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REPORT On

Banking Industry Bangladesh

SUBMITTED BY
Group-4, Section- A

Bank Fund
Management

Date of Submission:
8/12/2015

Table of Content
1.
2.
3.
4.

Introduction .
Review of previous empirical literature ..
Banking Industry in Bangladesh ...
Major problem faced by Bangladesh Banking industry
a. Low quality of assets..
b. Lack of good governance, accountability and transparency..
c. Inadequacy of effective risk management system..
5. Possible strategies to overcome banking sector problems .
6. Data and method of analysis...
7. Empirical results and discussion
8. Recommendations
9. Conclusion.
10. References.

Introduction
2

1
5
7
8
9
9
10
12
13
26
27
28
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The study focuses on banking system in Bangladesh. Banking sector as the major sector
contribute to the national economy. The business of banking is expanding in Bangladesh and
the activities of bank are being explored to serve the clients. The study has been made based on
using information taken from annual reports of Government Banks, the Commercial Banks,
Islamic Banks and Foreign banks, and information taken from different journal, articles,
publication paper, and other sources. Banking Industry Bangladesh is going through some
problems among which some are long term, some are medium term and some are short terms.
In this study we have tried to find out those problems along with the solutions for them. And
for this purpose first we have gone through some previous literature and then we have done
our analysis to find out the best result. Though banks have some secret issues and it is not
possible for the researcher to go through them but here we have tried our level best to find out
the true picture of Bangladesh banking industry
.

Banking Industry in Bangladesh:


Banks are among the most important sources of short term working capital for businesses and
have become increasingly active in recent years in making long-term business loans .The main
function of a commercial bank is to mobilize deposits and to provide loans to people and
organizations to finance their consumptions and business activities. Thus banks encourage the
flow of money to productive use and investment which accelerates the flow of economic growth
and the economy of Bangladesh has been growing gradually and as such it needs the support
of a financial structure. Banking industry in Bangladesh up to now is leading the financial
system. Based on the time of inception all the commercial banks have been divided into three
generations. Banks of all the three generations are introducing new and new products to meet
the dimensional demands of customers. After the liberation, the Bangladesh government
initially nationalized the entire domestic banking system by Presidential Order No. 26 titled
Bangladesh Banks Nationalization Order, 1972 and proceeded to reorganize and rename the
various banks. Foreign owned banks were permitted to continue doing business in
Bangladesh .At birth, Bangladesh inherited an interest based banking system, which was
introduced here earlier when the country was a part of British Colony. Since its inception
Bangladesh saw a new trend in banking both at home and abroad. Islamic banking was
successfully tries in Egypt. The Banking sector in Bangladesh is different from the banking as
seen in other developed countries. This is one of the Major Service sectors in Bangladesh
economy, which divided into four categories of scheduled Banks. These are Nationalized
Commercial Banks (NCBs), Government Owned Development Financial Institutions

(DFIs), Private Commercial Banks (PCBs), and Foreign Commercial Banks (FCBs).

NCBs

PCBs

FCBs

DFIs

Banks across the globe have received the considerable amount of pressure from its diverse
stakeholders including shareholders, investors, media, NGOs and customers (Bhattacharya et
al., 2004 ;) to carry out business in a responsible and ethical manner. Siddique and Islam (2001)
states that Banking sector of Bangladesh is one of the major sectors, which contributes
significantly .The sector comprises a number of banks in various categories. A bank connects
customers with capital deficits to customers with capital surpluses. Bangladesh Bank
supervises and regulates the countrys banking sector where it has significant improvements
(Ahmed, 2006). Green (1989) revealed that a bank's responsibility extends to Government,
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customers, shareholders, staff, and the community. Companies do have ethical responsibility,
but it is not protected by limited liability from the consequences of their actions. Lyne, Nielson,
and Tierney (2009) evaluated and analyzed 10 000 Multilateral Development Banks (MDBs)
loans from 1980 to 2000. They found that (MDBs) dramatically increased social lending for
health, education, and safety nets after 1985. Yet the great powers social policy preferences
remained relatively static from 1980 to 2000.

Banking System Structure:

The objectives of this study are 1)to find out the major problems faced by Bangladesh banking
industry. 2) Possible strategies to overcome banking sector problems and using data and
methods for analyzing the situations.

