mm
3101
Tc 3101/2
1. A theory for the pressure resulting from a wave striking a vertical wall was developed by Sainflou (l). The particular phenomenon is known
as a clapotis. The incident wave combines with the reflected wave to
produce a wave height twice that of the incident wave. The theory is valid
only for wave heights which do not exceed the stillwater depth. The depth
of water behind spillway crest gates is normally greater than the design
wave height. Therefore, the theory can be used to estimate
pressure distributlon for the design of crest gates and for spillway stability analysis
problems.
2.
Application of the Sainflou wave pressure theory to crest gates
and spillways.is illustrated on Hydraulic D&sign Chart 3101. The first
equation Is a parameter of the clapotis and indicates the effective change
in mean water depth resulting from transition of the wave. The second
equation indicates the change in bottom pressure. The clapotis results in
pressure decrease as well a.s a pressure increase relative to the stillwater
static
pressure. Design problems
are generally only concerned with
(1)
tO
3mI/2
ASSUMED
TOP
OF
CLAPOTIS
TOP
OF
GATE
VERTICAL
WALL
J
ho
STILL
WA TEI? L E VEL
SPILLWAY
111
dd
1.
EQUATIONS
NOTE:
VALUES
OF COSH~
ARE ON CHART
AND
COTH~
3101/1.
a=
CoS:*
WHERE:
ho = A PARAMETER OF THE
CLAPOTIS,
FT
a = A BOTTOti
PRESSURE
PARAMETER,
FT OF WATER
D = DEPTH OF WATER (STILL
WATER LEVEL TO BOTTOM),
H = WAVE HEIGHT> FT
A = WAVE LENGTH,
FT
FT
CREST
GATES
WAVE PRESSURE
DESIGN ASSUMPTIONS
HYDRAULIC
.1..
.0
v,
8,
ARM
. . ...
WA,
WAY,
,x
P,,
M.,
,..,,.,
.,.
s,.
6,
,4,,,,,,,..,
WES
860
100
2.0
80
1.6
!
/
COSH
 CO TH
60
1.6
n
~4
(u
:
0
u
I .4
40
20
1.2
I .0
0
0.2
0.6
0.4
TABLE
OF
I .0
0.6
VALUES
D
I
NOTE:
D= DEPTH
WATER
L=WAVE
1.000
00
0.1
1.204
1.796
1.177
0.2
1.898
0.3
0.4
3.366
6.205
11.574
0.5
0.6
21.659
0.7
40.569
0.8
76.013
OF WATER
LEVEL
TO
LENGTH,
1.047
1.013
1.004
1.001
1.000
1.000
CREST
(sTiLL
BOTTOM),
GATES
FT
WAVE PRESSURE
FT
HYPERBOLIC
HYDRAULIC
.,,,,.
.,
,.
AM
,,.,.
W.,.
wA,,
.X.
C,
M,,
,,
A*!.M.
,,
s..,
).4,ss,
ss,..,
DESIGN
FUNCTIONS
CHART3101/l
WES 860
U. S. ARMY
ENGINEER
WATERWAYS
COMPUTATION
EXPERIMENT
STATION
SHEET
.
JOB
PROJECT
CW 804
SUBJECT
Crest Gates
COMPUTATION
COMPUTEDBY
RGC
GIVEN:
Gated spillways
DATE
6/3/60
CHECKEDBY
MBB
DATE
6/7/60
shown
Design
wavelength
(A)
Design
wave
(H)
height
=125ft
(D)
depth
Sti 1lwater
STILL
6ft
75
ft
WATER
A
21,
REQUIRED:
1.
2.
Maximum
pressure
spi I I way
structure
Maximum
hydraulic
distribution
load
on gate
and
per ft of width of
gate
\1
3. Maximum hydraulic
II
structure
+a~
COMPUTE:
1.
Pressure
(a)
distribution
Maximum effective
2
nH
27r D
hO=
coth
A
A
D
75
(Chart 3101)
21r D
= 0.6; coth
=
Y==
1.001
(Chart
3101/1)
A
3.14x62
ho =
x 1.001
= 0.9
ft.
125
Effective
(b)
depth = D + hO + H = 75.0+
Maximum effective
wave
(Chart 3101 )
a=
2mD
cosh
D
= 0.6;
A
6

a21.7
21r D
cosh
= 21.7
A
= 0.3
Effective
(Chart 3101/1)
ft.
pressure
= D + a = 75.0+
0.3=
75.3
ft.
CREST
WAVE
SAMPLE
HYDRAULIC
PREPARED
BY
U.
S.
ARMY
ENGINEER
WATERWAYS
EXPERIMENT
STATION,
VICKSBURG,
MISSISSIPPI
GATES
PRESSURE
COMPUTATION
DESIGN
CHART
310 1/2
WES .960
SHEET 1 OF z
I
(c)
(d)
Depth
of gate
Depth
= 81.9
Maximum
overtopping
(75.0
pressure
21.0+
26.0)=
distribution
1.9
ft.
graph
TOP
OF CL APOTIS
0
1.9
1IL
27.9
1
n.
w
0
81.9
STRUCTURE
75.3
PRESSURE,
2.
Maximum
hydraulic
Maximum
load
pressure
per
at top
foot
of width
of gate
FT OF WATER
of gate
(from
1.9
= =9
(Pl)
Id
above)
x 75.3=
1.7
ft
.
27.9
Maximum
pressure
at
bottom
of gate
(PJ
==
x 75.3=
25.7
ft
.
P,+P2
hydraulic
Maximum
load
on gate
(R)
= y
x gate
height
()
y
= specific
weight
()
of water
= 62.4
lb/ft3
1.7 + 25.7
R = 62.4
26
= 22,200
Note:
3.
Maximum
For
stillwater
level
and
maximum
hydraulic
hydraulic
load
Maximum
pressure
Maximum
hydraulic
per
at
maximum
load
foot
gate
is
of width
battom
of
(PJ
is 21
lb/ft
structure
structure
of width
pressure
13,750
of
lb/ft
ft
of water
of width.
(fram
= 75.3
1 d above)
ft
P,+P3
load
on
structure
(Rh)
= y
x height
of
structure
()
()
1.7
= 62.4
+ 75.3
80
= 192,000
Note:
Equivalent
for
stillwater
level
is
175,000
Ib/ft
I b/ft
of width
of width.
CREST
GATES
WAVE PRESSURE
SAMPLE
COMPUTATION
HYDRAULIC
DESIGN
CHART
3101/2
WES 860
PREPARED
BY
U.
S.
ARMY
ENGINEER
WATERWAYS
EXPERIMENT
STATION,
VICKSBURG,
MISSISSIPPI
SHEET
2 OF 2
HYDRAULIC
DESIGN CRITERIA

1.
Discharge through a partially open tainter gate mounted on a
spillway crest can be computed using the basic orifice equation:
where,
Q= discharge in cfs
c=
discharge coefficient
2. Discharge Coefficients.
Chart 3111 shows a plot of average
discharge coefficients computed from model and prototype data for several
crest shapes and tainter gate designs for nonsubmerged flow. Data shown
are based principally on tests with three or more bays in operation.
Discharge coefficients for a single bay would be lower because of side
contractions although data are not presently available to evaluate this
factor. On this chart, the discharge coefficient (C) is plotted as a
function of the angle (B) formed by the tangent to the gate lip and the
tangent to the crest curve at the nearest point of the crest curve. The
net gate opening is considered to be the shortest distance from the gate
lip to the crest curve. The angle is a function of the major geometric
One suggested
factors affecting the flow lines of the orifice discharge.
design curve applies to tainter gates having gate seats located downstream
from the crest axis. The other suggested design curve is based on tests
with the gate seat located on the axis and indicates the effects of the
masonry shape upstream from the crest axis.
to
3115
curve used in the design of spillways. Chart 3112 illustrates the necessary computations to obtain the net gate opening and the angle !3described in paragraph 2, for tainter gates mounted on spillway crests
1.85
0.85Y
=2Hd
. All factors are expressed in terms of the
shaped to X
design head (Hal). The method shown is applicable to other crest shapes.
