You are on page 1of 24

Handover and Related Parameters

4.8.1 PBGT Handover Threshold (HoMargin)


I. Definition
The PBGT handover threshold is power handover tolerance (handover in serving areas).
When the signal level of neighbor cell is hoMargin (dB) higher than that of the serving cell,
handover occurs. Complex radio propagation conditions cause fluctuation of signal level.
Using handover tolerance avoids frequent handover at bordering areas. The PBGT handover
threshold is similar to HO_MARGIN (GSM 05.08).
II. Format
The PBGT handover threshold ranges from 0 to 127, corresponding to 64 dB to +63 dB. The
reference value for suburban areas is 68. The reference value for urban areas is 70 to 72.
III. Configuration and Influence
The PBGT handover threshold aims to adjust handover difficulty properly, and to avoid
ping-pong handover. If it is configured over great, the handover is delayed and handover is
less efficient. When it is smaller than 64, the MS hands over from the serving cell to the
neighbor cell with lower level.

4.8.2 Minimum Downlink Power of Handover Candidate Cells (rxLevMinCell)


I. Definition
It is the minimum allowed access level for a cell to be a neighbor cell. When the cell level
measured by MS is greater than the threshold, the BSS list the cell into candidate cell list
for handover judgment.
II. Format
It ranges from 110 dBm to 47 dBm.
III. Configuration and Influence
It is helpful in the following two aspects:
It guarantees communication quality.
For a common single layer network structure, the value ranges from 90 dBm to 80
dBm.

It helps allocate traffic between cells averagely.


Especially in multi-layer network structure, to maintain MS in a network layer, you can
increase the level of the cell of the network layer (such as 70 dBm), and also
decrease that in other cells.

IV. Precautions
You cannot configure rxLevMinCell over great (over 65 dBm) or over small (lower than 95
dBm), and otherwise communication quality is affected.

4.8.3 Handover Threshold at Uplink Edge


I. Definition

If the uplink received level keeps being smaller than the handover threshold at uplink edge
for a period, edge handover can be performed.
II. Format
It ranges from 0 to 63, corresponding to 110 dBm to 47 dBm. The recommended values
are as follows:

Configure it to 25 in urban areas without PBGT handover.


Configure it to 20 in single site of suburban areas.
Configure it to 20 in urban areas with PBGT handover

III. Configuration and Influence


When PBGT handover is enabled, the corresponding edge handover threshold can be
lowered. When PBGT handover is disabled, and the edge handover threshold is over low,
an artificial cross-cell non-handover occurs. Therefore call drop occurs or intra-frequency
and side interference occur due to cross-cell talk.

4.8.4 Handover Threshold at Downlink Edge


I. Definition
If the downlink received level keeps being smaller than the handover threshold at
downlink edge for a period, edge handover can be performed.
II. Format
It ranges from 0 to 63, corresponding to 110 dBm to 47 dBm. The recommended values
are as follows:

Configure it to 30 in urban areas without PBGT handover.


Configure it to 25 in single site of suburban areas.
Configure it to 25 in urban areas with PBGT handover

III. Configuration and Influence


When PBGT handover is enabled, the corresponding edge handover threshold can be
lowered. When PBGT handover is disabled, and the edge handover threshold is over low,
an artificial cross-cell non-handover occurs. Therefore call drop occurs or intra-frequency
and side interference occur due to cross-cell talk.

4.8.5 Downlink Quality Restriction of Emergency Handover


I. Definition
If the downlink received quality is lower than the threshold of downlink quality restriction
of emergency handover, the quality difference emergency handover occurs.
II. Format
It ranges from 0 to 70, corresponding to RQ (QoS 0 to 7) x 10.
The recommended value is 50.
III. Configuration and Influence
When frequency hopping is enabled, the voice quality is better with the same RQ, you can
configure it to 60 or 70. When emergency handover occurs, the intracell handover occurs
first. If there are no other candidate cells, and the intracell handover is enabled, the
intracell handover occurs.

4.8.6 Uplink Quality Restriction of Emergency Handover


I. Definition
If the uplink received quality is lower than it, quality difference emergency handover is
triggered.
II. Format
It ranges from 0 to 70, corresponding to RQ (QoS 0 to 7) x 10.
The recommended value is 50.
III. Configuration and Influence
When frequency hopping is enabled, the voice quality is better with the same RQ, you can
configure it to 60 or 70. When emergency handover occurs, the intracell handover occurs
first. If there are no other candidate cells, and the intracell handover is enabled, the
intracell handover occurs.

4.8.7 Uplink Quality Threshold of Interference Handover


I. Definition
It is the uplink received quality threshold of the serving cell that triggers interference
handover. The interference handover is triggered if all the following conditions are met:
The uplink received level is higher than the uplink received power threshold of
interference handover.

The uplink received quality is lower than the uplink quality threshold of
interference handover.

When handover switch is enabled, the interference handover occurs within the cell by
preference.
II. Format
It ranges from 0 to 70, corresponding to RQ (QoS 0 to 7) x 10.
The recommended value is 50.
III. Configuration and Influence
When frequency hopping is enabled, the voice quality is better with the same RQ, you can
configure it to 60 or 70. When interference handover is triggered, select the candidates
according to the sorted result. If the serving cell ranks first and its intracell handover is
enabled, the MS selects the serving cell; otherwise it selects the second candidate cell.

4.8.8 Downlink Quality Threshold of Interference Handover


I. Definition
It is the downlink received quality threshold of the serving cell that triggers interference
handover. The interference handover is triggered if all the following conditions are met:
The downlink received level is higher than the downlink received power
threshold of interference handover.

The downlink received quality is lower than the downlink quality threshold of
interference handover.

When handover switch is enabled, the interference handover occurs within the cell by
preference.
II. Format
It ranges from 0 to 70, corresponding to RQ (QoS 0 to 7) x 10.
The recommended value is 50.
III. Configuration and Influence
When frequency hopping is enabled, the voice quality is better with the same RQ, you can
configure it to 60 or 70. When interference handover is triggered, select the candidates
according to the sorted result. If the serving cell ranks first and its intracell handover is
enabled, the MS selects the serving cell; otherwise it selects the second candidate cell.
IV. Precautions
The interference handover quality must be better than emergency handover quality.