Literature Review:
With respect to the Performances of Bangladeshi Banking sector, foreign and national experts
undertook number of studies.
Pandey (2006) stated that the easiest way to evaluate the performance of a firm is to compare
its present ratio with the past ratio. It gives an indicator of the direction of change and reflects
whether the firms financial performance has improved, deteriorated or remained constant
over time.
Chowdhury and Ahmed (2009) observed that all the selected private commercial banks are able
to achieve a stable growth of branches, employee, deposit, loans and advances, net income,
earning per share during the period of 2002-2006. They indicate that the prospect of private
commercial banks in Bangladesh is very bright.
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Chowdhury (2002) observed that the banking industry of Bangladesh is a mixed one
comprising nationalized, Private and foreign banks. Many efforts have been made to explain
the performance of these banks. Understanding the performance of the bank requires
knowledge about the profitability and the relationship between variables like market size,
banks risk and banks market size with the profitability.
Chowdhury and Islam (2007) stated that deposit and loan advances of nationalized
commercial banks (NCBs) are less sensitive to interest changes than those of Specialized
Banks (SBs). So, SBs should not make abrupt change in lending or deposit by following the
NCBs. If NCBs change their lending rate, their deposit or loan and advances will be affected
less than those of CBs. Moreover, deposits of NCBs have higher volume and higher volatility
than those of SBs. However SBs offer higher deposit rates and charge higher lending rate than
NCBs, which is why the interest rate spread of SBs was higher than that of NCBs.
Siddique and Islam (2001) pointed out that the commercial banks, as a whole are performing
well and contributing to the economic development of the country. The average profitability of
all Bangladeshi Banks collectively was 0.09% during 1980 to 1995 which means that a profit of
Tk.0.09 was earned by utilizing assets of Tk.100 in every aspect of profit; banking sector
contributes the national economy as well as the individual organization. Despite overall
growth of the banking sector positive the performance of different categories of banks were
not equally attractive.
Mujeri & Younus (2009) stated that the higher the non interest income as a ratio of total assets
of banks the lower interest rate spread. Similarly market share of deposit of a bank, statutory
reserve requirement and NSD certificate interest rate affects the IRS. The analysis in terms of
banks group shows that IRS is significantly influenced by operating cost and classified loan of
state owned commercial bank and specialized banks while inflation, operating cost market
share of deposit, statutory reserve requirement and taxes are important for the private
commercial banks. On the other hand non interest income, inflation, market share and taxes
matter for the foreign Commercial banks.
Khan (2008) stated that bank is evaluated based on profit and loss as the same way for other
business. If the shareholders of the bank get more profit then the bank is identified as
successful. Banks can attain success if relevant risks are effectively controlled.
Van Horne & Wachowicz (2005) stated that to evaluate a firms financial condition
and performance the financial analyst need to perform checkups on various
aspects of a firms financial health. A tool frequently used these checkup is a
financial ratio.
In the area of corporate governance practices of banks, three strands of literature are found.
First strand focuses on how the corporate governance practices in banks differ from those in
non-banking firms (Prowse, 1997; Furfine, 2001; Morgan, 2002; Macey and OHara, 2003).
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Banks have two related characteristics that inspire a separate analysis of the corporate
governance of banks (Furfine, 2001). First, banks are generally more opaque than non-financial
firms. Although information asymmetries plague all sectors, evidence suggests that these
informational asymmetries are larger with banks (Furfine, 2001). From the perspective of
banking, loan quality is not readily observable and can be hidden for long periods. Therefore,
Morgan (2002) found that bond analysts disagree more over the bonds issued by banks than
by non-financial firms. The comparatively severe difficulties in acquiring information about
bank behavior and monitoring ongoing bank activities hinder traditional corporate
governance mechanisms (Levine, 2004).
The second strand of literature looks at how better governance practices in banks can help
their financial development and growth (Levine, 1997; Bushman and Smith, 2003). Bushman
and Smith discussed economics-based research focused primarily on the governance role of
financial accounting information and propose future research ideas. As presented in their
study, a framework that isolates three channels through which financial accounting
information can affect the investments, productivity, and value-added of firms namely the use
of financial accounting information by managers and investors, the use of financial accounting
information in corporate control mechanisms and the use of financial accounting information
to reduce information asymmetries among investors. The third strand looks at corporate
governance practices in banks from the perspective of its impact on performance and
efficiency of the banks themselves (Jensen and Meckling, 1976; Hovey et al, 2003). Andres and
Vallelado (2008) have examined the corporate governance in banking: the role of the board of
directors. They pointed out that bank board composition and size are related to directors
ability to monitor and advice management, and that larger and not excessively independent
board might prove more efficient in monitoring and advising functions, and create more value.
Kutubi (2011) has examined board of directors size, independence and performance: an
analysis of private commercial banks in Bangladesh. This study has examined the impact of
board size and the independent directors on the performance of the local private commercial
banks in Bangladesh. The study has found that statistically significance positive relationship
existed between the proportions of the independent directors and the performance of the
banks. Hossain (2011) highlighted the corporate governance practices in Bangladesh. The
study has pointed out that good corporate governance has implication for company behavior
towards employees, shareholders, customers & banks. He has suggested that improving
corporate governance can provide significant rewards to both individual companies and
countries. Rashid et al (2010) have examined board composition and firm performance from
Bangladesh perspective. The study has also examined the influence of corporate board
composition in the form of representation of outside independent directors on firms
economic performance in Bangladesh. The finding of the study has provided an insight to the
regulators in this quest for harmonization of internal corporate governance practices. Rashid
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et al (2009) have made an overview on corporate governance in Bangladesh. The study has
identified six specific corporate governance characteristics in relation to current corporate
governance practices in Bangladesh namely legal and regulatory frame work, weak
institutional control, pre-dominant of individual investors, limited transparence & weak
disclosure practices etc.