However, the accompanying design aids, Charts 3113 and 3114, apply
only to standard crests.
4. To initiate the computations, YL/Hd values of the gate lip are
assumed and corresponding values of XL/Hal are computed (columns 1 to 6,
Chart 3112). These coordinates are then located on Chart 3113 to determine the characteristics of a substitute arc. The substitute arc is
then used to compute the net gate opening (columns 7 to 14). The point
of intersection of the masonry line by the gate opening is determined by
similar triangles (columns 14, 15, and 16). Design aid Chart 3114 can
be used to determine the Yc/Hd coordinate of the gate opening and masonry
line intersection (column 17), and also the slope of the masonry line
(columns 18and 19) which in turn combines with the slope of the gate lip
tangent to form the angle f3(column 20). If graphical methods are preferred to analytical methods, a largescale layout will enable the head,
net gate opening, and the angle ~ to be scaled so that the discharge can
be computed with fair accuracy.
S1llto3115
110
105
100
95
90
85
80
z
75
70
65
60
55
0.55
0.60
0.65
0.70
DISCHARGE
0.80
0.85
0.90
0.95
(C)
TAINTER
GATES ON
SPILLWAY CRESTS
FORMULA
Q= CGOBf29H
WHERE:
._
0.75
COEFFICIENT
Go= NET
GATE
B= GATE
H= HEAD
WIDTH
TO CENTER
DISCHARGE
OPENING
OF
GATE OPENING
HYDRAULIC
COEFFICIENTS
DESIGN CHART
3111
WES
356
82454
LIP
1.66
0,029
0.091
0.3000.024
0.4000.070
$
I
6.57
0.149
0.124
0.200
(5)
LIP
0.830
0.621
0.800
I 0.077
I 0.088
I 0.107
XT(5)
(6)
TO CREST
10.631 cosal
GATE
)EGREES
(4)
FROM
15.67
0.270
(2)+q
slNa
(3)
DISTANCE
YL
0.224
YT
(2)
0.100
YL
(1)
SHORTEST
(MC),
NEGATIVE
CREST.
(XC,YC).
(XL, YL).
COORDINATES
COORDINATES
CREST
SLOPE OF TANGENT
TO CREST
WHEN DOWNSTREAM
FROM
SPILLWAY
GATE
DEFINITIONS
TRUNNION COORDINATES
(XT,YT).
AT=0.907Hd,
fT= o.324Hd.
= 0.831 Hd,
HEAD
(GO).
(8)
(9)
NOTE:
1.329
1.329
0.050
11
1.329
1.329
Y~
0.050
0.050
0.050
x~
II
11
II
CLASS
AND
SHEET
ANGLE
I .330
1.330
1.330
1.330
(lo)
 (6)
)(R
0.128
0.127
0.136
0.157
(6)
)(L
(11)
1.729
1.629
1.529
(12)
1.733
1.634
1.535
(13)
ALL DIMENSIONS
USED IN COMPUTATIONS
IN TERMS
OF DESIGN
HEAD (Hd).
(7)
(CONT)
OPENINGS
(14)
0.030
0.024
0.016
0.0 I2
(13)
(11) X(14)
(15)
(18)
FROM
(17)
0.0018
0.0022
10.0035
4.02
4.36
5.35
7.13
DEGREES
Mc
91.20
HYDRAULIC
DESIGN
CHART
3112
Wl?e
a.%4
CRESTS
83.98
76.06
I
67.20
DEGREES
P
90+TANMc+tl
(20)
SKETCH
ON SPILLWAY
0.070
0.076
I 0.094
10.006510.125
GATES
0.048
0.053
0.068
0.095
(6)(15)1
TANl
(19)
DEFINITION
P=Tf
(16)
I[d
TAINTER
I 0.403
I 0.304
I 0.205
ARE
IS THE ANGLE
BETWEEN
A LINE CONNECTING
THE
GATE LIP AND THE TRUNNION
CENTER,
AND A
HORIZONTAL
LINE THROUGH
THE
TRUNNION,
CONSIDERED
POSITIVE
AND NEGATIVE
WHEN
THE GATE
LIP IS ABOVE AND BELOW
THE TRUNNION,
RESPECTIVELY.
82654
GATE
COMPUl_A170N
DEFINITIONS
DATE
HAB
DOE DAM
DESIGN
DATE
AAMS
DISCHARGF
JOHN
GIVEN
=Y
ef
CHECKED
CO&lPUTCD
ROJCC7
SPILLWAY
cweo4
su9JlzcT
JO13

1.2
I .0
0.8
0.6
.
\
0.4
>1#
0.2
0.2
.
0.4
0.6
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.2
0.4
0.6
CLASS
1
11
111
IV
DEFINITION
SKETCH
0.8
I .0
/Hd
R/Hal
RIH.
0.500
I .330
1,359
1,472
0.000
0.050
0.100
0.500
1.329
1,351
1.452
0.164
1.2
TAINTER
GATES ON
SPILLWAY
CRESTS
GEOMETRIC
HYDRAULIC
DESIGN
FACTORS
CHART
3113
WCS
356
0.0006
0.0007
1 !
1!
II II
~1
I,l!l!
I I I I I I II
I
~
1 1
1 x
1 i
1 I I I I I I I !!!!
1111111
!!! [!!!
Lu
),,
1~
! !I
I.1.,
II
11
1 Ill
0.00
  :
il
I
I
1
 J
I
0.008*
II
0.008

r
1
(n
0.041,
0.06
~~:
r +T~*  :+:~
0.07
Ii;
+
[,1
1,
1::1
1 1 I
+t t L
0.08
~ 
(
,
8+
t{
I Ii
II
II
!
1:
!!;
I
1;
+{
,
r+
L++
&
+}+
0.06
I ![]
!1!  0.07
I I I I I II
0.09
0.10
t I t I I I I I I
II
11
! Ill
11, ))1
I I
I I I I 1I I I
I
I I
%8
0.20
0.30
0.40
0.002
0.003
0.005
0.007
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.05
0.07
0.10
0.20
0.30
x.
Hd
TAINTER
GATES ON
SPILLWAY CRESTS
.
