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STANFORD UNIVERSITY BULLETIN

ANNUAL REPORT OF THE PRESIDENT


OF STANFORD UNIVERSITY
FOR THE FIFTY-SEVENTH ACADEMIC YEAR
ENDING AUGUST 31, 1948

THIS BEING THE FORTY-FIFTH REPORT SUBMITTED, TO


WHICH ARE APPENDED THE ANNUAL FINANCIAL
REPORT, REPORTS OF SCHOOLS, DEPARTMENTS,
COMMITTEES, OTHER ADMINISTRATIVE
OFFICES, AND PUBLICATIONS OF
THE FACULTY

STANFORD UNIVERSITY
STANFORD, CALIFORNIA
PUBLISHED BY THE UNIVERSITY

1948

TABLE OF CONTENTS
PACK

THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES

vii

OFFICERS OF THE BOARD

vii

STANDING COMMITTEES OF THE BOARD

vii

REPORT OF THE PRESIDENT

TOWARD INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING

CENTRAL ADMINISTRATION

15

THE FACULTY

16

THE STUDENTS

18

REORGANIZATION

20

MAJOR PROGRAM DEVELOPMENTS

21

SUMMER PROGRAM EXPANDED

31

RESEARCH

33

RESEARCH INSTITUTE

37

STANFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS

40

DEVELOPMENT OF THE PHYSICAL PLANT

40

FINANCES

44

TRUSTEES

47

STAFF CHANGES

49

ADDRESS OF W. P. FULLER, JR

53

APPENDIXES
I. ANNUAL FINANCIAL REPORT

61

Balance Sheet

61

Operations

61

Gifts

62

Endowment Investments

62

IV
PAGE

Table of Contents

63

Auditors' Report

65

Financial Schedules

66

II. SCHOOL AND DEPARTMENTAL REPORTS


SCHOOL OF BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

121
121

Hopkins Marine Station

125

Natural History Museum

129

GRADUATE SCHOOL OF BUSINESS

134

SCHOOL OF EDUCATION

144

SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING

152

Civil Engineering

154

Electrical Engineering

156

Mechanical Engineering

160

SCHOOL OF HUMANITIES

163

Art

168

Asiatic and Slavic Studies

178

Classics

180

English

181

Germanic Languages

187

Music

189

Philosophy

194

Romanic Languages

195

Speech and Drama

198

SCHOOL OF LAW.

219

SCHOOL OF MEDICINE

224

Anatomy

231

Bacteriology and Experimental Pathology

234

Medicine

237

GENERAL BOOKBINDING CO.

t 1
v
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79
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005

212

QUALITY CONTROL MARK

TABLE OF CONTENTS

V
PAGE

Nursing

238

Obstetrics and Gynecology

241

Pathology

243

Pediatrics

245

Pharmacology and Therapeutics

249

Physiology

253

Public Health and Preventive Medicine

259

Surgery

263

MILITARY SCIENCE AND TACTICS

264

SCHOOL OF MINERAL SCIENCES

266

NAVAL SCIENCE

271

PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND ATHLETICS


Physical Education for Women
SCHOOL OF PHYSICAL SCIENCES

273
276
281

Chemistry

281

Mathematics

288

Physics

291

SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES

296

Economics

297

Food Research Institute

301

History

304

Institute for Journalistic Studies

312

Political Science

313

Psychology

316

Sociology

319

III. COMMITTEE REPORTS

322

PATENT

323

PUBLIC EXERCISES

324

vi

TABLE OF CONTENTS
PACK

PUBLIC HEALTH

333

RESEARCH

334

UNIVERSITY PUBLICATIONS

337

IV. ADMINISTRATIVE REPORTS

338

BUSINESS MANAGER

338

DEAN OF STUDENTS

350

Appointment Service

352

Chief Counselor for Men

373

Chief Counselor for Women

382

Stanford Village

385

Veterans' Guidance Center

388

Veterans' Records Office

395

DONORS

399

GENERAL SECRETARY

464

HEALTH SERVICE

480

Public Health Service

482

THE HOOVER INSTITUTE AND LIBRARY ON WAR, REVOLUTION,


AND PEACE

484

MEMORIAL CHURCH

511

MEMORIAL RESOLUTIONS

515

REGISTRAR

521

SCHOLARSHIP

573

V. PUBLICATIONS OF THE FACULTY

581

THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES


[The figures in parentheses indicate year of beginning of service.]

CHARLES R. BLYTH (1941)


JOHN E. GUSHING (1945)
LELAND W. CUTLER (1920)
LLOYD W. DINKELSPIEL (1947)
GEORGE A. DITZ (1942)
PAUL C. EDWARDS (1943)
W. P. FULLER, JR. (1933)
MRS. ROGER GOODAN (1942)
HERBERT HOOVER (1912)
IRA S. LILLICK (1923)
C. O. G. MILLER (1923)
GEORGE MORELL (1944)
SEELEY G. MUDD (1946)
HERMAN PHLEGER (1944)
M. C. SLOSS (1920)

Russ Bldg., San Francisco 4


215 Market St., San Francisco 5
Financial Center Bldg., San Francisco 4
14 Montgomery St., San Francisco 4
Bank of America Bldg., Stockton
812 Mission St., San Francisco 1
301 Mission St., San Francisco 19
2440 North Vermont Ave., Los Angeles 27
Stanford
826 Robert Dollar Bldg., San Francisco 4
433 California St., San Francisco 4
Box 368, Palo Alto
1206 Pacific Mutual Bldg., Los Angeles 14
Ill Sutter St., San Francisco 4
Ill Sutter St., San Francisco 4

OFFICERS OF THE BOARD


President: W. P. FULLER, JR.
Vice-Presidents: M. C. SLOSS, LELAND W. CUTLER
Secretary and Treasurer: IRA S. LILLICK
Assistant Secretaries and Assistant Treasurers: CHARLES R. BLYTH, PAUL
C. EDWARDS
STANDING COMMITTEES OF THE BOARD
Investments: MILLER, BLYTH, GUSHING, LILLICK, PHLEGER
Finance: FULLER, CUTLER, DITZ, LILLICK, MILLER, MORELL, PHLEGER
Academic Affairs: DITZ, DINKELSPIEL, EDWARDS, GOODAN, LILLICK, MUDD,
SLOSS
Medical School Representative: Dirz
Library Representative: GOODAN
Buildings and Grounds: MORELL, EDWARDS, GOODAN
Rules: LILLICK, PHLEGER, SLOSS
Nominations: SLOSS, DITZ, MILLER
Planning and Development: DINKELSPIEL, EDWARDS, GOODAN, HOOVER

vu

STANFORD
UNIVERSITY
1947-1948

As ACTING PRESIDENT,
I have the honor to report on the major developments at Stanford
University for the academic year 1947-48.
The sudden and untimely death of President
Donald B. Tresidder on January 28, 1948, influences the nature of this report and gives it a special
significance. Any summary of developments at
Stanford during the past year must pick up and
identify policies which Dr. Tresidder had formulated and made effective during the four and a half
years of his presidency. It must, in a sense, be a
report of progress on a long-range program, measured in terms of three fundamental tenets which Dr.
Tresidder had always in mind:
1. That the consistent maintenance of academic freedom
in its broadest sense is a sine qua non of the University.
2. That quantity must never be accepted as a substitute
for quality in education at the university level. "A
misguided or diluted education will do little to
strengthen our nation."
3. That individual qualifications and potentialities, both
in educational institutions and in their faculty and
student members, should be stressed and developed
to the utmost, counteracting the too-general trend
toward standardization.

The happenings of the year 194748 are here


reviewed against the backdrop of the larger vision
embodied in President Tresidder's plans for Stanford's future.*
Repeatedly throughout the year we have been
reminded that a university is not a cloister, far
removed from the outer world. Every major event
that affects the state, the nation, or the international
* Shortly after Dr. Tresidder's death, his achievements were
summarized by W. Farmer Fuller, Jr., then president of Stanford's
Board of Trustees, for presentation at a series of Alumni Conferences. Mr. Fuller's summary is reprinted as an appendix to
this report.

situation has its impact upon the University. During the years of World War II, when individual
liberties were restricted in the interests of the common welfare, universities were likewise restricted
in what they could teach, in the problems on which
their faculties could do research, and in the extent
to which reports on the findings of investigations
might be made public. Such restrictions, though
they are essential in times of war, clearly limit the
growth of universities, modifying radically their
basic reasons for existencethe search for truth,
freedom to pursue knowledge wherever it may lead,
and freedom for the specialist to teach the truth as
he sees it within his field of specialization.
Three years ago, following the launching of
the United Nations, with the coming of V-E Day
and then V-J Day, civilized people everywhere were
filled with a great hope, one that seemed genuinely
possible of fulfillmenta hope that we might have
peace. Along with that hope came the feeling in
academic circles that universities could again go
about their business of educating youth, of fostering
intellect and developing qualities of leadership, of
conducting research in any field in which they had
competent scholars and for which their resources
were adequate.
Todaythree years laterthat great hope has
dwindled, and there is no peace. Nor are we at
war. Stifled by uncertainty, smothered by doubt,
our hope for peace today merely flickers. Once
again the talk, even among responsible leaders, is
of war. To some of them, unfortunately, the question is not whether, but only when. Once again free
men are threatened. And each threat to a society
of free men is a threat to the universities.
Only a few months ago we saw a sad and frightening example of stern dictatorship strangling a
university. At the six-hundredth anniversary of
the famous Charles University of Prague, the late
President Eduard Benes of Czechoslovakia warned
that unless there is "freedom which is based on

man's respect for men, and on general tolerance"


a university cannot fulfill its true function. Even
before he spoke, Premier Gottwald had declared
that "one of the great tasks of the new regime is
to nationalize culture
Our art and science
cannot be other than national." Even as Benes
spoke, the rector of Charles University and seventeen members of the faculty had been discharged
because they were non-Marxist, and admission to
the university had been restricted on the basis of
political conformity. Obviously, the ablest professors and students, interested in preserving the
true functions of a university and pursuing nonpolitical truth, had no choice other than to leave
the institution.
The tactics applied to Charles University are
characteristic of totalitarian governments. They
stifle universities. They keep the world ignorant
of knowledge that might be used to advance civilization because free dissemination of knowledge
is never safe for dictatorship. The tactics applied
to Charles University are not the tactics of a free
people, confident that there are no dangers in knowing the truth. The real dangers lie in restricting
truth, nibbling away freedom with each new restriction.
Another threat to the constructive operation of
universities today grows out of an emphasis upon
the consideration of practical problems, as if they
were opposed to theoretical ones. With governments
and industry spending more and more money for
research, there is an increasing tendency to support research which promises to yield immediate
and practical results, and to provide little or no
financial assistance to the scientists working on
long-range, fundamental problems of which there
appears to be no ready, practical application. The
shortsightedness of such a policy is at once apparent in the field of nuclear fission, where our
basic knowledge stems from what appeared to be
inapplicable theories explored and developed dur-

COMMENCEMENT EXERCISES IN LAURENCE FROST MEMORIAL AMPHITHEATER


ing the nineteenth century by astronomers, mathematical physicists, and astrophysicists. In this
country it should make us pause, too, to realize that
most of this "impractical" background work was
done by European and not by American scientists.
Similarly, most of our practical applications oi
electronics have been made possible by long years
of theoretical and "impractical" work. It is within
universities that sponsor and promote freedom oi
inquiry that such basic work thrives. If our nation
is to remain in the forefront of scientific and
technological advance, it is imperative that adequate financial support be provided for our most
competent scientists to pursue whatever course
inquiry they, themselves, may determine.
Dangers likewise lurk in the present demand

of veterans and older students for practical courses


for short-cuts to training in the tools and techniques of a job. Obviously, the provision of vocational training of a high quality is an important
part of our total educational program and along
with general education should be made available.
Instruction in vocational technique is, however,
only one element of professional education. If
the universities were to yield to any great extent to the demands for exclusively practical work,
they would cease to be universities and become
vocational institutes. Fortunately or unfortunately,
there is no major short-cut to be taken in the
training of a doctor: unless he is well-grounded
in the basic medical sciences, he becomes merely
a technician; and unless he also receives an education in the humanities and the social sciences,
he does not gain the perspective he needs as an
influential member of society in these critical times.
Similarly, in training men and women for other
professions, universities must keep constantly in
mind the importance of basic as well as strictly
professional subjects. In the long run of professional practice, the immediately practical course,
the training in techniques and tools, is effective
only if it is founded upon basic courses in fields
of knowledge important both to the profession and
to society.
In order to provide such basic work adequately,
universities must guard against an overemphasis
upon one field of study at the expense of other
fields. Because the physical sciences emerged from
the war with a new prominence, it has become
easier to obtain financial support for work in these
fields. Certainly, in terms of today's problems,
equal support must be provided for the humanities
and the social sciences. Equally important is the
need for a greater synthesis and cross-fertilization
of different fields. For example, the physical
scientists since the war have found it essential to
deal with social problems, an area in which few of

them have been adequately educated or have developed any special competence.
Sir Richard Livingstone, in a lecture on "Some
Thoughts on University Education," recently pointed
up this problem for British universities. He stated
that undergraduate studies "have been shaped by
the pressure of circumstances and not by clear
thought directed to definite ends; that the exaggerated specialism in science which ignores human
problems is obviously bad and absurd, but . . . .
the study of the humanities often has its weaknesses
too
Our system," he concluded, "needs
rethinking and remodelling so that it may give the
student an outlook and attitude which will enable
him to live effectively in the world."
Along with other organizations and institutions,
universities are also faced with the threat of a
growing inflation. This is particularly true of
endowed colleges and universities. For example,
ea.ch institution is confronted with the necessity
of modernizing its buildings and adding to its
facilities in order to provide for the increased
number of students/Building costs, however, have
gone up 400 percent since 1913, while income
from endowments has gone down about one-third.
Other costs have likewise mounted./ In order to
obtain sufficient funds for operating expenses, it
has been necessary to increase tuition fees considerably. Because of the increase in operating
costs, it has not been possible to keep faculty salaries abreast of rising costs of living. Further adjustment must be made in salaries if universities are
to retain their most productive scholars and if the
teaching profession is to continue to attract people
with high qualifications.
A final threat to universities related to this cost
factor derives from a greatly enlarged student enrollment without comparable increases in faculty
and facilities. Because of financial pressure there
has been a temptation to increase the number of
students in order to obtain added income. Ex-

perience has shown such a solution to be inexpedient, for unless the support of the added load
increases proportionately, the quality of education
must decrease. Many institutions have allowed the
size of their student bodies to double without making appreciable additions to their plants and staffs,
which are essential to the maintenance of high
standards. Adjustments are urgently required. But
to make them, universities either must have additional resources or reduce the student load. Much
of the force of the combined board, administrative
and faculty thinking and planning at Stanford
must, in the years ahead, be centered upon these
problems.
In essence, the conditions that threaten to reduce
the high quality of work in universities are clearly
those that also threaten the operation of a free
society. Industry, labor, universities, and social
institutions generally share a common stake in
these problems; but the universities have a major
responsibility to provide leadership in their solution. In shouldering this responsibility, in fulfilling
its function, described by William James over
forty years ago, of "a place of intellectual ferment," Stanford University will help replenish the
fire of hope for free men everywhere.

TOWARD INTERNATIONAL
UNDERSTANDING

IN AN

T sim ul ane
,

j more
ously to understand
clearf the roblem
f
y
P
*
.
the world in which we live

today, to contribute wisely to their solution, and


to prepare students to face them realistically,
Stanford has concentrated every possible facility,
during the past year, on international affairs. The
focus remains constant, whether one considers the
University in 194748 in terms of student activity,
or organization of curriculum, of predominant
faculty interest, or of the esteem of industry, edu-

cation, and government outside our campus bounds.


