof thefundamental
physical
concepts
in the seismic method. Basically, each reflection coefficient maybe thought
of
as
the res ponse of the seismic wavelet to an acoustic impeUance change
within
the
ear th,
where acoustic impedance is defined as the proUuct of
compressi onal velocity and Uensity. Mathematically, converting from acoustic
involves dividing the difference in the acoustic
i ropedanceto re flectivity
impedances by the sum of the acoustic impeaances. This gives te
coefficient

at

## the boundary between the two layers.

reflection

The equation is as

fo11 aws:

i+lVi+l- iVi
i
where

Zi+l- Zi
i+1

r = reflection

coefficient,

/o__density,
V -- compressional velocity,
Z -- acoustic impeUance,
and

## Layer i overlies Layer i+1.

Wemust also convert from depth to time by integrating the sonic log
transit times. Figure .4 showsa schematicsonic log, density log, anU
resulting acoustic impedancefor a simplifieU

## the resultof converting

to thereflection
coefficient
seriesandintegrating
to

time.

It should be pointed out that this formula is true only for the normal
incidence case, that is, for a seismic wave striking the reflecting interface
at right angles to the beds. Later in this course, we shall consider the case
of

Part

nonnormal

inciaence.

2 - The Convolutional

Model

Page 2 -

## Introduction to Seismic Inversion Methods

STRATIGRAPHIC

Brian Russell
OENSITY

SONICLOG

SECTION

30O

4OO

loo

200

2.0

3.0

SHALE

LOG.

T (usec./mette)

.....

3600 m/s

DEPTH

SANOSTONE

. .

'I

- .. ,

!_1

v--I

UMESTONEI I I ! I ! I 1

V--3600
J

V= 6QO0

LIMESTONE

2000111

## Fig. 2.4. BoreholeLogMeasurements.

REFLECTWrrY

ACOUSTIC

VS TWO.WAY
TIME

IMPED,MCE (2

(Yocrrv
mm

,mm

mm

mm

rome

-----

V\$ OEPTH

x OEaSn
20K -.25
I

.am

Q.2S
I

-.25
v

O
'

+ .2S
I

mm

SHALE .....

OEPTH

--------'-[

SANDSTONE . . ...
!

!11

I1

UMESTONE
I I 1 I I I II
i ! I 1 i I i
SHALE .--._--.----

1000m

1000 m

--

NO

.'

LIMESTONE

- 20o0 m

2000 m

Fig.

2.5.

, ..

Creation of Reflectivity

I SECOND

Sequence.

Page 2 -

IntroductJ

derlye

Herhods

observing

Bri an Russell

is o

by

## multiplying together he sonic and density logs from a well. Wemayhen

computethe reflectivlty by using he formula shownearlier. Often, we do not
have the density log available to us and must makedo with only the sonJc. The

## approxJmatJonof velocJty to mpedance

1s a reasonable approxjmation, and

## seemsto holdwell for clas;cics and carbonates(not evaporltes, however).

Figure 2.6 showsthe sonic and reflectJvty traces from a typJcal Alberta well
after they have been Jntegrated to two-way tlme.
As we shall see later,

the type of

## aleconvolution and inversion used is

reflectivity
and wavelet. Therefore, howcan we describe the reflectivity
seen
in

well?

reflectivity

The

to be a perfectly

we consider

the

this

## autocorrelation is a spike at zero-lag.

autocorrelation are zero except the

its

## zero-lag value, as shownin the following

equati on-

t(Drt = ( 1 , 0 , 0 , .........

t
zero-lag.

Let

2.7.

autocorrelation

of

Figure

## this sequence has a large spike at

the zeroth lag, but that there is a significant noise component at nonzero
lags. To have a truly random sequence, it must be infinite in extent. Also
on this figure is shown the autocorrelation of a well
log erived

reflectivity.
Wesee that it is even less "random"than the randomspike
sequence. Wewill discuss this in more detail on the next page.

Part

2 - The Convolutional

Model

Page 2 -

IntroductJon

to Se.s=c Inversion

Methods

Bran

Russell

RFC

## Fg. 2.6. Reflectivitysequence

derivedfromsonJc
.log.

RANDOM

SPIKE SEQUENCE

AUTOCORREJATION
OF RANDOMSEQUENCE

Fig.

2.7.

AUTOCORRELATION

OF REFLECTIVITY

## Autocorrelat4ons of random and well log

der4vedspike sequences.