DESIGN
CHART
3114
WE!5
356
0.676
0.683
0.694
0.707
67.20
76.06
83.98
91.20
(2)
GATE
14.91
11.25
7.59
3.96
FT
(5)
HyDRAuLlc
42.0
FT
FT
FT
DEs[GN
cHART
CHART
311
3!1 2
I
14.80
0.400
0.0018
0.0022
11.10
0.300
0.0085
C/Hal*
(7)
82554
0.0035
3.70
FT
YL
(6)
37.0
= 288.0
DATE
7.40
0.200
0.100
L/&*
(B)
(Hd)
DESIGN
* FROM
HyDRAIJLlc
0.403
0.304
0.205
0.107
ELEV
GtJ
(4)
CREST
0.07
0.06
0.13
0.24
FT
Yc
(8)
SHEET
(9)
302.80
299.10
295.40
291.70
FT
ELEV Y~=
288 + Y~
Q
=
=
ELEV
+ (lo)
(11)
[ELEV
295.37
293.51
291.64
289.73
(9)
0,5
SAMPLE
TAINTER
287.93
287.92
287.87
287.76
FT
RRW
FORMULAS
6Y
:8y+ ;:=
(lo)
pODL
CGOBj~
CHECKED
SPILLWAY DISCHARGE
(13)
HYDRAULIC
/2
4.43
4.96
5.44
4.06
4.64
5.61
4.28
4.83
5.78
3.20
5.03
5.94
(14)
82754
DESIGN
CRESTS
15,800
17,600
19,300
12,200
14.800
10,700
7,500
8,400
10,100
2,900
4,500
5,400
CFS
(15)
CHART
3115
WES 3SS
COMPUTATIONS
ON SPILLWAY
19.63
24.63
29.63
[6.49
21.49
31.49
18.36
23.36
33.38
10.27
25.27
35.27
FT
(12)~(11)
YC]
DISCHARGE
GATES
3[5
320
325
315
325
310
310
315
325
325
300
315
FT
fOOL
(12)
YL + ELEV
DAl_ E
SUBJECT
STATION
(POOL VS DISCHARGE
EXPERIMENT
COMPUTATION
PROJECT
GIVEN
HEAD
WIDTH
AAM5
DESIGN
O/Hal*
(3)
BY
x x FRoM
COMPUTED
DEGREES
(1)
CW804
COMPUTATIONS
JOE
WATERWAYS

59 The data presented in charts 3116 and 3116/1 show that crest
pressures resulting from normal design and operation practices are not controlling design factors. For partial gate openings the expected minimum _
crest pressures may range from about 0.lHd for pools at design head to
about 0.2Hd for heads approximating 1.3%.
Gated spillways are presently
being built with 50ft design heads; so for an underdesigned crest, the
minimum pressure to be expected with gate control would be about 10 ft of
water. This pressure would increase to 5 ft if design head was the maximum operating head. Pressures of these magnitudes should be free of cavitation. Periodic surges upstream of partially open tainter gates have been
observed for certain combinations of head and gate width. Criteria for
3116 and 3116/1
Revised 771
7. References.
(1) U. S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, CE, General Spillway Tests (CW 801).
(2)
Unpublished data.
JJ
=
b
n
+
1
1m
w
a
v
(n
WATERWAYS
STATION,
~185=2,0H:.85y
x
lid
EXPERIMENT
(%
PREPAREO
0.8
I .0
TEST
VICKSBVRG,
MISSISSIPPI
A
v
A
v
I
0.2
I
0.4
I
0.6
I
0.8
F?/Hd
1.27
1.27
1.25
1.25
1.00
1.27
0.000
0.167
0.000
0.400
0.258
0.342
LEGEND
(M) MODEL
(P) PROTOTYPE
CHIEF JOSEPH(P)
(Interpolated)
ALTUS(M)
(INTERPOLATED)
LEMOS(M)
LEMOS (M)
CW 801 (M)
CW 801 (M)
SYMBOL
1.0
0.21
0.2
0.6
0.2
0.2
REV 771
CREST
EFFECT
1~ fn
w. .~
: <
TAINTER
0.500
0.444
0.560
0.520
0.385
0.367
6/Hal
0.2
0.2
0.6 
0.8
0.2
0,4
(CHIEF JOSEPH)
0,2
0.2
=0.400
0.2
0.4
(ALTUS)
= 0.400 (LEMOS)
=0.400
0.4
1(/J~
I
=0.400 (WES)
:]%
~}~
0.4
0.6 R
0.8
0.8
0.6
I .0
1.0
_
L+
+F1
ul
: $
u m
n U
Q
n
u <
~ ~
1.2
1.2
0.2
GATE
HYDRAULIC
0.4
0.6
DESIGN
SEAT
CHART
FOR
3116
1.0
Wcs 860
ON
CRESTS
0.8
H=1.00Hd
LOCATION
ON SPILLWAY
PRESSURES
OF
GATES
PREPARED
fi
H,j
BY
U.
S.
U)
w
E
v
m
1
2
t
\
\
\
ARMY
0.2
GO
0.2
0.4
ENGINEER
WATERWAYS
EXPERIMENT
STATION,
VICKSBURG,
XI.85=Z.0HCJ95Y
0.6
MISSISSIPPI
0.8
I .0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.000
0.400
CW 801 (M)
LEMOS(M)
LEMOS (M)
A
A
A
A
0.000
0.167
CW 801 (M]
LEGEND
GATE SEAT (x/Hal)
TEST
SYMBOL
0.2
0.8
1.25
1.25
R/Hd
1.27
1.27
B/Hd
.
0.385
0.367
0.560
0.520
1~
0.2
GATES
gY
HYDRAULIC
DESIGN
CHART
=0.490
(LEMOS)
0.6
3116/1
1.0
WCS
ON
771
CRESTS
0.8
INTERPOLATED
~=0.500(LEMos)*
=0.500 (WES)
ON SPILLWAY
0.4
TAINTER
1.25
1.25
H/Hal
_
1.33
1.33
.0.2
0.2
0.2
0.4
0.4
0.2
OttttA
0.6
(LEMos)
0.6
0.2
0.200
~=0.190(LEM0s)
1.2
0.6
 A
0.200 (WES)
: 1~ =
0.8
1.0
0.2
~=0.040(LEM0s)
= 0.025 (LEMOS)
= 0.033 (WES)
1
~
1.2
0.2
0.8
1.0
1.2
HYDRAULIC
DESIGN CRTTERIA
SHEET 312
1.
Purpose.
Vertical lift gates have been used on hlghoverflowdam spillways. However, they are more commonly found on lowogeecrest
dams and navigation dams with low sills where reservoir pool control normally requires gate operation at partial openings. Hydraulic Design
Chart 312 provides a method for computing discharge for partly opened,
vertical lift gates.
gates can
3111 to
low head
under a
(1)
where QG is the gate controlled discharge, C~
the discharge coefficient,
g the acceleration of gravity, L the gate width, and HI and H?
are
the heads on the gate lip and gate seat, respectively.
3* A recent U. S. Army Engineers Waterways Exper ent Station2 study
of discharge data from four laboratory investigations3r failed to indicate correlation of discharge coefficients computed using equation 1 above
or the equation given in Sheets 3111 to 3115. However, the concept of
relating gatecontrolled discharge to free discharge was developed in that
study. The free discharge equation is
(3)
4. Analysis.
The analysis of data taken from references 3 through
7 indicated reasonable correlation between free and controlled dischar~e.
The results are shown in Chart 312. This study indicated that the rel~Cdti(!d varied slightly with the discharge ratio but could be assumed
tion
312
Revised 168
as unity. Data from studies6 ~7 with the gate seat located appreciably downstream from the crest showed good correlation with data for oncrest gate
seat locations.
59 Application. Application of Chart 312 to the gatedischarge problem requires information on the headdischarge relation for free overflow
for the crest under consideration. These data are usually available from
spillway rating curves. Chart 312 should be a useful tool for the development of rating curves for vertical lift gates.
6.
References.
U. S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, CE, Discharge Rating Curves for Vertical Lift Gates on Spillway Crests, by R. H. Multer.
Miscellaneous Paper No. 2606,
Vicksburg, Miss., October 1963.
(4)
312
Revised 168
..._
I
.C
0.s
O.e
I
0.7
o. E
*
C&
Q
OG
+
A
o
o
SUGGESTED
DESIGN
CURVE
h
+
0.4
+
a
*
0.3
LEGEND
0.2

0. I
/l
+
a
U
@
O
FLAMING GORGE
FALCON
GORGE HIGH
MAHONING: UPSTREAM GATE LOCATION
MAHONING: DOWNSTREAMGATE LOCATION
o
I
BLUESTONE
I
1
I
I
0. I
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
~/2
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
_ H~/2
H3Z2
NOTE:
POOL EL
ib
EL
GATE
LIP
HI= H2G0
EL
SEAT
EL
VERTICAL
LIFT
GATES
ON SPILLWAYS
SKETCH
DISCHARGE
HYDRAULIC
REV 168
u.
s.