4.8.9 Uplink Received Power Threshold of Interference Handover


I. Definition
If interference handover occurs due to uplink quality, the serving cell must reach the
minimum uplink received power threshold. If this is met, the system judges that uplink is
interfered, so interference handover is triggered.
The interference handover is triggered if all the following conditions are met:
The uplink received level is higher than the uplink received power threshold of
interference handover.

The uplink received quality is lower than the uplink quality threshold of
interference handover.

When handover switch is enabled, the interference handover occurs within the cell by
preference.
II. Format
It ranges from 0 to 63, corresponding to 110 dBm to 47 dBm.
The recommended value is 25.
III. Configurationa and Influence
When interference handover is triggered, select the candidates according to the sorted
result. If the serving cell ranks first and its intracell handover is enabled, the MS selects
the serving cell; otherwise it selects the second candidate cell.

4.8.10 Downlink Received Power Threshold of Interference Handover


I. Definition
If interference handover occurs due to uplink quality, the serving cell must reach the
minimum downlink received power threshold. If this is met, the system judges that
downlink is interfered, so interference handover is triggered.
The interference handover is triggered if all the following conditions are met:
The downlink received level is higher than the downlink received power
threshold of interference handover.

The downlink received quality is lower than the downlink quality threshold of
interference handover.

When handover switch is enabled, the interference handover occurs within the cell by
preference.
II. Format
It ranges from 0 to 63, corresponding to 110 dBm to 47 dBm.
The recommended value is 30.
III. Configurationa and Influence
When interference handover is triggered, select the candidates according to the sorted
result. If the serving cell ranks first and its intracell handover is enabled, the MS selects
the serving cell; otherwise it selects the second candidate cell.

4.8.11 Maximum Repeated Times of Physical Messages (NY1)


I. Definition
In asynchronous handover process of GSM system, when the MS receives handover
messages of the network, it sends handover access messages on the target channel. After
the network receives the message, it does as follows:
1)
2)
and
3)

Calculate related RF features.


Send physical messages (it the channel messages are encrypted, start encryption
decryption algorithm) in unit data to MSs.
Start timer T3105.

If the network does not receive correct layer 2 frames sent by MS until expiration of
T3105, the network will resend the physical message and restart T3105. The maximum
times for resending physical messages is determined by the parameter maximum repeated
times of physical messages (NY1)
II. Format
NY1 ranges from 0 to 254.
The recommended value is 20.
III. Configuration and Influence
When the network receives the handover access messages sent by MS, the physical channel
(PCH) needs to be synchronous. If the communication quality on channels is guaranteed,
the MS can receive physical messages correctly and send layer 2 frames to the network.
If the physical messages are sent multiple times, and the network cannot receive layer 2
frames sent by MS, the PCH is too poor to communicate normally. Though link is setup
after multiple trials, the communication quality is not guaranteed. This lowers the
utilization of radio resources. Therefore configure NY1 to a smaller value.
IV. Precautions
Configuring NY1 is affected by T3105. If T3105 is configured to a short value, then the NY1
needs to be increased accordingly.
If a handover trial fails before the original cell receives the HANDOVER FAILURE message,
and the T3105 of the target cell expires for Ny times, the target BTS sends a CONNECTION
FAILURE INDICATION message to the target BSC. Though the MS might return to the original
channel, the traffic measurement counters from multiple vendors will take statistics of
connection failure.

To avoid the previous phenomenon, configure T3105 as follows:


Ny * T3105 > T3124 + delta (delta: the time between expiration of T3124 and receiving
HANDOVER FAILURE message by original BTS)

4.8.12 Multiband Indicator (multiband_reporting)


I. Definition
In a single band GSM network, when the MS send measurement reports of neighbor cells to
the network, it needs to report the content of the six neighbor cells with strongest signals.
In a multiband network, operators wish that MS uses a band by preference in cross-cell
handover. Therefore the MS sends measurement reports according to signal strength and
signal band. The parameter multiband indicator indicates MS to report content of
multiband neighbor cells.
II. Format
The multiband indicator ranges from 0 to 3, with meanings as follows:
0: According to signal strength of neighbor cells, the MS must report six allowed
measurement reports of neighbor cells with strongest signals and known NCC, with
the neighbor cells in whatever band.

1: The MS must report the allowed measurement report of a neighbor cell with
known NCC and with strongest signals at each band expect for the band used by the
serving cell. The MS must also report the neighbor cells of the band used by the
serving cell in rest locations. If there are other rest locations, the MS must report
conditions of other neighbor cells in any band.

2: The MS must report the allowed measurement report of two neighbor cells
with known NCC and with strongest signals at each band expect for the band used by
the serving cell. The MS must also report the neighbor cells of the band used by the
serving cell in rest locations. If there are other rest locations, the MS must report
conditions of other neighbor cells in any band.

3: The MS must report the allowed measurement report of three neighbor cells
with known NCC and with strongest signals at each band expect for the band used by
the serving cell. The MS must also report the neighbor cells of the band used by the
serving cell in rest locations. If there are other rest locations, the MS must report
conditions of other neighbor cells in any band.

III. Configuration and Influence


In multiband networks, it is related to traffic of each band. For configuration, refer to the
following rules:
If the traffic of each band is approximately equal, and operators do not select a
band intentionally, you can configure the multiband indicator to 0

If the traffic of each band is obviously different, and operators want MS to


select a band by preference, you can configure the multiband indicator to 3.

For situations between the previous two, configure multiband indicator to 1 or


2.