Part

2 - The Convolutional

Model

Page 2-

Introductlon

Methods

truly

Brian Russel 1

## random. For a typical Alberta well we see a numberof large spikes

(coresponding
to majorlithol ogic change)sticking up abovethe crowd.A good
way to describethis statistically is as a Bernoulli-Gaussian
sequence. The
Bernoulli part of this term implies a sparsenessin the positions of the
spikes and the Gaussianimplies a randomness
in their amplitudes. Whenwe
generatesuch a sequence,there is a term, lambda, which controls the
sparsenessof the spikes. For a lambdaof 0 there are no spikes, and for a
lambdaof 1, the sequence
is perfectly Gaussian in distribution. Figure 2.8
shows a number of such series for different

## typical Alberta well log reflectivity

values of lambda.

Notice that

## wouldhavea lambdavalue in the 0.1 to

0.5 range.

Part

2 - The Convolutional

Model

Page 2 -

10

Brian Russell

It

tl

11 I

LAMBD^0.01

511 t

tl

(VERY SPARSE)

11

311

4#

511 I

#1

TZIIE

LAMBDA--O.

(KS !

1,1

## ::." ';'"' "";''l'

"'r'

- "(11
I
TX#E

(HS)

LAMBDAI0.5

LAMBDA--

1.0 (GAUSSIAN:]

EXAMPLESOF REFLECTIVITIES

Fig.

2.8.

Examplesof reflectivities
factor

to be discussed

using lambda

in Part

6.

Page 2 -

11

Introduction

2.3

The Seismic
--

Brian Russell

Wavelet

m _

m _

## The assumptiontha.t there is a single, well-defined wavelet which is

convolved with the reflectivity
to producethe seismic trace is overly
simplistic. Morerealistically, the wavelet is both time-varying and complex
in shape. However,the assumptionof a simple wavelet is reasonable, and in
this

section

we shall

consider

several

types

of

wavelets

and

their

characteristics.

First,

## two troughs, or side lobes. The Ricker wavelet is dependentonly on its

dominant frequency, that is, the peak frequencyof its alitude spectrum or
the inverse of the dominantperiod in the time domain(the dominantperiod is

## found by measuringthe time from troughto trough). TwoRicker wave'lets are

shownin Figures 2.9 and 2.10 of frequencies 20 and 40 Hz. Notice that as the
anqlitude spectrumof a wavelet .is broadened,the wavelet gets narrower in the

timedomain,
indicatingan increase
of resolution.Ourultimatewaveletwould
be a spike, with a flat amplitude spectrum. Sucha wavelet is an unrealistic
goal in seismic processing, but one that is aimedfor.
The Rtcker wavelets of

Figures 2.9

and 2.10

## perfectly symmetrical. This is a desirable character.tstic of wavelets since

the energy is then concentrated at a positive peak, and the convol'ution of the
wavelet

with

a reflection

coefficient

will

better

resolve

that

reflection.

To

## get an idea of non-zero-phase wavelets, consider Figure 2.11, where a Ricker

wavelet

has been rotated by 90 degree increments, and Figure 2.12, where the

degree rotation

## simply inverts the wavelet.

Part

2 - The Convolutional

Model

Page 2-

## Introduction to Seismic Inversion Methods

Brian Russell

Fig.

2.9.

20 Hz Ricker

Wavelet'.

Fig.

.10.

40 Hz Ricker

wavelet.

Fig.

2.11.

Ricker

wavelet

rotated

by 90 degree increments

Fig.

2.12.

Ricker

wavelet

rotated

by 30 degree increments

Part

2 - The Convolutional

Model

Page 2 -

13

Introduction

to Seismic

Of course,

Inversion

a typical

filer

Methods

seismic wavelet

## shownin Figure 2.13,

would be noticeable

a larger

Consider the

range of
banapass

## where we have passed a banaof frequencies

has also had cosine tapers applied between 5

box-car.

contains

that

Brian Russell

simple

## a stratigraphic wavelet. It is often referred to as an Ormsbywavelet.

Minimum Phase Wavelets

## The concept of minimum-phaseis one that

is

vital

to aleconvolution, but

at

the

expense of

the

physical

the

interpretation.