There was a 70 percent increase of students majoring in the International Relations Program offered by the School of Social Sciences. Student
interest in the area programs developed within the
School of Humanities has also been high, indicating
increased awareness that nations and peoples need
a vastly improved system of intercommunication
as well as intense specialization in gathering detailed information about one another.
In addition to its regular academic courses, the
Hispanic-American Program has sponsored several
graduate students to carry out researches throughout Latin America. The Pacific-Asiatic and Russian
Program is serving increasingly as a useful avenue
of approach to graduate work in Oriental or Russian
history as well as being, in itself, a productive field
of study. Faculty members working in this latter
program have been enabled to keep in direct touch
with developments in the countries of their interest
through Rockefeller travel grants. Five students
have carried on their work under this program by
means of Chinese cultural scholarships maintained
by the Chinese Ministry of Education.
A greatly enlarged summer program this year
emphasized the urgency of current world affairs
and the University's obligation to help students
relate them to their several fields of study. Stanford's resources were concentrated on the major
theme, "The Issues of One World: America's Responsibilities."
The Brookings Institution of Washington brought
to Stanford a two-week seminar on major problems
of American foreign policy, its second annual invitational seminar for government officials, uni-j
versity and college teachers, officers of the armed'
forces, and officials of international organizations-!
Some one hundred forty specialists were in attendance. Designed primarily'to aid in the formation
of a responsible American public opinion o
foreign affairs, and to help develop training
10

methods for international relations and foreign


business specialists, the seminar consisted of roundtable and plenary discussions aimed at clarification
of such diverse problems as the Japanese peace
settlement, the United Nations veto, and economic
assistance to Latin America. Director of the seminar was Dr. Leo Pasvolsky, one of the drafters
of the United Nations Charter and former special
assistant to the Secretary of State. A tangible outgrowth of the session is the subsequently published
volume, Major Problems of U.S. Foreign Policy,
2948-49, comprising major papers presented at
the seminar as revised following the conference
discussions.
The Casa Espanola, a feature of the HispanicAmerican Program, was so successful as a summer project that it has been extended to a regular,
year-round basis. A campus residence where only
Spanish is spoken, the Casa is planned primarily
for upper-division and graduate students who wish
to perfect their conversational Spanish, increasing
their competence for living and serving in other
areas of the globe. Students are selected by the
Romance languages faculty on a basis of scholarship.
Hoover Institute Studies
A different angle of approach to understanding
world problems is the three-year research program
undertaken by the Hoover Institute and Library
through a grant from the Carnegie Corporation of
New York. With Dr. Harold Fisher and Dr. Easton
Rothwell in charge, scholars in many fields, using
an experimental form of group research, have
begun a study of present-day revolutions and their
effects on international relations. Anthropologists,
social psychologists, geographers, and military
scientists, as well as political scientists, economists,
legal experts, historians, and international relations experts, are working together in the program
and will pool their diverse findings.
11

HOOVER LIBRARY Is A CENTER FOR STUDIES IN THE SEARCH FOR PEACE


This study illustrates a transition made during
the past three years by the Hoover Library on War,
Revolution, and Peace from its passive role of a
repository for documents to the more active one
of a producer, correlating information and integrating evidencein short, doing something with
the vast store of material accumulated through the
years. A steadily growing staff of scholars is
working to interpret printed matter in terms of
human significance. Our collections in many national fields have become so extensive that scholars
are limited only by their own ingenuity and language capabilities. Though this Library appeared
for many years to be more highly esteemed in other
countries than in our own, its importance has now
made itself evident to students and experts in the
United States as well. Physical facilities of the
spacious building are even now being taxed, while
an ever-growing number of scholars is requesting
permission to use them.
Lines of communication with scholars and friends
in foreign countries, many of which had been
12

broken during the war, have now in many cases


been re-established, and new ones are continually
being developed. The Library has been particularly
fortunate in the acquisition of Far Eastern materials, and its collection of documents dealing with
contemporary China and Japan is believed to be
the most complete in the world. Our files of
contemporary Spanish materials are also outstanding. Largest recent acquisitions have come from
the Far East and Poland, and the Slavic materials
in general have received the most concentrated
study and interpretation to date. Documents dealing with the underground movements in various
countries constitute one of the Library's most revealing and productive fields of study, and pertinent materials continue to pour in from friends
throughout the world. The Exchange Department
is in correspondence with libraries in many countries and in most American universities, and has
added quantities of documents to the collections at
Stanford through exchanges of duplicate materials.
Projects in Food Research
The Food Research Institute has also played an
important part in Stanford's concentrated study of
international problems. Under the direction of Dr.
Merrill K. Bennett and Dr. Joseph S. Davis, the
Institute has recently begun a study of Soviet Russian economic developments, made possible by a
grant from the Rockefeller Foundation.
The Institute staff has devoted its chief energies
to the preparation of its twenty-one-volume International History of Food and Agriculture in World
War II, continuing the five-year study program
begun for this purpose in 1946. Scientists and
scholars working on the study are tracing the development and operations of organizations for
food control in World War II, evaluating wartime
management of food and agriculture in the United
States, Canada and Latin America, Great Britain,

France, the U.S.S.R., Italy, and Japan. Their primary objectives are to provide a clear record of
wartime events, to formulate the guiding principles
of wartime food management, and to prepare the
groundwork for peacetime analysis of commodities,
commodity markets, and the use of land and manpower in agricultural production.
Student Interests
Students, independently of organized study and
research programs within the various departments
of the University, have attested their interest in
international problems by undertaking projects to
help young people of other countries. The Associated Students last spring appropriated over nine
thousand dollars to enable seven European students
to study at Stanford. Fraternities and other living
groups agreed to provide the visitors with room andj
board, and the University contributed four tuitionfree scholarships.
Working through the central office of the World
Student Service Fund in Geneva, students during
the past year also have continued their support of
the University of Naples, a relief project undertaken in the spring of 1947 under the auspices oi
the Stanford Institute of International Relations.
Financial aid, food, clothing, and office equipment
have been sent to Neapolitan students by Stanford
groups and individuals.
These programs extend and supplement the basic;
courses designed to promote a better understanding
of international problems. They represent a con
certed effort on the part of the University to bring
about a lasting peace.

14

CEHTRAL ADMINISTRATION

IN

E PR NC 19 a

* ! if f
search that had long been

under way ended in the


appointment of Louis B.
Lundborg as Vice-President for University Development. Serving in that capacity, Mr. Lundborg has
primary responsibility for co-ordinating all phases
of the University's public relations program, which
has become increasingly important through the last
several years. The office of the General Secretary,
under the direction of Thomas P. Carpenter, will
work closely with Mr. Lundborg, and the activities
of that office will be extended.
Upon the appointment in February of the VicePresident as Acting President, Professor Douglas
M. Whitaker, Dean of the School of Biological
Sciences, became Acting Vice-President.
Under the direction of Lawrence A. Kimpton,
the Office of the Dean of Students this year has
continued its efforts to deal with each individual
studentwith the range of his own needs and
interests, his abilities and weaknessesthrough
co-ordination of all student services. The functions
of the Registrar, the Deans of Men and Women,
student housing, placement, and personnel officers
are channeled through this one office. Since the
establishment three years ago of uniform, campuswide personnel policies for men and women, with
a unified system of records and a central office for
their maintenance, unnecessary duplication has
been eliminated.
To relieve the Registrar, H. Donald Winbigler,
of part of his very heavy responsibilities, Alfred
Grommon, associate professor of English and Education, has been appointed Director of Admissions.
The faculty committee on admissions continues to
formulate policies which are administered through
the newly created office.
The Student Health Service, reorganized two
years ago, has been used increasingly by the student
members of the University community. Additional
15

appointments to the staff of p'hysieians, including


specialists in dermatology and ophthalmology,
have been made this year. The installation of new
equipment has made possible a regular, thorough
X-ray survey of the student population. Despite
a moderate increase in respiratory infections, communicable diseases in general have been kept at a
low level throughout the year.

THEFACDLTY

I T I S IMPOSSIBLE to

marize the unnumbered


achievements during any
year of the members of
the University's facultythe group Dr. Tresidder
called "the one indispensable element." Some
specific honors which have come recently to our
faculty members include the election of Dr. Ernest
R. Hilgard, head of the Psychology Department,
to the presidency of the American Psychological
Association, and the election of Dr. Bayard Q.
Morgan, head of the Germanic Languages Department, as vice-president of the American Association
of Teachers of German. Professor Hubert C. Heffner, head of the Department of Speech and Drama,
was elected vice-president of the American Educational Theatre Association. Dr. Ralph H. Lutz,
professor of history, has been honored by election
to the presidency of the American Association of
University Professors. The highest honor of the
American Association of Petroleum Geologists, the
Sidney Powers Memorial Medal, was awarded to
Dean A. I. Levorsen of the School of Mineral
Sciences. A new professorship in United States
History has been established at Stanford in honor
of Professor Edgar E. Robinson, head of the Department of History for twenty years. The election
of Dr. Cornelis B. van Niel of th6 Department of
Biology to the American Philosophical Society, and
President Truman's appointment of Dr. Felix M.
Keesing as senior United States commissioner on

16

the six-power South Pacific Commission, are also


noted. Professors Felix Bloch, Ernest Hilgard, and
Gilbert Smith have been elected to membership in
the National Academy of Sciences. At a ceremony
at Moffett Field, Dr. William F. Durand, professor
emeritus of Mechanical Engineering, received the
Presidential Medal for Merit in recognition of
his outstanding scientific contributions to aviation
during the second World War. Dr. Frederick Emmons Terman, dean of the School of Engineering,
has also been awarded the Medal for Merit for his
war service as director of the Radio Research Laboratory at Harvard.
These are merely a few of the many honors that
have come to the faculty in recognition of their attainments. They serve as an indication of the esteem of the larger community of scholars throughout
the country for the contributions of the Stanford
faculty. The extent to which they have broadened
knowledge in their particular areas of specialization is one definite measure of the strength of the
University.
Again this year we have added new and distinguished scholars and teachers to our faculty.
Altogether fifty new appointments were made to
positions above the grade of instructor. These were
oifset in part by the loss of five through retirement,
nineteen who resigned to accept positions elsewhere, and five who were taken by death. Seven
members of the faculty received promotions to the
rank of professor and five were advanced to associate professorships. A detailed list of staff changes
is given at the end of this report.

THE

STDDENTS

AGAIN this year Stanford's


students demonstrated a
remarkable maturity and
seriousness of purpose.
Grade averages continued to rise. Last year
President Tresidder recorded a higher general University average than for the previous year and an
all-time record year for the men students, but this
year exceeded the previous in every respect. The
all-University average rose from 2.58 to 2.60; the
women's average jumped from 2.66 to 2.71; and
the men's average set another new record, going
from 2.55 to 2.56.
The enrollment for the year was again at a new
peak. The total number of individuals enrolled
during the year was 10,136, almost a thousand
more than in the previous year. During the largest
single quarter, last autumn, 8,213 students were in
the University.
The number of qualified applicants for admission to the University for 1948-49 also reached
a new high. The Director of Admissions reported
an increase of roughly 16 percent in qualified
applicants. In this our experience has run counter
to that of many other institutions where the trend
of applications for admission was reported to be
downward. In the face of our continued increase,
however, the Committee on Admissions reduced the
number of new admissions granted with the object
of reducing the size of the student body in 1948-49.

Student Activities
The increased average maturity of American col
lege students since the war is demonstrated at Stan
ford by the adult attitude of students toward their
problems in self-government. Throughout the year
officers of the Associated Students have met in
regular evening sessions with members of the ad
ministrative staff to discuss problems of major con
cern to both groups. Through this forum, chie
objective of which is the improvement of mutua
18

understanding, student and administrative groups


have maintained a close working relationship.
Student attitude and spirit in relation to the
athletic program have also been noteworthy during
the year just past. "College spirit" at its remarkable best was evidenced at the close of the football
season, when the varsity team, having won not a
single victory, was presented with a plaque of
honor by the enthusiastic, staunchly-supporting
student body. Furthermore, the coach of the nonvictorious team was widely acclaimed. The students' voice in matters of athletic management
is heard through their formal representation on
the Stanford Athletic Council. The Council serves
in an advisory capacity to the Director of Physical
Education and Athletics, who reports directly to the
President of the University.
HEAVY ENROLLMENT CONTINUED TO TAX CAMPUS FACILITIES

19

Degrees
The University awarded 2,430 degrees during
the year, 1,398 at the baccalaureate level and 1,032
advanced degrees. Of the total, 1,833 degrees were
awarded to men and 597 to women students.

REORGANIZATION

/\ MAJOR REORGANIZATION

oi the University s academic pattern, growing out


of four years of study by
faculty groups, was instituted as the year covered
by this report drew to its close. The new plan is
designed to stimulate graduate study and research,
to aid in co-ordinating the program of general
education, at the same time to simplify the over-all
administrative structure. The four nonprofessional
schoolsBiological Sciences, Humanities, Physical
Sciences, and Social Sciencesare merged in the
Faculty of Humanities and Sciences, with Dr. Clarence H. Faust, former director of libraries, as dean.
The plan also broadens the duties of the Dean
of Graduate Study to include the development and
co-ordination of graduate study and research on
a University-wide basis. Dr. Douglas M. Whitaker,
Acting Vice-President and Dean of Biological
Sciences, has been appointed Dean of Graduate
XStudy.
Two new departments have also been established
under the reorganization plan. In recognition of
the need for the greater understanding of human
relationships afforded by study in two fields which
have hitherto been separate, a Department of Anthropology and Sociology has been established and
is being directed by Dr. Felix M. Keesing. Previously, work in anthropology had been offered in
the School of Humanities, while sociology courses
were under the Department of Economics.
/ A new Department of Statistics, co-ordinating
courses formerly taught in various departments of
20

the University, makes it possible for the first time


for a Stanford student to major in statistics, x
The former Division of Journalism has now
been established as the Institute for Journalistic
Studies. Under the direction of Dr. Chilton R.
Bush, the Institute will continue the development
of a program of research in journalism as well as
training for the profession, i

MAJOR PROGRAM

'* SUMMARIZING die work


year at Stanford
'
it is almost impossible to
report current developments in the programs of all our schools and departments. I am therefore devoting the next few
pages to a sampling of their activities, noting particularly those which have been undergoing current
change or growth. The full reports of all departments are to be separately printed. I recommend
their reading to all who are interested in fully
understanding the work of the University.

Creative Writing
Continuing interest in the broadened program
of work in creative writing, directed by Dr. Wallace
Stegner, is marked with the preparation of a second
annual volume of students' short stories, to be published by Stanford University Press. Stories and articles emanating from the Creative Writing Center
have appeared in the country's major magazines.
All five holders of Creative Writing fellowships
have had work published during the program's
first full year of operation.
Winners in the first annual prize contest in creative writing, open to all students registered at the
University, were announced in May. The Wallace
Stegner Prize in the Novel was awarded to Robert
Carver North, graduate student in International
Relations, for his novel, Carlos Ramshead, which
is being published by Houghton Mifflin Co. Two
21

Margery Bailey prizes in Drama were awarded, one


to Pershing Olson, Fellow in Creative Writing, and
the other to Herbert Blau, a graduate student in
Speech and Drama. A lower division student, Eleanor Alice Raines, won the Yvor Winters Prize in
Poetry; and the Edith Mirrielees Prize in the Short
Story was awarded to Evan Connell, graduate student in Art and Creative Writing.
Music and Drama
Both singly and co-operatively, the Department
of Speech and Drama and the Department of Music
have contributed to the cultural life of the San
Francisco Bay Area and to the University's manysided program of preparing students for contemporary living. The Opera Workshop and the Drama
Department collaborated in the production of Benjamin Britten's opera, Peter Grimes, first on the;
campus and later in the San Francisco Memorial!
Opera House, during the 1947-48 season.
|
Continuing an innovation of the previous year,
fellowships in Speech and Drama were awarded to;
five young actors and design-production technicians,
OPERA WORKSHOP AND SPEECH AND DRAMA COLLABORATED IN "PETER GRIMES"

affording them an opportunity to work for two


quarters with the Stanford Players. The fellowships were made possible through the combined
efforts of the National Theatre Conference, the
Stanford Players and the University's Board of
Trustees.
The University orchestra, chorus, and band were
responsible for two programs in the Tuesday Evening Series. Members of the Music Department
staff have contributed individually to the community's enjoyment through regularly scheduled
organ recitals in the Memorial Church.' Highlights
of the University's choral activities this year were
appearances in two concerts with the San Francisco
Symphony Orchestra. A hundred-voice male chorus
from the campus sang in Liszt's Faust Symphony,
and a mixed chorus of one hundred voices took part
in a presentation of the Beethoven Ninth Symphony.
The Art Gallery
During Professor Ray Nelson Faulkner's second
year as head of the Department of Art and director
of the Museum and Art Gallery, substantial attention was devoted to improving the Gallery's contribution to the work of the University.
The Gallery's many acquisitions, which in the
course of fifty years had not been fully catalogued
for proper use, were reviewed and many miscellaneous art objects classified and evaluated in
preparation for a more interesting and useful
schedule of exhibits. Since the reopening of the
Gallery, exhibits have attracted wide attention,
not only among student groups, who attended
in much greater numbers than in previous years,
but among the general public as well. Exhibits
have included shows of paintings by Professor Daniel Mendelowitz of the Art Department, and by
Edgar Ewing; a display of lithographs by Ivan
Messenger of the Class of 1920; a show of current
photographs produced by new and unusual processes; and an exhibit illustrating ancient Peruvian
23

ART GALLERY EXHIBITS WERE VARIED AND USEFUL IN UNIVERSITY WORK


civilization. One exhibit centered on medieva
cities of Europe as shown in a series of sixteenth
century prints, with documentation from Lewi
Mumford's The Culture of Cities. The Institut
of International Relations sponsored an exhibit o
material on the United Nations. Early in the yea
there was an exhibition of the entire Leventritt
Collection of Far Eastern and European Art, a gift
to the University by Mortimer C. Leventritt of the
Class of 1899. Productive of widespread interest
was the exhibit, "Stanford Builds," depicting the
campus of the past, the present, and the future, with
plans for the best use of campus property for the
University and the community. During the summer,
sketches, drawings, and cartoons of Anton Refregier, guest member of the Art Department staff,
attracted many visitors to the Gallery.
24

Engineering
The School of Engineering program has progressed rapidly during the past year, with a marked
increase in the enrollment of graduate students.
Further growth of government-sponsored research
in Civil, Electrical, and Mechanical Engineering
raised the total of expenditures for such projects
to almost half a million dollars this year. Industry's
interest in the School's program has been attested
by the establishment of several new graduate fellowships.
Members of the faculty in Civil Engineering have
been active in projects of concern to the community
at large, such as mosquito abatement on the San
Francisco peninsula, investigation of the problem
of a second San Francisco Bay crossing and of possible new hospital facilities for the city of Palo
Alto. Under sponsorship of the Air Forces, Professor Harry A. Williams has continued research
on plastic bending of aluminum alloy beams, submitting a report during the year to the National
Advisory Committee for Aeronautics.
Electrical research projects have been sponsored
by the Air Force, the Signal Corps, and private
industry, although most of Stanford's research
work in electrical engineering is carried on under
contract with the Office of Naval Research.
Dr. Lydik S. Jacobsen of the Mechanical Engineering faculty supervised a study in applied
mechanics for the Office of Naval Research, which
is also sponsoring investigation of a problem involving the non-linear theory of elasticity. The latter
project is in the hands of Dr. James N. Goodier,
expert in the plasticity and dynamics of elastic
bodies. Dr. Jacobsen worked actively throughout the year as a member of the National Research
and Development Board's Panel on Seismology,
Soil Mechanics, and Volcanology.