ARMY
H AND
Hz
DEFINITION
BY
AT
GATE
PREPARED
DISCHARGE
QG=DISCHARGE
AT HEAD
GATE OPENING
GO
T
HI
H
CREST
Q= FREEFLOW
HEAD
H
ENGINEER
WATERWAYS
EXperiment
STATION,
VICKSBURG,
MISSISSIPPI
COEFFICIENTS
DESIGN
CHART
312
WES
166
HYDRAULIC
DESIGN CRITERIA
SHEET 3201
CONTROL GATES
DISCHARGE COEFFICIENTS
1.
General. The accompanying Hydraulic Design Chart &O1 represents test data on the discharge coefficients applicable to partial
openings of both slide and tractor gates. The basic orifice equation
is expressed as follows:
Q= cGoBj2gH
..
The coefficient
C is actually a contraction coefficient if the gate is
located near the tunnel entrance and the entrance energy loss is neglected. When the gate is located near the conduit entrance the head
(H) is measured from the reservoir water surface to the top of the vena
contracta.
Hawever, when the gate is located a considerable distance
downstream of the conduit entrance, H should be measured from the
energy gradient just upstream of the gate to the top of the vena
contracta because of appreciable losses upstream of the gate. The evaluation of H requires successive approximation in the analysis of test
data. However, the determination of H in preparation of a rating
curve can be easily accomplished by referring to the chart for C .
2. Discharge Coefficients.
Discharge coefficients for tractor .
and slide gates are sensitive to the shape of the gate lip. Also, coefficients for small gate openings are materially affected by leakage over
and around the gate. Chart 3201 presents discharge coefficients determined from tests on model and prototype structures having various gate
clearances and lip shapes. The points plotted on the 100 per cent
opening are not affected by the gate but rather by friction and other
loss factors in the conduit. For this reason the curves are shown by
dashed lines above 85 per cent gate opening.
3* Suggested Criteria. Model and prototype tests prove that the
45 gate lip is hydraulically superior to other gate lip shapes. Therefore, the 45 gate lip has been recommended for high head structures.
In the 1949 model tests leakage over the gate was reduced to a minimum.
Correction of the Dorena Dam data for leakage results in a discharge
coefficient curve that is in close agreement with the 1949 curve. The
average of these two curves shown on Chart 3201 is the suggested design
curve. For small gate openings special allowances should be made by the
designer for any expected excessive intake friction losses and gate
leakage.
3201
Opening,
Per Cent
Gate
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
Discharge
Coefficient
0.73
0.73
0.74
0.74
0.75
0.77
0.78
0.80
.
3201
100
90
80
70
60
50
KANOPOLis
DAM
BASIC EQUATION
40
CGOB=
GATE OPENING
WIDTH
ENERGY
ABOVE
INVERT
OF GATE OPENING
IN FEET
IN FEET
ELEV
+ cGO)
DISCHARGE
30
20
10
0
0~65
0.70
0.75
0.80
DISCHARGE
085
0.90
COEFFICIENT
0.95
1.00
LEGEND
h
FORT RANDALL
WES
DORENA
II
DENISON
PROTOTYPE
MADDEN
PROTOTYPE
KANOPOLIS
MODEL
MODEL
TESTS
CW 803
PROTOTYPE
PROTOTYPE
I
>
45
LIP
CONTROL
GATES
1
DISCHARGE
HYDRAULIC
CO~FFICIENTS
DESIGN
CHART 3201
WES
4I53
1.
Purpose. The purpose of HNs 3202 to 3202/2,
which apply tO
the hydraulic forces on vertical lift gates, is to make the results of investigations of such forces available in a convenient nondimensional form.
These charts are equally applicable to tractor gates and slide gates.
2. Definition.
HDC 3202 is included to simplify the definition of
the hydraulic forces involved. For purposes of discussing buoyancy, a gate
may be assumed to be a rectangular parallelepipeds with the vertical axis
coincident with the direction of gravity.
If the body is completely inclosed, the buoyant force in still water is equal to the difference between
the total pressure on top (downthrust) and the total pressure on the bottom
(upthrust ). For such an inclosed vertical body, water pressure on the upstream face has no vertical component of pressure.
s202to 3202/3
Revised 1o61
8.
The upthrust force was computed from observed pressure data on
the sloping gate bottom. These data were plotted on the horizontal plane
of projection of the gate bottom. Pressure contours in feet of water were
drawn, integrated, and divided by the area of projection between the conduit walls to determine the upthrust per unit area of cross section. The
plots of data indicate that the conduit widthaverage gate thickness ratio
is a factor in the magnitude of upthrust per unit area. The average gate
thickness includes the gate bottom seal.
9* Pressure per unit area on top of the gate can be determined from
HN 3202/2. The Fort Randall Dam data shown in the chart are based on
field and model measurements of gatewell watersurface elevations. The
Pine Flat and Norfork Dam data result from field measurements of bonnet
pressures at these structures.
Details of clearances between the gates
and the gate recesses are also shown. The area of the top of the gate tc
be used in computation of the downthrust should include the area of the
gate within the gate slots, the area between the conduit walls and the
area of the gate top seal.
10. Application. HDC s202/s is a sample computation illustrating
the use of HDCS s202/l and s202/2 in the solution of a hydraulic and
gravity force problem.
In
actual design, the effects of the top and bottom gate seals and the area
of the gate within the gate slots should also be considered.
11.
(1)
Data Sources.
U. S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, CE, Vibration, Pressure and AirDemand Tests in FloodControl Sluice, Pine Flat Dam,
Kings River, California.
Miscellaneous Paper No. 275, Vicksburg,
Miss., February 1954, and subsequent unpublished test data.
(2)
(3)
s202to
s202/s
Revised 1o61
Gates,
(4) U. S. _
Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, CE, Spillway and
Outlet Works, Fort Randall Dam, Missouri River, South Dakota.
Technical Report No. 2528} Vicksburg, Miss., October 1959.
3202
..
to
Revised
3202/3
1o61
BASIC EQUATION
p=w+A(dfuf)y
df = DOWNTHRUST
PER UNIT
OF AREA
WHERE:
P=hydraul
W=
dry
ic and
weight
of
gravity
gate
A=crosssecticmal
df =
average
topof
Uf=
y=
uf=UPTHRUST
forces
in tons
area
downthrust
gate
upthrust
sloping
bottom
;.s:~~i;tweight
of
per
in feet
average
in tons
gate
sq ft
in
unit
of
area
on
of water
perunit
of gate
of
of area
in feet
water,
on
of water
0.0312
ton
PER
UNIT OF AREA
DOWNPULL
Note:
Does
VERTICAL
HYDRAULIC
AND
DEFINITION
HYDRAULIC
PREP
AF?ED
AFIM
ENGINEER
WATERWAYS
EXPERIMENT
STATION
VICKSBURG,
MISSISSIPPI
REV
1061
LIFT
GATES
GRAVITY
FORCES
AND
APPLICATION
DESIGN
CHART
3202
WES
058
I 00
90
NORFORK
MODEL
H=30240FT
80
F >
lx
I Ww
 FORT
RANDALL
PROTOTYPE
H=93IIIFT
70
1Z
60
PINE
K
Id
a.
~
, w~
M
I
1
I
Id
t
t~
FLAT PROTOTYPE
H=looflo
FT
40
<
0
A
30
IVORFORK
A40DEL
H=28207FT
B ____
m
20
NORFORK
PROTOTYPE
H= f43160
FT
10
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
I .0
U*
T
NORFORK
TYPE
+=
5.00
FORT
93
KPINE
NOTE:
RANDALL
~~~
T =AVERAGE
THICKNESS
OF
~ u{
1
FLAT
DEFINITION
SKETCH
:=4.16
NORFORK
TYPE
VERTICAL
UPTHRUST
+=7.34
PREPARED
BY
ARMY
ENGINEER
HYDRAULIC
WA TERWAVS
ExpERIMEN7
5TAT10N,
VICKSBURG
MISSISSIPPI
REV
1061
ON
LIFT
GATES
GATE
BOTTOM
DESIGN CHART
3202/1
WES
858
100
90 .