Problems faced by Bangladesh Banking industry:


We have classified the banking industry into two groups1. Major problems
2. Minor problems

Major problems faced banking industry are:


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Lower Quality of Assets


Capital Inadequacy
Low credit growth rate
Low earning performance
Surplus liquidity
Weak Regulatory System
Weak capital market role
Bank ownership structures are dominated by family members
Accounting standards and disclosure and its impacts on banking industry and

management practices in Bangladesh are mixed:


10. Inadequacy of effective risk management
11. Lack of accountability and transparency
Minor problems faced by banking industry are:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Inadequate Bankruptcy Laws


Inconsistency between Companies Act
Weak Capital Market Role
No Market for Corporate Control
Most companies in Bangladesh are closely held and a negative correlation exists
between good Corporate Governance and defaulting in holding annual general

meetings in due time.


6. Independent directors do not act as an advocate for minority shareholders or as a
source of innovative ideas
7. Lack of Shareholders Activities

8. Poor Audit Report.

Major problems:
A brief discussion of the above mentioned problems in Practice Banking Industry in
Bangladesh is given bellow:

Lower Quality of Assets:


Asset quality is an important measure of the strength of banks. The ratio of non-performing
loans and advances as a share of total and advances is considered for the purpose of
analysis. In addition, the ratio of total loans and advances to total assets is utilized to
measure the extent of deployment of assets in earning assets. The most important indicator
of bank asset quality in the loan portfolio is the ratio of gross non-performing loans (NPLs)
to total loans and the ratio of net NPLs to net total loans.

Capital Inadequacy:
Capital adequacy focuses on the total position of banks' capital and the protection of
depositors and other creditors from the potential shocks of losses that a bank might incur. It
helps absorbing all possible financial risks like credit risk, market risk, operational risk,
residual risk, core risks, credit concentration risk, interest rate risk, liquidity risk, reputation
risk, settlement risk, strategic risk, environmental & climate change risk etc. Under Basel-II,
banks in Bangladesh were instructed to maintain the Minimum Capital Requirement (MCR)
at 10.0 percent of the Risk Weighted Assets (RWA) or Taka 4.0 billion as capital, whichever
is higher, with effect from July-September quarter in 2011 MCR was revised to increase the
shock resilient capacity of the bank. However, for the fourth quarter of 2011 MCR was
lowered to 9.0 percent of RWA or Taka 2.0 billion, whichever is higher. Under the
Supervisory Review Process (SRP), banks are directed to maintain a level of "adequate"
capital which is higher than the minimum required capital and sufficient to cover for all
possible risks in their business. This higher level of capital for the banks is usually
determined and finalized through SRP-SREP dialogue. All the banks are not capable of
maintaining minimum capital requirement.

Low earning performance


Return on assets, return on equity and net interest income is very low in Bangladesh
banking industry.
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Surplus liquidity
The provisioning requirement increased by 32 per cent to stand at Tk 320 billion in September
end 2013, against December end ,2012 where required provision of PCBs increased to Tk 117.60
billion registering cent growth 40 per

Weak Regulatory System:


Bangladesh still follows the hybrid system which is inherited from the British administration.
Therefore, weak regulatory system along with board interference with the management creates
problems in the banking industry of our country.

Weak Capital Market Role:


Capital market facilitates good governance through the production of information and
monitoring. The capital market of Bangladesh consists of two stock exchanges: Dhaka Stock
Exchange (DSE) and Chittagong Stock Exchange (CSE). Bangladesh does not have depth in its
equity market. The capital market of Bangladesh is still a weak link in forward movements for
strengthening Banking industry of our country.

Bank ownership structures are dominated by family members:


All corporate governance systems have four core principles: Fairness, accountability,
responsibility and transparency. In Bangladesh, general practice is that the corporate structure
is dominated by family members. Such practice hinders the level of fairness, accountability and
transparency.

Accounting standards and disclosure and its impacts on banking industry and
management practices in Bangladesh are mixed:
Following the tradition of English law, Bangladesh accounting standards (BAS) are not based
on codified law, but rely on Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) developed by
accounting profession. So banking industry is facing problems because of the gaps between two
laws.

Inadequacy of effective risk management:


Risk is defined as potential losses or foregone profits that can be triggered by internal and
external factors. Therefore, the objectives of risk management are identification of potential
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risks in operations and transactions, in assets, liabilities, income, cost and offbalance sheet
exposures and independent measurement and assessment of such risks and taking timely and
adequate measures to manage and mitigate such risks within a risk-return framework. But In
Bangladesh maximum banks are not efficient in managing risk.