4.8.13 Permitted Network Color Code (ncc permitted)


I. Definition
During a talk, the MS must report the measured signals of neighbor cells to the base
station, but each report includes only six neighbor cells. Therefore the MS is configured to

report the potential handover target neighbor cells, instead of reporting unselectively and
according to signal level.
To enable previous functions, restrict MS to measure the cells with the fixed network color
code (NCC). The NNC allowed by parameters list the NCCs of the cells to be measured by
MS. The MS compares the measured NCC of neighbor cells and NCCs set allowed by
parameters. If the measured NCC is in the set, the MS reports the NCC to the base station;
otherwise, the MS discard the measurement report.
II. Format
The parameter ncc permitted is a bit mapping value, consisting of 8 bits. The most
significant bit is bit 7 while the least significant bit is bit 0. Each bit corresponds to an NCC
code 0 to 7 (see GSM regulations 03.03 and 04.08).
If the bit N is 0 (N ranges from 0 to 7), the MS needs not to measure the level of the cell
with NCC of N. Namely, it only measures the signal quality and level of the cells
corresponding to bit number of 1 in NCC and ncc permitted configuration.
III. Configuration and Influence
Each area is allocated with one or more NCCs. In the parameter ncc permitted of the cell,
the local NCC is absolutely and only included. If excluded, abnormal handover and call
drop occur. For normal roaming between areas, the NCC of neighbor areas must be
included in the edge cells of an area.
IV. Precautions
Improper configuration of the parameter causes normal handover and even call drop. The
parameter only affects behaviors of MS.

4.10 Systematic Important Timers


4.10.1 T3101
I. Definition
T3101 is the BSC timer controlling time of immediate assignment process.
II. Format
T3101 ranges from 0 to 255s. The recommended value is 3s.
III. Configuration and Influence
In an immediate assignment process, the BSC requires BTS to provide SDCCH to set up
signaling channel. When the BSC sends a channel activation message, T3101 starts timing.
When the BSC receives the setup instruction sent by BTS, T3101 stops timing. When T3101
expires, the system releases corresponding SDCCH resources. Proper configuration of
T3101 reduces congestion due to dual assignment SDCCH effectively.
The greater the T3101 is, the longer the inefficient time for using signaling resources is.
For example, if the extended transmission delay is improperly configured (usually the sum
of T and S is over small), the MS fails in responding to the network side, so the MS resends
the random access request message.

Therefore, the network side will assign SDCCH (the network cannot distinguish the
repeated sending access request from the first send). For better use of signaling resources,
especially in activating queue function, you must configure T3101 to a smaller value. The
minimum interval for sending channel activation message and receiving setup indicator is
600ms. For non-overload BSS, the maximum interval is 1.8s.

4.10.2 T3103
I. Definition
In inter- and intra-BSS handover, the BSC determines the time for keeping TCH both in
handover-originated cell and target cell. When the time receives handover completion
(intra-BSC) or clearing (inter-BSC) message, T3103 stops.
II. Format
T3103 ranges from 0 to 255s. The recommended value is 5s.
III. Configuration and Influence
The following paragraph is an example of inter-BSS handover.
When T3103 receives the handover command, it is reset and starts timing. When it
receives clearing command, it is reset. This means that T3103 reserves two channels when
it is timing, one channel for source BSC, and one channel for target BSC. If it is over long,
two channels are occupied for a long time and resources might be wasted.
According to the tests, if the NSS timer is properly configured, the handover process
occurs within 5s. Therefore, the recommended value is 5s.

4.10.3 T3105
I. Definition
See the protocol 0408 and 0858. When sending physical information, the network starts
T3105. If the timer expires before receiving any correct frames from MS, the network
resends physical information and restarts the T3105. The maximum repeated times is Ny1.
II. Format
T3105 ranges from 0 to 255, with unit of 10ms.
III. Configuration and Influence
The physical information is sent on FACCH. The time for sending four TDMA in a time on
FACCH is about 18ms. If the next physical information is just sent 18ms after the first one,
probably the first physical information is still being sent. The minimum time for sending
physical information continuously and most quickly is 20ms.
IV. Precautions
T3105 is related to the timer NY1. If T3105 is small, configure NY1 to a greater value. If a
handover trial fails and the T3105 of the target cell expires for Ny times before the
original cell receives the HANDOVER FAILURE message, the target BTS sends the
CONNECTION FAILURE INDICATION message to the target BSC.
The counter of target BSC is renewed though MS might return to the original channel. To
avoid this, the T3105 must meet the following foulard:
Ny * T3105 > T3124 + delta

Wherein, delta is the time between expiration of T3124 and receiving HANDOVER FAILURE
message by original BSC.

4.10.4 T3107
I. Definition
T3107 is a BSC timer, restricting the time for executing TCH assignment instruction. It
caters for TCH assignment of intracell handover and channel assignment of calling.
II. Format
T3107 ranges form 0s to 255s. The recommended values are as follows:

10s when channel resources are enough.


5s when channel resources are limited.

III. Configuration and Influence


T3107 starts after the BSC sends the ASS_CMD message to BTS. It stops after the BSC
receives the ASS_CMP or ASS_FAIL message sent by BTS. If T3107 expires, the system judges
that the MS disconnects to the network, so the occupied resource is released to other MSs.
According to the measured statistics result of network, the channel assignment is
complete within 2s. If the BSC does not receive ASS_CMP message after 2s, the assignment
command fails.
If the radio link is bad and some information must be resent, the process might be
prolonged to 5s. To avoid premature disconnection, configure T3107 to 10s. In this way,
the MS can reuse the original channel when handover or assignment fails. Therefore the
call drop due to intracell handover decreases or the system service quality of reassignment is improved (if the system supports re-assignment function). However, the
channel resource might be wasted for several seconds. When the network capacity is
limited, you must save the resource as possible.

