You are on page 1of 20

----------------------------------------------------------Timing advance (TA) value corresponds to the length of time a signal takes to reach the base

station from a mobile phone. The TA value is normally between 0 and 63,
with each step representing an advance of one bit period (approximately 3.69 microseconds). With
radio waves travelling at about 300,000,000 metres per second (that is
300 metres per microsecond), one TA step then represents a change in round-trip distance (twice
the propagation range) of about 1,100 metres. This means that the TA
value changes for each 550-metre change in the range between a mobile and the base station. This
limit of 63 550 metres is the maximum 35 kilometres that a device
can be from a base station and is the upper bound on cell placement distance.
-------------------------------------------GSM uses Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) as its access scheme. This is how the MS
interfaces with the network. TDMA is the protocol used on the Air (Um) Link. GSM
uses Gaussian Minimum-Shift Keying (GMSK) as its modulation methods.
Time Division means that the frequency is divided up into blocks of time and only certain logical
channels are transmitted at certain times. Logical channels will be
introduced in the next lesson. The time divisions in TDMA are known as Time Slots.
Time Slots : A frequency is divided up into 8 time slots, numbered 0 to 7.
----------------------------------Duplexing :
Duplexing is the technique by which the send and receive paths are separated over the medium,
since transmission entities (modulator, amplifiers, demodulators) are
There are two types of duplexing.\
1. Frequency Division Duplexing FDD
2. Time Division Duplexing TDD
Frequency Division Duplexing FDD
Different Frequencies are used for send and receive paths and hence there will be a forward band
and reverse band. Duplexer is needed if simultaneous transmission
(send) and reception (receive) methodology is adopted .Frequency separation between forward
band and reverse band is constant
Time Division Duplexing (TDD)
TDD uses different time slots for transmission and reception paths. Single radio frequency can be
used in both the directions instead of two as in FDD. No duplexer is
required. Only a fast switching synthesizer, RF filter path and fast antenna switch are needed. It
increases the battery life of mobile phones.
GSM and CDMA systems use Frequency Division Duplexing and corDECT uses Time Division


KPIs to be monitored:

SD Blocking

SD Drop
SDCCH Channel:
SDCCH channel is a dedicated channel which is using for LAC updation, Call Setup, SMS in Ideal
mode. It works in UL & DL
SD Blocking:

SD Blocking means that you are not getting SD resource for the call origination. When MS
connects with Network then RACH and AGCH are provided. After AGCH, SDCCH
is provided but if SDCCH is not provided at this time due to some problem or due to unavailable of
SD by BSC.
KPI Formula in Ericsson:


CCONGS - Congestion counter.

CCALLS - Channel allocation attempt counter (on SDCCH).

Reason for SD Blocking:

LAC Boundary

High Volume of SMS

SD utilization is high

Time Slot faulty

Adaptive configuration of logical channel switch off

Wrong SD Dimension

Incorrect CHAP Settings

Hardware Issue
Solution for Removal of SD Blocking:

Check the no of SD channels available, if less, then increase SD channel while TCH Blocking
should be taken care.
Check LAC boundary, if location update is more, then change the LAC of that site and set C2 and
Use of dynamic SDCCH (it is a BSC parameter)
Shift SD to new time slot
Adaptive configuration of logical channel switch ON
Check for T3212 value
Need to check which parameter:
1. CHAP (Channel Allocation Profile): Its Immediate Assignment Process on TCH, It
different channel allocation strategies,
CHAP 0: Immediate assignment on TCH is not permitted,
CHAP 1: Immediate assignment on TCH is last preference, where in TCH is allocated at
immediate assignment only when there is no Idle SDCCH is available
CHAP2: Immediate assignment on TCH is first preference where in SDCCH may only be allocated
when there are no idle TCH is available.
2. Adaptive configuration of logical channel (ACLP): The purpose of this features dynamic
reconfiguration of Idle TCH Channel to SDCCH Channel, when there is SDCCH
High load
S LEVEL Defines: Reconfigure of an Idle TCH to an SDCCH will take place; Default 0 Congested rate
for a cell is increase S LEVEL 2
S TIME Define Minimum Time Interval between SDCCH, Can be reconfigured back to TCH, Default
value 20s, Range 15s to 3600s
3. T3212: Periodic update timer value: High volume of LAC Border can cause SD Congestion so
optimize the periodic registration timer. Irrespective of the location,
coverage, activity, the mobile has to update its location to the MSC after a defined time/period.
4. CRH (Cell Reselection Hysteresis) :Receiving Signal strength hysteresis for required cell
reselection over location area border, In order to overcome the Ping-Pong

effects in cell reselection across location area borders, CRO and PT can also used to delay
reselection in LAC Borders.(Location area code is an identity number given
to the site of a base station)
When SD is assigned for a mobile during call connection process and during this time
due to any problem or any mismatch occurs by which SD loss occurs,
It is between allocation of SD and before TCH allocation.
KPI Formula in Ericsson:
CNDROP- Total number of dropped SDCCH channels in a cell (for the measurement Period).
CNRELCONG- Total number dropped (released) connections on SDCCH due to TCH or Tran-coder
CMSESTAB - Total number of successful MS channel establishment on SDCCH.
Reason for SD Drop:


Shift the SD time slot
It may be uplink or downlink issue in which cells foe UL put TMA in that cell and DL
HW Issue
Wrong parameter planning
Bad coverage
MAIO mismatch
High Pathless
High LAPD utilization
Wrong Power control settings
Check the Timer T 3101
Check the Timer T 200(20ms)

Solution for Removal of SD Drop:


Check the BCCH Plan(C/I or C/A)


To find out proper frequency to reduce interference


LAC Planning

If a cell is picking call from long distance, check the sample log according to TA

Cell orientation need to defined according to clutter

Bad Coverage:

If the drop call is due to low signal strength uplink, check the receive path of this
particular TRX. Check receiver sensitivity, VSWR, feeder connection
and etc. Drops due to Low Signal Strength.

If the drop call reason is due to low signal strength downlink, then, check the transmit
path. Check cards, feeder and etc.
Hardware Fault:

Check Alarms.
TRX condition.
Check Path Imbalance.
VSWR of the Cell.
Connector Connection.

Sometimes you will find issues on BCCH TRX. In this case BCCH shift from one to other
TRX will reduce SD drop
Need to check Which Parameter:
Drop Reason mainly Low signal strength (UL & DL), Bad Quality (UL & DL) and Excess Timing
And High Interference (Co-BCCH & Co-BSIC), Wrong Power control Settings and Too High of CRH
Can result in SDCCH drops
Power control settings: Lack of good power control settings for SDCCH can lead to excess drop.
Two types of power control 1.MS Power control 2.BTS Power Control
SDCCHREG: Function of this parameter Enable (1)/Disable (0), Enable the power control to
minimize the drops
INIDES (Initial desires signal strength): For the SDCCH UL and DL, Default value -70dbm,
especially UL impact of drop rate, because extremely sensitive to
interference, for INDIES from -70 dbm to -85dbm this will reduce the cumulative power emitted by
mobile closer to base station (which need not transmit at very high
power to communicate with the BS) and this will reduce the interference
Due to ICM Band (CDMA):

Some time SD drops takes place due to near sites of CDMA.

Check the ICM band value of that site.

Use BPF (Band pass filter).

----------------------------------------------------------------Cell Selection Procedure

First MS powers-on
MS starts measuring received power level from all cells in range
MS calculates average power level received from each cell:
Stored in RXLEV(n) parameter
MS calculates C1 parameter for each cell based on RXLEV(n)
Mobile compares cells which give a positive value of C1 and camps-on to the cell with the
highest C1 value.
On switch-on, an MS periodically measures the received power level on each of the BCCH
frequencies of all cells within range. From these periodic measurements the MS
calculates the mean received level value from each cell, stored in the parameter RXLEV (n) where
n=neighboring cell number.
Cell Re-selection GSM Phase 1 Mobiles
For GSM Phase 1 mobiles, cell reselection is achieved by comparing current cell C1 with
neighboring C1 cell measurements:
Between cells within a Location Area:
C1 (new) > C1 (old)
(for more than 5 seconds)
Between cells on a Location Area boundary:
C1 (new) > C1 (old) + OFFSET
(for more than 5 seconds)
Cell Re-selection GSM Phase 2 Mobiles

GSM Phase 2 introduced a separate cell re-selection parameter, C2

Intended to:
Prevent multiple handovers for fast-moving mobiles
Ensure MS camps on to cell with greatest chance of successful communications
The C2 calculated is:


-------------------------------------------------------------------Although a strong RSSI is desirable, it does not guarantee a quality signal. RXQUAL is a value that
represents the quality of the received signal. The MS determines the Bit Error Rate (BER) of the
signal and reports it back to the network. The BER is simply a percentage of the number of bits it
receives that did not pass error checking. The bits may have been garbled along the RF path or lost
due to fading or interference. The higher the BER the lower the signal quality. RXQUAL is given as a
number from 0 to 7 and represents a percentage range of BER.