25

Law

The largest number of students in the School's


history were enrolled this year in the Law School.
In preparation for publication of the first issue of
the Stanford Law Review, scheduled for the Autumn
Quarter of 1948, two issues of an Intramural Review were published during the spring and summer,
providing essential training for the first editors.
An expanded moot court program was also undertaken, with the co-operation of the bench and bar
of the San Francisco Bay Area. Some fifty students
worked in as many law offices during the summer,
initiating a new law-internship program. Dean
Carl B. Spaeth and other members of the Law
School faculty have made contributions to government and general education programs as well as
participating actively in local and nation-wide
affairs of the legal profession.
Medicine
The School of Medicine during the year extended considerably its services to the community.
The University hospitals have been very active,
with high occupancy and a constantly growing
number of out-patients, despite a shortage of nurses
and institutional workers.
The School celebrated with pride the first anniversary of the Stanford Eye Bank, in March. Dur-|
ing its first year, the Eye Bank supplied thirty-threej
new corneas for eye-graft operations. This nev
service has been recognized as an outstanding conj
tribution to the community's welfare and has bej
come a center for research in ophthalmology. A fel
lowship in ophthalmology was established througl
a gift from Stanford's former chapter of Delt
Gamma sorority.
The most modern hospital nursery in the Wesl
was established and opened for use by a gift mad
by Mr. Walter D. Heller and his sister, the late Mrs
Richard H. Shainwald, in memory of their parents
Fifty-eight cribs are housed in the nursery, whic

26

STANFORD HOSPITAL NURSERY EMBODIES THE MOST UP-TO-DATE SAFEGUARDS


was designed to protect occupants as thoroughly as
possible from bacteria and dust. Special provisions
have been made for the care of premature babies.
Americanization Program
In an effort to rebuild a backlog of faith in
the American way, and to instill that faith as the
concrete foundation of their education in the minds
of this nation's children, Stanford has undertaken
the preparation of a series of textbooks describing
American life, principles, and systems. Under the
direction of Dean A. John Bartky of the School of
Education, a program of research in techniques and
materials was carried on during the year to prepare
recommendations for writers engaged on the series
of textbooks, which will be published by the Stanford University Press. The undertaking was made
possible through an $80,000 gift of Mr. and Mrs.
Gordon B. Crary and Mr. and Mrs. Allan H. Crary,
of Los Angeles. Dr. Edward A. Krug of the Department of Education supervised the research staff.
27

UPPER-FLOOR LABORATORY IN THE REMODELED PETROGRAPHY BUILDING

This new series of books, designed to supplement


standard elementary and high-school texts, will pro-l
vide children with a basic understanding of the!
principles under which our government operates,!
and will stress the fundamental importance of free
dom in the development of America's cultural
heritage.
Mineral Sciences
The School of Mineral Sciences celebrat
its first anniversary with an open house at whic
highly valued new equipment was displayed. Sine
the amalgamation of the Departments of Geolo
and Mining and their reorganization on a broader,
better-integrated basis, there has been a noteworth
increase in registration of graduate students inte
ested in the field, and total enrollment has triple
An improved system of storage and display of mi
eral and rock collections has been made possibl
through the complete renovation of the Mineralog]
and Petrography buildings. Dean A. Irving Levor

sen served as president of the Geological Society


of America in addition to carrying on his teaching
and co-ordinating activities at Stanford.
The work of the School will be greatly facilitated
by the remodeling of the Mineralogy and Petrography buildings which was undertaken during the
summer.

Left: An example of the


outmoded, high-ceilinged
rooms in single-story Quad
buildings. Below: Groundfloor laboratory in the
Petrography Building, in
which former space has
been doubled.

University Libraries
A major reorganization of the University's
library system was instituted this year, together
with a consolidation of library services. By voluntary action of the departments concerned, all but
three of the separate departmental libraries have
been incorporated as parts of the main library. The
internal library staff has been reorganized, and the
salary scale has also been revised. Dr. Clarence H.
Faust, Director of University Libraries since 1947,
has supervised this work, acting upon a survey
report made by the American Library Association.
A faculty library committee, under the chairmanship of Dean Douglas Whitaker, has been active in
advising Dr. Faust and the library staff.
At the close of the year, Dr. Faust undertook
new duties as Dean of Humanities and Sciences
and Dr. Raynard C. Swank, former librarian off
the University of Oregon, succeeded him as Direc-i
tor of Libraries.
Public Exercises
Continuing its effort to provide for the com'
munity a well-rounded program of entertainment
and extracurricular information, the University
scheduled numerous concerts and lectures through
out the year, presented through the auspices of thi
Associated Students, The Committee on Public
Exercises, The Friends of Music at Stanford, ad
other campus groups.
Dr. 0. C. Carmichael, president of the Carnegi*
Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, was
speaker at the Fifty-seventh Annual Commencemenl
exercises on June 13. The Baccalaureate addresi
was given by Dr. Buell C. Gallagher, professor oi
Christian Ethics at the Pacific School of Religion
Short series of lectures devoted to different as
pects of contemporary problemsone series deal
ing with atomic developments, another with inter
national affairs and American foreign relations
30

another with Soviet lawwere of particular interest. A large percentage of the lecturers appearing
in the regular Tuesday Evening Series, both Stanford faculty members and guests of the University,
were specialists in international affairs. During
the Summer Quarter, a series of panel discussions
on international problems was sponsored and conducted by the Hoover Library. Dr. Ernest Hooten
of Harvard University visited Stanford to present
three Raymond Fred West Memorial Lectures on
"Determinants of Human Conduct." Symposia on
Cervantes and Brazil were sponsored jointly by the
Committee on Latin-American Studies and the
Committee on Public Exercises.
In the Chamber Music Series, the Paganini String
Quartet, the Griller Quartet, and the Albeneri Trio
gave campus concerts, and the Madrigal Guild presented Monteverdi's opera, Orfeo. Five concerts by
world-renowned artists were given under the auspices of the Associated Students, who also sponsored a revival series of motion pictures which ran
throughout the year.
In addition to the several conferences during
the Summer Quarter, which are mentioned specifically elsewhere in this report, conferences of six
Western associations, with subject-interests ranging
from Art to Vocational Guidance, were held at Stanford in the course of the year.

SUMMER PROGRAM

SUPPLEMENTING a full

___.____
LAinliUljU

curriculum for regular students, a comprehensive program of workshops, institutes, and conferences was conducted throughout
the summer session, concurrently with the international affairs program described earlier in this
report. Outstanding among the short, intensive
sessions were a workshop in Community Leadership, attended by representatives from fifty West31

Artist's concept of linear accelerator: Electron gun A produces electrons which are
accelerated along wave guide tube B, shielded by concrete C, on microwaves from
Klystron tubes D, and bombard target within lead ball E. F is magnet to curve beam
into G for special measurements. Control room is H.

ern communities; a conference for teachers of


American History; and the School of Education's
annual summer conference, considering the question, "What Makes a Good Teacher?" The Graduate School of Business also held a five-day lecture
conference, attended largely by businessmen of
central California cities.
The Department of Speech and Drama carried
on an intensive program of practical training for
students of dramatic art. Aline MacMahon and
Whitford Kane, stars of the Broadway theater, were
appointed artists-in-residence for the Summer Quarter, as was Clarence Derwent, president of Actor's
Equity Association. Also, junior artist-in-residence
fellowships were awarded to Stanford graduate
Theodore Marcuse and to Frances Waller, Richard
Hawkins, and Walt Witcover. Summer productions
in which these artists played leading roles included
Sheridan's The Rivals, Daudet's V'Arlesienne, and
John Steinbeck's Of Mice and Men.
Other features of the Summer Quarter included
creative writing and opera workshops, courses in
Communication Arts, and institutes in HispanicAmerican and Russian civilization concentrations.
For the sixth successive year the University offered
32

an eight-week Radio Institute, in conjunction with


the National Broadcasting Company. This institute
combines radio theory with practical application,
and students divide their time between San Francisco radio studios, Stanford's own broadcasting
station, and the classrooms of the Department of
Speech and Drama. Special lectures and concerts
throughout the summer rounded out the generally
expanded program.

RESEARCH

SCIENTISTS

working

at

Stanford have continued


with painstaking research
in many fields, investigating matters of pure science as well as seeking solutions to problems of immediate practical and human
interest. Although it is impossible to mention every
research undertaking, or even every field in which
work is being conducted, a few of the larger projects
will serve to suggest the scope and variety of the
research program.
Work is being rushed to completion of a building
adequate to house a 160-foot electron linear accelerator which is now in process of construction. A
pilot model of this new piece of atom-smashing equipment was developed last year by Dr.
William W. Hansen, director of the Microwave
Laboratory, working under a contract with the
Office of Naval Research. The accelerator concentrates its power on the electron, in contrast to the
cyclotron's concentration on the heavier atom centers. One of its important scientific applications
will be its ability to create the equivalent of. cosmic
rays, which has not previously been accomplished.
Also in the realm of nuclear physics, Dr. Felix
Bloch and Dr. Hansen have developed an experiment wherein atom nuclei are transformed into
submicroscopic transmitting sets whose characteristic signals oiler a key to the identity of the materials being tested. Research on this experiment
33

ROBERT A. HELLIWELL AND THE LOW-FREQUENCY IONOSPHERE TRANSMITTER


has been financed by the Office of Naval Research
and the Research Corporation of New York.
A long-range study of the effect of atomic radiation on human growth, development, and reproduc
tion is being made by Dr. William Walter Greulich,;
professor of anatomy. Youthful victims of the
Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings are the subjects
of the investigating staff's study.
The University's vision laboratories, under thf
direction of Dr. Frank W. Weymouth, completed!
a project whose findings influenced the modification
of the depth-perception methods of the Air Force&j
34

A project expected to influence dramatically the


course of radio development in the United States
is nearing completion at the Ryan High-Voltage
Laboratory. A low-frequency ionosphere transmitter with peak power of two million watts has been
developed by Robert A. Helliwell of the Department
of Electrical Engineering and has passed initial
tests successfully. In the analysis of radio propagation at low frequency, the machine will be useful
in providing more knowledge of the behavior of
the ionosphere at that frequency. It will also be of
use in obtaining data on the upper atmosphere. Development of the transmitter is the outgrowth of a
long-term ionosphere research project through
which, for several years, "radio weather" forecasts
have been prepared for the Bureau of Standards.
Working in his Department of Physics laboratory
throughout the year, under sponsorship of the Research Corporation of New York, Dr. Paul H. Kirkpatrick has developed an X-ray microscope, to be
used in examining minute objects not readily penetrated by light or electrons. Its eventual range,
when fully developed, is expected to lie between
those of optical and electron microscopes. While
the magnifying power of the X-ray microscope falls
short of that of the electron microscope, the new device is of far simpler construction; and it is anticipated that it will make possible the X-raying

X-RAY MICROSCOPE WAS DEVELOPED BY


DR. PAUL H. KIRKPATRICK

)R. SIDNEY RAPFEL CARRIED ON SIGNIFICANT RESEARCH IN TUBERCULOSIS

of objects twenty times smaller than the smallest


ones that can be seen presently with an optical
microscope using short-wave light.
Unremitting study of poliomyelitis has been carried on in several divisions of the University. The
Department of Pediatrics continued into the ninth
year its program of research, supported by the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis, and re-|
ports progress in the problems of entry and exit!
of the poliomyelitis virus. Working in one of thej
best-equipped laboratories in the country, scientists
of the Department have discovered that the virus
enters the body through the throat with greater ease
than through the intestine, and that it is excreted
through the tiny surface nerves in the throat. In
collaboration with members of the Department of
Zoology at Massachusetts Institute of Technology,
Dr. Harold K. Faber and his staff prepared ma
terial in which minute bodies, presumed to be
poliomyelitis virus, have been photographed by
36

means of the electron microscope. In the Department of Chemistry, Dr. Hubert S. Loring has continued his efforts to perfect for use on human
subjects the vaccine which he has found to produce
a high degree of immunity against poliomyelitis
in rats. Dr. Edwin W. Schultz, professor of Bacteriology and Experimental Pathology, has supervised a number of different studies bearing on the
problem, including investigation of the antigenic
relationships of certain mouse-adapted strains of
poliomyelitis virus, and the possibility of development of a dependable test for determining the
presence of antipoliomyelitic antibodies in blood.
Another investigation of very wide interest has
been carried on during the last three years by Dr.
Sidney Raffel of the School of Medicine's Department of Bacteriology. Dr. Raffel has now succeeded
in identifying the chemical combination within the
tubercle bacillus which is responsible for the destruction of body cells in tuberculosis. This research
has been financed by the National, California, and
Alameda County Tuberculosis and Health Associations.
In this cursory outline of recent highlights of
research in the University, it is interesting to note
the number and variety of sponsoring groups which
are aware and have taken advantage of Stanford's
staff and facilities for advanced study.

;EARCH INSTITUTE

5*

ESECOND

development, the Stanford


Research Institute has initiated a program of expansion to assure continued adequacy in meeting the
problems of research submitted to it. A large
amount of additional technical equipment has been
acquired and both technical and business staffs
have been strengthened.
Dr. J. E. Hobson became executive director of
37

the Institute last spring after serving for four years


as director of the Armour Research Foundation in
Chicago. An electrical engineer, Dr. Hobson has
been engaged in both academic and industrial enterprises since receiving his doctorate from California
Institute of Technology.
The number of fields of research at the Institute
has increased with the addition of new personnel,
equipment, and facilities. More than one hundred
fifty full-time scientists, specialists, and technicians
are now included in the staff, and additional recognized expert consultants are called upon in special]
cases.
j
It is recognized that national research interests'
are penetrating the field of the industrial economic
sciences in addition to that of experimental science,!
and the Stanford Institute is particularly well
equipped to enter a number of the newer research!
areas. The staff has been engaged in studies of
business and industrial economics, of psychology
and industrial physiology, and of certain special
ized subjects such as ceramics and explosives. Projects have been undertaken in analytical, physical,
organic and inorganic, colloidal and surface, food
and agricultural, and petroleum chemistry; in applied physics and extreme pressures, in electronics
and micrometrics. Food technology has been a field
of special interest and concentration, and a foodacceptance laboratory which is a testing center for
all Western food organizations was established
during the year.
Among the projects most recently completed by
the Institute, and one of wide importance nationally,
is a computation of how fast the country's airframe
industry could expand in the event of a national
emergency. A report of the study was prepared for
presentation to the United States Air Force and
the Secretary of Defense by Weldon B. Gibson,
formerly assistant director of the Air Force Insti
tute of Technology, who directed the investigation.
38

STANFORD RESEARCH INSTITUTE DEVISED THIS CHAMBER TO STUDY SMOG

Work on the project was carried on under a grant


from the Federal Air Coordinating Committee.
At the close of the University's academic year,
the Institute had just completed two major research
projects and was continuing work on fourteen
others, with four new projects scheduled to begin
immediately. Eleven of its current studies are
sponsored by independent business organizations,
while seven are under the sponsorship of government departments or agencies. Under present contracts, the Institute is now operating at an annual
rate of approximately one million dollars.
The Stanford Research Institute as a separate
corporation is fulfilling a need, long felt throughout
the Western states, for applied research near at
hand; and the University, in its support- of and
assistance to the Institute, is extending the facilities
for research and community service.
39

STANFORD UNIVERSITY

direc ion f
">
*
' Urn-
Donald r. Bean, the IT

PRESS

versity Press has concentrated increasingly upon


publishing new material, although it has continued
to handle large quantities of printing and bookbinding. With a firm conviction that the primary
objectives of a university press are the stimulation
and encouragement of young scholars through publication of their writings, Mr. Bean has succeeded
largely, in the course of three years, in increasing
the Press's financial strength sufficiently to make
such a program feasible at Stanford. Although the
main backlog of Press work consists of scholarly
publications, it also publishes books of more general reader interest, with special emphasis on Californiana and Western historical items. Outstanding among its recent publications are Sylvanus
Morley's The Ancient Maya, and The Gifted Child
Grows Up by Lewis M. Terman and Melita H. Oden
Both books have remained steadily in demam
by the general public as well as in the academic
world since their dates of publication.