4.10.5 T3109
I. Definition
The BSC restricts the releasing resource of SACCH by T3109.
II. Format
T3109 ranges from 3s to 34s. The recommended T3109 is as follows:
T3109 = a + RdioLinktimeOut x 0.480s, a = 1s or 2s.
III. Configuration and Influence
T3109 measures the time for channel releasing indicator after sending MS clearing
instructions. It starts after the BSC sends DEACT_SACCH message to BTS. It stops after the
BSC receives the REL_INC message sent by BTS. When T3109 expires, the BSC sends the
CLEAR REQUEST message to MSC.
IV. Precautions
The sum of T3111 and T3109 must be greater than RadioLinkTimeOut. If T3109 is over
small, the corresponding radio resources are re-allocated before RadioLinkTimeOut is due
(radio link is not released).

4.10.6 T3111

I. Definition
T3111 is a connection release delay timer, used in deactivation of delayed channel after
disconnection of major signaling link. T3111 aims to spare some time for repeated
disconnections. When BSC receives the REL_IND message sent by BTS, T3111 starts. For
time protection, T3111 stops until expiration and the BSC sends the RF_CHAN_REL message
to BTS.
II. Format
T3111 ranges from 0s to 5s.
The recommended value is 2s.
III. Configuration and Influence
After the disconnection of major signaling link, T3111 delays the release of channels. It
allows the base station to retransmit the instruction for releasing radio channels to MS
within delayed time. After the base station sends a release request massage, the radio
resources remain for T3111 time.
If the system capacity is small, configure T3111 as short as possible. The minimum value of
T3111 is 2s, over five multiples of the time for resending MS the instruction for releasing
radio channel resources. A greater T3111 might be of no help, but affects congestion of
SDCCH and TCH easily.

4.10.7 Parameter T3212


I. Definition
In a GSM network, the causes to location updating are as follows:
The MS attach.
The MS detects that its location area changes.

The network forces MS to update location periodically.


The network controls how frequent the MS updates location, and the period for
location updating is determined by the parameter T3212.

II. Format
T3212 ranges from 0 to 255, with unit of 6 minutes (1/10 hour). If T3212 = 1, it means that
T3212 is 6 minutes. If T3212 = 255, it means that T3212 is 25 hours and 30 minutes. If
T3212 = 0, it means that MS is not required for periodical location updating in the cell. The
recommended T3212 is 240.
III. Configuration and Influence
As an important means, the periodical location updating enables network to connect to
MSs closely. Therefore, the short the period is, the overall service performance of the
network is. Anyhow frequent periodical location updating brings two negative aspects:
The signaling flow of the network increases sharply and the utilization of radio
resource declines. When the period is over long, the processing capability of network
elements (NE, including MSC, BSC, and BTS) is directly affected.

The MS must transmit signals with greater power, so the average standby time is
shortened sharply.

Therefore, configure T3212 according to resource utilization in various aspects of network.


T3212 is configured by equipment room operators. Its value depends on the flow and
processing capability of each NE. Configure T3212 as follows:

Configure T3212 to a greater value (such as 16 hours, 20 hours, or even 25


hours) in areas with heavy traffic and signaling flow.

Configure T3212 to a smaller value (such as 3 hours or 6 hours) in areas with low
traffic and signaling flow.

Configure T3212 to 0 in areas with traffic overrunning the system capacity.

To configure T3212 properly, you must permanently measure the processing capability and
flow of each UE in the running network, such as:

The processing capability of MSC and BSC


A interface, Abis interface, and Um interface
The capability of HLR and VLR

If any of the previously listed NEs is overloaded, you can consider increasing T3212.
IV. Precautions
T3212 cannot be over small. Otherwise, the signaling flow at each interface increases
sharply and the MS (especially handset) consumes increasing power. If the T3212 is smaller
than 30 minutes (excluding 0), the network will be fiercely impacted.
Configuring T3212 of different cells in the same location area to the same value is
recommended. In addition, the T3212 must be consistent with related parameters of
switching side (smaller than the implicit detach timer at switching side).
If the T3212 of different cells in the same location area is the same, in the cell
reselection, the MS continues to time according the T3212 of the original cell. If the T3212
of the original and target cell in the same location area is different, the MS uses the T3212
of the original cell modulo that of the serving cell.
According to the actual tests of MS in the network, if the T3212 in the same location area
is different, after the MS performs modulo algorithm based on behaviors of some users,
the MS might power on normally. However, the MS fails in originating location updating, so
the network identifies it as implicit detach. Now the MS powers on normally, but a user
has powered off prompt appears when it is called.

4.10.8 T3122
I. Definition
T3122 defines the period that the MS must wait for before the second trial calling if the
first trial calling fails. It aims to avoid congestion of SDCCH due to repeated trial calling by
MS and to relieve system load.
II. Format
T3122 ranges from 0s to 255s. The recommended value is 10s.
III. Configuration and Influence
The value of T3122 is included in the immediate assignment reject message. After the MS
receives the immediate assignment reject message (no channels for signaling, A interface
failure, overload of central processing unit, namely, CPU), it can send new trial calling
request after T3122. T3122 aims to relieve radio signaling and voice channel resources.
T3122 also help avoid systematic overload. When the CPU is overloaded, the system
multiplies T3122 by a factor (determined by processorLoadSupconf) to increase T3122
through overload control. In peak load time, you can manage network access by increasing
T3122. Namely, you can increase the interval between two continuous trial callings to
relieve network load.

4.10.9 T3124

I. Definition
T3124 is used in occupation process in asynchronous handover. It is the time for MS to
receive the physical information send by network side.
II. Format
Configure it to 675ms when the channel type of assigned channel for HANDOVER COMMAND
message is SDCCH (+ SACCH). Configure it to 320ms in other situations.
III. Configuration and Influence
When the MS sends the HANDOVER ACCESS message on the primary DCCH, T3124 starts.
When the MS receives a PHYSICAL INFORMATION message, the MS stops T3124, stops
sending access burst, activates the PCH in sending and receiving mode, and connects to
the channel if necessary.
If the assigned channel is a SDCCH (+ SACCH), you must enable MS to receive a correct
PHYSICAL INFORMATION message sent by network side in any block. If T3124 expires (only
in asynchronization) or the low layer link fails in the new channel before sending the
HANDOVER COMPLETE message, the MS proceeds as follows:
1)
2)
3)
4)

Deactivate the new channel


Restart the original channel
Reconnect to TCH
Trigger to setup primary signaling link

Then the MS sends the HANDOVER FAILURE message on the primary signaling link and
return normal operation before trial handover. The parameters for returning the original
channel are those before response to the HANDOVER COMMAND message (such as in
encryption mode).