Lack of transparency and accountability:


Director interference in the daily transaction of banks is one of the main reasons for defaulted
loans. Most of the times unqualified people get credit facility due to the biasness of higher
authority of banks. And the higher authority even does not have any accountability to their
work.

Minor problems
Inadequate Bankruptcy Laws:
Bankruptcy laws and processes are inadequate in terms of provisions and not strong in terms of
enforcement in Bangladesh. In this way fairness, accountability and transparency is decreasing
day by day.

Inconsistency between Bank Companies Act, Bangladesh Accounting Standard and


Security Exchange Commission requirements:
In many cases, the Act, 1994 lacks clarity with regard to statutory requirements on disclosures
in the financial statements of listed companies.

No Market for Corporate Control:


A market for corporate control plays an important role for monitoring Banks function. But In
Bangladesh, there seems to have no market for corporate control.
Independent directors do not act as an advocate for minority

shareholders or as a source of innovative ideas:


The Companies Act, 1994 provides many rules in respect of any negligence, default, breach of
duty or trust on the part of director, manager or officer of a Bank. In the context of Bangladesh,
independent directors do not act as an advocate for minority shareholders or as a source of
innovative ideas.
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Lack of Shareholders Activism:


General shareholders do not pay attention on issues of performance, business strategy, future
business plans, disclosures and processes that could give them a greater voice in the policy
decisions of a bank. Shareholders activism is still an illusion in Bangladesh.

Poor Audit Report:


Audited financial reports are rarely reliable and free from the control of the owners. Despite
irregularities (in respect of non compliance with the applicable IASs) in the audit report, the
auditors issue unqualified audit report on the financial statements.

Possible strategies to overcome banking sector problems:


Implement Competition Policy:
Bangladesh needs to formulate a Competition Policy which will ensure a culture of good
governance to thrive. Competition policy helps bring about efficiency, reduce price distortions,
lower the risk of poor investment decisions, and promote greater accountability and
transparency in business decisions, and lead to better management.

Improve the capacity of the Boards of directors:


Directors must improve their participation in strategic planning, monitoring of internal control.
There is a need for director training, voluntary codes of conduct to expect professional
behavior. The most vital thing that can ensure good management is high standards of ethical
and personal behavior. This can only be ensured if the value system of society imposes this on
their people as the norm in every aspect of life.

Ensure the legal and regulatory framework:


Government should ensure the legal and regulatory framework which may include, among
other things: (i) strengthening disclosure requirements (ii) ensuring that regulators have the
capacity to monitor banks (iii) clarifying and strengthening the duty of directors etc.

Strengthening the Capacity of the Government:


The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) of Bangladesh need to be strong so that it can
devise and enforce a code for good monitoring. The Companies Act has to be applied and
updated to have consistency with Bangladesh Accounting Standards (BAS), SEC requirements
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and the Bank Companies Act. Independent Audit Committee should be made compulsory for
all listed bank companies.

Strengthening the Capacity of Public and private banks:


Public and private sector institutions should continue to raise awareness among companies,
directors, shareholders and other interested parties. To achieve the desired CG framework in
Bangladesh, a strong national commitment to CG is essential.

By creating Audit Committee of the Board :


Audit Committee will independently monitor all activities of banking operations involving
credit risks, operational risks and market risks through Internal Control & Compliance Division
of the Bank. Risk based audit plan for IC &CD will be approved by the Committee and its
implementation will be monitored on a regular basis to ensure that all risk factors are
adequately addressed and any deviation is quickly corrected to ensure sustainable operation of
banking activities.

Implementation of early warning system:


Early warning system Operation and performance of loans have to introduce to trigger early
warning system to address the loans whose performance show any deteriorating trend enabling
the Bank to grow its credit ensure higher portfolio in a sustainable way to quality and lower
risk with the ultimate objective to protect the interest of depositors and shareholders.

Credit policy will be approved by the Board:


The Board will approve the major policy guidelines, growth strategy, exposure limits for
particular sector, product, individual company and group, keeping in view regulatory
compliance, risk management strategy and industry best practice.

Efficient employees:
Banks have to hire highly efficient employees to overcome their major problems.

Data and methods of analysis:


Data Collection:
This study is based on both secondary and primary data. For this purpose, we have used the
data published in Annual reports of Bangladesh Bank and other related websites. Moreover,
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the journals, articles, reports and surveys have been referred. First we have gone through the
data published by Bangladesh Bank. Bangladesh Bank has published the data after doing
statistical analysis. So we have not done any statistical analysis. And in data we found that
banks performance is not good. So to find out the main reasons behind the banks poor
performance we have taken interview from some employees of 10 banks.