The

this lack of

definition

we

## For a given set of wavelets, all with the sameamplitude spectrum,

the minimum-phase
waveletis the onewhichhasthe sharpest
edge. That is, only wavelets which have positive

time values.

that

## typical wavelet in dynamite work is close to minimum-phase. Also, the wavelet

from the

seismic instruments

## equivalent of the 5/15-60/80

in the aefinition

is

also

Part

As

possible.

concentrated

as

## The phase spectrum of the minimum-waveletis also shown.

2 - The Convolutional

Model

Pa.qe 2 -

14

Itroducton to Seistoic!nversionNethods.
ql

Re R

f1.38

5/15-68Y88

0.6

- e.3e

Trace

iii

...... ,

.....

'

2be
Trace

Reg 1)

BranRussell

min,l

wavelet

Fig.

Fig.

## 2.14. Minim-phase equivalent

of zero-phase wavelet
shownin Fig. 2.13.

wavelet.

/15-68/88 hz

18.00 p

Trace I

RegE

wayel

Speetnm

'188.88

Trace1

0.8

188

m,m,

Page 2-

15

Introduction

Brian Russell

function itself.

in Figure Z.5.

## The following wavelets have been used- high frequency

zero-phase (Trace ),

figure,

wavelets

From the

## (1) Low freq. zero-phase wavelet:

- Resolution of reflections

- Identification

(Trace 4)
is poor.

of onset of reflection

is good.

## (Z) High freq. zero-phase wavelet: (Trace Z)

- Resolution of reflections

- Identification

is good.

of onset of reflection

is good.

- Resolution

of reflections

i s poor.

## - Identification of onset of reflection is poor.

(4) High freq. min. phase wavelet: (Trace 3)
- Resolution of refl ec tions is good.

- Identification

of onset of reflection

is poor.

## Based on the aboveobservations, we wouldhave to consider the high

frequency,zero-phase
waveletthe best, andthe low-frequency,
minimum
phase
wavelet

Part

the

worst.

2 - The Convolutional

Model

Page 2 -

16

Introduction

!ql

RegR

to Seismic Inversion

Zer PhaseUaelet

,'1G-1

Methods

14z

Russell

q2 RegC ZeroPhase
14aue16('
' 'le-34B Hz
e

- . ['

Brian

'

,3 RecjB miniilium
phue

'

q Reg1) 'minimum
phase "

'

,leJ3e/4eh

'

17 .

e.e

(a)

//'-"v--,._,,
-r

,m

,,

Tr'oce

[b)
700

Fig.

2.15.

## Convolution of four different

in (a) with trace I of (b).
shown on traces

Part

2 - The Convolutional

Model

wavelets shown
The results are

2 to 5 of (b).

Page 2 -

17

Introduction

to Seismic Inversion

Methods

Brian Russell

ntThe situation

That is,

## we have interpreted every reflection wavelet on a seismic trace as being an

actual

reflection

from a

lithological

boundary.

Actually,

many of the

"wiggles"on a trace are not true reflections, but are actually the result
seismic noise.

of

## Seismic noise can be grouped under two categories-

(i) Random
Noise - noise which is uncorrelated from trace to trace and is
ue mainly to environmental factors.

(ii)

## is unwanted. An exampleis multiple reflection interference.

Randomnoise can be thought of as the additive componentn(t) which was

## seen in the equationon page 2-g.

Correcting for this term is the primary
reason for stackingour ata. Stackingactually uoesan excellent job of
removing ranUomnoise.

## Multiples, one of the major sources of coherent noise, are causedby

multiple "bounces"
of the seismic signal within the earth, as shownin Figure
2.16. They may be straightforward, as in multiple seafloor bouncesor
"ringing", or extremelycomplex,as typified by interbed multiples. Multiples
cannot be thoughtof as additive noise andmustbe modeledas a convolution
with the reflecti

vi ty.

Figure 2.17

shows the

theoretical

multiple

sequence which

this

data,

it

is

powerful

the

multiples

be

removed by

stacking,

but

important that

elimination

technique.

Such

techniques

If

we are

effectively

would
to

be

invert

removed.

include

stacking.

predictive

These techniques

## wil 1 be consi alered in Part 4.

Part

2 - The Convolutional

Model

Page 2 -

18

Fig.

TIME

TIME

[sec)

[sec)

0.7

REFLECTION
COEFFICIENT

SERIES

Fig.

Brian Russell

2.17.

0.7

R.C.S.
WITH

ALL

MULTIPLES

2.5.

with

Page 2 -

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