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org/

Introduction

Part

2 - The Convolutional

Model

Brtan Russell

PART

2 - THECONVOLUTIONAL

MODEL

Page 2 -

Introduction

Downloaded 09/21/14 to 199.6.131.16. Redistribution subject to SEG license or copyright; see Terms of Use at http://library.seg.org/

Part 2 -

Brian Russell

The Convolutional

Mooel

used one-Oimensionalmoael for the seismic

trace is referreU

to as the convolutional

source function

equation

form,

where

and

s (t)

w(t)

: a seismic wavelet,

r (t)

n(t)

: additive

noise.

to be zero,

in which case the seismic tre is simply the convolution of a seismic wavelet

with te earth ' s refl ecti vi ty,

s(t)

In

= w{t) * r(t).

data sampled

at a constanttime interval.

is,

If weconsiUerthe relectivity to

thoughtof as "replacing"eachreflection. coefficient with a scaledversion of

the waveletandsumming

the result. The result of this processis illustrated

coefficients.

with

is the ability

Model

Page

Introduction

to Seismic Inversion

Nethods

Brian Russell

WAVELET:

Downloaded 09/21/14 to 199.6.131.16. Redistribution subject to SEG license or copyright; see Terms of Use at http://library.seg.org/

(a) '*

-' ':'

REFLECTIVITY

TRACE:

Figure 2.1

(a)

(a) avelet. (b) Reflectivit.y. (c) Resu1ting Seismic Trace.

'?t

(b')

Fi ure 2.2

reflectivity.

,

Par

, ....

2 - The Convolutional

i

L_

Model

"dense"

(c) SeismicTrace

'

Page 2 -

Introduction

to Seismic

An alternate,

Inver'sion

Methods

Brian

Russell

the previous

Downloaded 09/21/14 to 199.6.131.16. Redistribution subject to SEG license or copyright; see Terms of Use at http://library.seg.org/

S(f)

where

= W(f) x R(f),

S(f) = Fouriertransform

of s(t),

W(f) = Fourier transform of w(t),

R(f) = Fourier transform of r(t),

ana f = frequency.

convolution becomesmultiplication

in

and it

where

I ndicates

amplitude

spectrum,

and

0

In

the

Figure 2.3

illustrates

reOuceo by the effects

2 - The Convolutional

loss

of

Part

in

Mooel

Page ?. -

AMPLITUDE

Brian Russell

SPECTRA

PHASE SPECTRA

w (f)

I

-tR (f)

i i

,

i.

I

iit

loo

|11

s (f)

i

i!

Figure 2.3

Part

2 - The Convolutional

the time series shown in Figure 2.1.

Model

Page 2 -

Introduction

2.g

The Reflection

l_

to Seismic

,m

Inversion

Coefficient

_

m_

_,

Methods

Brian

Russell

Series

_ _

el

as it is also called)

describedin theprevious

sectionis oneof thefundamental

physical

concepts

in the seismic method. Basically, each reflection coefficient maybe thought

of

as

the res ponse of the seismic wavelet to an acoustic impeUance change

within

the

ear th,

where acoustic impedance is defined as the proUuct of

compressi onal velocity and Uensity. Mathematically, converting from acoustic

involves dividing the difference in the acoustic

i ropedanceto re flectivity

impedances by the sum of the acoustic impeaances. This gives te

coefficient

at

reflection

The equation is as

fo11 aws:

i+lVi+l- iVi

i

where

Zi+l- Zi

i+1

r = reflection

coefficient,

/o__density,

V -- compressional velocity,

Z -- acoustic impeUance,

and

Wemust also convert from depth to time by integrating the sonic log

transit times. Figure .4 showsa schematicsonic log, density log, anU

resulting acoustic impedancefor a simplifieU

to thereflection

coefficient

seriesandintegrating

to

time.

It should be pointed out that this formula is true only for the normal

incidence case, that is, for a seismic wave striking the reflecting interface

at right angles to the beds. Later in this course, we shall consider the case

of

Part

nonnormal

inciaence.

2 - The Convolutional

Model

Page 2 -

STRATIGRAPHIC

Brian Russell

OENSITY

SONICLOG

SECTION

30O

4OO

loo

200

2.0

3.0

SHALE

LOG.

T (usec./mette)

.....

3600 m/s

DEPTH

SANOSTONE

. .

'I

- .. ,

!_1

v--I

UMESTONEI I I ! I ! I 1

V--3600

J

V= 6QO0

LIMESTONE

2000111

REFLECTWrrY

ACOUSTIC

VS TWO.WAY

TIME

IMPED,MCE (2

(Yocrrv

mm

,mm

mm

mm

rome

-----

V$ OEPTH

x OEaSn

20K -.25

I

.am

Q.2S

I

-.25

v

O

'

+ .2S

I

mm

SHALE .....