Variables:
To analyze the financial performance of banking sector different variables are included
in this study, they are as follow:
a)Deposits (D)
Deposits are considered as banks main source of funding and are the lowest cost of funds.
The more deposits are transformed into loans, the higher the interest margin and profit.
Hence, deposits generally have positive impact on profitability of the banks. But if a bank
cant transform its deposits into loans efficiently it may bring negative impact on profitability
also.

b)Capital Adequacy (C)


Capital adequacy is a measure of the financial strength of a bank, usually express as a ratio of
its shareholders fund to total assets. The ratio reflects the ability of a bank to withstand the
unanticipated losses. This ratio has a positive relationship with the financial soundness of the
bank.

c) Asset Quality (A)


Asset quality is an important measure of the strength of banks. The ratio of non-performing
loans and advances as a share of total and advances is considered for the purpose of analysis. In
addition, the ratio of total loans and advances to total assets is utilized to measure the extent of
deployment of assets in earning assets.

d) Management Quality (M)


The capacity/efficiency of the management of a bank can be measured with the help of
certain ratios. To capture the possible dynamics of management efficiency, the following ratios
are considered: total loans and advances to total deposits, interest expenses to total deposits,
and operating expenses to total assets.

e)Earnings Ability (E)


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Two ratios are used to assess the earnings ability of the banks under study. The first ratio is the
net income to total assets or ROA. The second ratio used is interest income to total assets. The
two ratios have positive relationship with the financial performance of the bank and negative
relationship the risk of bank failure.

e)Liquidity (L)
Two ratios are employed in this study to assess the liquidity level of the banks. The first one is
total liquid assets to total assets. The second ratio is liquid assets to customers deposits.

These indicators are considered according to the CAMEL.


Key Indicator

Indicators

Capital Adequacy

Capital to Risk Weighted Assets Ratio

Assets Quality

Non-performing Loan Rate

Management soundness

Expenditure-Income Ratio

Earning performance

Return on Assets
Return on Equity
Net Interest Income

Liquidity

Liquid Assets/Deposit Ratio


Excess Liquidity/Deposit Ratio

Financial Indicators to Evaluate Bank Performance:

Banks Types 2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

SCBs

544.56

608.36

641.16

686.76

745.86

869.19

1044.96

1235.65

DFIs

75.10

89.50

100.20

115.60

137.80

161.10

183.4

214.40

PCBs

588.00

731.30

955.50

1150.20

1450.70

1792.40

2266.50

2787.5

FCBs

108.44

125.54

163.74

196.34

226.70

227.6

239.7

284.8

Table .

Total

1326.1

1554.7

1860.6

2148.90

2561.06

3050.29

3734.56

4522.35

Total

Deposits by Types of Banks (Taka in Billion)

Banks Types 2004

2005

2006

SCBs

39.13%

34.46% 31.96%

DFIs

41.38%
5.71%

5.76%

5.39%

2007
5.38%

15

2008

2009

2010

2011

29.12%

28.49%

28.08%

27.40%

5.38%

5.28%

4.93%

4.75%

PCBs

44.68%

47.04%

51.35% 53.53%

56.64%

58.76%

60.90%

61.81%

FCBs

8.24%

8.07%

8.80%

9.14%

8.86%

7.47%

6.10%

6.03%

Total

100%

100%

100%

100%

100%

100%

100%

100%

Table. Market Share of Deposits by Types of Banks (percent)

Bank

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

Average rate of

Growth

SCBs

11.72%

5.39%

7.11%

8.61%

16.54% 20.22%

18.25%

12.55%

DFIs

19.17%

11.96%

15.37%

19.20%

16.91% 13.84%

16.90%

16.19%

PCBs

24.37%

30.66%

20.38%

26.13%

23.55% 26.45%

22.99%

24.93%

FCBs

15.77%

30.43%

19.91%

15.46%

0.40%

18.82%

15.16%

16

5.32%

Table . Growth of Deposits by Types of Banks (percent)

Capital to risk weighted assets ratio:


Banks Types 2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010 2011

SCBs

4.1

-0.4

1.1

7.96

6.9

9.0

8.9

11.7

DFIs

9.1

-7.5

-6.7

-5.5

-5.3

0.4

-7.3

-4.5

PCBs

10.3

9.1

9.8

10.6

11.4

12.1

10.1

11.5

FCBs

24.2

26.0

22.7

22.7

24.0

28.1

15.6

21.0

Total

8.7

5.6

6.7

9.6

10.1

11.6

9.3

11.4

Table . Capital to risk weighted assets ratio by Types of Banks (percent)


17

Assets Quality:
The most important indicator of bank asset quality in the loan portfolio is the ratio of
gross non-performing loans (NPLs) to total loans and the ratio of net NPLs to net
total loans.