4.10.10 T11
I. Definition
T11 is an assignment request queue timer.
II. Format
T11 is determined by equipment room operators. It indicates the maximum queuing delay
for assignment request.
III. Configuration and Influence
When the BSC is sending the ASSIGNMENT REQUEST message, no TCHs are available. The
ASSIGNMENT REQUEST message must be put to a queue and the BSC sends the QUEUING
INDICATION message to MSC. Meanwhile, T11 starts timing.
When the BSC sends the ASSIGNMENT COMPLETE message (TCH is successfully assigned) or
the ASSIGNMENT FAILURE message (TCH is not assigned) to MSC, T11 stops timing.
If T11 expires, the corresponding ASSIGNMENT REQUEST message is removed from queue
and the BSC sends a CLEAR REQUEST message with the cause of no radio resource
available to MSC to clear calling. Assignment queuing helps reduce service rejection times
due to congestion, so enabling it is recommended in a network. Anyhow, T11 cannot be
over great and it must be configured according to customer habits.

4.10.11 T200
I. Definition

T200 is important (both the MS and base station have T200) at Um interface in data link
layer LAPDm. LAPDm has different channels, such as SDCCH, FACCH, and SACCH, and the
transmission rate of different channel is different, so T 200 must be configured with
different values. The type of the channels corresponding to T200 is the value of the T200.
II. Format
Different channels corresponds different values of T200. According to the protocol, when
SAPI = 0 and SAPI = 3, the T200 of corresponding data link is dependently implemented,
depending on delay of synchronous processing mechanism and process in layer 1 and layer
2.
Table 7-1 Value range and default of each type of T200
Minimum

Maximu
m

T200_SDCCH_SAPI0

50

100

60; /* = 60 * 5 ms */

T200_FACCH_Full_Rate

40

100

50; /* = 50 * 5 ms */

T200_FACCH_Half_Rate

40

100

50; /* = 50 * 5 ms */

T200_SACCH_TCH SAPI0

120

200

150; /* = 150 * 10 ms */

T200_SACCH_TCH SAPI3

120

200

150; /* = 150 * 10 ms */

T200_SACCH_SDCCH

50

100

60; /* = 60 * 10 ms */

T200_SDCCH_SAPI3

50

100

60; /* = 60 * 5 ms */

T200

Default

III. Configuration and Influence


T200 avoids deadlock in sending data in data link layer. The data link layer changes the
physical link in which error occurs easily to data link with no errors. At the two ends of the
data link communication system, a confirm-to-resend mechanism is used. Namely,
receiving a message by the receiver must be confirmed by the sender.
If it is unknown that the message is lost, both two ends wait for messages, so the system
confronts a deadlock. Therefore, T200 is used by the sender. When T200 expires, the
sender judges that the receiver fails in receiving the message, so it resends the message.
When the sender needs to confirm whether the receiver has received the message, T200
starts. When the sender receives the response from the receiver, T200 stops. When T200
expires, the resending mechanism starts. If the sender receives no response from the
receiver after multiple resendings, it sends ERROR INDICATION (T200 expiration) to layer 3.
IV. Precautions
T200 must be properly configured to ensure a predictable behavior at Um interface. The
rules for configuring T200 include:
The potentially-existing lost frames in radio link must be detected as possible.
Necessary retransmission of frames must start at the earliest possible moment.

If the response is delayed due to UE failure, the T200 cannot expire before
receiving and processing the next frame from the opposite end.

If T200 expires and no other frames are sent by preference, the related frames
must be resent in the message block.

T 200 starts immediately after next PH-READY-TO-SEND.

4.10.12 N200
I. Definition
N200 is the resending times after expiration of T200.
II. Format
To configure N200, follow rules below:
1)
When SAPI = 0 or 3, N200 depends on the state and the channel used.
When multiframe operation is set up, it ensures a common time value for layer 2 link
failure in all channels. For layer 2 link establishment and release, configure N200 to
5.
2)
In timer recovery state, configure N200 as below:

5 (SACCH)

23 (SDCCH)

34 (FACCH of full rate)

29 (FACCH of half rate)


3)
When SAPI is unequal to 0 or 3, configure N200 to 5, as shown in Table 1-6.
Table 7-2 Situations of SAPI unequal to 0 or 3
SAPI

Channel

Valid response
delay

Minimum
resending
delay
Trmin
51

Maximum resending
delay

Tresp
Trmax Note 3
MS: 11
51
BSS: 32
0
FACCH/Full rate
9
26
39
0
FACCH/Half rate
10
34
44
3
SDCCH
MS: 11
51
51
Note 1
BSS: 32
25/129 Note
3
SACCH(with TCH)
312
416
Note 2
2
The TDMA frame is the measurement unit of values in this table, equal to
120/26ms (approximately 4.615ms)
Note 1: It caters for the process without SAPI 0 transmission.
Otherwise, it does not have a upper limit due to the priority of SAPI
0 transmission.
Note 2: You can configure it to a greater value only when PCH is
unavailable due to SAPI frame transmission if SAPI = 3.
Note 3: It caters only for sending monitoring frames that are
available and without F equal to 1.
0

SDCCH

III. Configuration and Influence


If the BSC fails in receiving lay 2 response message after multiple resending, it sends the
ERROR INDICATION message (T200 expires) to layer 3. The BSC takes statistics of ERROR
INDICATION message by corresponding traffic measurement counter. When T200 or N200 is
configured to an over small value, call drop occurs probably due to ERROR INDICATION.

4.9 Power Control and Related Parameters


4.9.1 Maximum Transmit Power of MS (MSTXPWRMX)
I. Definition
The transmit power of MS in communication is controlled by BTS. According to the uplink
signal strength and quality, power budget result, the BTS controls MS to increase or
decrease its transmit power.