OEPTH

--------'-[

SANDSTONE . . ...

!

!11

I1

UMESTONE

I I 1 I I I II

i ! I 1 i I i

SHALE .--._--.----

1000m

1000 m

--

NO

.'

LIMESTONE

- 20o0 m

2000 m

Fig.

2.5.

, ..

Creation of Reflectivity

I SECOND

Sequence.

Page 2 -

IntroductJ

derlye

Herhods

observing

Bri an Russell

is o

by

computethe reflectivlty by using he formula shownearlier. Often, we do not

have the density log available to us and must makedo with only the sonJc. The

1s a reasonable approxjmation, and

Figure 2.6 showsthe sonic and reflectJvty traces from a typJcal Alberta well

after they have been Jntegrated to two-way tlme.

As we shall see later,

the type of

reflectivity

and wavelet. Therefore, howcan we describe the reflectivity

seen

in

well?

reflectivity

The

traditional

to be a perfectly

we consider

the

this

autocorrelation are zero except the

its

equati on-

t(Drt = ( 1 , 0 , 0 , .........

t

zero-lag.

Let

2.7.

autocorrelation

of

Figure

the zeroth lag, but that there is a significant noise component at nonzero

lags. To have a truly random sequence, it must be infinite in extent. Also

on this figure is shown the autocorrelation of a well

log erived

reflectivity.

Wesee that it is even less "random"than the randomspike

sequence. Wewill discuss this in more detail on the next page.

Part

2 - The Convolutional

Model

Page 2 -

IntroductJon

to Se.s=c Inversion

Methods

Bran

Russell

RFC

derivedfromsonJc

.log.

RANDOM

SPIKE SEQUENCE

AUTOCORREJATION

OF RANDOMSEQUENCE

Fig.

2.7.

AUTOCORRELATION

OF REFLECTIVITY

der4vedspike sequences.

Part

2 - The Convolutional

Model

Page 2-

Introductlon

Methods

Downloaded 09/21/14 to 199.6.131.16. Redistribution subject to SEG license or copyright; see Terms of Use at http://library.seg.org/

truly

Brian Russel 1

(coresponding

to majorlithol ogic change)sticking up abovethe crowd.A good

way to describethis statistically is as a Bernoulli-Gaussian

sequence. The

Bernoulli part of this term implies a sparsenessin the positions of the

spikes and the Gaussianimplies a randomness

in their amplitudes. Whenwe

generatesuch a sequence,there is a term, lambda, which controls the

sparsenessof the spikes. For a lambdaof 0 there are no spikes, and for a

lambdaof 1, the sequence

is perfectly Gaussian in distribution. Figure 2.8

shows a number of such series for different

values of lambda.

Notice that

0.5 range.

Part

2 - The Convolutional

Model

Page 2 -

10

Brian Russell

It

tl

11 I

LAMBD^0.01

511 t

tl

(VERY SPARSE)

11

311

4#

511 I

#1

TZIIE

LAMBDA--O.

(KS !

1,1

"'r'

- "(11

I

TX#E

(HS)

LAMBDAI0.5

LAMBDA--

1.0 (GAUSSIAN:]

EXAMPLESOF REFLECTIVITIES

Fig.

2.8.

Examplesof reflectivities

factor

to be discussed

using lambda

in Part

6.

Page 2 -

11

Introduction

2.3

The Seismic

--

Brian Russell

Wavelet

m _

m _

convolved with the reflectivity

to producethe seismic trace is overly

simplistic. Morerealistically, the wavelet is both time-varying and complex

in shape. However,the assumptionof a simple wavelet is reasonable, and in

this

section

we shall

consider

several

types

of

wavelets

and

their

characteristics.

First,

dominant frequency, that is, the peak frequencyof its alitude spectrum or

the inverse of the dominantperiod in the time domain(the dominantperiod is

shownin Figures 2.9 and 2.10 of frequencies 20 and 40 Hz. Notice that as the

anqlitude spectrumof a wavelet .is broadened,the wavelet gets narrower in the

timedomain,

indicatingan increase

of resolution.Ourultimatewaveletwould

be a spike, with a flat amplitude spectrum. Sucha wavelet is an unrealistic

goal in seismic processing, but one that is aimedfor.

The Rtcker wavelets of

Figures 2.9

and 2.10

the energy is then concentrated at a positive peak, and the convol'ution of the

wavelet

with

a reflection

coefficient

will

better

resolve

that

reflection.