D E V E L O P M E N T OF THE

THE MOST

n*

building program under


PHYSICAL PLANT
taken since the completion
of the original physica
plant is under way on the campus, requiring the
expenditure of almost four million dollars. The
maintenance of Stanford as a residential university
has been held consistently as a primary objective
of successive administrations. Though new non
military construction was next to impossible during
the war years, plan* carefully formulated during
that period are now being translated rapidly into
actual structures of concrete and steel. Work on
Crothers Hall was completed during the summer
and the dormitory is being occupied this Autumn
Quarter for the first time by 63 graduate students

m law. The hall was made possible by a gift from


Judge George E. Crothers, devoted alumnus and
friend of the Stanford family, who has also provided funds to establish a law library in the
dormitory.
Construction of another men's dormitory, Lucie
Stern Hall, has also been started and should be
completed by the summer of 1949. Mr. Walter
Haas made this dormitory possible with a gift from
the estate of Mrs. Louis Stern, of which he is trustee.
For thirty years Mrs. Stern's Palo Alto home was a
gathering place for Stanford students and faculty
members. The dormitory will house and provide
dining facilities for 240 undergraduates.
Another large and long-contemplated project
now getting under way is the reconstruction of the
CROTHERS HALL, A DISTINCTIVE RESIDENCE FOR LAW STUDENTS

41

ARTIST'S VERSION OF CROTHERS HALL, WITH FUTURE LANDSCAPING


old Administration Building into a Law Schoo
plant, which will be one of the most complete anc
efficient buildings of its kind in the country. The
new law school building will consist of three floors,
and its facilities will include large lecture halls
and classrooms, a moot court room, an enlarged la\v
library, reading rooms, faculty offices, quarters for
the new Law Review, and rooms for consultation
and research. Stanford alumni, under the Lav
School Plan, have contributed approximately
$200,000 toward the cost of the complete and fur
nished building, which is estimated at one million
dollars.
The possibility of vastly increasing laboratory,
classroom, and office space in the Quad without
constructing additional buildings is demonstrated
dramatically by the newly renovated Mineralogy
and Petrography buildings of the School of Mineral
Sciences. Through construction of new floors half
way in the height of the old buildings, formerly
dark and drafty waste space is being utilized as
an entire second story, in each case. A modern
lighting system, new furniture, light paint, and im
proved plumbing, all add to the efficiency of the
buildings and to the comfort and pleasure of the
people working in them.
42

Redecoration of Toyon Hall and modernization


of the University's steam distribution and electrical
systems are further items on the building agenda.
Construction of a microwave laboratory as the first
unit of a new science and technology quadrangle
was begun late in the summer. Also, the Board of
Trustees has approved the preparation of preliminary plans for a new organic chemistry building.
Farther in the future looms the construction of a
new student union, recommended by a joint trusteestudent committee as the most suitable campus memorial to Dr. Tresidder. More than $135,000 is
already in the building fund, including $80,000
from individual members of the Board of Trustees
and some $22,000 from the Associated Students.
Plans are being drawn also for a music-listening
unit to be constructed in memory of Ann Clare
SCHOOL OF LAW WILL BE HOUSED IN THE REMODELED ADMINISTRATION BUILDING

Brokaw, daughter of Mrs. Henry Luce of New


York, who died in an automobile accident in 1944
while she was attending Stanford.
Each of these units fits into the master plan for
long-term expansion of University facilities drawn
by Eldridge T. Spencer since he joined the staff as
planning director, in 1944. That the use "of different
materials and simplification of detail need not
change the basic feeling of unity established by
older buildings on the campus is being demonstrated reassuringly as actual building from the
plans goes forward. In each step of the plan's
development, recognition is being given to Stanford's historical and traditional influences, to the
relative pressures of current needs, to costs, and to
possibilities of the future growth of the University.

^N ATTEMPT to keep pace


even partially with spiraling costs made it necessary
to raise tuition beginning
in the Autumn Quarter of 1948. The increase
of $100 annually per student makes available
an additional $750,000, which the Trustees have
authorized for the following purposes: $400,000
to raise faculty salaries above increases previously provided by the regular budget; $200,000 to
extend the annuity program to non-academic personnel, the extension, according to plans, to be effective January 1, 1949; and $100,000 for scholarships, with $50,000 held in reserve. Even with this
additional increase in tuition, approved reluctantly,
Stanford's fees will still not be out of line with
those of other major independent universities.
The problem of adjustment of finances might
have been approached quite differently, through
the admission of greater numbers of students. More
applications for admission have been received this
year than in any year in the University's history.

FINANCES

44

This possibility was rejected because of our conviction that the University must not be so large that
it fails to give attention to each individual studentThat attention can best be maintained through a reduction, rather than an increase, in the size of the
student group.
Despite prevailing cost pressures and the dwindling productivity of investment returns, the financial report at the close of the year showed that expenditures totaling $8,145,726 had been kept
$22,264.68 under income. Also during the year
the total assets of the University increased from
$61,481,207 to $64,560,384 or slightly more than
three million dollars.
Gifts Promote Progress

$5.695.360
$5,421.1 77

$4.203,2 M

1.409

1939-40 1942-43 1945-46


through
through
through
"-39 1941-42 1944-45 1947-48
OF GIFTS TO STANFORD
* BY THREE YEAR PERIODS
rM 193&-37 THROUGH 1947-^48

Gifts to the University during the past year have


enabled us to progress, step by step, into the greatest
period of expansion and development since the
original Stanford campus was completed. A
greater number of gifts has been made this year
than ever before, 7,242 of the University's friends
having given just under eight thousand donations.
For current use, $1,599,528.20 was given,
more than $340,000 of it unrestricted except as to
School. Approximately $245,000 was given for
building construction, and $20,000 for building
improvement. The purpose for which the largest
total amount was specifically designated was research. Earmarked for this use was $429,966.19,
while more than $389,000 was designated for the
libraries. Over $750,000 was added to endowment
funds, by far the greatest part of itsome $482,000designated for scholarships. The grand total
of gifts was $2,351,761.64, the second highest annual total yet received by the University.
Donors of the twenty-one largest amounts included living individuals, foundations, estates,
associations, and private industrial concerns. These
gifts ranged in size from $25,000 to $240,839.81,
and comprised a total of $1,521,994.23. Other
45

gifts of $500 or over added more than $623,000


to our funds.
As a donor group, living individuals were second
only to foundations in the amount of their gifts, as
shown by the following breakdown of sources:
Foundations
Living individuals
Bequests
Associations
Industry and business
Other sources
Total

$ 639,377.12
611,739.62
573,933.52
181,922.24
142,210.25
202,578.89
$2,351,761.64

Of the total gifts received, 61 percent came from


within the state of California and 51 percent from
northern California. Gifts were received from every
state and territory of the United States.
Participation of alumni, faculty, staff, and trustees in the gift program merits especial attention
46

as an indication of sustained interest in the University and of probable continuing support. Every
class enrolled since the University's founding, including the classes still in college attendance, is
represented on the 1947-48 gift list. Six thousand
three hundred sixty-seven alumni gifts are included
in the total. More than $188,000 was given by
current and former trustees, faculty, and staff
members.
In terms of numbers of donors, and of dollars,
this year's record of gifts to Stanford is tangibly
encouraging. In terms of human confidence and
good will, it proffers a heart-warming source of
support to the University.

TRUSTEES

MR PAUL c EDWARDS

*
the Class of

f
>

1906, was

elected president of the


Board of Trustees in May
1948. Associate editor of the San Francisco News,
he has been an editor of Scripps-Howard newspapers in Texas and California for the past 38
years. Mr. Edwards is a past president of the
Commonwealth Club of California.. He has also
served as president of Stanford Associates, and
was appointed to the Board of Trustees in 1943.
His long association with Stanford and his knowledge of the University's problems are most helpful to the administration.
Mr. Edwards succeeds W. Farmer Fuller, Jr.,
who had served as president for the maximum term
permitted under the By-Laws but who will continue
as a Trustee. Mr. Fuller's constant and continuous
help to President Tresidder and to the Acting President cannot be passed over without comment. His
sound business sense, the breadth of his intellectual
interests, and his clear understanding of human and
institutional needs and frailties have combined
to make his contribution to the University a rare
47

one. Since his student days, Mr. Fuller's investments of energy and time and his undeviating
devotion to Stanford have been monumental, even
in a university as fortunate as we in our ranks of
loyal alumni.
Respectfully submitted,

Acting President

48

STAFF CHANGES
PROMOTIONS
Promotions made during the year, to become effective September 1, 1948, included
the following:
To Professorships:
WILLIAM IRVINE, Professor of English
QUINN McNEMAR, Professor of Psychology and
Education
SIDNEY RAFFEL, Professor of Bacteriology
ANTHONY J. J. ROURKE, Professor of Hospital
Administration
LEONARD I. SCHIFF, Professor of Physics
TIBOR SCITOVSZKY, Professor of Economics
HANS STAUB, Professor of Physics
To Associate Professorships:
EDWARD L. GINZTON, Associate Professor of
Physics
LOWELL A. RANTZ, Associate Professor of
Medicine
DAVID A. RYTAND, Associate Professor of
Medicine
LORIE TARSHIS, Associate Professor of Economics
DONALD W. TAYLOR, Associate Professor of
Psychology
To Acting Associate Professorship:
FRANK F. PETER'SEN, Acting Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering
To Assistant Professorships:
ROLAND BLENNER-HASSETT, Assistant Professor
of English
RICHARD H. EASTMAN, Assistant Professor of
Chemistry
NEWELL FORD, Assistant Professor of English
B. FRANK GILLETTE, Assistant Professor of
Education
JEAN D. GRAMBS, Assistant Professor of Education
WILLIAM IVERSON, Assistant Professor of Education
LELLAND J. RATHER, Assistant Professor of
Pathology
DAVID C. RECNERY, Assistant Professor of
Biological Sciences
VICTOR RICHARDS, Assistant Professor of
Surgery
ROBERTO B. SANCIORCI, Assistant Professor of
Romanic Languages
To Acting Assistant Professorships:
FRANCES G. ORR (MRS. GERALD NITZBERG),
Acting Assistant Professor of Psychology

MARY V. SUNSERI, Acting Assistant Professor


of Mathematics
To Associate Clinical Professorships:
JEROME W. BETTMAN, Associate Clinical Professor of Surgery (Ophthalmology)
ALBERT DAVID DAVIS, Associate Clinical Professor of Surgery
NELSON J. HOWARD, Associate Clinical Professor of Surgery
ROBERT S. IRVINE, Associate Clinical Professor
of Surgery (Ophthalmology)
CHARLES W. LEACH, Associate Clinical Professor of Pediatrics
JAMES OWNBY, JR., Associate Clinical Professor of Surgery (Genito-Urinary)
AUBREY G. RAWLINS, Associate Clinical Professor of Surgery (Otorhinolaryngology)
WILLIAM LISTER ROGERS, Associate Clinical
Professor of Surgery
To Assistant Clinical Professorships:
DfiWiTT KINNE BURNHAM, Assistant Clinical
Professor of Medicine
CLARENCE BERT COWAN, Assistant Clinical
Professor of Surgery (Otorhinolaryngology)
MAX FINE, Assistant Clinical Professor of
Surgery (Ophthalmology)
WILLIAM WALLACE GREENE, Assistant Clinical
Professor of Surgery
AVERY M. HICKS, Assistant Clinical Professor
of Surgery (Ophthalmology)
HARRY HOWARD, Assistant Clinical Professor
of Surgery (Anesthesiology)
ALVIN H. JACOBS, Assistant Clinical Professor
of Pediatrics
PAUL J. MOSES, Assistant Clinical Professor
of Surgery (Otorhinolaryngology)
ROBERT PRESTON WATKINS, Assistant Clinical
Professor of Surgery (Bone and Joint)
FORREST WILLETT, Assistant Clinical Professor
of Medicine
To Clinical Instructor ships:
ALBERT J. BRINCKERHOFF, Clinical Instructor
in Surgery (Ophthalmology)
ERNEST W. DENICKE, Clinical Instructor in
Surgery (Ophthalmology)
MARTIN GERSHMAN, Clinical Instructor in
Pediatrics
ALBERT E. LONG, Clinical Instructor in Obstetrics and Gynecology
EARLE H. MC&AIN, Clinical Instructor in
Surgery (Ophthalmology)
SAMUEL L. SCARLETT, Clinical Instructor in
Pediatrics

49

MERRELL A. SISSON, Clinical Instructor in


Radiology
ALVIN P. WOLD, Clinical Instructor in Surgery
(Ophthalmology)

PRINCIPAL NEW APPOINTMENTS


The following appointments have been made
to the faculty and staff during the year:
MOSES ABRAMOVITZ, Acting Professor of Economics
RICHARD BELLMAN, Associate Professor of
Mathematics
JACK R. BENJAMIN, Assistant Professor of
Civil Engineering
HANS F. BIRNIE, Acting Assistant Professor
of Mechanical Engineering
HELENE BLATTNER, Assistant Professor of
Speech and Drama
ROY B. COHN, Assistant Professor of Surgery
EDWIN F. COOK, Acting Assistant Professor
of Biological Sciences
RANSOM K. DAVIS, CAPTAIN, Professor of
Naval Science
BOCDAN I. DODOFF, Acting Associate Economist, Food Research Institute
STANLEY T. DONNER, Assistant Professor of
Speech and Drama
BERT ALFRED GEROW, Acting Assistant Professor of Anthropology
MEYER ABRAHAM CIRSHICK, Professor of Statistics
ALFRED B. GLATHE, Assistant Professor of
Philosophy

JOSEPH J. GRAHAM, Acting Assistant Professor of Mineral Sciences


HARRY HELSON, Acting Professor of Psychology and Thomas Welton Stanford Fellow
MONROE JEROME HIRSCH, Acting Assistant
Professor of Physiology
ARTHUR D. HOWARD, Associate Professor of
Mineral Sciences
LLOYD G. HUMPHREYS, Associate Professor of
Education and Psychology
MYRON ALTON JEPPESEN, Visiting Professor of
Physics
WILLIAM ORVILLE JONES, Assistant Economist
and Assistant Professor, Food Research
Institute
HENRY S. KAPLAN, Professor of Radiology
Louis B. LUNDBORC, Vice-President for University Development
JAMES DAVID MACCONNELL, Associate Professor of Education
CARL ELLIOTT MCDOWELL, Associate Professor of Foreign Trade
LAURENCE A. 'MANNING, Acting Assistant
Professor, Electrical Engineering

50

ALFRED E. MAUMENEE, Acting Professor of j


Surgery
j
GAIL KEITH MEADOWS, Assistant Professor of
Romanic Languages
CYRIL C. MEANS, Assistant Professor of Law
PHIL C. NEAL, Associate Professor of Law
OSWALD NIELSEN, Associate Professor of Accounting
WILLIAM R. ODELL, Professor of Education
ANTONI K. OPPENHEIM, Acting Assistant Professor, Mechanical Engineering
ROBERT MEREDITH PACE, Assistant Professor
of Biology
NORMAN PHILBRICK, Assistant Professor of ,
Speech and Drama
|
ALBERT G. PICKERELL, Acting Assistant Pro- |
fessor of Journalism
j
HARRY WILLIAM PORTER, Associate Professor j
of Education
j
Jo ELLEN PURTLE, Educational Director of ;
Nursing
'
DWICHT E. ROBINSON, Acting Assistant Professor of Economics
CARL T. RUNNING, Acting Assistant Professor
of Law
MAX SHIFFMAN, Professor of Mathematics
THOMAS CARLYLE SMITH, Acting Assistant
Professor of History
SIMON SONKIN, Acting Associate Professor of
Physics
EDMUND F. SPELLACY, Visiting Professor of
Political Science
ROBERT C. STONE, Acting Assistant Professor,
Sociology and Anthropology
RAYNARD COE SWANK, Director of University
Libraries
EDWARD LAWRIE TATUM, Professor of Biology
DEFOREST LLOYD TRAUTMAN, JR., Acting
Assistant Professor, Electrical Engineering
DANIEL TUCKER, Associate Clinical Professor
of Radiology
DAVID F. TUTTLE, JR., Acting Associate Professor of Electrical Engineering
ELAINE WINDRICH, Acting Assistant Professor
of Political Science

SABBATICAL LEAVE OF ABSENCE


The following members of the faculty were
on sabbatical leave during all or part of 194748:
FELIX BLOCK, Professor of Physics (Spring
Quarter)
ROLF L. BOLIN, Associate Professor, Marine
Biology and Oceanography
KARL BRANDT, Economist and Professor of
Agricultural Economics, Food Research Institute (One year beginning April 1, 1948)

JOHN WENDELL DODDS, Professor of English


DONALD J. GRAY, Associate Professor of
Anatomy
HUBERT S. LORINC, Professor of Biochemistry,
Chemistry (March 15 to September 15,
1948)
JOHN LELAND MOTHERSHEAD, JR., Associate
Professor of Philosophy
ROBERT R. NEWELL, Professor of Medicine
(One year ending May 30, 1948)
ISAAC JAMES QUILLEN, Professor of Education
(April 1 to August 31, 1948)
AARON CLEMENT WATERS, Professor of Geology
CLIFFORD F. WF.IGLE, Associate Professor of
Journalism

EMERITUS APPOINTMENTS
These members of the faculty were retired,
with emeritus appointments:
Sylvan Lewis Haas, Associate Clinical Professor of Surgery, Emeritus
George Dunlap Lyman, Lecturer in Pediatrics,
Emeritus
Bayard Quincy Morgan, Professor of German,
Emeritus
Karl Ludwig Schaupp, Clinical Professor of
Obstetrics and Gynecology, Emeritus
Edward Bancroft Towne, Associate Clinical
Professor of Surgery, Emeritus