Frequency Hopping:
Frequency Hopping is mechanism in which the system changes the frequency
(uplink and downlink) during transmission at regular intervals. It allows the RF channel used for
signaling channel (SDCCH) timeslot or traffic channel (TCH) timeslots, to change frequency every
TDMA frame (4.615 ms). The frequency is changed on a per burst basis, which means that all the
bits in a burst are transmitted in the same frequency. In 1Sec= 217Hopes
Advantages of Frequency Hopping: Frequency Diversity, Interference Averaging, Increase
There are two types of hopping 1 Base Band FH (BBH) 2 Synthesizer FH (SFH).
1. Base Band Frequency Hopping: In baseband hopping, each transmitter is assigned with a
fixed frequency. At transmission, all bursts, irrespective of which connection, are routed to the
appropriate transmitter of the proper frequency. The advantage with this mode is that narrow-band
tunable filter combiners can be used.
2. Synthesizer Frequency Hopping (SFH). Synthesizer hopping means that one transmitter
handles all bursts that belong to a specific connection. The bursts are sent "straight on forward"
and not routed by the bus. In contrast to baseband hopping, the transmitter tunes to the correct
frequency at the transmission of each burst the advantage of this mode is that the number of
frequencies that can be used for hopping is not dependent on the number of transmitters. It is
possible to hop over a lot of frequencies even if only a few transceivers are installed. A
disadvantage with synthesizer hopping is that wide-band hybrid combiners have to be used. This
type of combiner has approximately 3 dB loss making more than two combiners in cascade
Frequency Hopping Parameters
Mobile Allocation (MA): Set of frequencies the mobile is allowed to hop over. Maximum of 63
frequencies can be defined in the MA list.
Hopping Sequence Number (HSN): Determines the hopping order used in the cell. It is possible
to assign 64 different HSNs. Setting HSN = 0 provides cyclic hopping sequence and HSN = 1 to 63
provide various pseudo-random hopping sequences.

Mobile Allocation Index Offset (MAIO): Determines inside the hopping sequence, which
frequency the mobile starts do transmit on. The value of MAIO ranges between 0 to (N-1) where N
is the number of frequencies defined in the MA list. Presently MAIO is set on per carrier basis.

DTX : Discontinuous Transmission

When an MS is engaged but no speech signals are transferred, the MS sends only comfort noises
periodically to the peer end. The data volume of these comfort noises is smaller than the volume of
normal speech data.
An MS does not keep transmitting speech signals during a call. Typically, only 40% of the duration
of the call is occupied for speech transmission. During the non-speech transmission period, an MS
reduces the transmitted data to suppress the interference to other channels and to help reserve
system resources. In addition, DTX relieves the workload of the TX module of the MS. The MS can
enjoy a longer call duration and standby time. DTX affects only the transmission of TCH frames.
DTX can reduce the transmit power of an MS when the MS does not receive any speech signals.
The quality of speech services in the entire radio network is thus improved.
DTX involves the following technical aspects:
Silence Descriptor (SID) frames
Voice Activity Detection (VAD)
Global measurement and local measurement
When there is no speech signal transmission during a call, the MS sends SID frames to the BTS.
The VAD enables the MS to accurately detect speech signals
DRX : Discontinuous Reception
An MS in idle mode detects only the paging channels within a specific paging group. When other
paging groups send paging messages to an MS, the MS blocks the receive channel.
Each MS is mapped to a paging group, and each paging group is mapped to a paging subchannel in
the serving cell. When operating in idle mode, an MS detects the paging messages broadcast by
the system only on the mapped paging sub-channel. The MS blocks other paging sub-channels by
powering off some hardware of the MS, and this also saves power.
RLT - Radio Link Timeout
RLT - Radio Link Timeout
When SACCH is not decoded this counter is decreased by 1 when it is reaches to zero it result
normal call drop. In this period if SACCH is decoded counter is increased by 2.

This parameter indicate how much time call maintained when radio environments is bed.
If RLT value is high then call is sustain longer time. it is affected to customer customers
Highway and in building cells have higher value of RLT parameter and it is give better
improvement of call drops.
This parameter is define in AMRFR & AMRHR and also Non AMRFR & Non AMRHR
We can also check this on TEMS radio parameter window
one time slot lasts 0.577ms, Bursts period is 4.615ms
1 SACCH Period= 4.615X104 bursts (4x26=104 bursts) = 480ms
Now Radio Link Time Counter:It is depend on SACCH blocks.
This parameter defines the maximum value of the radio link counter expressed in SACCH blocks.
Range of 4 64 in step size of 4.
Value of RLT. Normally 16, 20, 24.
If RLT value is 16 then call is sustain around- 7.6 Sec( 16 *480ms) when SACCH will not decoded
If RLT value is 20 then call is sustain around -9.6 Sec( 20*480ms)
If RLT value is 24 then call is sustain around -11.5 Sec( 24*480ms)
RLT Measure in TEMS Radio Parameters
RL Timeout Counter (Cur) : This parameter define the maximum value of the radio link counter
expressed in SACCH blocks. Range of 4 64 in step size of 4. it shows current value of RLT.
Decrease by 1 but increase by 2. When it reaches zero it results in normal DROP Call.