To

wavelet

has been rotated by 90 degree increments, and Figure 2.12, where the

degree rotation

Part

2 - The Convolutional

Model

Page 2-

Brian Russell

Fig.

2.9.

20 Hz Ricker

Wavelet'.

Fig.

.10.

40 Hz Ricker

wavelet.

Fig.

2.11.

Ricker

wavelet

rotated

by 90 degree increments

Fig.

2.12.

Ricker

wavelet

rotated

by 30 degree increments

Part

2 - The Convolutional

Model

Page 2 -

13

Introduction

to Seismic

Of course,

Inversion

a typical

filer

Methods

seismic wavelet

would be noticeable

a larger

Consider the

range of

banapass

has also had cosine tapers applied between 5

box-car.

contains

that

Brian Russell

simple

Minimum Phase Wavelets

is

vital

to aleconvolution, but

at

the

expense of

the

physical

the

interpretation.

The

this lack of

definition

we

the minimum-phase

waveletis the onewhichhasthe sharpest

leading

edge. That is, only wavelets which have positive

time values.

that

from the

seismic instruments

in the aefinition

is

also

Part

As

possible.

concentrated

as

2 - The Convolutional

Model

Pa.qe 2 -

14

Itroducton to Seistoic!nversionNethods.

ql

Re R

f1.38

5/15-68Y88

0.6

- e.3e

Trace

iii

...... ,

.....

'

2be

Trace

Reg 1)

BranRussell

min,l

wavelet

Fig.

Fig.

of zero-phase wavelet

shownin Fig. 2.13.

wavelet.

/15-68/88 hz

18.00 p

Trace I

RegE

wayel

Speetnm

'188.88

Trace1

0.8

188

m,m,

Page 2-

15

Introduction

Brian Russell

Downloaded 09/21/14 to 199.6.131.16. Redistribution subject to SEG license or copyright; see Terms of Use at http://library.seg.org/

function itself.

in Figure Z.5.

zero-phase (Trace ),

figure,

wavelets

From the

- Resolution of reflections

- Identification

(Trace 4)

is poor.

of onset of reflection

is good.

- Resolution of reflections

- Identification

is good.

of onset of reflection

is good.

- Resolution

of reflections

i s poor.

(4) High freq. min. phase wavelet: (Trace 3)

- Resolution of refl ec tions is good.

- Identification

of onset of reflection

is poor.

frequency,zero-phase

waveletthe best, andthe low-frequency,

minimum

phase

wavelet

Part

the

worst.

2 - The Convolutional

Model

Page 2 -

16

Introduction

!ql

RegR

to Seismic Inversion

Zer PhaseUaelet

,'1G-1

Methods

14z

Russell

q2 RegC ZeroPhase

14aue16('

' 'le-34B Hz

e

- . ['

Brian

'

,3 RecjB miniilium

phue

'

q Reg1) 'minimum

phase "

'

,leJ3e/4eh

'

17 .

e.e

(a)

//'-"v--,._,,

-r

,m

,,

Tr'oce

[b)

700

Fig.

2.15.

in (a) with trace I of (b).

shown on traces

Part

2 - The Convolutional

Model

wavelets shown

The results are

2 to 5 of (b).

Page 2 -

17

Introduction

to Seismic Inversion

Methods

Brian Russell

ntThe situation

That is,

actual

reflection

from a

lithological

boundary.

Actually,

many of the

"wiggles"on a trace are not true reflections, but are actually the result

seismic noise.

of

(i) Random

Noise - noise which is uncorrelated from trace to trace and is

ue mainly to environmental factors.

(ii)

Randomnoise can be thought of as the additive componentn(t) which was

Correcting for this term is the primary

reason for stackingour ata. Stackingactually uoesan excellent job of

removing ranUomnoise.

multiple "bounces"

of the seismic signal within the earth, as shownin Figure

2.16. They may be straightforward, as in multiple seafloor bouncesor

"ringing", or extremelycomplex,as typified by interbed multiples. Multiples

cannot be thoughtof as additive noise andmustbe modeledas a convolution

with the reflecti

vi ty.

Figure 2.17

shows the

theoretical

multiple

sequence which

this

data,

it

is

powerful

the

multiples

be

removed by

stacking,

but

important that

elimination

technique.

Such

techniques

If

we are

effectively

would

to

be

invert

removed.

include

stacking.

predictive

These techniques

Part

2 - The Convolutional

Model

Page 2 -

18

Fig.

TIME

TIME

[sec)

[sec)

0.7

REFLECTION

COEFFICIENT

SERIES

Fig.

Brian Russell

2.17.

0.7

R.C.S.

WITH

ALL

MULTIPLES

2.5.

with

Page 2 -

19

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