RESIGNATIONS
The following members of the faculty resigned during the year, their resignations being effective August 31, 1948, unless otherwise indicated:
Reginald Bell, Associate Professor of Education (April 30, 1948)
Karl F. Bode, Professor of Economics (December 31, 1947)
Henry Greenwood Bugbee, Assistant Professor of Philosophy
Seville Chapman, Assistant Professor of
Physics
Robert H. Connery, Associate Professor of
Political Science

Charles E. Crombe, Jr., Professor of Naval


.Science
Marie Manchee Fenner, Assistant Professor,
Physical Education (Women)
Sally Heitman, Educational Director of School
of Nursing
Howard F. Hunt, Assistant Professor of
Psychology
Walter Vincent Kaulfers, Associate Professor
of Education
Edward August Krug, Associate Professor of
Education
Barrett Frederick McFadon, Associate Professor of Accounting
Merlin T. R. Maynard, Associate Clinical Professor of Medicine (Dermatology)
Willard M. Meininger, Assistant Clinical Professor of Medicine
Elwood Richard Olsen, Assistant Clinical
Professor of Medicine (January 19, 1948)
Dayton Phillips, Assistant Professor of History
(June 30, 1948)
Reed Clark Rollins, Associate Professor of
Biology (Botany) and Curator of Dudley
Herbarium
Herbert Solomon, Acting Assistant Professor,
Mathematics (September 18, 1947)
Clifford F. Weigle, Associate Professor of
Journalism

FACULTY DEATHS (1947-48)


The deaths of the following members of the
faculty brought loss to the University:
Leonard Leo Camp, Instructor in English,
June 7, 1948
Merton Lewis Hall, Teaching Assistant in
Dentistry, March 17, 1948
Jacob Bertha Levison, Consulting Professor of
Insurance, November 23, 1947
Caroline B. Palmer, Clinical Professor of
Surgery (Anesthesia), Emeritus, December
19, 1947
Fernando Sanford, Professor of Physics,
Emeritus, May 21, 1948
Ezra F. Scattergood, 'Lecturer, Electrical Engineering, January 16, 1948
Donald B. Tresidder, President of the Uni%
versity, January 28, 1948

A D D R E S S OF W. P. F U L L E R , JR.
President of the Board of Trustees
Delivered at Stanford Alumni Conferences in Portland, Seattle,
Los Angeles, and San Diego in February and March, 1948
DON TRESIDDER was the fourth in the distinguished line of Stanford's presidents. He
held the office for a few months more than
four yearsthis in contrast to Dr. Jordan's
twenty-five, to Dr. Wilbur's still longer term.
But those years were crowded years, crucial
years in the life of the University as in the
life of the nation. They need to be considered both for themselves and for the
objectives they establish.
First, and only for a moment, Don himself: All of us know the main facts about
himthat he was a Stanford alumnus, a
graduate of the Stanford Medical School,
married to a Stanford woman, for six years
a member of the Board of Trustees, for two
years its president, finallyand far too briefly
President of the University. That much
everybody knows. Only those who worked
closely with him can know the rest or part
of the resthis high ideal of what Stanford
should and could be, his unstinted effort to
translate that ideal into fact. At the service
held in his honor at Stanford, Dr. Wilbur
said, "Don Tresidder had three main loyalties:
To his wife, Mary Tresidder; to Stanford
University, and to the high hills." Don's conception of Stanford was on the high hills
indeed. In all the daily intensities of University work, he never forgot that he was
helping shape an institution which, for good
or bad, would bear the impress of his actions
into the far future. Tonight, then, imperfectly but as well as I can, I want to
summarize what Stanford's fourth President
set as his goal for Stanford and how far and
in what ways the University has moved
toward that goal.
Any university president faces innumerable
demands. There are so many that it is easy
to become confused as to which have primary
importance. Don was not confused. In one
phrasing or another, and not once but many
times, he emphasized that a university president had two main jobs. /One was to hold
the institution firmly to high standards; the
other, to draw to it or retain within it a
great faculty. I The two, as he well knew, go
together. You cannot have one without the
bther. You cannot hold to standards unless

you have the right man; you cannot get the


right man, or at least you cannot keep him,
unless you have the kind of university in which
a scholar is glad to work.
In upholding standards, then, the faculty
was what Don called "the one indispensable
element." Knowing it to be that, when a replacement was to be made or a new post was
created, he searched the country over for the
right professor. There was never any lapse,
never any weariness, in the eagerness of his
search for ability. We have only to look, as
I mean to do in a moment, at the people he
found, the additions to the staff in the last
four years, to see that his searching brought
large returns. In this particular especially
that is, in his finding and estimating of people
his earlier work in Yosemite stood him in
good stead. In Yosemite, he had dealt with
all kinds and conditions of people, had been
responsible for how each of them did his
job. It must have been there that he acquired
or strengthened that "feel" for character and
ability which may be partly inborn but which
only experience can sharpen. Dr. Wilbur spoke
with authority when he said that his Successor
was a keen talent scout with the instinct of
a natural hunter. Whatever might be his
personal reaction, as Don Tresidder, to a
given individual, the President of Stanford
University was not to be satisfied with less
than the best.
It seemed to the Board of Trustees sometimes, as it must also have seemed to the
faculty, that their President moved too slowly,
checked and rechecked too often, before committing the University to the filling of a vacant
place. Especially during the war, the pressure
was such that, to the impatient, any choice
seemed better than delay. But Don was not
impatient. He would not move until he had
gathered information from every available
source and was satisfied that his recommendation to the Trustees was sound to the core.
The standards he set himself were exacting.
To h'im, a university teacher was more than
a compendium of special knowledge. The
professor must possessI quote him exactly
here"exceptional intellectual capacity, teaching ability, and a zest for research. He must

53

have integrity, a high sense of justice, and


insight into human affairs. He must set for
youth an example of self-restraint, tolerance,
generosity, and courage." No wonder, with
a target like that to shoot at, that he went
on to add, "The president of the University
permits no encroachment upon the time required to carry out his responsibility in this
crucial matter."
It is because he permitted no encroachments, would be urged to no hasty decisions,
that the Stanford faculty, in spite of all the
inevitable encroachments of war and industry
upon it, stands as it does today in national
estimation.
1 don't know how it is with you, but with
the Board of Trustees, one thing happens
again and again. When some particular professor leaves Stanford to answer a call somewhere else, we get the startled complaint that
Stanford is losing all its good people, that
the Stanford faculty is falling to pieces. Well,
we do lose someone now and then that we
wish we might have kept. At the same time,
though, and quite as often, we draw a professor from some other university that that
university wishes it might have kept. It is
an exchange that goes on all the time.
If we had nobody on our staff that other
institutions coveted, we should be in a bad
way. Change in itself is not bad. It is bad
only when, habitually, a university gets less
than it gives. If you think Stanford is getting
less, do this. Stop in at the public library on
your way home, and look up in Who's Who or
in American Men of Science some of the names
that have been added lately to the Stanford
roster: Ray Faulkner, in charge of the Department of Art; Richard Jones, the new head of
the English Department; Wallace Stegner, who
is developing the writing program; Edward
Tatum, who is leaving his key position in
Yale's Institute of Microbiology to return to
Stanford; J. N. Coodier, the first recipient of
the Westinghouse award for distinguished
teaching in engineering; or Park or Rothwell or Spurr or Troxell, or any of two dozen
others.
I wish I had time to call the whole roll of
faculty additions. Even agreeing, as I do, that
the faculty is the most important part of a
university, still there are some other things I
want to get to.
One of those things is administration. The
administrator is, of course, as much a part and
as important a pan of a faculty as are the
teachers, the research workers. In the group
to which I have just referred, a number both

54

teach and do administrative work. There is


no hard and fast line between the two. There
never can be, any more than there is a line
between teaching and research. And it seems
to me that we have been as fortunate in
adding to our administrative staff as to our
teachers.
Alvin Eurich belongs with the "new" group
in one sense only. He was a teacher at Stanford before the war. After his service in the
Navy, he returned in the earliest months of
President Tresidder's term, first as Academic
Vice-President, then as Vice-President with
no adjective in front of the noun. Now he
is carrying full responsibility as Acting President. What the Board of Trustees, or the
University, would have done in this emergency
without his ability and experience to rest on
is something of which I do not like to think.
In '45, John Stalnaker became Dean of
Students, a new post. When he withdrew from
the deanshipthough not from the faculty
his place was taken by Lawrence Kimpton.
Kimpton is a Stanford alumnus. He left the
vice-presidency of the University of Chicago
for the Stanford post. Dean Kimpton holds also
an appointment as professor of philosophynot a bad combination. When any of us think
back to our undergraduate days, we realize
that a Dean of Students certainly needs to
be a philosopher. I want to say something
about this comparatively new post of Dean of
Students presently if I do not run beyond
my time.
Whether Dean Spaeth, the head of the Law
School, and Dean Bartky, head of the School
of Education, are chiefly teachers or chiefly
administrators is something they have to decide. Both are both. So is Dean Levorsen,
head of the recently created School of Mineral
Sciences. (You may have seen mention of
Dean Levorsen in the papers recently. The
American Association of Petroleum Geologists
has just given him the Sidney Powers Memorial Award for Distinguished Achievement
in Petroleum Geology. If you are interested
in the geology of oil, you know what that
means.)
I could go on for a long time, but I must
not. I could talk even longer about the faculty
members who were at Stanford in advance of
Don Tresidder's too short term as Presidentmany of them long in advance. Those, though,
are people you know already. They need no
introduction by me. What I am doing tonight
s pointing out that Stanford not only has
strong facultythe one prime requisite of
great universitybut that year by year, in

spite of hindrances from war and its consequences, it has been kept strongfirst by
holding on as tightly as we can to our able
men already in residence; and second by
getting able new ones as often as searching
can find them out and we can persuade them.
And I can assure you that when we have an
able professor in any department the University administration, the President, and the
Board of Trustees alike, make even more effort
to hold him against calls from other places
than they do to attract new talent.
But men alone, however able, do not make
a complete university. There has to be organization, too. "Men and measures" is a
phrase that hangs together for more reasons
than its alliteration. Stanford's growth,
especially its postwar growth, has made a good
deal of reorganization necessary. Even before the war, the size the University had
attained made it impossible for the President
to deal effectively with each individual department, and groups of related departments
were drawn together in schools. These schools
functioned at first through executive committees, but this proved a slow way of getting
business done. Under Dr. Tresidder, committees were replaced by deans, and to these
were delegated substantial executive responsibility.
To co-ordinate the University's relationship
to the individual student, President Tresidder
created the position of Dean of Students.
Selection and admissions, personal counseling,
academic counseling, the maintenance and
evaluation of academic records, and vocational
counseling and placement are all carried on
as functions of his office. The development
of these student services under the direction
of Dean Stalnaker, followed by Dean Kimpton,
played a large pan in accomplishing smoothly
the expansion of the student body to meet
the urgent demands of veterans for a college
education. A major element of the program
was the creation of an enlarged, select panel
of more than fifty faculty advisors, each of
whom gives counsel on an individual basis
to an assigned group of lower-division students.
An additional student service which has
been developed is the revised Student Health
Service. This now provides to Stanford students complete medical and surgical service
with full hospital attention when required.
This service, developed under contract with
the Palo Alto Clinic, brings to students the
attention of outstanding specialists in all
fields of medicine. It is, I believe, unique.
In the business management of the Uni-

versity, a reorganization was also effected.


When Frank Fish Walker resigned the post
of financial vice-president after six years of
effective service to Stanford, the Board of
Trustees transferred to the President the responsibilities of that post which the financial
vice-president had previously reported directly
to the Board. Previously, too, entirely separate
budgets were required for academic and nonacademic functions. Now a single unified
budget is presented. Thus, better than ever
before, we know what the complete financial
status of the University is.
In this respect President Tresidder was a
realistic and exacting leader. He insisted upon
measuring accurately the physical and financial
requirements of the University. He had to
know not just what Stanford today costs to
operate, but what resources Stanford should
develop to build and maintain its basic objectives. He was a skilled planner. He knew
that policies, however worthy, should not be
placed in effect without mapping a careful
program of action which looks not only to
the steps to be taken today but also to the
course of action for the days, months, and years
ahead. One of his associates once remarked
that Don never took step A without being
clear as to what steps B, C, and D would
be when the time came to take them.
His planning, however, was not inelastic.
As he himself expressed it in his last address
to the student body, he considered it important
"to develop a plan of action with alternatives
in reserve."
In order that he might form an adequate
conception of the long-term physical needs of
the University, he added to the University staff
the Director of Planning, Mr. Spencer, who is
charged with the responsibility of advising
the President on the development of a master
plan of the University grounds to guide future
development. Lewis Mumford, one of the
world's leading specialists in planning, also
was brought in as a consultant*
The master plan recaptures the inspiration
of the man who conceived the original design
of the University, Frederick Law Olmstead.
The unity of the campus, based upon the
Inner Quad, is to be carefully maintained.
Primary emphasis will be placed upon the
internal renovation and remodeling of the
classic structures which form the heart of
our campus. Additional developments will
be made in harmony with the original plan,
not, of course, attempting to simulate the
inimitable beauty of the heavy stone-built

55

quads, but building harmonious structures with


today's materials.
The new plan contemplates the development of a quadrangle of technical buildings
at the northwest side of the present central
quad. Also recognized was the need for a
new art building, a new music building, a
faculty clubhouse, a new student union. New
quarters for the Law School will be provided
by remodeling the present Administration
Building into a modern and complete Law
headquarters.
There should be mention here of Crothers
Hall, already in course of building. This has
been made possible by the gift to the University of George Crothers, one of Stanford's
most constant friends. The new hall will
house advanced law students and only law
students, thus providing for them invaluable
opportunities for acquaintanceship and for
those informal discussions and arguments
which furnish so valuable a part of the education of beginners in any profession. It is
Stanford's hope that in timethough it will
be a long timeall large graduate groups
may be so housed in the terms of their interests.
One major project in the planning of the
future campus was the increasing of the
number of residence halls, so that Stanford
might be, as it was earlier, a truly residential
university. With the doubling of the size
of the student body, students have spilled
off the edges of the campus in every direction,
but the intention to have Stanford students
housed on the Stanford campus is one that
present necessities have not changed. To President Tresidder, this gathering home of the
students, with the added building that it
necessitated, was a "must." Without it, Stanford could not be the Stanford he foresaw
and worked for. Dormitorieshow to get
them, how to pay for them, what kind they
should bethese were thoughts constantly in
his mind. A united student body, united as
it could be only by campus experience, was
one of his ideals.
The needs of the University plant, as Don
appraised them, did not all relate to buildings.
Some were even more urgent. The utilities on
the campuswater supply, sewersneeded rehabilitating. Roads were in disrepair. Laboratory equipment called for renewal. Funds were
needed for the library. Scholarships and fellowships, though increased, were still inadequate for the demands on them. In general,
every part of the plant showed the effects of
the stoppages brought about by the war.