RL Timeout Counter (MAX) : This parameter define the maximum value of the radio link counter
expressed in SACCH blocks. Range of 4 64 in step size of 4. it shows current value of RLT.
Normally 16, 20, 24.

2G Timer parameter
T3105 :Time between repetition of physical information to MS. Will be repeated NY1 times.
T3101 : Guard time for Immediate Assign. Started as 'IMM_ASS_CMD' is sent to BTS and stopped
by reception of 'EST_IND' from BTS.The allocated channel will be released at timer expiry.
T3260 : The timer is started when AUTHENTICATION REQUEST is sent from MSC. The timer is
stopped when AUTHENTICATION RESPONSE is received in MSC. The connection is released with a
CLEAR COMMAND at timer expiry.
T3212 : Time between periodic update of MS. SET by the MML command RLSBC. The value is sent
to the MS in system information. The MS will do periodic update, if it is residing in the same
location area at a time interval exceeding T3212 . If the MS is roaming to a new location area,
update will be done anyway and the time to next periodic update will start counting from zero
RLINKT (T100) : Time before an MS disconnects a call due to failure in decoding Slow Associated
Control Channel (SACCH) messages. The parameter is given as number of SACCH periods (480ms).
T3101 : Guard time for Immediate Assign. Started as 'IMM_ASS_CMD' is sent to BTS and stopped
by reception of 'EST_IND' from BTS.The allocated channel will be released at timer expiry.
T3105 : Time between repetition of physical information to MS. Will be repeated NY1 times.
T3109 : Guard timer for channel release indication when clearing mobile station. Started by
sending DEACT_SACCH to BTS and stopped by reception of 'REL_IND' from BTS. It is controlled by
T3111 : Delay for connection release. Started as REL_IND is received from BTS. When expired
RF_CHAN_REL is sent to BTS.
RLINKUP : Time before a BSC disconnects a call due to failure in decoding UPLINK Slow
Associated Control Channel (SACCH) messages. The parameter is given as number of SACCH
periods (480ms).
T3126 : This timer is started either after sending the maximum allowed number of CHANNEL
REQUEST messages during an immediate assignment procedure or on receipt of an IMMEDIATE
ASSIGNMENT REJECT message, whichever occurs first. It is stopped at receipt of an IMMEDIATE
ASSIGNMENT message, or an IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT EXTENDED message. At its expiry, the
immediate assignment procedure is aborted.
T203 : Timer that supervises the maximum time without frames being exchanged on a A-bis link

FADING in Telecomunication

The communication between the base station and mobile station in mobile systems is mostly
The LOS path between the transmitter and the receiver is affected by terrain and obstructed by
buildings and other objects.
The mobile station is also moving in different directions at different speeds.
The RF signal from the transmitter is scattered by reflection and diffraction and reaches the
receiver through many non-LOS paths.
This non-LOS path causes long-term and short term fluctuations in the form of log-normal fading
and rayleigh and rician fading, which degrades the performance of the RF channel
Terrain configuration & man made environment causes long-term fading.
Due to various shadowing and terrain effects the signal level measured on a circle around base
station shows some random fluctuations around the mean value of received signal strength.
The long-term fades in signal strength, r, caused by the terrain configuration and man made
environments form a log-normal distribution,i.e the mean received signal strength, r, varies lognormally in dB if the signal strength is measured over a distance of at least 40l.
Experimentally it has been determined that the standard deviation, s, of the mean received
signal strength, r, lies between 8 to 12 dB with the higher s generally found in large urban areas.
This phenomenon is due to multipath propagation of the signal.
The Rayleigh fading is applicable to obstructed propagation paths.
All the signals are NLOS signals and there is no dominant direct path.
Signals from all paths have comparable signal strengths.
The instantaneous received power seen by a moving antenna becomes a random variable
depending on the location of the antenna.

This phenomenon is due to multipath propagation of the signal.
In this case there is a partially scattered field.
One dominant signal.
Others are weaker.

Dopplers shift is the shift in frequency due to the motion of mobile from the actual carrier
Consider a mobile moving at a constant velocity v along a path segment having a length d
between points X and Y while it receives signal from a remote source S.
The Change in frequency due to dopplers shift is given by
fd = (v/l) * cos(f)
It can be seen from the above equation that if the mobile is moving towards the direction of
arrival of wave the dopplers shift is positive I.e. the apparent received frequency is increased. .
Transcoder Controller (TRC)
15:51 Posted by
The purpose of a TRC is to multiplex network traffic channels from multiple BSCs onto one 64
Kbits/s PCM channel which reduces network transmission costs.
FUNCTION OF MSC:1. Switching and call routing
2. Charging
3. Service provisioning
4. Communication with HLR
5. Communication with the VLR
6. Communication with other MSCs
7. Control of connected BSCs
8. Direct access to Internet services
Antenna Hopping
During a call connection, a burst can easily be lost when the mobile station happens to be located
in a fading dip for that particular frequency, or if it is subjected to interference. The coding and
interleaving scheme in GSM is constructed so that loss of a single burst has minimal influence on
the speech quality. The probability that several bursts within a speech frame have poor signal
quality is reduced if the bursts are transmitted on different paths. This can be done by using
antenna hopping. With antenna hopping, transmit diversity is introduced by changing transmit
antenna between bursts.