NPL to Total Loans Ratio:

Banks Types 2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

SCBs

25.3

21.4

22.9

29.9

25.4

21.4

15.7

11.3

DFIs

42.9

34.9

33.7

28.6

25.5

25.9

24.2

24.6

PCBs

8.5

5.6

5.5

5.0

4.4

3.9

3.2

2.9

FCBs

1.5

1.3

0.8

1.4

1.9

2.3

3.0

2.9

Total

17.6

13.6

13.2

13.2

10.8

9.2

7.3

6.1

Table . NPLs to total loans ratios by Types of Banks (percent)

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Ratio of net NPL to total loans:


Banks Types

2004

2995

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

SCBs

17.6

13.2

14.5

12.9

5.9

1.9

1.9

-0.34

DFIs

23.0

22.6

23.6

19.0

17.0

18.3

16.0

16.9

PCBs

3.4

1.8

1.8

1.4

.9

.5

0.0

-0.20

FCBs

-1.5

-2.2

-2.6

-1.9

-2.0

-2.3

-1.7

-1.8

Total

9.8

7.2

7.1

5.1

2.8

1.7

1.3

0.70

Table. Ratio of net NPL to total loans by Types of Banks (percent)

Writing-of Bad Debts:

Bank

30 June

30 June

30 June

30 June

30 June

30 June

30 June

30 June

30 June

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

SCBs

26.3

29.7

35.7

42.8

48.4

64.5

70.5

82.4

92.3

DFIs

17.4

27.6

28.6

30.4

31.0

31.8

31.8

32.0

32.3

PCBs

21.2

32.9

40.7

45.5

49.4

54.7

69.6

77.1

85.5

FCBs

0.9

1.1

1.5

1.6

1.7

2.0

2.1

2.4

2.9

Total

65.8

91.3

106.5

120.3

130.5

153.0

174.0

193.9

213.0

19

Management Soundness:
Expenditure-Income Ratio:

Banks Types 2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

SCBs

102.3

101.9

100.0

100.0

89.6

75.6

80.7

62.7

DFIs

104.0

103.9

103.5

107.7

103.7

112.1 87.8

88.6

PCBs

87.1

89.3

90.2

88.8

88.4

72.6

67.6

71.7

FCBs

76.3

70.8

71.1

72.9

75.8

59.0

64.7

47.3

Total

90.9

92.2

91.4

90.4

87.9

72.6

70.8

68.6

Table . Expenditure-income ratio by type of banks (percent)


20

Earning Performance:
Strong earnings and profitability profile of a bank reflect its ability to support present and
future sound operation, absorb future contingent shocks and strengthen resilience capacity.
More specifically, this determines the capacity to absorb losses by building an adequate
capital base, finance its expansion and pay adequate dividends to its shareholders. Although
there are various indicators of earning and profitability, the most representative and widely
used indicator is Return on Assets (ROA), which is supplemented by Return on Equity (ROE)
and Net Interest Margin (NIM).

Return on Assets (ROA):


Return on Assets (ROA) indicates the productivity of assets i.e. how much income is earned
from per unit of assets. According to Basel- accord, ROA should be more than 1%.

Banks Types 2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

SCBs

-0.1

-0.1

0.0

0.0

0.7

1.0

1.1

1.3

DFIs

-0.2

-0.1

-0.2

-0.3

-0.6

0.4

0.2

.1

PCBs

1.2

1.1

1.1

1.3

1.4

1.6

2.1

1.6

FCBs

3.2

3.1

2.2

3.1

2.9

3.2

2.9

3.2

Total

0.7

0.6

0.8

0.9

1.2

1.4

1.8

1.5

Table . Return on assets (ROA) (Percent)


21

Return on Equity (ROE):


Return on Equity (ROE) is another important measure of earning and profitability
determination which indicates net income after tax to total equity. The amount of profit
generation for the equity shareholders is found from the ratio. Higher value of ROE is an
indication of high productivity of equity.

Banks Types 2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

18.4

19.7

SCBs

-5.3

-6.9

0.0

0.0

22.5

26.2

DFIs

-2.1

-2.0

-2.0

-3.4

-6.9

-171.7 -3.2

-0.9

PCBs

19.5

18.1

15.2

16.7

16.4

21.0

20.9

15.7

FCBs

22.5

18.4

21.5

20.4

17.8

22.4

17.0

16.6

Total

13.0

12.4

14.1

13.8

15.6

21.7

21.0

17.0

Table : Return on equity (ROE) (Percent)

Net Interest Income (NII):


Another important tool to indicate the earning and profitability is Net Interest Income (NII).
Net interest income is the spread between interest receipts from loans and advances and
interest paid to the depositors. The high NII means the spread between interest receipts and
paid is high.