56

All these demands involved money. Patiently and realistically, President Tresidder
gave his attention to the securing of financial
help. In seeking it, though, he made it a
first requirement that it should come without
strings on it that might hamper the University in following the course it had laid out.
Stanford was to remain an independent university. It might be gift-supported, but it was
not to be gift-directed. He had faith that Stanford, adhering to its own standards, would
attract the support necessary to maintain those
standards.
In that faith he has already been proved
right. In the four years of his leadership the
income of the University from the Annual
Appeal to members of the Stanford Family
totaled over 1548,000, as compared with $295,000 from the same source for the seven preceding years. The all-time high in gifts
through the Annual Appeal was realized last
year when nearly $209,000 was given by alumni
through this channel. From special gifts,
trusts, and bequests in the same four-year
period the University has received $7,217,000
as compared with $7,029,000 for the preceding
seven years. Steady increases were realized in
grants from the education foundations. In
1944-45 the Foundations gave to Stanford
$173,000. In 1945-46, $260,000, and in 194647, $347,000.
In the same four-year period, Stanford has
been written into many wills as beneficiary for
a total amount which, we are informed, is
estimated to be over thirteen and one-half
million dollars. For the preceding seven-year
period, the figure was eighteen million seven
hundred thousand.
From this brief statistical survey we can
see that Stanford has more than kept pace
with its previous record of financial support.
Plans which have been developed for the
Stanford of the future, then, are not dreams,
but are a realistic program, capable of being
carried to completion.
A serious complication in recent Stanford
history is that, at the same time efforts were
being made to establish long range plans for
orderly development, it was necessary to face
unprecedented problems calling for immediate
solution. The most dramatic was the urgent
necessity for Stanford to do its share in meeting the national obligation to veterans. A
first impulse of the Stanford faculty and
trustees was to hold to an enrollment not far
removed from prewar levels. Stanford has
never aspired to bigness; bigness, in fact,
might be a handicap to the accomplishment

of Stanford's purposes. But, as the magnitude


of the emergency became fully apparent, the
faculty reviewed the University's capacities
and agreed that it might undertake to accommodate 7,000 to 8,000 students.
This decision, to be made effective without
crippling results, called for the immediate
provision of additional facilities, especially
in the way of housing. The federal government stood ready to provide assistance, but
the answers originally suggested were not attractive. Battered trailers and demountable
houses set down on the campusthe prospect
was not a happy one. They would have been
inadequate, expensive to maintain, and probably the University would have been saddled
with them for years.
A more remote but much more desirable
prospect was the acquisition of Dibble Hospital, a semipermanent War Department facility located in Menlo Park, less than three
miles from the campus. President Tresidder
proposed that we pass up the trailers and
portable houses and concentrate on securing
Dibble, even though trailers might be no longer
available when the question of Dibble's acquisition was finally settled. The gamble was
taken. We all know how well it paid off.
With excellent co-operation from the government, the hospital was closed out early in
the process of Army demobilization, the Federal Public Housing Authority took title to
the facilities, and Stanford was given immediate access. Custody was gained on August 1, 1946, and by late September, 1,200
students were received into dormitories which
had been converted from the hospital wards.
Today Stanford Village, as the hospital was
renamed, is a stable community of 325 families
and 1,400 single students. It includes recreational facilities, a cafeteria, grocery, soda
fountain, barber shop, and post office. And
Stanford is currently educating 8,000 students,
who are the most select group ever enrolled
in the institution.
Physical facilities, of course, are only a
means to an end. President Tresidder well
recognized that the University needed constantly to be reviewing and adjusting its academic program to remain true to its purposes.
He recognized the importance of reinforcing
the scholarly research of the faculty at every
point. He strongly encouraged the development of contracts for research by members of
the faculty wherever it was possible to develop a contract which contributed to the
basic scientific interests of the individual.
During the last year of his presidency more
than $1,000,000 was expended on organized

research. Of this over $600,000 represented


research under contracts with the federal government for inquiries in basic science, which
are the prerequisites for further technological
advance in support of the national defense.
President Tresidder recognized at the same
time the extreme danger of a contract research
program developing into projects of applied
research inconsistent with the basic purposes
of an academic institution. The diversion of
the time of university professors to research
which is only developmental, and thus not
original, can weaken rather than strengthen
the academic program. At the same time, it
has to be recognized that a university having
a staff of able scientists is in a position to
render a unique scientific service to industry
on a collateral basis. To this end, President
Tresidder took the initiative in creating as an
auxiliary institution the Stanford Research
Institute. This organization has now been in
operation for a little more than a year. In
that time, it has already established its usefulness to the industrial economy of the West
Coast and has provided a means for relating
on a consulting basis the scientific knowledge
of members of the teaching faculty to a fulltime research staff independent of the faculty.
That advantages can be derived from this relationship both by the University and the
Research Institute has been proved by several
institutions in the East. That it will be increasingly an asset to Stanford is already evident.
Running parallel with President Tresidder's
interest in maintaining and advancing the
standards of the sciences at Stanford was his
equally strong interest in seeing that our
rising leaders should have a stronger, broader
general education and should be given the advantage of inspired instruction in the humanities. Two of the most notably strengthened
departments on the campus in the past few
years are the Departments of Art and Music.
The development of the Opera Workshop and
the new program of exhibits in the Art Gallery are in keeping with the recognition that
the future of our social order cannot be
guaranteed by concentrating upon the materialistic sciences.
Don Tresidder recognized that the University existed primarily for the student, that
its purpose was to educate young men and
women for constructive living. He expressed
this objective in the following terms, when
he addressed the student body a few months
ago:
"What is the ideal Stanford graduate whom
we envisage? First of all he or she is a person

57

of integrity, self-disciplined and responsible,


discriminating in his tastes and his judgment
of values. He is fully aware of the changing
world about him and, while he realizes that
living is at all times a dangerous business, he
is filled with a zest for life.
"Our ideal graduate is trained to discover
facts and to interpret them accurately. With
these facts in hand, he is able to develop a
plan of action with several appropriate alternatives in reserve. He is trained "to see life
steadily and to see it whole," yet he tempers
sober realism with tolerance and a generous
understanding of the frailties of human nature.
He is fully armed against disillusionment and
cynicism. By experience and training he is
ready to take his place as a working member
of our society. Above all else he cherishes
freedom. He is strong. There is no freedom
for the weak."
Don Tresidder himself possessed the intangible Stanford spirit. He embodied it.
From the busy round of his presidential duties
he reserved time to keep in touch with students. He gloried in the Stanford tradition,
carried down from the days of David Starr
Jordan, of close friendly relations between
faculty and students. He loved to meet informally with groups of students. He loved
to share with them his magnificent collection
of classical records, to ride with them on the
trails behind the campus, to climb with them
in the rugged Sierra to which he turned for
refreshment and renewal of inspiration.
To a host of students, as well as to the men
and women who worked daily with him, he
was a devoted friend, clear-sighted always but
always kind. His mark will be on student
lives, as it will be on the life of the University
he loved, for a long, long time.
Now I would like to read you a letter which
the Stanford Trustees have sent to Mrs.
Tresidder and Mrs. Mintzer, Dr. Tresidder's
sister:
"For four and a half years a man has walked
among us. Now he is gone, and only words
are left to fill the empty spacewords, and
remembering. Some men can be memorialized
in the naming of certain virtues they possessed;
but this one is inseparable from the virtues
that gave him stature. He was goodness and
truth, he was gentleness and spiritual clarity,
he was human strength and honor. Trying to'
recapture something of his essence, one is
stopped by a simple fact: There is no

58

catalogue of greatness. Adjectives are redundant, for Donald Tresidder was a man.
"Part of the strength of his leadership lay
in his certainty of finding in other people the
very qualities that made him strong. His
primary concern with the integrity of a person,
an ideal, or an institution, revealed the keystone of his own character. Integrity was his
sword and his shield. Men might disagree with
him; but, knowing him, they could not doubt
him.
"Because Don Tresidder was so sure of his
faith in Stanford University, because he saw
so clearly what its scope and influence might
one day be, he could afford to work slowly,
molding sound metal to greatness. Burdened
neither with false pride nor with mock modesty, he accepted the responsibilities of leadership without using its prerogatives as a
cloak. And because he saw only individuals
behind the labels dividing groups from
groups he was able to develop at Stanford a
unity of iron strength. Don Tresidder's Stanford was a team, bound only by the freedom
which its members shared. His own sense of
values tended to dispel academic rivalry and
to focus diverse ambitions on a common goal.
"Keenly aware that a university today is
not a cloister, but a laboratory for living, he
tried to prepare students for reality outside
the campus, encouraged his faculty to adjust
their courses to the needs of a very wide
world. The inclusion of the whole world in
his vision could never have quieted him to
content with mediocrity: he made almost a
religion of democracybut to him democracy
was an upsurging force, never a leveling influence.
"His insistence on thorough investigation
of any problem before making decisions; his
consistent search for the right course of action
as opposed to the easy one; his intelligent
recognition of the individual capabilities of
people with whom he worked, made working
with him a warmly satisfying experience. His
intuitive recognition of subtle changes of feeling, and his ability to translate the problems
of one group into the language of another,
enabled him to turn frustration into challenge.
"For his contagious enthusiasm, for his engaging frankness, for his positive genius at
friendliness, Don Tresidder was loved and will
be missed. We have known a man whose
goodness was never smug, whose humility w"8
never servile, whose simplicity was never common. We have known a man, and we are
proud."

APPENDIXES
APPENDIX I. ANNUAL FINANCIAL REPORT
APPENDIX II. SCHOOL AND DEPARTMENTAL REPORTS
APPENDIX III. COMMITTEE REPORTS
APPENDIX IV. ADMINISTRATIVE REPORTS
APPENDIX V. PUBLICATIONS OF THE FACULTY

APPENDIX I

ANNUAL FINANCIAL REPORT

To the President
Leland Stanford Junior University
I present herewith the financial report of Leland Stanford Junior University for the fiscal year ended August 31, 1948. The balance sheet and related statement of income, expenditures, appropriations, and surplus are
accompanied by the report of Lybrand, Ross Bros, and Montgomery, certified
public accountants, engaged to examine the University accounts.
BALANCE SHEET

The principal changes in the balance sheet since August 31, 1947, are the
decrease in amount receivable from the United States government and the
transfer of plant funds from the general division to the plant division.
The reduction of approximately $820,000 in the amount receivable from
the United States government was occasioned by more efficient billing of
veterans' tuition, books, and supplies to the government. The balance outstanding on August 31, 1948 from this source amounted to $364,002.26 and
was principally for the summer quarter of 1948.
Funds available for construction and additions to plant were transferred
from the general division to the plant division of the balance sheet. Amounts
transferred included $1,414,161.88 previously shown as unexpended gifts, and
$937,389.08 from reserves. After adding gifts received during the year for
plant expansion and income earned on invested funds, and after deducting the
expenditures during the year, there remained unexpended on August 31, 1948,
$2,394,775.59.
OPERATIONS

A summary of operations for the fiscal year-is shown in the following


condensed operating statement:
Income:
Tuition and fees
Endowment income
Expendable gifts
Other

$4,384,447.85
1,489,269.57
1,017,955.16
1,276,318.10
$8,167,990.68

Expenditures and appropriations:


Instruction, research, and libraries
Operation and maintenance of plant
Student aid, admission and other
student services
Administration
Other expenditures
Appropriations

5,103,789.64
573,751.45
816,997.74
236,288.66
799,715.30
615,183.21
8,145,726.00

Excess of income over


expenditures and appropriations

61

62
GIFTS

Gifts received by the University during the year totaled $2,351,761 .$4,
as follows:
Added to endowment funds
$752,243.44
Added to student loan funds
28,771.50
For plant additions
213,123.28
For current purposes
1,357,623.42
$2,351.761.64
The importance of gifts to the operation of the University is apparent,
since $2,730,592.32 of the income necessary for operations during the year
came from gifts of the current and previous years.
Income from endowment funds
$1,489,269.57
Gifts for current purposes expended
1,017,955.16
Plant funds expended
223,367.59
$2,730.592.32
ENDOWMENT INVESTMENTS
A summary of endowment investments at August 31, 1948 follows:
Book Value

United States Government bonds


$12,376,704
Other bonds
5,517,030
Preferred stocks
4,134,136
Common stocks
10,526,238
Total securities
32,554,108
Cash, loans and other assets
978,027
Funds in trust with other trustees
1,166,484
Real estate and improvements
2,416,066
Income-producing institutional property 2,292,644
39,407,329
Less, investments applicable to
plant and agency divisions
1,554,019
Endowment assets

Percentage
of Total

31.4%
14.0
10.5
26.7
82.6
2.5
3.0
6.1
5.8
100.0%

The market value of the $32,554,108 securities was $34,989,000.


The average return on investments of merged endowment funds was 3.9%.
D. I. MCFADDEN
Controller

TABLE OF CONTENTS
PAGES

Auditors' Report

65

Balance Sheet

66-67

Statement of Income, Expenditures, Appropriations, and Surplus

68

Detail of Income

69

Detail of Expenditures and Appropriations

70

Security Investments of Endowment Funds

71

Endowment Funds

72

Expendable Gift Funds

73

63

65

LYBRAND, ROSS BROS. & MONTGOMERY


CERTIFIED PUBLIC ACCOUNTANTS

To the Board of Trustees


Leland Stanford Junior University
Stanford, California
We have examined the balance sheet of Stanford University as of August
31, 1948, and the related condensed statement of income, expenditures, appropriations, and surplus for the fiscal year then ended. Our examination was
made in accordance with generally accepted auditing standards, and accordingly included such tests of the accounting records and such other auditing
procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We received
confirmation from the depositary with respect to bonds and corporate stocks
recorded as owned or held by the University at August 31, 1948, and we
made substantial tests of the changes in investments and of the related income
receivable during the fiscal year then ended.
In our opinion, the accompanying balance sheet and condensed statement
of income, expenditures, appropriations, and surplus present fairly the financial
position of Stanford University at August 31, 1948, and the results of its
operations for the fiscal year.
LYBRAND, Ross BROS. & MONTGOMERY
SAM FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA
December 6,1948

66

STANFORD
BALANCE SHEET

ASSETS
General Division:
Cash and securities:
Cash on hand and demand deposits in banks
Bonds (approximate market quotations
$1,964,000)
Less, amounts applicable to loan and
plant divisions

$ 1,099,878.17
1,955,483.00
3,055,361.17
1,200,591.04
$ 1,854,770.13

Receivables, less allowance for losses :


United States government
Other accounts and accrued interest

994,254.39
684,379.79
1,678,634.18
683,336.64
209,877.39
66,109.31
4,492.727.65

Inventories
Deferred charges
Other assets

Loan Division:
Tuition notes receivable
Student loans receivable
General division cash and securities
Endowment Division:
Demand deposits in banks
Bonds (approximate market quotations
$18,016,000)
Corporate stocks (approximate market
quotations $16,973,000)
Less, investments applicable to plant and
agency divisions

-*

T7

293,089.10
126,870.88
223,051.96
643.011.94
195,106.59
17,893,733.77
14.660,374.71
32,554,108.48
1,554,018.52

Realty loans and contracts receivable


Funds in trust with other trustees
Real estate and improvements
Income-producing institutional property
Building fund loan
Other endowment assets

31,000,089.96
398,761.60
1,166,483.58
2,416,065.72
2,292,643.86
364,702.42
19,456.32
37,853,310.05

Plant Division:
Land, buildings, and equipment
Less, endowment division investment in
income-producing institutional property

21,065,750.65

General division cash and securities


Endowment division securities
Agency Division:
Specific security investments
Endowment division securities

2,292,643.86
18,773,106.79
977,539.08
1,417,236.51
21.167.882.38
266,670.78
136.782.01
403.452.79
$64,560,384.81

UNIVERSITY
AUGUST 31,1948
LIABILITIES AND FUNDS
General Division:
Accounts and pay rolls payable
Deposits and deferred credits
Renewal and replacement reserves
Other reserves
Balances of unexpended income,
principally for restricted purposes:
Endowment income
$ 451,113.83
Expendable gifts
1,359,862.86
Special funds
37,102.08
Surplus, statement annexed

$884,307.79
266,765.87
572,946.48
818,716.01

1,848,078.77
101,912.73

4.492,727.65
Loan Division:
Reserve for uncollected tuition notes
Funds contributed for student loans

293,089.10
349,922.84
643.011.94

Endowment Division:
Endowments:
Unrestricted
Restricted:
For scholarships and fellowships
For schools and departments
For student loan funds
Subject to annuities and living
trust agreements
In trust with other trustees
Other
Accumulated capital gains, net of losses, from
sale and liquidation of merged investment assets

24,970,487.16
2,764,210.54
5,247,411.72
54,788.00
1,295,987.95
1,166,483.58
53,290.48
35,552,659.43
2,300,650.62
37.853.310.05

Plant Division:
Gifts of plant
Plant acquired from income
Endowment funds borrowed, expended on
educational plant
Unexpended plant funds
Agency Division:
Liability for funds held in custody for others

9,397,540.73
9,010,863.64
364,702.42
18,773,106.79
2,394,775.59
21.167.882.38
403,452.79
403.452.79
$64.560.384.81

68

Income:
Tuition and fees
Endowment income
Expendable gifts
Special funds
Plant funds
^
Government research proj ects
Other
Expenditures:
Instruction, research, and libraries
Operation and maintenance of plant
Student aid, admission, and other
student services
Administration
Retirement allowances and group insurance
General expense
Capital additions
Appropriations:
For capital additions in progress
For scholarships
Other

$4,384,447.85
1,489,269.57
1,017,955.16
89,000.41
223,367.59
876,153.56
87,796.54
$8,167,990.68
5,103,789.64
573,751.45
816,997.74
236,288.66
279,241.77
247,963.01
272,510.52
7,530,542.79
488,593.80
72,000.00
54,589.41

8,145,726.00
Excess of income over expenditures and appropriations
22,264.68
Surplus, September 1, 1947
79.648.05
Surplus, August 31, 1948
$101,912.73
NOTE: Depreciation and amortization provisions totaling $111,710.37 on
the endowment division's investment in income-producing institutional property were charged against the year's investment operations, and allocated in
part to amortization of investment and in part to renewal and replacement
reserves. With the exception of minor special provisions, no depreciation was
provided for depreciable property included in the endowment division's investments in real estate and improvements. In conformity with general accounting practice of educational institutions, no depreciation was provided for
property, principally educational plant, carried in the plant division.