Schematic picture of antenna hopping

This transmit diversity scheme mimics frequency hopping in the sense that the fading changes

From a subscriber point of view, antenna hopping gives an improved speech quality.
From an operator point of view, antenna hopping is a very attractive scheme in particular for traffic
channels without frequency hopping, but also for traffic channels frequency hopping over a
relatively low number of frequencies, where it can provide substantial diversity gains. What makes
antenna hopping especially interesting as a transmit diversity scheme is the fact that it can be used
without increasing the number of TRXs in a base station. Thus giving the operator the following

a possibility to tighter frequency reuse and increase in capacity,

a more robust radio environment,
a possibility to give subscribers a more uniform speech quality.

Antenna hopping can reduce the effect of multipath fading. With antenna hopping,
mobile will typically not remain in a specific fading dip longer than one TDMA frame.
strength dips in multipath fading are thus leveled out, and the mobile will perceive a

a non-moving
The low signal
more constant

Schematic picture of multipath fading at one frequency and antenna hopping between two
Antenna Hopping Parameters
: Defines the wanted state for antenna hopping on a
transceiver group. The wanted state can be either of
ON, ONXC0 or OFF. : In state ONXC0, all channels
except those on the BCCH frequency/frequencies will
antenna hop.

In GSM systems, there can be interference to cells from their neighbor cells that use the same
frequency or adjacent frequencies or both. There can even be interference from cells in other
systems. Interference can be classified as Co-Channel Interference (CCI) and Adjacent Channel
Interference (ACI) from the same system (intrasystem interference) or between different systems
(intersystem interference).
Co-channel Interference
Because of frequency reuse in GSM systems, the reused frequencies in other cells can interfere
with the serving cell. CCI depends on the reuse plan. For example, the 7/21 reuse plan has a CCI
greater than the 9/27 reuse and less than the 4/12 reuse plan. Therefore, to reduce the CCI it is
recommended to increase the reuse pattern or, equivalently, increase the reuse distance between

cells of the same frequency groups. The impact of increased CCI is a degradation in voice quality.
The CCI is measured in terms of Carrier-to-Interference Ratio ( C/I) . For analog systems, C/I of 17
dB is considered appropriate for good voice quality.The BER for a digital system with and without
diversity for different C/I levels.
Relationship between C/I and BER

Adjacent Channel Interference

The avoidance of using adjacent channels in neighbor cells is a good practice and is possible in a
theoretical 7/21 reuse pattern. In practical systems, adjacent channel assignments in neighbor
cells can occur quite often. When the carrier power is increased in a cell, it can cause interference
to an adjacent channel in the neighbor cell. The IS-136 standard specifies acceptable levels for
Carrier-to-Adjacent Interference Ratio (C/A) that produces acceptable voice quality in terms of BER
for uplink interference as shown in figure

BSC - The Base Station Controller

21:54 Posted by
The BSC manages the radio resources for one or more BTSs. It handles radio channel setup, frequency
hopping, and handovers. The BSC is the connection between the mobile and the MSC. The BSC also
translates the 13 Kbps voice channel used over the radio link to the standard 64 Kbps channel used by
the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSDN) or ISDN.
It assigns and releases frequencies and time slots for the MS. The BSC also handles intercell handover.
It controls the power transmission of the BSS and MS in its area. The function of the BSC is to allocate
the necessary time slots between the BTS and the MSC. It is a switching device that handles the radio
resources. Additional functions include:

Control of frequency hopping

Performing traffic concentration to reduce the number of lines from the MSC
Providing an interface to the Operations and Maintenance Center for the BSS
Reallocation of frequencies among BTSs
Time and frequency synchronization
Power management

Time-delay measurements of received signals from the MS

2G Handover Optimization
Classification by Reason
Timing advance (TA) Emergency HO
Triggering condition
_ The actual TA > TA HO Thrsh.
Object cell selection
_ The cell must be of the highest priority in the candidate cell sequence and
meet the following restrictions.
_ The service cell cannot be the object cell.
_ HO is not allowed when TA Thresh. of the neighboring cell with the same
BTS is smaller than that of the service cell.
Bad Quality HO
Triggering condition
_ UL receiving quality >=UL receiving quality thrsh. of the service cell.
_ OR DL receiving quality >=DL receiving quality thrsh. of the service
Object cell selection
_ The cells must be of the highest priority in the candidate cell
sequence and meet the following restrictions.
_ Handover to the neighboring cell with the highest priority. If there is no