Note:

In any situation, power control is prior to related handover for BSS. Only when the BSS fails
to improve uplink signal strength and voice quality to the prescribed level, it starts
handover.
To reduce interference between neighbor cells, the power control of MS is restricted.
Namely, the BTS controls MS to transmit power within the threshold.
MSTXPWRMX is the maximum transmit power of MS controlled by BTS.
II. Format
MSTXPWRMX ranges from 0 to 31.
The dBm values corresponding to GSM900 and GSM1800 cells are different:
The 32 maximum transmit power control classes for GSM900 are {39, 39, 39, 37,
35, 33, 31, 29, 27, 25, 23, 21, 19, 17, 15, 13, 11, 9, 7, 5, 5, 5, 5, 5, 5, 5, 5, 5, 5, 5, 5,
5}

The 32 maximum transmit power control classes for GSM900 are {30, 28, 26, 24,
22, 20, 18, 16, 14, 12, 10, 8, 6, 4, 2, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 36, 34, 32}

III. Configuration and Influence


Configuring MSTXPWRMX helps control interferences between neighbor cells, because:
If MSTXPWRMX is over great, the interference between neighbor cells increases.
If MSTXPWRMX is over small, the voice quality declines and improper handover
might occur.

4.9.2 Received Level Threshold of Downlink Power Increment (LDR)


I. Definition
When the downlink received level of the serving cell is smaller than a threshold, the
network must start power control to increase the transmit power of base station and to
guarantee communication quality of MS.
The received level threshold of downlink power increment defines the downlink received
level threshold. When the downlink level received by MS is smaller than it, the base
station starts power control to increase its transmit power.
The parameter N1 means that at lease N1 sampling points must be measured before
starting handover algorithm.

The parameter P1 means the level of at least P1 sampling points in N1 sampling points is
smaller than the threshold prescribed by received level threshold of downlink power
increment.
II. Format
It ranges from 110 dBm to 47 dBm.
N1 ranges from 1 to 32.
P1 ranges from 1 to 32.
III. Configuration and Influence
The received level is between 60 dBm and 80 dBm in a GSM network, so configure
received level threshold of downlink power increment to 85 dBm.
N1 is related to propagation quality of radio channels within cell coverage range. To
reduce influence by attenuation, configure N1 to between 3 and 5.
Configure P1 to about 2/3 of N1.

4.9.3 Received Level Threshold of Uplink Power Increment (LUR)


I. Definition
When the uplink received level of the serving cell is smaller than a threshold, the network
must start power control to increase the transmit power of MS and to guarantee
communication quality of MS.
The received level threshold of uplink power increment defines the uplink received level
threshold. When the uplink level received by MS is smaller than it, the base station starts
power control to increase MS transmit power.
The parameter N1 means that at lease N1 sampling points must be measured before
starting handover algorithm.
The parameter P1 means the level of at least P1 sampling points in N1 sampling points is
smaller than the threshold prescribed by received level threshold of uplink power
increment.
II. Format
It ranges from 110 dBm to 47 dBm.
N1 ranges from 1 to 32.
P1 ranges from 1 to 32.
III. Configuration and Influence
The received level is between 60 dBm and 80 dBm in a GSM network, so configure
received level threshold of uplink power increment to 85 dBm.
N1 is related to propagation quality of radio channels within cell coverage range. To
reduce influence by attenuation, configure N1 to between 3 and 5.
Configure P1 to about 2/3 of N1.

4.9.4 Received Quality Threshold of Downlink Power Increment (LDR)


I. Definition

When the downlink received quality of the serving cell is smaller than a threshold, the
network must start power control to increase the transmit power of base station and to
guarantee communication quality.
The received quality threshold of downlink power increment defines the downlink received
level threshold. When the downlink quality received by MS is smaller than it, the base
station starts power control to increase its transmit power.
The parameter N3 means that at lease N3 sampling points must be measured before
starting handover algorithm.
The parameter P3 means the quality of at least P3 sampling points in N3 sampling points is
smaller than the threshold prescribed by received quality threshold of downlink power
increment.
II. Format
It ranges from 0 to 7, the voice quality grade.
N3 ranges from 1 to 32.
P3 ranges from 1 to 32.
III. Configuration and Influence
The received quality is 0 to 2 of quality grade in a GSM network, so configure received
quality threshold of downlink power increment to 85 dBm.
N3 is related to propagation quality of radio channels within cell coverage range. To
reduce influence by attenuation, configure N3 to between 3 and 5.
Configure P3 to about 2/3 of N3.

4.9.5 Received Quality Threshold of Uplink Power Increment (LUR)


I. Definition
When the uplink received quality of the serving cell is smaller than a threshold, the
network must start power control to increase the transmit power of MS and to guarantee
communication quality.
The received quality threshold of uplink power increment defines the uplink received
quality threshold. When the uplink quality received by MS is smaller than it, the base
station starts power control to increase transmit power of MS.
The parameter N3 means that at lease N3 sampling points must be measured before
starting handover algorithm.
The parameter P3 means the quality of at least P3 sampling points in N3 sampling points is
smaller than the threshold prescribed by received quality threshold of uplink power
increment.
II. Format
It ranges from 0 to 7, the voice quality grade.
N3 ranges from 1 to 32.
P3 ranges from 1 to 32.
III. Configuration and Influence
The received quality is 0 to 2 of quality grade in a GSM network, so configure received
quality threshold of uplink power increment to 3.

N3 is related to propagation quality of radio channels within cell coverage range. To


reduce influence by attenuation, configure N3 to between 3 and 5.
Configure P3 to about 2/3 of N3.