/
80
m
70
PINE
FLAT
PROTOTYPE
60
50
40 FORT
RANDALL
30
[
20
10 ~
NORFORK
TYPE B PROTOTYPE
H=143160
FT
7).1
0.2
0.3
0.5
0.4
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
I .0
Hw
H
d
m
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
4
I
I
@59
0.3754
m+
t
@
~&_
DEFINITION
1
11
PINE
SKETCH
FLAT
(NORFORK)
VERTICAL
GATE
WELL
HYDRAULIC
PREPARED
BY
ARMY
ENGINEER
WATERWAYS
EXPERIMENT
STATION,
VICKSBURG,
MISSISSIPPI
REV
1061
LIFT
WATER
DESIGN
CHART
GATES
SURFACE
3202/2
WES 858
CW 804
COMPUTATION
COMPUTEDBY
MBB
PROJECT
Hydraulic
DATE
4/10/61
Vertical
SUBJECT
CHECKEDBY
Lift Gates
DATE
CWD
4/20/61
GIVEN:
Gate
Pine
Fiat
tYPe
(HDC
3202/1)
ENERGY
Height
(D)=9.O
Width
(B)=5.O
Average
thickness
Upstream
gate
Downstream
Dry
GRADIENT
gate
weight
Gate
(T)=
l.2ft
clearance
in.
clearance=
(W)=
opening
=O.4
1.5
in.
8 tons
(GO)
=3.0ft
0.4
Discharge
(Q)=
1200cfs
DETERMINE:
1. Energy
head
Gate
it+
HW
above
opening
conduit
(GO)
invert
(H)
percent
100=;X
;X
Gate
100=33.3
coefficient
Velocity
(C)=
of jet
O.737
(HDC
ICGO
3201)
(Vj)
1200
= 108.5 ft/sec
CGOB =0.737X3X5
Velocity
head
V2
j
_(108.5)2
g
head
H=
= 182.8
ft
4.
above
conduit
Hoist
Unit
upthrust
Pine
5.
Repeat
ta
from
HDC
0.51
for
GO
3.
(185.0)
For
dawnthrust
Pine
=33.3
1.
gate
The
vertical
Gate
well
invert
water
surface
other
load
load
between
has
In actual
tween
HDC
0.0312
gate
openings
curve.
not
resulting
the
gate
been
from
and
included
the
the
gate
in this
computation.
=94.4ft
from
for
hoist
friction
percent
(df)
F tat
94.4)
3202/1
2.
Unit
(86.0
tons
guides
UI =0.51
3202)
computations
develop
Nate:
~=
1.2)
=81.6=6.4
185.0 ft
(uf)
Flat
(HDC
W+ A(dfuf)y
= 8 +(5
3) + (182.8)=
(P)
load
P=
invert
CGO+Vj2/2g
= (0.737
For
(Vj2/2g)
64.4
Energy
2.
of jet
3202/2
above
and
bottom
and
areas
be
conduit
problems
the
the
proiected
of the
within
difference
areas
gate
the
be
of the
including
gate
top
seals
slots
should
considered.
(Hw)
HW
=0.53
H
for
HW
(185.0)
Unit
= 0.53
= 86.0
BY
percent
= 98.0
VERTICAL
ft
ARMY
+GO)
=98.0(9+3)
HYDRAULIC
ft
ENGINEER
WA TERWAyS
EXPERIMENT
LIFT
GATES
downthrust
df=HW(D
pREPAREO
GO=33.3
STATION
VICKSBURG
M!ss
Iss IPP#
REV 1061
DESIGN
CHART
3202/3
WES 858
1.
HDC 3203 presents coefficient curves for tainter gates in conduits for use in the discharge equation:
Q=CGoB~2gH
Mises, R. von, Berechnung von Ausfluss  und ueberfallzahlen (Computation of coefficients of outflow and overall), Zeitschriftdes
Vereines deutscher Ingenieure, Band 61, Nr. 22 (2 June 1917),p 473.
** U. S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, CE, Outlet Works and
Spillway for Garrison Dam, Missouri River, North Dakota, Technical
Memorandum No. 2431 (Vicksburg, Miss., March 1s56).
*
3203
Revised 1o61
..
3D
H
Go
L\
._
DEFINITION
SKETCH
\
52
0
c
A!
10
0.65
0.70
0.80
DISCHARGE
COEFFICIENT
C
LEGEND
BASIC
EQUATION
Q= CGOB@
VON
MISES
GARRISON
MODEL
WHERE :
Q =DISCHARGECFS
C =DISCHARGE
COEFFICIENT
GO= GATE OPENINGFT.
B =WIDTH OF GATE OPENINGFT.
H =ENERGY GRAD. ELEV.
(INvERT
ELEv. + CGO)
TAINTER
GATES
IN CONDUITS
DISCHARGE COEFFICIENTS
HYDRAULIC
.,.,
,.
.,
u.
,.
.,
,Ne,,..
w,,,,
w.,
s .,,,
,!4,,
s,.,,.,
,..,
.,
?4,ss,
s.,..,
DESIGN
CHART
3203
WES
860
Q = C1C2 Go Bd2gh
The coefficient (Cl) depends on the vena contracta, the shape of which is a
function of the gate opening (Go), gate radius (R), trunnion height (a),
and upstream depth (h) for gate sills at streambed elevations. When the
gate sill is above streambed elevation, the coefficient also depends upon
sill height (P) and sill length (L).

2.
Hydraulic Design Charts 3204 to 3206 present discharge coefficients (Cl) for tainter gates with sills at streambed elevation. The insert graphs on the charts indicate adjustment factors (C2) for raised sil~
conditions.
Charts are included fo~ a/R ratios of 0.1, O.~, and 0.9.
Coefficients for other a/R values can be obtained by interpolation between
the charts. The coefficient is plotted in terms of the h/R ratio for Go/R
values of 0.05 to 0.5. The effect of Go/h is inherent in the solution and
is indicated by the limituse curve Go/h = 0.8.
3201
to
3207
..
References.
(1)
(2)
State Univer
(3) Tech, A., The Effect of a Lip Angle Upon Flow Under a Tainter Gate.
State University of Iowa Masters Thesis, February 1952.
(5)
1
(6)
i
(7)
3204
to
3207
1.12
ru
I
1.08
LEGEND
z
o
. u3
I.04
*TOCH,
DATA
I.00
z
METZLER,
AND GENTILINI
I
X AVERAG
TOCH DATA
INTERPOLATED*
E POIN:S
10
L/P
}
0.7
Go/R=b.05
0.6
.
0.5
..
0.40
 dcn
(/.
t
I
04
0.4
0.2
0.0
0.8
0.6
1.0
1.4
1.2
h/R
BASIC EQUATION
Q= C, C2 GOB@
TAINTER
GATE IN OPEN CHANNELS
DISCHARGE COEFFICIENTS
FREE FLOW
iL .
h
AL \\
GO
!1
a/R=o.
__
11
!/
DEFINITION
.,...0
U.
. .
AMY
lS1
..
WAT.
HYDRAULIC
DESIGN
I
CHART
3204
SKETCH
WA
. . ..!=7
STAT,..