neighboring cell, handover to the service cell, and the channel at

different TRX is preference.
_ Rx Level (n) > Rx Level (s) + Inter Cell HO Hysteresis + BQ HO Margin
Signal Level Rapid Drop HO
Triggering condition
_ Due to downlink signal level drop
_ Triggered upon detecting rapid level drop during MS busy mode
_ Object cell selection
_ The neighboring cell with the highest priority and whose priority is higher
than that of the service cell in the candidate cell group.
_ Restriction
_ The service cell cannot be the object cell.
Interference HO
Triggering condition
_ UL receiving quality>=Service cell UL receiving quality Thrsh. AND
UL receiving level>=Service cell UL receiving level Thrsh.
_ OR DL receiving quality>=Service cell DL receiving quality Thrsh.
AND DL receiving level>=Service cell DL receiving level Thrsh.
Object cell selection
_ The cells must be of the highest priority in the candidate cell
sequence and meet the following restrictions.
_ The service cell that is not in the penalty time for intra-cell handover.
_ The neighboring cell with the receiving level higher than the inter
layer HO Thrsh.
Load HO
Triggering condition
_ The load HO switch of the service cell is enabled.
_ The system signaling flow is not larger than the Load HO system flow Thrsh.
_ The service cell traffic is larger than the Load HO Thrsh.
_ The DL receiving level is in the load HO zones.
Object cell selection
_ The service cell cannot be the object cell.
_ The traffic of the neighboring cell must be lower than its load HO receiving
_ The neighboring cell with the receiving level higher than the inter layer HO
_ It is not available with SDCCH.
_ Load HO just occur within the same BSC.
Edge HO
Triggering condition
_ The DL receiving level < Edge HO DL RX_LEV Thrsh.
_ OR The UL receiving level < Edge HO UL RX_LEV Thrsh.
_ Satisfying P/N rule.
Object cell selection
_ The service cell cannot be the object cell.
_ The neighboring cell with the highest priority and whose priority is
higher than that of the service cell.
Layer HO
Triggering condition
_ The layer of the object cell is lower than that of the service cell.
_ The DL level of the object cell is higher than the inter layer HO thrsh.
_ Satisfying P/N rule.
Object cell selection
_ The service cell cannot be the object cell.
_ The neighboring cell with the highest priority and whose priority is
higher than that of the service cell
Triggering condition

_ The layer and level of the object cell are the same as those of the
service cell.
_ The DL level must be the result of the following formula.
Object cell selection
_ The service cell cannot be the object cell.
_ The neighboring cell with the highest priority and whose priority is
higher than that of the service cell.
_ It is not available with SDCCH.
Fast-Moving HO
Triggering condition
_ In Fast Moving Watch Time, the mobile phone moves through P cells
of N.
_ The layer of N cells must be less than four (none Umbrella cell).
Object cell selection
_ The neighboring cell with the highest priority and meet the following
_ The layer of the object cell must be no less than four, that is, the
Umbrella cell.
_ The receiving level of the object cell >= the inter layer HO thrsh. +
inter layer HO hysterisis.

RXLEV is a number from 0 to 63 that corresponds to a dBm value range. 0 represents the weakest
signal and 63 the strongest

RSSI below -110 dBm are generally considered

unreadable in GSM. RSSI in the area of -50 dBm are rarely seen and would indicate that the MS is
right next to the BTS. The main factor that affects RSSI is distance from
Rxlev (Full) Rxlev of a full rate traffic channel
Rxlev(Sub)- If DTX-DL is used in the network the SUB set is used.


to -65 INDOOR
to -75 INCAR
to -95 OUTDOOR

AMR - Adaptive Multi-Rate

23:26 Posted by

AMR is an adaptive multi-rate voice coding/decoding, which is termed full-rate speech version 3 and
half-rate speech version 3 in GSM specifications. AMR enables the BTS and the MS to automatically
select an appropriate coding/decoding rate from the specified ACS according to the interference level
in the radio environment. This enhances the anti-interference capability and the speech quality of the
wireless communication system.

AMR is classified into AMR FR and AMR HR. AMR specifies eight speech coding rates. Table

Lists the speech coding rates supported by AMR FR and AMR HR

Coding Rate
4.75 kbit/s
5.15 kbit/s
5.90 kbit/s
6.70 kbit/s
7.40 kbit/s


10.2 kbit/s
12.2 kbit/s


When AMR is enabled on the network, the BSC selects an ACS and then a codec mode from
the ACS during the call establishment or the handover procedure. Meanwhile, the MS and the
BTS continuously measure the receive level, receive quality, and C/I ratio. According to the
measurement results, the MS and the BTS continuously evaluate the interference level in the
radio environment. The BTS then adjusts the speech coding rates of the MS and the BTS
according to the evaluated interference level through the inband signaling.
Structure of Multi-Frame
There are two different kind of Multi-Frames in GSM. One is called 'Control Multiframe' and the other
one is called 'Traffic Multi Frame'. (Do you remember where the multiframe is located in overall GSM
frame structure ? Let's refresh our memory. Slot --> Frame --> MultiFrame (Control Multiframe, Traffic
MultiFrame) --> Super Frame --> HyperFrame. Do this questions and answer by yourself whenever
you have chance until your brain automatically pops up a frame structure diagram as soon as you see
some key words related to GSM frame).