4.9.6 Received Level Threshold of Downlink Power Decrement (UDR)


I. Definition
When the downlink received level of the serving cell is greater than a threshold, the
network must start power control to decrease the transmit power of base station and to
decrease interference to radio channels.
The received level threshold of downlink power decrement defines the downlink received
level threshold. When the downlink level received by MS is greater than it, the base
station starts power control to decrease its transmit power.
The parameter N2 means that at lease N2 sampling points must be measured before
starting handover algorithm.
The parameter P2 means the level of at least P2 sampling points in N2 sampling points is
greater than the threshold prescribed by received level threshold of downlink power
decrement.
II. Format
It ranges from 110 dBm to 47 dBm.
N1 ranges from 1 to 32.
P1 ranges from 1 to 32.
III. Configuration and Influence
The received level is between 60 dBm and 80 dBm in a GSM network, so configure
received level threshold of downlink power decrement to 85 dBm.
N2 is related to propagation quality of radio channels within cell coverage range. To
reduce influence by attenuation, configure N2 to between 3 and 5.
Configure P2 to about 2/3 of N2.

4.9.7 Received Level Threshold of Uplink Power Decrement (UUR)


I. Definition
When the uplink received level of the serving cell is greater than a threshold, the network
must start power control to decrease the transmit power of MS and to decrease
interference to radio channels.
The received level threshold of uplink power decrement defines the uplink received level
threshold. When the uplink level received by MS is greater than it, the base station starts
power control to decrease transmit power of MS.
The parameter N2 means that at lease N2 sampling points must be measured before
starting handover algorithm.
The parameter P2 means the level of at least P2 sampling points in N2 sampling points is
greater than the threshold prescribed by received level threshold of uplink power
decrement.
II. Format
It ranges from 110 dBm to 47 dBm.

N2 ranges from 1 to 32.


P2 ranges from 1 to 32.
III. Configuration and Influence
The received level is between 60 dBm and 80 dBm in a GSM network, so configure
received level threshold of uplink power decrement to 60 dBm.
N2 is related to propagation quality of radio channels within cell coverage range. To
reduce influence by attenuation, configure N2 to between 3 and 5.
Configure P2 to about 2/3 of N2.

4.9.8 Received Quality Threshold of Downlink Power Decrement (UDR)


I. Definition
When the downlink received quality of the serving cell is greater than a threshold, the
network must start power control to decrease the transmit power of base station and to
decrease space interference.
The received quality threshold of downlink power decrement defines the downlink
received quality threshold. When the downlink quality received by MS is greater than it,
the base station starts power control to decrease transmit power of MS.
The parameter N4 means that at lease N4 sampling points must be measured before
starting handover algorithm.
The parameter P4 means the quality of at least P4 sampling points in N2 sampling points is
greater than the threshold prescribed by received quality threshold of downlink power
decrement.
II. Format
It ranges from 0 to 7, the voice quality grade.
N4 ranges from 1 to 32.
P4 ranges from 1 to 32.
III. Configuration and Influence
The received quality is 0 to 2 of quality grade in a GSM network, so configure received
quality threshold of downlink power decrement to 0.
N4 is related to propagation quality of radio channels within cell coverage range. To
reduce influence by attenuation, configure N4 to between 3 and 5.
Configure P4 to about 2/3 of N4.

4.9.9 Received Quality Threshold of Uplink Power Decrement (UUR)


I. Definition
When the uplink received quality of the serving cell is greater than a threshold, the
network must start power control to decrease the transmit power of MS and to decrease
space interference.
The received quality threshold of uplink power decrement defines the uplink received
quality threshold. When the uplink quality received by MS is greater than it, the base
station starts power control to decrease transmit power of MS.
The parameter N4 means that at lease N4 sampling points must be measured before
starting handover algorithm.

The parameter P4 means the quality of at least P4 sampling points in N4 sampling points is
greater than the threshold prescribed by received quality threshold of uplink power
decrement.
II. Format
It ranges from 0 to 7, the voice quality grade.
N4 ranges from 1 to 32.
P4 ranges from 1 to 32.
III. Configuration and Influence
The received quality is 0 to 2 of quality grade in a GSM network, so configure received
quality threshold of uplink power decrement to 0.
N4 is related to propagation quality of radio channels within cell coverage range. To
reduce influence by attenuation, configure N4 to between 3 and 5.
Configure P4 to about 2/3 of N4.

4.9.10 Power Control Interval (INT)


I. Definition
It takes a period from beginning of power control to detection of effect of power control.
Therefore an interval must exist between continuous two power controls; otherwise the
system becomes unstable and even call drop occurs.
The parameter power control interval (INT) configures the minimum interval between two
continuous times of power control.
II. Format
It ranges from 0 to 31s.
III. Configuration and Influence
According to frame structure of GSM network, configure INT to about 3s.
IV. Precautions
INT cannot be smaller than 1s, and otherwise the system becomes unstable.

4.9.11 Power Increment Step (INC)


I. Definition
The INC indicates the power increment of MS or base station in power control.
II. Format
The range of INC is 2 dB, 4 dB, or 6 dB.
III. Configuration and Influence
The recommended value is 4 dB.

4.9.12 Power Decrement Step (RED)


I. Definition

The RED indicates the power decrement of MS or base station in power control.
II. Format
The range of RED is 2 dB or 4 dB.
III. Configuration and Influence
The recommended value of RED is 2 dB.

.7 Radio Link Failure Process and Parameters


The radio link failure is detected from uplink and downlink. The MS completes downlink
detection, while the base station completes uplink detection.

4.7.1 Radio Link Failure Counter (RLC or Radio Link Timeout)


I. Definition
The MS originates call resetup or disconnects by force if all the following conditions are
met:

The voice or data quality is too poor to be received.


Power control and handover cannot help to improve the quality.

A disconnection by force actually brings about a call drop, so the MS considers it a radio
link failure that the voice or data service is actually too poor to be received. GSM
regulations provide solutions to the previous problems as follows:
Set a counter S in the MS. The initial value of S is provided at the beginning of talk, and it
is the value of the parameter radio link failure counter. S changes as follows:
S decreases by 1 if the MS fails in decoding a correct SACCH message when the
MS should receive the SACCH message.

S increases by 2 if the MS succeed in decoding a correct SACCH message.