,..s
..,
M,
SS,
SSIPPI
WCS
860
LEGEND
~
TOCH DATA
INTERPOLATED*
1 1
T~X
a
lx
II
1.00 ~
Ii
AVERAGE
POINTS
8
10
LIP
1/
1
.\ 0
/0
0.4
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.2
1.0
1.4
h/R
BASIC EQUATION
Q= Cl C2GOBti2gh
TAINTER
_
ii
h
i
GO
11

!!
HYDRAULIC
DEFINITION
...,.. ,, .. ,.
AMy
**,
..
Iw.,,
IN OPEN CHANNELS
DISCHARGE COEFFICIENTS
FREE FLOW
a/R=
0.5
\
L
GATE
DESIGN
CHART
3205
SKETCH
w.,.
,,,,,
M,,
S,.,,..
,,...
..
,.
s,.,,,.,
WES
860
I

12BEL4?
LEGEND
~
TOCH DATA
INTERPOLATED*
1.04
I 00
10
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.0
BASIC
Q=c,
0.2
c2Go
GO
!I
I .0
0.8
l.
1.4
B@
J\
ii
0.6
h/R
ii .
h
0.4
EQUATION
\\
1f
DEFINITION
SKETCH
.,..,,. ., .. ,. .*M,C.G,
CC
WA,.
WA,,,x,,,,., ,,,,,.. ,,.,.. 6,,*,,,=,,,,
FLOW
a/R=o.9
_______
HYDRAULIC
DESIGN
CHART
3206
WES 660
CW 804
PROJECT
COMPUTATION
MBB
DATE
GIVEN:
Tainter gate installations
depth
Gate
opening
Gate
radius
Trunnion
(h)=
(GO)
(R)=
RGC
DATE
5/17/60
=4ft
(B)=
60ft
of step
CHECKEDBY
shown
T
t
20ft
Height
5/9/60
25ft
(a)=
Bay width
15ft
height
Length
SUBJECT
COMPUTEDBY
Upstream
(L) =20
ft
(P)=5fi
~
REQUIRED:
Free discharge
for
Q=
gate
rating
O.6,
GO/R
=0.16,
(Cl
for
C1C2GOB~
COMPUTE:
1.
Parameters
a/R=
2.
O.8,
h/R=
Discharge
a/R
coefficient
unstepped
condition
for
= 0.8
Chart
3205
(a/R
= 0.5,
C,
Chart
3206
(a/R
interpolation
h/R
= 0.6,
GO/R=
O. 16),
h/R
= 0.6,
GO/R=
O. 16),
= 0.587
= 0.9,
Cl
By
L/P=4
= 0.664
for
Cl
a/R
= 0.8
0
08g 0.5o s (0.664
..
= 0.587+
 0.587)
= 0.645
3.
Adjustment
For
L/P
for
Adjustment
factor
C, C2 = 0.645
4.
stepped
si II
= 4
(Cz)
(1.05)
= 1.05
(see
chart insert)
= 0.678
Discharge
Q=
C,
C2GOB~
= 0.678
=
(4)
(60)
~~
5050 Cfs
TAINTER
GATE
IN OPEN
CHANNELS
DISCHARGE COEFFICIENTS
FREE FLOW
SAMPLE
COMPUTATION
HYDRAULIC
,...
,.
. . . . .,
,.,.,
W.,,
w.,.
.,*m,
M..,
.T.,,w,
,......
~,..,..,,,,
DESIGN
CHART
3207
wES 060
HYDRAULIC
SWTS
DESIGN CRITERIA
3208 AND3208/1
(1)
Q = CsLhsG
1.
where
Q = discharge, cfs
Cs = submerged flow discharge coefficient, a function of the sill
submergencegate opening ratio
L = bay width, ft
hs
g = acceleration , gravitational,
h
ft per sec2
Q=
is
The
(2)
cLGod2gh
3208
and3208/l
or
($)
cGo(
$)&
(3)
where
c~ = C(Go/h~)
0 = gate opening
3* Chart 3208 prese ts the results of extensive model tests2>3>4>5
and limited prototype data. 8 The plotted curves are based on careful measurements and are believed to be representative of the best available data.
The model data and most of the prototype data were obtained with the gates
adjacent to the test gate open the sane amount as the test gate. The
plotted curves indicate the effects of the relation of the elevation of
the stilling basin apron to that of the gate sill. The portions of the
curves having Cs values less than 0.1 are based on prototype gate openings of 1 ft or less and on model gate openings of about 0.05 ft. The
experimental data are omitted from this chart in the interest of clarity.
Chart 3208/1 is included to illustrate the degree of data correlation
resulting in the curves presented in Chart 3208.
The suggested design curve in Chart 3208 should
4. Application.
be useful for developing pool regulation curves for navigation dam spillways consisting of tainter gates on low sills. The curves presented
generally represent sill elevations about 5 ft above streambed and stilling
basin apron elevations 3.5 to 31 ft below sill elevation.
The Hannibal
and Cannelton spillway sills are located about 15 and 19 ft above streambed, respectively.
The height of the sill above the approach bed does not
seem to be an important factor in submerged flow controlled by gates.
However, the coefficient data presented include all the geometric effects
of each structuxe as well as the effects of adjacent gate operation. The
curve most applicable to spillway design conditions should be used for
developing discharge regulation curves.
5. References.
(1)
U. S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, CE, Typical Spillway Structure for Central and Southern Florida WaterControl Pro.fiect:
Hydraulic Model Investigation, by J. L. Grace, Jr. Technical Re~ort
No. 2633, Vicksburg, Miss., September 1963.
)
3208
and 3208/1
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
, Spillway,
Hannibal Locks and Dam, Ohio River, Ohio and
West Virginia; Hydraulic Model Investigation.
Technical Report
No. 2731, Vicksburg, Miss., June 1966.
(6)
..
3208
and 3208/1
40 y
30
I
B =3.5
+,
I
TO
T5
I
FT,
I
I?EF
I
I
(PROT
OTYPE)
1111
I
*
II
20
REF
(MODEL)
O F~,
REF
3 tMODEi)
Ill
10
m
Ill
8
7
61
8=18
I
1
FT .,
1
RFF.5 {tiODEL)
..I
I
I
>N
5
I
I
0.03
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.I
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.6
1.0
0.8
Cs
BASIC EQUATION
* MISSISSIPPI
Q=C~Lh~~
/\
RIVER
FLOW
_
.V
DEFINITION
TAINTER
GATES
IN
OPEN
CHANNELS
SKETCH
DISCHARGE
COEFFICIENT
SUBMERGED
FLOW
HYDRAULIC
pREp
ARED
BY
u.
s.
ARMY
ENGINEER
WATERWAYS
EXPERIMENT
STATION.
VI CK50u
RG.
Mississippi
DESIGN
CHART
3208
WES
168
I 5.0
LEGEND
P
\
GATE OPENING
(FT, PROTOTYPE)
SYMBOL
\
I 0.0
9.0
\
Wq
8.0 
2
4
6
8
A
o
\
\
IO
12
II
14
7.0
\
\
6.0
\
\
\
5.0
\
~A
\o
4.0
Y,
\
*<
3.0
AA*
&
2.5
2.0
m
1.5
v
v>
1.0
0.06
0.08
BASIC
0.
0.15
0.2
EQUATION
NOTE:
DATA
0.4
FROM
HANNIBAL
0.5
0.6
MODEL,
0.7
( 8
0.9
REF 5
TAINTER
GATES
IN
OPEN
CHANNELS
DEFINITION
SKETCH
DISCHARGE
COEFFICIENT
SUBMERGED
FLOW
TYPICAL
CORRELATION
HYDRAULIC
PREPARED
ei
s.
ARMY
EN
G,NEER
wATERwkys
EXPERIMENT
STAT,ON,
,CKSBR,
~,~~,~~,pp,
DESIGN
CHART
320WES
8/1
I68
1.0
HYDRAULIC
DESIGN CRITERIA
GATE VALVES
DISCHARGE CHARACTERISTICS
1.