Following is one example showing a control multiframe. As I said, even a single multi frame has 51 x 8
slots, so it is very hard to visualize the full details on a page. You will see a better way to visualize this
structure at later section, for now just try to get some 'sense(feeling)' of how a multiframe looks like.
One thing worth noticing would be the first slot in each frame seems to be used as some control
channel. In this diagram, the second slot in each frame is being used as a control channel but it is not
always the case.

Following is the common example of a Traffic Multiframe. This illustration shows 26-multiframe
structure for TCH/FR and TCH/ER. This example shows 2 users using full rate voice traffic channels.
(One user uses the slot 2 at every frame and the other user use the slot 4 at every frame).
At the center of the 26-frame traffic channel multiframe (i.e, Frame 12) is the Slow Associated Control
Channel (SACCH) which carries link control information to and from the MSBTS. At the last frame is 1
idle frame. All the remaining frame are allocated for Traffic. There is no dedicated FACCH frame or
slots. FACCH steals TCH whenever it needs.

Following is an example of control channel multiframe structure for Beacon Channel (Base Control
Channel) which is made up of FCCH, SCH, BCCH, CCCH. The illustration below is for Downlink
multiframe structure. In Uplink base control channel case, every frame is for single channel - RACH.
Some key facts about DL Base Control Channel are

There are five FCCH equally spaced within the 51 multiframe.

Each FCCH is followed by a SCH, meaning that there are five SCH as well.

Four frames (Frame 2~5) are allocated for BCCH.

The last frame (Frame 50) is allocated for Idle.

All the remaining Frames are allocated for CCCH(e.g, PCH or AGCH).

Ttypes of Burst in GSM

In almost every wireless communication, we use various kind of channel types. Each of those different
channel tend to have its own physical (or transport layer) structure. In GSM as well, we have many
different types of physical and logical channels and each of these channel types are using its own

physical structure at the level of a slot (Burst). Followings are the types of Burst being used in

Frequency Correction Burst

This burst format is used by FCCH channel only.

The whole data space (142 bits) is used for unmodulated carrier (pure sinusoid) or carrier
modulated with all zero bits.

The frequency is 1625/24 kHz (or approximately 67 kHz).

This pure carrier is the identity of a beacon frequency (also called BCCH-frequency or basefrequency) and FCCH slot.
Synchronization Burst

This burst format is used by SCH channel only.

This channel makes a mobile station time-synchronized with the base station clock. That is
why the synchronization training sequence is very large for this burst comparing to other burst

Only one training sequence is defined for this burst.

Access Burst

This burst format is used by RACH and AGCH channels.

When a mobile station sends an RACH message and receives an AGCH reply, neither MS nor the BTS
does have the timing-advance information. For that reason, the actual message is relatively short and
have a long guard band (GB) in order to make sure that there will be no overlap with the next burst.
The length of the guard band in the access burst (68.25 bits x 3.69 = 251.16 ms) is equivalent to
37.5 km propagation delay. The GSM allows a cell radius up to of 35 km. That is, an RACH message
from an MS at a distance of up to 35 km from the base station can reach to the base station antenna
without overlapping the next burst. The FACCH channel uses this burst during handover operation
(when the timing advance of new cell is not yet known). Only one training sequence is defined for this
Normal Burst

This burst format is used by all other channels (except FCCH, SCH, RACH and AGCH).

This normal burst is used by TCH, SDCCH, SACCH, FACCH, BCCH and PCH.
A few important features of the burst is stated below.
o Maximum 57 x 2 = 114 bits of voice/data per burst
o Flag bit is to indicate if the channel is carrying user traffic (Flag = 0) or control message bits (Flag =
That is the flag is 0 for TCH and 1 for others.