DETAIL OF INCOME
For the year ended August 31, 1948
Tuition and fees:
General tuition
Tuition note collections
Application fees
Aptitude test fees
Special fees
Endowment income:
Interest on bonds
Dividends on stock
Interest on loans
Real estate income, net
Income from trust funds held by others
Net income of endowment investment
in institutional pfoperty
Endowment income earned
Add, balance of unexpended income, September 1, 1947

$4,282,423.85
15,359.86
40,018.65
16,292.00
30,353.49 $4,384,447.85
474,429.11
810,147.69
21,768.87
58,165.12
112,110.55
285,988.44
1,762,609.78
305,824.05
2,068,433.83

Deduct:
Income remaining unexpended,
August 31, 1948
$451,113.83
Income allocated to agency funds
5,387.91
Income allocated to gift funds
10,052.49
Income allocated to plant funds
53,468.94
Income paid to annuitants and life beneficiaries 52,172.06
Income added to endowment principal
9,204.13
Transfers from expendable gift funds
-6,133.86
Transfers to other accounts
3,898.76
579,164.26
lift income:
Total gifts received during year
2,351,761.64
Deduct:
Gifts credited to endowment funds
752,243.44
Gifts credited to plant funds
213,123.28
Gifts credited to loan funds
994,138.22
28,771.50
1,357,623.42
Expendable gifts received
Add;
Balance of unexpended gifts, September 1, 1947
2,368,709.37
Transfers to endowment funds
-20,710.06
Transfers to unappropriated endowment income
-6,133.86
Transfers to plant funds
-1,414,161.88
Income allowed invested funds
12,049.89
Appropriations from general university funds
78,250.00
Other transfers
2,191.14
2,377,818.02
Deduct, gifts remaining unexpended, August 31, 1948
1,359,862.86
pedal funds used for current purposes
lant funds used for construction:
Gifts received during period
213,123.28
Transferred from current gifts
1,414,161.88
Transferred from reserves
937,389.08
Income allowed invested funds
53,468.94
2,618,143.18
Deduct, funds remaining unexpended, August 31, 1948
2,394,775.59
eimbursement on government research projects
ther income:
Rental of facilities
13,271.07
Purchase discounts
10,470.04
Interest on general division bonds
9,733.92
Vocational guidance
19,375.00
Miscellaneous
34,946.51
Total income

1,489,269.57

1,017,955.16
89,000.41

223,367.59
876,153.56

87,796.54
$8.167.990.68

70
DETAIL OF EXPENDITURES AND APPROPRIATIONS
For the year ended August 31, 1948
Instruction, research, and libraries:
$191,847.10
School of Biology
168,656.32
Graduate School of Business
156,438.73
School of Education
267,738.07
School of Engineering
573,113.22
School of Humanities
184,961.76
School of Law
.
School of Medicine (including expense, less income, of Lane
734,956.96
Hospital and Stanford Clinics amounting to $219,723.45)
149,348.24
School of Mineral Sciences
355,423.54
School of Physical Sciences
474,007.45
School of Social Sciences
4.929.03
Expenditures not directly allocated to schools
1,420,342.61
Organized research
422,026.61
Libraries
Operation and maintenance of plant:
Maintenance of grounds
Repairs and alterations to buildings
Janitor service
Heating
Electricity
Sewage
Police department
Fire department
Engineering and special surveying
General stores
Telephone switchboard
Fire, earthquake and liability insurance
Taxes
Furniture repairs and replacements
Survey of plant facilities
Student aid, admission, and other student services:
Dean of students' administration and counseling
Registrar and records bureau
Appointment and placement service
Veterans' guidance, records, and accounts
Scholarships, fellowships and awards
Student health
Memorial Church
Administration
Retirement allowances and group insurance
General expense
Expenditures for capital additions
Appropriations:
For capital additions in progress:
Mineralogy and Petrography buildings
Heating plant and distribution system
Crothers Hall
School of Engineering equipment
Law School building
Domestic water wells
For General University scholarships
Other
Total expenditures and appropriations

76,562.77
119,358.84
110,154.91
91,388.02
37,820.65
6,344.89
26,787.78
28,271.22
3,516.45
16,376.80
5,226.49
22,668.70
4,881.29
4,828.72
19,563.92
42,660.07
195,430.48
34,313.35
35,871.28
268,966.93
221,609.11
18,146.52

$5,103,789.64

573,751.45

816,997.74
236,288.$
279,241.77
247,963.01
272510.52

61,636.47
175,657.33
45,800.00
25,000.00
150,000.00
JO.500.00

488,593.80
72,000.00
54^589.41
S8.145.726.00

71

August 31, 1948

Bonds

$17,543,544.00
Merged funds
Specifically invested funds:
Francis William Bergstrom fund
701.00
Captain Quentin R. Birchard fund
1,000.00
George E. Crothers Law School fund
George E. Gamble scholarship fund
Louis S. Haas fund
Harold P. Hill memorial fund
7,287.28
2,024.75
Edward Whiting Hopkins fund
1,031.80
Margaret D. Huston scholarhip fund
Ernest Gale Martin fund
1,000.00
John Pearce Mitchell fund
16,000.00
Estate of Solon Shedd fund
Beach Thompson fund
50,000.00
Donald B. and Mary C. Tresidder fund
Valmira fund
Elizabeth Moody, Rhona Williams fund
5,040.00
8,400.00
Thomas and Dora Williams fund
Hoover Library endowments
257,704.94
$17,893,733.77
Less investments applicable to plant and agency
:ncy divisions

Details of Bonds and Stocks


on pages 75-82

Corporate Stocks

Total

$13,976,354.00

$31,519,898.00

3,355.00
3,017.82
3,000.00
160,321.14
37,687.06
8,919.63
28,727.87
12,898.36
14,574.15
75,000.00
27,647.74
6,500.00
36,562.50
265,809.44
$14,660,374.71

4,056.00
4,017.82
3,000.00
160,321.14
37,687.06
16,206.91
30,752.62
13,930.16
15,574.15
75,000.00
43,647.74
50,000.00
6,500.00
36,562.50
5,040.00
8,400.00
523,514.38
$32,554,108.48
1,554,018.52
$31,000,089.96

73

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75

SECURITY INVESTMENTS OF MERGED FUNDS


August 31, 1948
Par Value

1,100,000
2,000,000
300,000
1,000,000
1,000,000
6,500,000
208,000
3,200

BONDS

Book Value

United States Government bonds:


Treasury
2
12/15/1954-52
Treasury
2^
6/15/1967-62
Treasury
2^ 12/15/1968-63
Treasury
2^ 12/15/1969-64
Treasury
2^ 6/15/1972-67
Treasury
2^ 12/15/1972-67
Savings "G" 2^
1953-58
Savings "D"
1949-50

Public utility bonds:


American Telephone & Telegraph
Company
2^
Boston Edison Company
2ft
200,000
300,000
Cleveland Electric
Illuminating Company
3
Commonwealth Edison Company 3
300,000
Consolidated Edison Company 3
300,000
Pacific Gas & Electric Company 3
300,000
144,000
Philadelphia Company
4J4
199,000
Puget Sound Power &
Light Company
4%
Southern California Edison
300,000
Company, Ltd.
3
284,000
Southern California Gas
Company
3J4
50,000
Virginia Electric & Power
Company
3J^
200,000
West Penn Power Company 3j4

$ 1,100,000.00
2,000,000.00
300,000.00
1,000,000.00
1,000,000.00
6,500,000.00
208,000.00
3,004.00
12,111,004.00

500,000

Railroad bonds:
Canadian National Railway
Company
200,000
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy
Railroad Company, Equipment Trust
100,000
Chicago Union Station
Company
68,000
Michigan Central Railroad
Company
200,000
Southern Railway Company
St. Louis Division
200,000

1957
1970

537,962.00
200,000.00

1970
1977
1963
1974
1961

300,000.00
300,000.00
320,001.00
300,000.00
144,000.00

1972

199,000.00

1965

300,000.00

1970

284,000.00

1963
1966

51,050.00
215,778.00
3,151,791.00

4j^ 1956

220,820.00

2% 1959

197,061.00

2% 1963

100,000.00

3J^ 1952

68,000.00

1951

206,104.00
791,985.00

76
SECURITY INVESTMENTS OF MERGED FUNDSContinued
Par Value

125,000
200,000
200,000
90,000
75,000
200,000
100,000
300,000
74,000
100,000

Shares

1000
1000
1000
1000
1500
1000
6000
401
1000
701
1500
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
2000
1000
1000
1000
400
1000
1000
6000
1000
500
3000
500
4000
2000
1000
1000
1000
2500
1000

BONDS

Miscellaneous Bonds:
Allis-Chalmers Manufacturing Company
American Tobacco Company
cp
Caterpillar Tractor Company
Central Contra Costa County
Sanitary District
Central Contra Costa County
Sanitary District
City of New York, Corporate
Stock
Government of the Dominion
of Canada
Texas Corporation
Union Square Garage
Corporation
Westinghouse Electric &
Manufacturing Company
Miscellaneousnominal value

Book Value

1956

$ 122,566.00

3
2

1962
1956

204,401.00
200,000.00

2/2 1952-54

91,968.00

2M 1957-60

75,666.00

3*/2 1954

214,060.00

1960
1965

103,808.00
300,000.00

6-7 1970

76,294.00

2% 1951

100,000.00
1.00
1,488,764.00

4
3

CORPORATE STOCKS

Book Value

Preferred, stocks:
Allegheny Ludlum Steel Corporation $4.50
$ 106,544.00
American Machine and Foundry Company 3.90%
94,729.00
Beneficial Industrial Loan Corporation $3.25
93,059.00
Borg-Warner Corporation 3^%
89,852.00
Buffalo Niagara Electric Corporation 3.60%
154,443.00
Bullock's Incorporated 4%
103,008.00
California Electric Power Company 5^%
120,025.00
California Packing Corporation 5%
19,960.00
Commonwealth & Southern Corporation $6.00
111,231.00
Consolidated Edison Company $5.00
65,319.00
Crown-Zellerbach Corporation $4.20
124,310.00
Dow Chemical Company $3.25
102,517.00
Dresser Industries, Incorporated 3^4%
111,368.00
Electric Power & Light Corporation $6.00
131,904.00
El Paso Natural Gas Company $4.10
98,627.00
Firestone Tire and Rubber Company V/2%
105,115.00
Food Machinery Corporation 3&%
101,009.00
General American Transportation Corporation $4.25
104,366.00
General Mills, Incorporated W&%
113,179.00
Golden State Company, Ltd. 4%
172,667.00
Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company $5.00
94,204.00
McKesson & Robbins, Incorporated $4.00
106,102.00
New York Power & Light Company 3.90%
104,009.00
Niagara Hudson Power Corporation 5%
40,479.00
Northern States Power Company, Delaware 6%
100,756.00
Ohio Power Company 4^%
111,151.00
Pacific Public Service Company $1.30
160,861.00
Panhandle Eastern Pipe Line Company 4%
99,361.00
Pillsbury Mills, Incorporated $4.00
50,182.00
Rayonier, Incorporated $2.00
98,380.00
Servel, Incorporated $4.50
47,679.00
Southern California Gas Company 6%
122,719.00
South Carolina Electric & Gas Company S*/2%
107,645.00
Standard Oil Company (Ohio) 3fa%
94,856.00
Tide Water Associated Oil Company $3.75
100,564.00
Union Electric Company of Missouri $4.50
108,116.00
The United Corporation $3.00
118,048.00
United States Steel Corporation 7%
111,606.00
Miscellaneousnominal value 7%
2.00
Total preferred stocks
$ 3,899,952.00

77

SECURITY INVESTMENTS OF MERGED FUNDSContinued


Shares

1500
3000
1000
1000
2500
2000
3600
2000
4000
4000
2000
4000
4000
3000
4000
2000
6000
3000
4000
3300
3000
3000
4000
6000
2000
100
3827
2
3000
3000
4000
2000
4000
2000
3000
8000
600
5000
9200
1000
5000
3000
3400
4000
1000
3000

Common stocks:
Aetna Insurance Company
Aetna Life Insurance Company
Allied Chemical & Dye Corporation
American Can Company
American Factors, Ltd.
American Gas & Electric Company
American Smelting & Refining Company
American Tobacco Company
American Trust Company (S.F.)
American Trust Company (S.F.) Rights
American Viscose Corporation
Anglo California National Bank (S.F.)
Best Foods, Incorporated ^
Bethlehem Steel Corporation
Bond Stores, Incorporated
Bullock's, Incorporated
California Packing Corporation
Caterpillar Tractor Company
Chrysler Corporation
Cincinnati Gas & Electric Company
C.I.T. Financial Corporation
Commercial Credit Company
Commonwealth Edison Company
Crown Zellerbach Corporation
Eastman Kodak Company
Emporium Capwell Company
Fireman's Fund Insurance Company
Fireman's Fund Insurance Company, Rights
Firestone Tire and Rubber Company
General American Transportation Corporation
General Electric Company
General Mills, Incorporated
General Motors Corporation
Glens Falls Insurance Company
Great American Insurance Company
The Greyhound Corporation
Guaranty Trust Company (N.Y.)
Gulf Oil Corporation
Gulf States Utilities Company
Hartford Fire Insurance Company
Hawaiian Pineapple Company, Limited
H. J. Heinz Company
Honolulu Oil Corporation
Illinois Power Company
Ingersoll-Rand Company
Inland Steel Company

Forward

Book Value
$

70,440.00

127,993.00
202,004.00
84,272.00
65,000.00
71,921.00
128,463.00
122,765.00
161,086.00

67,571.00
163,116.00
75,980.00
63,762.00
105,202.00
88,773.00
146,259.00
132,098.00
126,558.00
86,891.00
117,590.00
134,003.00
105,590.00
149,909.00
65,782.00
3,628.00
159,282.00
125,976.00
161,164.00
110,768.00
94,539.00
165,948.00
84,213.00
97,431.00
99,092.00
150,841.00
247,144.00
112,053.00
78,144.00
105,573.00
123,022.00
140,073.00
111,523.00
71,155.00
84,194.00
$ 4,988,791.00

78
SECURITY INVESTMENTS OF MERGED FUNDSConfcmied
Shares

CORPORATE STOCKS

Common stocks (Continued):


1600
2000
4000
1000
5000
3000
4000
4000
4000
4000
1500
6000
5100
5040
1800
9000
5000
3000
5000
5200
6000
300
5000
5000
2000
3000
6000
5000
3587^
2000
4000
1000
1170
250
4000
2000
2000
2000
3000
8700
600
5000
6000
2000

Book Value

Forwarded
$4,988,791.00
Insurance Company of North America
100,383.00
International Nickel Company of Canada, Ltd.
56,223.00
Kennecott Copper Corporation
131,639.00
Liggett & Myers Tobacco Company
85,950.00
McKesson & Robbins, Incorporated
110,694.00
Manufacturers Trust Company (N.Y.)
193,181.00
Matson Navigation Company
146,000.00
Montgomery Ward & Co., Incorporated
112,417.00
National Cash Register Company
119,219.00
National City Bank (N.Y.)
92,854.00
National Steel Corporation
102,447.00
Northern Indiana Public Service Company
106,502.00
Pacific Gas & Electric Company
154.02S.OO
Pacific Lighting Corporation
198,876.00
Pacific Telephone & Telegraph Company
235,315.00
Paraffine Companies, Inc.
110,748.00
Philadelphia Electric Company
90,900.00
Public Service Company of Colorado
107,805.00
Public Service Electric & Gas Company
119,561.00
S & W Fine Foods, Incorporated
135,399.00
Sears, Roebuck & Company
102,458.00
Singer Manufacturing Company
91,501.00
Socony Vacuum Oil Company, Incorporated
85,124.00
Southern California Edison Company
132,966.00
Springfield Fire & Marine Insurance Co.
83,956.00
Standard Brands, Incorporated
98,338.00
Standard Oil Company of California
181,497.00
Standard Oil Company (Indiana)
134,191.00
Standard Oil Company (New Jersey)
116,100.00
Superheater Company
45,335.00
Texas Company
205,614.00
Texas Gulf Sulphur Company
57,570.00
Time, Incorporated
89,732.00
Travelers Insurance Company
100,003.00
Union Carbide & Carbon Corporation
87,432.00
Union Pacific Railroad Company
77,478.00
United Fruit Company
107,824.00
United States Smelting, Refining & Mining Company
96,195.00
United States Tobacco Company
60,132.00
Virginia Electric & Power Company
166,406.00
Wells Fargo Bank & Union Trust Company (S.F.)
171,230.00
Westinghouse Air Brake Company
81,971.00
Westinghouse Electric Corporation
112,104.00
F. W. Woolworth Company
91,372.00
Miscellaneous stocks of nominal value
941.00
Total common stocks
10,076,402.00
Total corporate stocks
$13.976.354.00

79

SECURITY INVESTMENTS OF SPECIFICALLY


INVESTED FUNDS
August 31, 1948
Book Value

1,000 pv
55 sh
33 sh
1,000 pv

$ l.OOOpv
37 sh
50 sh

1,000 sh

Francis William Bergstrom fund:


Associated Almond Growers of Paso Robles
$ 700.00
California Investment Funds, Inc., preferred
55.00
California Savings & Loan Company, Guarantee
3,300.00
Grand Trunk Railway Terminal & Cold Storage
1.00
Company 6%% 1st mtg.
Total
$ 4,056.00
Captain Quentin R. Birchard memorial fund:
United States of America Treasury
1972-67
Shell Union Oil Corporation
Standard Oil Company of California
Total

1,000.00
1,172.74
1,845.08
$ 4.017.82

George E. Crothers Law School scholarship fund:


Orpheum Building Company, common
$ 3.000.00

George E. Gamble scholarship fund:


Preferred stocks:
800 sh
Pacific Gas & Electric Company 6%
800 sh
Pacific Public Service Company $1.30
292j^ sh
Public Service Electric & Gas Company
Common stocks:
240 sh
American Smelting & Refining Company
300 sh
California Ink Company, Inc.
200 sh
General Motors Corporation
l,200sh
Paraffine Companies, Inc.
400 sh
Proctor & Gamble Company
400 sh
Standard Oil Company of California
l.OOOsh
Stewart-Warner Corporation
800 sh
United Biscuit Corporation
Total
Louis S. Haas fund:
171 sh
Wells Fargo Bank & Union Trust Company