The discharge characteristics of a flow control valve may be
expressed in terms of a loss coefficient for valves along a fullflowing
pipeline, or in terms of a discharge coefficient for free flow from a
valve located at the downstream end of a pipeline.
Loss and discharge
coefficients for gate valves are given on Hydraulic Design Charts 3301
and 3301/1, respectively.
.
20 Loss Coefficient.
The loss of head caused by a valve occurs
not only in the valve itself but also in the pipe as far downstream as
the velocity distribution is distorted.
Tests to determine this total
10ss, exclusive of friction, have been conducted on several makes and
sizes of gate valves at the University of Wisconsin(1) and the Alden
Hydraulic Laboratory.(2)
The results of these tests on the larger sizes
of valves are given on Chart 3301 as loss coefficients in terms of the
velocity head immediately upstream from the valve. Data are given for
both a simple disk gate valve having a crescentshaped water passage at
partial openings and a ringfollower type of gate valve having a lensshaped water passage at partial openings. The scatter in the Wisconsin
data is attributed to minor variations in the geometry of the different
makes of valves tested.
Discharge coefficients for free flow
3* Discharge Coefficients.
from a gate valve at the downstream end of a pipeline have been determined by the Bureau of Reclamation(3) for several makes and sizes of
simple disk gate valves. The results of these tests are given on Chart
3301/1 as discharge coefficients in terms of the total energy head
immediately upstream from the valve. The scatter in these data is
attributed to minor variations in geometry of the valves tested.
4. Application.
The loss data given on Chart 3301 are applicable to valves installed in fullflowing pipelines having no bends or
other disturbances within several diameters upstream and downstream from
the valve. The discharge coefficients on Chart 3301/1 are for valves
installed at the downstream end of several diameters of straight pipe
and discharging into the atmosphere.
5*
(1)
List of References.
330land
3301/1
(2)
Hooper, L. J., Tests of 4, 8, and 16Inch Series 600 Rising Stem
Valves for the WKM Division of ACE Industries, Houston, Texas.
Alden Hydraulic Laboratory, Worcester Polytechnic Institute,
Worcester, Mass., Sept. 1949
(3)
3301
and 3301/1
1000.0
i
c%
800.0
ooo~
4000H%tt
,
200.0
c)
I 00.0
\
I
u~
\v
80.0
\
i
60.0
4 IN.
8IN.
16IN.
E OPENING
4ooFPF#FRLDEN
yDRAu.tcLABORAToRyn
B
20.0
()
o
I 0.0 I
8.0
\l
1
l\
I
,
An
1
I
6.0
4.0
2.0
I.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.I
o
20
10
30
40
VALVE
50
60
OPENING
IN PER CENT
70
80
90
I00
HL
BASIC
EQUATION
Kv=
v2/2q
WHERE:
Kv
VALVE
HL = HEAD
V
= AVERAGE
LOSS
COEFFICIENT
LOSS THROUGH
VELOCITY
VALVE
IN
PIPE
GATE VAl_VES
LOSS
COEFFICIENTS
NOTE :
DATA ARE FOR VALVES HAVING SAME DIAMETER
AS
PIPE AND FOR DOWNSTREAM
PIPE FLOWING FULL.
HYDRAULIC
DESIGN
CHART
3301
WES
657
1.2
I.c
O.e
0.6
SUGGES
TED
DESIGN
CURVE
h
4B/
0.4
ih
{
1/
0.2
VALVE
OPENING
0
o
20
40
VALVE
BASIC
EQUATION
80
60
OPENING
100
IN PER CENT
Q= CA_
WHERE:
C =VALVE
A =AREA
DISCHARGE
BASED
COEFFICIENT
ON NOMINAL
VALVE
DIAMETER
NOTE
GATE
VALVES
FREE
DISCHARGE
HYDRAULIC
FLOW
COEFFICIENTS
DESIGN
CHART
3301/1
WES 657
..
BUTTERFLY VALVES
DISCHARGE AND HYDRAULIC TORQUE CHARACTERISTICS
1.
3311
to
3313
4. Application.
A sample computation for torque is given in Chart
3313. Final computations should be based on the recommendations of the
valve manufacturer at which time friction torque and seating torque data
should be considered.
5=
List of References.
(1)
(2)
(3)
Dewitt,
ft.
Instruments,
butterfly
valve under a head of 223
a 2hin.
C., Operating
Engineering NewsRecord (18 September 193o), pp 460462.
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
Mcpherson, M. B., Strausser, H. S., and Williams, J. C., Jr., ButterProceedings, ASCE, paper 1167, vol
fly valve flow characteristics.
83, No. HY1 (February 1957).
(8)
3311
to 3313
2.8
AH
HI
2.8
H2
~
VI
V2
Y1P
2.4
AH=
Tl
HIH2
DEFINITION
McPHERSON
SKETCH
1 1
2.2
GA DEN
2.0
1
I
\
DICKEY
& COPLEN
1.8
\l
\\
Q
SUGGESTED
~
1z
g
g
k
IA
8
u
w
o
m
<
x
1.6
DESIGN
ARMANET
CURVE
\
\
VALVE
SHAPES
1
I .4
\
\
1
1.2
LEGEND
:
E
MCPHERSON4
I .0
1r
0.8
k4c PHERSON
 6
McPHERSON4
WITH
DIFFUSOR
GADEN
DISK A
GADEN
DISK B
DICKEY 6COPLEN
DISK I(AIR)
ARMANET(CONVERGING)
0.6
0.4
0.2

no
10
30
20
OPEN
BASIC
9
AH
IN D~GREES
80
90
CLOSED
(CC?
CQD2~fi
BUTTERFLY
:
= DISCHARGE
CQ = DISCHARGE
D
70
OP~NING
EQUATION
Q=
WHERE
VALVE
= VALVE
IN CFS
DISCHARGE
COEFFICIENTS
VALVE IN PIPE
COEFFICIENT
DIAMETER
= GRAVITY CONSTANT
VALVES
IN FT
=32.2 FT/SEC2
= PRESSURE
DROP ACROSS
VALVE IN FT OF WATER
THE
HYDRAULIC
DESIGN
CHART
331
WES 858
I .4
1.3
I .2
MCPHERSON
4
AH= HI + .12/29
DEFINITION
1.1
SKETCH
~
GADEN
1.0
11
ARMANET
0.9
VALVE
SHAPES
~
&
1z
w
G
c
L
8
u
U
:
<
1
:
0.8
Su EM& RGED
FLO w
0.7
y Su GGES TED
4)
CU RVES
0 ESIGN
4
0.6
4)
LEGEND
FREE FLOW
0.5
F REE
FL ow~
\
0.4
MCPHERSON6
DEWITT
GADEN DISK A
GADEN DISK B
ARMANET
(COnVerging)
SUBMERGED
FLOW
MCPHERSON441
\
0.3
0.2
0. I
0
20
10
OPEN
BASIC
30
VALVE
50
IN DEGREES
60
70
(m)
80
90
CLOSED
EQUATION
Q=
CQD2~@
BUTTERFLY
WHERE :
Q
40
OPENING
= DISCHARGE
C~ = DISCHARGE
IN CFS
COEFFICIENT
= VALVE
DIAMETER
= GRAVITY CONSTANT
IN FT
VALVES
DISCHARGE
COEFFICIENTS
VALVE
IN END OF PIPE
=32.2 FT/SEC2
HYDRAULICDESIGNCHART 331 I ZI
UPSTREAMOF VALVE
WES 858
0.70
..