22

Net interest income by type of banks (billionTaka)

Banks Types 2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

SCBs

-1.1

7.7

9.0

7.4

7.9

12.1

19.8

34.3

DFIs

1.8

1.0

1.7

1.4

1.9

1.9

6.2

4.9

PCBs

13.7

21.0

25.4

36.1

48.5

56.7

82.8

91.4

FCBs

4.2

5.6

8.2

9.9

12.6

10.7

13.0

16.1

Total

18.3

35.3

44.3

54.8

70.9

81.5

121.9

146.7

Liquidity:
Statutory liquidity reserve (SLR) varies according to the circular issued by the Bangladesh
Bank but in an average SLR is 18.5% of total deposits including cash reserve requirement at
least 5% in Bangladesh Bank account. Three DFIs are exempted from the requirement of SLR
and 7 Islamic banks have to keep 10% SLR. Rest of all banks has to maintain the required SLR
[Bangladesh Bank].

Liquid Assets:
Banks Types 2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010 2011

SCBs

22.8

20.0

20.1

24.9

32.9

25.1

27.2

34.7

DFIs

11.2

11.2

11.9

14.2

13.7

9.6

21.3

12.3

PCBs

23.1

21.0

21.4

22.2

20.7

18.2

21.5

23.9

23

FCBs

37.8

41.5

34.4

29.2

31.3

31.8

32.1

30.5

Total

23.4

21.7

21.5

23.2

24.8

20.6

23.0

26.5

Table: Liquid assets (Percent)

Excess Liquidity:
Banks Types 2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

SCBs

6.8

2.0

2.1

6.9

14.9

17.6

8.2

15.7

DFIs

4.7

6.2

3.8

5.6

4.9

7.1

2.3

2.5

PCBs

8.8

5.1

5.6

6.4

4.7

5.3

4.6

7.0

FCBs

21.9

23.6

16.4

11.2

13.3

21.8

13.2

11.8

Total

8.7

5.3

5.1

6.9

8.4

9.0

6.0

9.3

Table 14. Excess liquidity (Percent)

CAMEL Rating of All Banks:


CAMEL rating is expressed on a scale of 1 to 5 in ascending order of supervisory concern, 1
representing the best rating, while 5 indicating the worst. Any bank rated 4 or 5 i.e. Marginal
or Unsatisfactory under composite CAMEL rating is generally identified as a problem bank.
Activities of these banks are closely monitored by the BB.

24

On the basis of five components of CAMEL banks are rated from 2004 to 2011.

Rating

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

1 or Strong

12

13

2 or Satisfactory

15

16

31

29

28

32

32

33

3 or Fair

10

10

Table :

4 or Marginal

CAMEL

5 or

Unsatisfactory
Total

49

48

48

48

48

48

47

47

rating of
all Banks

in Bangladesh

As of end 2011, CAMEL rating of 2 banks was 1 or Strong; 33 banks were rated 2 or
Satisfactory; 9 banks were rated 3 or Fair; 2 were rated 4 or Marginal and 1 bank got 5 or
Unsatisfactory rating.
Problems faced in practicing Corporate Governance in Banking Industry in Bangladesh:
Sl.No
1
2
3
4

6
7
8

Specific Problems
Corporate ownership structures are dominated by family
members
Accounting standards and disclosure and impacts on CG
and management practices in Bangladesh are mixed
Inadequate Bankruptcy Laws
Inconsistency between Companies Act,
Accounting Standard and SEC requirements
Weak Regulatory System

Bangladesh

% of respondents
100%
100%
60%
80%
100%

Weak Capital Market Role

100%

No Market for Corporate Control

75%

Most companies in Bangladesh are closely held and a


negative correlation exists between good Corporate
Governance and defaulting in holding annual general
meetings in due time

60%

Independent directors do not act as an advocate for


minority shareholders or as a source of innovative ideas
Lack of Shareholders Activism
Weak Pressure Groups

60%

25

50%
75%

9
10

Lack of Auditor Independence


Poor Audit Report

80%
60%

Suggestions for the removal of the problems


S.No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Specific suggestions
Code of Corporate Governance and Best Practice
Recommendations
Implement Competition Policy
Improve the capacity of the Boards of directors
Ensure the legal and regulatory framework
Strengthening the Capacity of the Government
Strengthening the Capacity of Public and private
sector institutions
Institutional Capacity Building
Introduction of Good Governance Practices in State
Owned Enterprise (SOEs)

% of
respondents
80%
70%
100%
100%
90%
80%
75%
70%

Source : field Survey

Empirical results and discussion:


In the overall report we have tried to show the performance of different types of bank in
Bangladesh by using data published from Bangladesh Bank. The study investigated the
determinants of bank profitability using annual data of Bangladeshi banks during 2004-2011.
ROA and NIM are used for the determination of bank performance in Bangladesh. There are
two reasons for using ROA as a measurement of bank profitability. First, it shows the profit
earned per unit of assets and reflects the managements ability to utilize the banks financial
and investment resources to generate profit. Furthermore, bank profitability is best measured
by ROA because it is not distorted by higher equity multipliers. Here given figures show the
trend of profit measurement variables, the trend of bank specific variable and the trend of
industry specific variables of the selected banks in Bangladesh respectively. And then we have
tried to find out the main reasons behind this poor performance. This study pinpoints a
number of problems involved in the practice in banking industry in Bangladesh. These
problems are related to the composition of board, role of shareholders, annual general
meeting of the board, and role of senior management, role of auditors and position of capital
market for corporate control in Bangladesh. These problems may be overcome on the basis of
short term, medium-term & long-term initiatives. Short-term suggestions include complete
code of corporate governance & implementation of competition policy. The mid-term
suggestions mainly include strengthening disclosure requirements and fiduciary duties of
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directors and ensuring monitoring of the companies by improving the capacity of the board of
directors. Long-term suggestions include strengthening capacity of private & public sector
institutions, building institutional capacity including qualities of financial reporting.
Therefore, it is concluded that the suggestions and recommendations as put forward in the
study need to be implemented as early as possible. The implementation does not depend only
on the banking authority, but the role of government and other agencies e.g. SEC & DCCI etc.
is also very significant in this context.

Recommendation:
In order to minimize the potentially negative impact, the banking system has to adopt a
number of measures. These are briefly noted below:
1. Banks have to create good governance to monitor daily activities of bank

The banks should make determined efforts to increase income. They can do so by
diversifying their asset base. In this context, they should consider expansion of loan to
the un-banked or under banked sectors such as agriculture, small and medium
industries and small scale domestic traders.

With a view to diversifying asset base as suggested above, the banks must depart from
the traditional practice of collateral-based lending. They should aggressively seek out
new borrowers with high income potentials and viable project proposals.

Banks should also consider offering new products such as swaps, options and derivative
products.

Banks should provide effort to recover non performing loans.

In order to increase profitability, the banks need to focus on the volume of business and
total profit, not per unit profit. This implies that they should reduce the prevailing high
spread between deposit and lending rate, particularly by reducing the lending rate.
Some progress has been achieved in this respect, but not enough. Moreover, the banks
have considerably reduced deposit rates. This poses the risk that depositors will shift
into non-bank assets such as stocks, real estate etc. The price increases of these assets
suggest some movement in this direction.

The banks should also look at their expenditure side to improve income-expenditure
ratios. In particular, salaries and perks of employees and directors and ostentatious
expenses on branch decorations should be reduced.
27

Finally, banks should strengthen their risk management and early warning systems so
that they are not caught off-guard by developments in the real economy.

Technology has changed the expectations consumers and small businesses have of their
bank. Clients use information on the Internet to compare financial service firms. Many
more customers are comfortable with managing their money online and they expect
user-friendly tools to do so. E-mail messaging and chat interaction may now be primary
ways financial advisers communicate with clients. Companies must react to changes in
technology to keep reaching customers in the most effective ways.

1. Attract and retain clients:


Banks and financial services firms have to stand out in the crowd by offering customers
something extra.

Conclusions:
An efficient operation of banking sector enables the smooth financial resources intermediation
of an economy. Economic growth is contributed greatly by the efficiency of banking sector in
resources generation and its proper allocation. The smooth and efficient operation of banking
sector also helps to reduce risk of failure of an economy. Therefore, the performance of
banking sector is always been a source of interest for researchers to judge the economic
condition of a country. Regulators of the banking sector always monitors the performance of
the banks to ensure efficient financial system based on CAMEL ratio.
Among the entire CAMEL ratio, some important ratios which are most significant are
analyzed to judge the performance of the banking industry in Bangladesh. Among the four
categories of banks operating in Bangladesh, DFIs has been found more vulnerable compared
to the rest of three categories. CRAR, NPL to total loan, EIR all are too high and provision
maintenance ratio, ROA, ROE, liquidity ratio is too low in DFIs and this scenario also reflects
negatively in overall banking industry performance of Bangladesh. FCBs shows and PCBs
show all the positive signal of well functioning whereas SCBs also shows a trend of
improving performance. The performance of types of banks is not equal and there are some
banks which are in need of monitoring closely to enhance sound banking. It is expected that
the overall performance will be improved in near future provided that appropriate actions are
taken in some lagged areas.

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References:
https://www.americanexpress.com/us/small-business/openforum/articles/5-ways-toovercome-todays-challenges-in-the-financial-industry/
Bangladesh Bank Annual Report, (2004-2011), (www.bangladesh-bank.org)
http://bloguk.jobandtalent.com/tips-to-manage-stress-in-the-banking-sector
http://www.slideshare.net/sharadsrivastava12/report-risk-management-in-banks
http://www.assignmentpoint.com/business/thesis-report-on-banking-industry-inbangladesh.html
http://www.unnayan.org/reports/meu/December-2013/MEU%20December%202013.pdf
http://www.asaub.edu.bd/data/asaubreview/v5n1sl2.pdf
http://www.aims-bangladesh.com/special/BankingSector.pdf
http://www.reportbd.com/articles/29/1/Banking-Sector-in-Bangladesh/Page1.html
http://archive.thedailystar.net/newDesign/print_news.php?nid=154934

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