S cannot exceed the value for radio link failure counter. When S equals to 0, the MS
originates call resetup or disconnects by force.
II. Format
The step from 4 to 64 is 4, with unit of SACCH period as follows:

For TCH, the SACCH period is 480ms.


For SDCCH, the SACCH period is 470ms.

III. Configuration and Influence


The value of the parameter radio link failure counter affects CDR and utilization of radio
resources.
Assume that cell A is a neighbor cell to cell B and the bordering coverage is poor. When an
MS moves from P to Q while in talk,
If the radio link failure counter is over small, call drop occurs before cross-cell
handover.

If the radio link failure counter is over great, the network releases related
resources until radio link expires, though the voice quality is too poor when MS camps
on cell B near P. Therefore, the utilization of radio resources declines.

Proper configuration of radio link failure counter is important, and is related to the actual
situations. To configure radio link failure counter, refer to the following rules:
Configure it to between 52 and 64 in areas with over low traffic.
Configure it to between 36 and 48 in areas with low traffic and great coverage
radium

Configure it to between 20 and 32 in areas with heavy traffic.

IV. Precautions
Configure radioLinkTimeout to smaller than T3109. This contributes to success of call
resetup and avoids the following situation effectively:
Before the MS releases radio resources due to expiration, the network side completes
releasing channels resources and reallocates resources to other MSs. Therefore two MSs
might use the same slot and this causes interferences even call drop.

4.7.2 SACCH Multiframe (RLTO_BS)


I. Definition
Refer to the description of radio link failure counter. A counter is set accordingly to radio
link at base station side for managing radio link failures. The solutions vary due to
different equipment providers, but a general method is as follows:
Set a counter S in the base station. The initial value of S is provided at the beginning of
talk, and it is the value of the parameter radio link failure expiration. S changes as
follows:
S decreases by 1 if the MS fails in decoding a correct SACCH message when the
MS should receive the SACCH message.

S increases by 2 if the MS succeed in decoding a correct SACCH message.

S cannot exceed the value for radio link expiration of base station. When S equals to 0, the
MS originates call resetup or disconnects by force, as shown in Figure 1-5.
II. Format
RLT0_BS ranges from 4 to 64.
III. Configuration and Influence
Proper configuration of radio link expiration of base station affects CDR and utilization of
radio resources. It is related to the actual situations. To configure radio link failure
counter, refer to the following rules:
Configure it to between 52 and 64 in areas with over low traffic.
Configure it to between 36 and 48 in areas with low traffic and great coverage
radium

Configure it to between 20 and 32 in areas with heavy traffic.

Configure it to a greater value in areas with apparent voids or where call drop
occurs frequently while the MS moves.

IV. Precautions
RLT0_BS and RLC must be consistent.

4.5 Frequency Hopping Parameters

4.5.1 Frequency Hopping Sequence Number


I. Definition
In a GSM network, the cell allocation (CA) means the set of carriers used by each cell,
recorded as {R0, R1, , Rn - 1}. Wherein, Ri indicates the absolute channel number. For
each communication process, the set of carriers used by base station and MS is mobile
allocation (MA), recorded as {M0, M1, , Mn - 1}. Wherein, Mi indicates the absolute
channel number. Obviously MA is a subset of CA.
During a communication process, the air interface uses a carrier number, one element of
MA. The variable mobile allocation index (MAI) determines an exact element of MA.
According to the frequency hopping algorithm in GSM regulation 05.02, the MAI is the
TDMA frame number (RN) or reduced frame number (RFN), frequency hopping sequence
number (HSN), and mobile allocation index offset (MAIO).
Wherein, the HSN determines two aspects:
Track of frequency points during frequency hopping
The asynchronous neighbor cells using the same MA can avoid continuous
frequency collision during frequency hopping by using different HSNs.

II. Format
HSN is in decimal, ranging from 0 to 63, wherein:

0: cyclic frequency hopping


163: pseudo frequency hopping

III. Configuration and Influence


You can choose any HSN in cells using frequency hopping, but you must ensure that the
cells using same frequency group must use different HSN. The following paragraph is an
exception:
In an 1X1 network, three cells under a base station use the same frequency group, but
they are synchronous cells because of same FN. Therefore the three cells use the same
HSN. You must plan MAIO properly to avoid frequency collision of the three cells under the
same base station.

4.5.2 Mobile Allocation


I. Definition
The mobile allocation (MA) in the GSM network indicates a frequency set for frequency
hopping. Namely, when the MA of a cell is fixed, the communication frequency points of
the cell performs transient in the set by MA according to rules.
The parameter MA determines all the elements in MA.
II. Format
MA is a set, with all GSM frequency points as its element, namely:

For GSM900 networks: 1124 and 9751023.


For GSM1800 networks: 512885

III. Configuration and Influence


MA is configured according to network designing requirements.
IV. Precautions

Chinese GSM networks do not cover all available frequency bands of GSM system, so
configure MA in available frequency bands.
The number of elements in each MA set cannot exceed 63.
The MA cannot include BCCH carriers.
The number of MA must not be multiples of 13 if all the following conditions are met:

Using DTX
HSN = 0 (cyclic frequency hopping)

You must avoid SACCH to appear usually at the same frequency point.

4.5.3 Mobile Allocation Index Offset


I. Definition
During communication, the air interface uses a carrier frequency, one element of MA set.
MIO determines an exact element of MA set. According to the frequency hopping algorithm
in GSM regulation 05.02, the MAI is the TDMA frame number (RN) or reduced frame number
(RFN), frequency hopping sequence number (HSN), and mobile allocation index offset
(MAIO). MAIO is an initial offset of MAI, and it aims to avoid multiple channels to use the
same frequency carrier in the same time.
II. Format
MAIO ranges from 0 to 63.
III. Configuration and Influence
MAIO is configured by equipment room operators.
IV. Precautions
The different cells using same group of MA must use consistent MAIO.
Using different MAIOs enables different sectors in the same location to use the same
frequency group (MA) without frequency collision