Dummy Burst
This is like normal burst but has no meaning of its payload bits
MIMO Systems can provide two types of gain:
Spatial Multiplexing Gain and transmit Diversity Gain
In Spatial Multiplexing Gain , maximum transmission rate can be achieved by sending different data
streams at different antennas
Whereas in Diversity Gain, maximum quality(QOS) can be achieved by sending same data streams to
different antennas.
There is a tradeoff between these two gains as spatial diversity can be achieved under good radio
conditions where as transmit diversity is done under poor radio conditions to achieve good quality.
System designs are based on trying to achieve either goal or a little of both

What are the major differences between GSM and UMTS handover decision?
19:25 Posted by
Time-based mobile measures of RxLev and RxQual mobile sends measurement report every SACH
period (480ms).
BSC instructs mobile to handover based on these reports.
Event-triggered reporting UE sends a measurement report only on certain event triggers.
UE plays more part in the handover decision.
Erlang : An Erlang is a unit of telecommunications traffic measurement. Strictly speaking, an Erlang
represents the continuous use of one voice path. In practice, it is used to describe the total traffic
volume of one hour. in other words " a one ckt can one hour of traffic is known as 1Erlang"
For example, if a group of user made 30 calls in one hour, and each call had an average call duration
of 5 minutes, then the number of Erlangs this represents is worked out as follows:
Minutes of traffic in the
number of calls x
Minutes of traffic in the
= 30 x 5
Minutes of traffic in the
= 150
Hours of traffic in the

= 150 / 60

Hours of traffic in the


= 2.5

Traffic figure
= 2.5 Erlangs
he main Erlang traffic model are listed below

Erlang BThis is the most commonly used traffic model, and is used to work out how many lines are
required if the traffic figure (in Erlangs) during the busiest hour is known. The model assumes that
all blocked calls are immediately cleared.

Extended Erlang BThis model is similar to Erlang B, but takes into account that a percentage of
calls are immediately represented to the system if they encounter blocking (a busy signal). The retry
percentage can be specified.
Erlang CThis model assumes that all blocked calls stay in the system until they can be handled.
This model can be applied to the design of call center staffing arrangements where, if calls cannot be
immediately answered, they enter a queue.


There are two types of channel in GSM Network - Control channel and Traffic channel:
The traffic Channels: are used to transport encoded speech and data information. Full rate traffic
channels TCH/F are defined using a group of 26 TDMA frames called a 26 frame multi-frame. The 26
frame multi-frame lasts 120ms and the traffic channels for the downlink and uplink are separated by
three bursts. The TCH/F consists of one time slot in each TDMA frame i.e., one slot every 4.615ms.
The control Channels: are used for network management messages (call set up, control signaling
etc.) and some channel maintenance tasks. These can be subdivided into BCH (Broadcast Channel),
CCCH (Common Control Channel), and DCH (Dedicated Channel)
BCCH (Broadcast channel): Its downlink channel is used for transmitting of system information
unique BCCH define for entire cell and it is transmitted on Timeslot zero of BCCH carrier and Read only
by idle mobile at least once every 30 secs
SCH (Synchronization Channel): Its a Downlink channel and Carries information for frame
synchronization and Contains TDMA frame number and BSIC.
FCCH (Frequency Correction Channel) it is a Downlink only and Enables MS to synchronize to the
frequency and also helps mobiles of the ncells to locate TS 0 of BCCH carrier
RACH (Random Access Channel) It is Uplink only and Used by the MS to access the Network.
AGCH (Access Grant Channel) It is Downlink only and Used by the network to assign a signaling
channel upon successful decoding of access bursts.
PCH (Paging Channel): Downlink only and Used by the Network to contact the MS.
SDCCH (Standalone Dedicated Control Channel): Its Uplink and Downlink and Used for call setup,
location update and SMS.
SACCH (Slow Associated Control Channel): Used on Uplink and Downlink only in dedicated mode
and Uplink SACCH messages - Measurement reports. Downlink SACCH messages - control info.
FACCH (Fast Associated Control Channel): Uplink and Downlink and Associated with TCH only and
it are used to send fast messages like handover messages. Works by stealing traffic bursts
CBCH (Cell broadcast channel): It is used transmitting of broadcasting msg
TCH/f and TCH/H : gross rate 22.8kbps, speech 13kbps, data 9.6kbps
57*2*24/120ms = 22.8KBPS)

(gross rate =

daptive Multi Rate (AMR) is a new speech and channel codec for both half rate and full rate
channels. By adapting the codec rate to the radio conditions the speech quality is enhanced. At low
C/I, a large amount of channel coding is applied and less speech coding. When the C/I increase the
speech coding is increased and the channel coding is decreased.
Both the BTS (uplink) and the MS (downlink) continuously measures the radio quality (C/I) and based
on these measurements the codec rate is changed. AMR requires support in all network nodes, i.e.
MSC, BSC, BTS and MS and AMR is only supported in cells where all TRUs are AMR capable.
AMR makes it possible to change codec rate during a call. There are 8 different codec rates available in
the AMR transcoder: 12.2kbps, 10.2kbps, 7.95kbps, 7.40kbps, 6.70kbps, 5.90kbps, 5.15kbps, and
According to the standard, 12.2 kbps and 10.2 kbps can only be used in FR channels and the other six
can be used in both FR and HR channels, on the air interface
Per time shot speed:59.3kbps