I
0.65
0.60
AP=(HIH2)
Y =SPECIFIC
WEIGHT OF FLUID
05HtH+tH
DEFINITION
SKETCH
0.50
I
0.45
~
&
GADEN
\ \
0.40
KELLER
+
z
g
u
E
& SALZMANN
\\
0.35
k
o
0
U
ARMANET
\
\
I
VALVE
z
g
t
KELLER
@lR
0.30
(
/
111
\
\, il ~
ARhfAIVE
0.25
\,
0.20
T @01vvER6M6>
1111
GADEIV  DISK
Ill
SHAPES
8 SAL ZA4ANN
TESTS.)
GADEIV  DISK
\
b
\
I
r
0.15
\{
\ \
I
1
\
.
\
0.10
N,\
I
I
\
.
N
\,
\
0.00
0
lo
20
OPEN
BASIC
30
VALVE
40
OpENING
50
60
70
90
60
IN DEGREES(a)
CLOSED
EQUATION
TCTD3AP
BUTTERFLY
VALVES
WHERE:
T
= TORQUE
CT = TORQUE
D
= VALVE
COEFFICIENT
DIAMETER
AP = PRESSURE
IN LB/SQ
TORQUE
IN FTLB
IN FT
DIFFERENTIAL
FT
COEFFICIENTS
VALVE
IN PIPE
HYDRAULIC
DESIGN
CHART
3312
0.14
t
lq2/29
0.13
A
h,
II
~.
!!
vi ~
0.12
%?()
AP=(HI+V12/2g)~
Y=
SPECIFIC
WEIGHT
OF
FLUID
0.11
DEFINITION
SKETCH
0.10 k
~
0.09
~
GADEN
~
&
0.08
1Z
g
g
k
:
ARMANET
VALVE
0.07
 DEWITT
@ApE
o
u
w
z
a
0
1
006
.
\
GAOEN
0.05
,
SHAPES
 COA4PUTE0
UNKNOWN)
 DISK
A 
GA DEN  DISK
I
I
B
I
/
/
ARhfANE
T @oNvERGING)
/ (/
0.04
I
i
k
/,
0.03
\
/
s
\
.
\
0.02
\
\
001
N
<
~
0.00
0
10
20
30
VALVE
OPEN
BASIC
OPENING
IN DEGREES
60
70
80
90
(a)
CLOSED
BUTTERFLY
VALVES
:
=TORQUE
CT = TORQUE
D
50
EQUATION
T= CT D3AP
WHERE
40
= VALVE
AP = TOTAL
IN FTLB
COEFFICIENT
DIAMETER
TORQUE
COEFFICIENTS
VALVE IN END OF PIPE
IN FT
HYDRAULIC
DESIGN CHART
3312/l
STATION
SHEET
...
JOB
PROJECT
CW804
COMPUTATION
SUBJECT
Butterfly
Valves
WCB
COMPUTEDBY
DATE
2/26/58
RGC
CHECKEDBY
DATE
2/27/58
GIVEN:
Total available
shape
Energy
GadenDisk
Iussin
(HL)
system
= 0.3
Aon
without
Chart
3311
valve
V2/2g
ASSUME:
Discharge
(Q)
= 600
cfs
COMPUTE:
1. Head luss(H~)in
V=z=
48 ft per sec
H~H~
Hv=2251035=180ft
Discharge coefficient
Hv
= V2/2g=
35
for Q=600cfs
(CQ)
ft
H~ = 0.3 H, = 10 ft
600
= 0.49
cQ=16x~x@
From
suggested
opening
3.
Hydraulic
torque
Chart
3312,
valve
open
T = CT
(T)
36
D3
T = 0.10X
computations
for other
assumed
Q = 600
cfs
coefficient
and
(CT)
design
= 36
~ = 36.
for
curve
for
CQ
on Chart
3311,
valve
of 0.49.
From
GadenDi
sk A
= 0.10.
A P
(Chart
AP=
Where
Repeat
for
torque
(~)
64 X
discharges
3312)
(H, H2)Y=AHy
180
to determine
discharge
and
hydraulic
torque
BUTTERFLY
curves.
VALVES
SAMPLE COMPUTATION
DISCHARGE AND TORQUE
HYDRAULIC
DESIGN
CHART
3313
WES 858

HOWELLBUNGER VALVES
DISCHARGE COEFFICIENTS
1.
General. The HowellBunger valve is essentially a cylinder
gate mounted with the axis horizontal. A conical end piece with its apex
upstream is connected to the valve body by vanes. A movable external
horizontal sleeve controls the discharge by varying the opening between
the sleeve and the cone. The discharge is in the form of a diverging
hollow conical jet. Diameters of valves range from 1.5 to 9 ft. Some
valves have four vanes while others have six vanes. Separate discharge
coefficient charts are presented for four and sixvane valves.

(1)
(2)
R. A. Elder and G. B. Dougherty, Hydraulic Characteristics of HowellBunger Valves and Their Associated Structures, TVA Report dated
1 Nov. 1950.
Investigation of Hydraulic Properties of the Revised HowellBunger
Valve, City of Seattle, Ilashington, Hydraulic Laboratory Report
No. 168, Bureau of Reclamation, April 1945.
3321
to 1/1
..
2
w
g
k
u
0
v
:
0!
<
x
0
g
n

0.0
0.I
0.2
0.4
0.3
SLEEVE
0.5
0.6
TRAVEL
DIAMETER
BASIC
EQUATION
Q=CA~~
HOWELL
WHERE
C=
DISCHARGE
A nAREA
FROM
He,
ENERGY
CONDUIT
DISCHARGE
COEFFICIENT
OF
CONDUIT
VALVE
HEAD
IN
SQ
IMMEDIATELY
IMMEDIATELY
UPSTREAM
TO
UPSTREAM
CENTERLINE
FROM
HYDRAULIC
OF
VALVE
IN
FT
VALVES
COEFFICIENTS
FOUR
FT
MEASURED
BUNGER
VANES
DESIGN
CHART
3321
SLEEVE
TRAVEL
DIAMETER
BASIC
EQUATION
Q=cA~
HOViELL
WHERE:
CZDISCHARGE
DISCHARGE
COEFFICIENT
A EAREA
OF CONDUIT IMMEDIATELY UPSTREAM
FROM VALVE IN SQ FT
He= ENERGY HEAD MEASURED TO CENTERLINE
OF
CONDUIT
IMMEDIATELY UPSTREAM
 BUNGER
FROM
VALVE IN FT
SIX
HYDRAULIC
VALVES
COEFFICIENTS
VANES
DESIGN
CHART
332 1/1
WES 254
SHEET3401
FLAP GATES
HEAD
1.
Loss COEFFICIENTS
where
H
i! = head
2.
Hydraulic
Design
Chart
3401 presents head loss coefficients for
submerged flap gates. The data result from tests by Nagler (1) on 18in.,
24in., and 30in.diameter gates.
3401
10.00 .
8.00
6.00
4.00
/
/
A /
2.00
)
I.00 ,
/
0.80
0.60
1Z
u
u
c
IA
id
o
u
0.40
W
w
o
1
;
0.20
u
x
o
=...
0.10
i
LEGEND
0.08
/
c1 18IN. GATE
A
24IN. GATE
O
30IN. GATE
0.06
/
0.04
0.02
c
0.01
I.0
2.0
4.0
6.0
8.0
I0.0
20.0
40.0
60.0
I80.0
100.0
200.0
D/Hv
EQuATIONS
/(.==
HL
V2
;
Hv=~
OF GRAVITY, FT/SEC
FL( AP
GATES
COEFFICIENTS
LOSS
SUBMERGED
FLOW
HEAD
HYDRAULIC
..,. .0., . , ARM
,.., ..
W.
TC
WA,,
. .
...
.4,,
,,.,,O.
,.
,...
M,,
s,,
s,,.,
DESIGN
CHART
3401
WES
860
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