$ 16,940.00
17,800.00
8,198.00
7,946.26
10,200.00
7,093.62
18,500.00
23,263.29
12,067.47
20,812.50
17,500.00
$160,321.14
$ 37,687.06

80

SECURITY INVESTMENTS OF SPECIFICALLY


INVESTED FUNDSContinued

Par Value
or Shares

$ 2,000pv
$ 3,000 pv
$ 2,000 pv
10 sh
10 sh
30 sh
50 sh
30sh
25 sh
30sh
20 sh

$ 2,000pv
llSsh
50 sh
55 sh
100sh
HOsh
50 sh
50 sh
55 sh

$ 1,000 pv
15 sh
12sh
32sh
36 sh
25 sh
25 rts
625 sh
50 sh
20sh
25 sh
48 sh
40 sh
37 sh

Book Value

Harold P. Hill memorial fund:


Bonds:
U.S. Treasury 2^% 1972
$
American Telephone & Telegraph Company
254% 1957
Pacific Gas & Electric Company 2^% 1980
Preferred stocks:
Comonwealth & Southern Corporation $6.00
Northern States Power Company of
Delaware 6%
Common stocks:
Anglo California National Bank (S.F.)
Crown Zellerbach Corporation
General Electric Company
McKesson & Robbins, Incorporated
Springfield Fire & Marine Insurance Company
Texas Company
Total
$
Edward Whiting Hopkins scholarship fund:
Bonds:
U.S. Treasury 2*/2% 1972-67
$
Preferred stocks:
California Packing Corporation 5%
Crown Zellerbach Corporation $4.20
New York Power & Light Corporation 3.90%
Pacific Gas & Electric Company 6%
Common stocks:
Cincinnati Gas & Electric Company
Commercial Credit Company
Honolulu Oil Corporation
Pacific Gas & Electric Company
Total
$
Margaret D. Huston scholarship fund:
Bonds:
Southern California Gas Company 3J4% 1970 $
Preferred stocks:
California Packing Corporation 5%
New York Power & Light Corporation 3.90%
Rayonier, Incorporated $2.00
Common stocks:
American Smelting & Refining Company
American Trust Company (S.F.)
American Trust Company (S.F.)
American Woodlite Corporation
Commonwealth Edison Company
General Motors Corporation
Independent Refining Company
Pacific Lighting Corporation
Southern California Edison Company, Ltd.
Standard Oil Company of California
Total

2,055.44
3,231.84
2,000.00
1,100.85
966.50
964.12
1,434.31
1,050.46
892.05
1,319.54
1,191.80
16.206.91
2,024.75
5,750.00
5,132.29
5,720.25
2,575.00
3,116.19
2,124.33
2,170.89
2,138.92
30,752.62
1,031.80
750.00
1,248.25
1,002.98
1,304.50
946.25

1.00
1,160.52
966.63
1.25
2,292.17
1,136.14
2,088.67

SECURITY INVESTMENTS OF SPECIFICALLY


INVESTED FUNDSContinued
Par Value
or Shares
$

1,000 pv

100 sh
50 sh
150 sh
13 sh

158 sh

$ 16,000 pv
50 sh
55 sh
100 sh
120 sh
100 sh
100 rts
100 sh
100 sh

Book Value
Ernest Gale Martin Memorial scholarship fund:
Bonds:
U.S. Treasury 2^% 1967-72
$ 1,000.00
Preferred stocks:
Crown Zellerbach Corporation $4.20
2,534.00
Northern State Power Company of Delaware
6%
2,650.00
Southern California Gas Company 6%
3,947.31
Common stocks:
Pacific Gas & Electric Company
1,527.22
Philadelphia Electric Company
3,150.00
Texas Company
765.62
Total
John Pearce Mitchell fund:
Pearce-Mauran Land Company, capital stock
Estate of Solon Shedd fund:
Bonds:
U.S. Savings "G" 2y2% 1954-59
$ 16,000.00
Preferred stocks:
Dow Chemical Company $3.25
5,125.80
New York Power & Light Corporation 3.90%
5,720.25
Pacific Gas & Electric Company 6%
2,600.00
Common stocks:
American Smelting & Refining Company
3,785.91
American Trust Company (S.F.)
2,650.00
American Trust Company (S.F.)

General Motors Corporation


3,430.00
Honolulu Oil Corporation
4,335.78
Total
$ 43.647.74
Beach Thompson Memorial scholarship fund:
U.S. Treasury 2y2% 1965-70
Donald B. and Mary C. Tressidder fund:
Yosemite Park & Curry Company
$ 6,500.00
Valmira fund:
Rayonier, Incorporated preferred $2
Elisabeth Moody and Rhona Williams fund:
Palace Hotel Company of San Francisco 5% 1945 $ 5.040.00
Thomas and Dora Williams fund:
Palace Hotel Company of San Francisco 5% 1945

82
SECURITY INVESTMENTS OF SPECIFICALLY
INVESTED FUNDSConcluded
Par Value
or Shares
$ 15,000 pv

$165,000 pv
$ 15,000 pv
$ 20,000 pv
$ 20,000 pv
$ 20,000 pv

200 sh
240 sh
400 sh
400 sh
400 sh
180 sh
400 sh
300 sh
100 sh
300 sh
200 sh
200 sh
200 sh
300 sh
400 sh

Book Value
Hoover Library endowments
Bonds:
U.S. Treasury 2j4% 1967-72
$ 15,180.00
U.S. Savings "G" 2y2% 1953-59
165,000.00
Commonwealth Edison Company 3% 1977
15,562.65
Pacific Gas & Electric Company 1974
20,698.34
Southern California Gas Company 3%% 1970
20,537.95
Texas Corporation 3% 1965
20,726.00
257,704.94
Total bonds
Preferred stocks:
Commercial Credit Company 3.60%
10,503.00
17,945.22
Crown Zellerbach Corporation $4.20
20,503.20
Dow Chemical Company $3.25
20,203.00
Food Machinery Corporation 3%%
New York Power & Light Corporation 3.90% 20,800.50
Pacific Gas & Electric Company 6%
17,850.00
107,804.92
Total preferred stocks
Common stocks:
Aetna Life Insurance Company
6,800.85
American Smelting & Refining Company
7,815.43
16,541.12
Anglo California National Bank (S.F.)
16,903.69
Bullock's, Incorporated
Chrysler Corporation
11,569.28
Fireman's Fund Insurance Company
10,800.00
General Electric Company
10,241.66
11,080.54
General Motors Corporation
4,323.25
Honolulu Oil Corporation
Montgomery Ward & Company
6,743.74
24,525.00
Pacific Telephone & Telegraph Company
7,094.12
Public Service Company of Colorado
4,624.97
Southern California Edison Company
9,536.19
Standard Oil Company of California
3,168.52
Standard Oil Company (New Jersey)
6,236.16
Westinghouse Air Brake Company
158,004.52
Total common stocks
$523,514.38
Total invested

83

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Commercial Credit Company
Douglas Aircraft Company
Standard Oil Company of California .
School of Education:
Fletcher, Mrs. Mary E. . . .
General scholarship
Seamans, Vera Hutton, fell
Physical Therapy:
Kellogg, W. K., Foundatior
National Foundation for Inf
Inc., scholarships
National Foundation for Inf
Inc., fellowships
School of Engineering:
General scholarship
Hanrahan, William F. . . .
Civil Engineering:
Anonvmous
Forward

46,239.92 $

Balances
Aug. 31, 1947 Gifts

Forwarded
$
School of Biological Sciences:
Biology :
General scholarship
Lilly Research Laboratories, postdoctor
Standard Brands fellowship
Hopkins Marine Station:
Penicillin research, Merck and Compan
Natural History Museum:
Van Sicklen, F. W., memorial in

SCHOLARSHIPS AND FELLOWSHIPS I

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APPENDIX II
SCHOOL AND DEPARTMENTAL

REPORTS

SCHOOL OF BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES


During the year the staff consisted of Professors Emeritus L.
Abrams, L. L. Burlingame, D. H. Campbell, W. K. Fisher, H. Heath,
M. I. McCracken, G. J. Peirce, G. C. Price, H. B. Torrey; Professors
D. M. Whitaker (Dean), L. R. Blinks (Director of the Hopkins Marine
Station), G. P. DuShane, G. F. Ferris, A. C. Giese, G. S. Myers, C.
B. van Niel, W. H. Rich, T. K. Skogsberg, G. M. Smith, E. L. Tatum,
V. C. Twitty, I. L. Wiggins, (Director of the Natural History Museum);
Acting Professors H. C. Day, L. G. Ingles, W. W. Newby; Associate
Professors R. L. Bolin, J. F. Oliphant, R. C. Rollins; Acting Assistant Professors R. Bacigalupi, W. E. Berg, G. Hardin, E. B. Lewis;
Instructor D. C. Regnery; Acting Instructors E. F. Cook, J. S. Hensill,
C. Hubbs, W. V. Mayer, N. W. Riser, L. Swan; Lecturers W* A Cannon,
C. M. Child, L. M. Klauber, J. W. Moffett, A. R. Moore, 0. E. Sette,
A. C. Taft; Secretary K. Merola.
The large enrollment of 1946-47 held, and even increased slightly during the academic year of 1947-48. Classroom and laboratory
facilities were utilized to the utmost, many laboratory sections being
held in the forenoon and some advanced groups meeting between 7 and
10 p.m. The caliber of the students was high, however, and their
achievements were generally very satisfactory. The faculty continued
to carry forward numerous research projects in spite of the increased
teaching load, demonstrating thereby its ability and eminence in various phases of the biological sciences. Research support was good,
making possible the continued development of programs by graduate
students, staff members, and visiting investigators. The year was
satisfactory and highly successful.
Courses of instruction given by members of the faculty are recorded in the Stanford Register, and the publications of the faculty
are listed elsewhere in the President's Report. Other activities of
individual regular staff members are covered in whole or in part in
the reports of the Directors of the Hopkins Marine Station and the
Natural History Museum that follow.
Professor DuShane reported the results of an investigation, undertaken with the assistance of Mrs. Pao-Ying Chang Niu, on size regulation in spinal ganglia of amphibian embryos, to the American Society
of Zoologists. He supervised the researches of two candidates for the
degree of Master of Arts: Mrs. Pao-Iing Chang Niu and Mr. Charles E.
Blevins. Professor DuShane was instrumental in organizing a Committee for the Teaching of General Biology which held its initial meeting in Chicago in conjunction with the meetings of the AAAS.
Professor Giese was engaged in the following research projects:
(l) the fundamental nature of ultraviolet effects on proteins, (2)
absorption spectral changes in amino acius and proteins after exposure
to ultraviolet rays, (3) sensitization to heat by radiations, (4)
respiration studies on Blepharisma during illumination (done with a
Cartesian diver), (5) absorption spectra of sunscreens, protective
against sunburn. During the spring quarter, Professor Giese was on
a Guggenheim Fellowship working on project #3 at the Hopkins Marine
Station. Projects #1 and 2 were done in collaboration with Research
Associate Dr. D. McLean. Project #4 was done with Dr. Erik Zeuthen
of the University of Copenhagen who is at Stanford on a Rockefeller
Fellowship. Project #5 was done in collaboration with Miss Janet
Jeppson. During this year Mr. John Hensill completed his doctorate

121

122

School of Biological Sciences

research on coagulation of blood of grapsid crabs; Mr. Daniel Rogers


his master's thesis research on blood pressures in crabs and Mr.
Paul Freeman his raster's thesis research on photodynamlc^ effects on
yeast metabolism, under the direction of Professor Giese. Mr. Paul
Swenson began a study of the action spectrum of ultraviolet effects
on yeast metabolism.
Professor Smith (see also Hopkins Marine Station) continued
studies on sexual substances of the one-celled alga Chlamydomonas.
The results show that these are formed only in light but there is no
correlation between the quality of light and their formation. He
also continued to serve on the editorial boards of Biological Abstracts and Botanical Review.
Since his appointment, July 1, Professor Tatum has been chiefly
occupied with the organization and reconstruction of his experimental
laboratories. The major portion of this is practically completed,
and it is hoped that research will be well under way by early October.
The research of his unit will center on problems in biochemical genetics of microorganisms, and will be carried out by a group, all of
whom accompanied him from Yale University, and made up of four graduate students, Miss D. Newmeyer, C. A. Beam, R. C. Fuller III, and
E. A. Adelberg; two research associates, Dr. R. W. Barratt and Dr.
L. Garnjobst, and a research assistant, Miss D. von Hacht. In addition to support from Stanford University, the research of this group
is supported by grants from the American Cancer Society, and from the
Jane Coffin Childs Fund for Cancer Research.
Professor Twitty, with the collaboration of Dr. M. C. Niu, has
1) Investigated further the factors which incite the movements and
spreading of embryonic tissue cells; 2) exteneed present information
concerning the embryonic origin of the pigment cells of the skin, and
the factors influencing their development; and 3) developed an improved physiological salt solution for the cultivation of embryonic
cells in vitro. With the assistance of Mr. Wm. H. Oliver, Jr., further moving picture records have been made of the migratory behavior
of embryonic pigment cells under certain experimental conditions in
vitro. This project was supported by a grant from the American Cancer Society. Mr. H. E. Lehman and Mr. Douglas Hutun completed their
doctoral thesis investigations on certain aspects of pigment development in Amphibia, and the measurement of blood nitrogen during larval
growth of salamander larvae, respectively. Mr. Reed Flickinger, Jr.,
continued his thesis investigation on the relationship between the
migratory and respiratory activities of developing chromatophores;
Mr. Thomas Algard studied the effect of specially devised substrata, on
the migratory behavior of embryonic cells; Miss Annette Eggers investigated the selective physical affinities of young pigment cells
for the various embryonic tissues with which they came into contact
during their development; and Mr. Robin King began a study of pigment
development employing specific chemical compounds known to interfere
with the synthesis of melanin. Miss Catherine Henley, supported by
a grant from the
American Philosophical Society, spent several months
in Dr. Twitty1s laboratory collecting and preparing amphibian material
for chromosome studies by Professor D. P. Costello of the University
of North Carolina. During the year Dr. Twitty gave papers on cell
movements in vitro to the Biology Seminar at the California Institute
of Technology, and at the meetings of the American Society of Zoologist!
at Chicago. He served as a member of the Panel on Morphogenesis of
the Growth Committee of the National Research Council.

School of Biological Sciences

122

Professor Whitaker served as Acting Vice-President from March


through the remainder of the academic year. He became Chairman of
the Atomic Energy Committee Predoctoral Fellowship Board in the
Biological Sciences, which awards fellowships under the auspices of
the National Research Council with money provided by the.Atomic
Energy Council. He also served as a member of the Panel'on Cell
Physiology of the Growth Committee of the National Research Council,
The Committee on Human Reproduction of the National Research Council,
and on the Executive Committee of the Inter-Society Committee on
Science Foundation Legislation of the American Association for the
Advancement of Science. This latter committee was appointed by the
AAAS to promote the establishment by the federal government of a
National Science Foundation. Dr. Hhitaker continued to serve on the
editorial boards of the Biological Bulletin, The Journal of Experimental Zoology, The Journal of Morphology, Growth, Acta Zoologica,
and Survey of Progress in Biology. He also served as editor for
Zoology for Freeman and Company, Publishers.
During the year, Professor Oliphant served as adviser to premedical students and biology majors. He continued his investigation
of the problem of cystment in Endamoeba hlstolytlca and read a
paper reporting the results of the investigation before the American
Society of Zoologists in Chicago in December. Under his direction
Mr. Charles S. Richards completed an investigation involving descriptions and host relations of four new species of Trichodlna from fresh
water mollusks. Also under his direction Miss Carol Rider completed
an investigation into the effects of four primary alcohols on starch
and fat metabolism in Chllomonas paramecium. He supervised the work
of several students doing special problems in Parasitology. During
the year Professor Oliphant taught courses in Comparative Anatomy,
Parasitology and Microtechnique.
During the year, research on the guayule rubber plant was actively carried on in cooperation with the Division of Rubber Plant Investigations of the United States Department of Agriculture. This work was
terminated at the end of August, 1943. Miss Mary E. Riner transfexed
from the staff of the Stanford Research Institute to the U. S. Dept.
of Agriculture and remained as Professor Rollins' assistant throughout the academic year. A new chromosome type of Parthenlum with
2n=24, the lowest number thus far known in the genus, was discovered
in material from the highland area of Central Mexico. Chromosome and
pollen analyses together with population studies were continued to provide the basis for a critical monograph of the genus Partheinum. An
analysis of the rubber-producing capacity of over twenty families of
third generation hybrids provided the basic information for further
selections of hybrid material in the guayule-improvement program. Durthe latter part of the year, much effort was devoted to hand-pollinating tiie most important strains and hybrids of guayule developed at
Stanford. Over 50,000 seeds were thus produced for the government
experiment station at Salinas, so that the most important genetic stocks
would be available for further research. Plants forseeably useful and
not in field plantings were transferred to Salinas. Arrangements were
made with Dr. Marion N. Walker of the Salinas Station for the grant of
a small sum from the U. S. Dept. of Agriculture to Stanford for the
purpose of maintaining the planting of guayule at the Experimental
Garden for one year beginning July 1, 1948. This arrangement was made
as an insurance against the possible loss of material in- transfer or

124

School of Biological Sciences

the need for further introductions of plants from Stanford to Salinas.


AH government equipment on loan to Stanford for nearly two years was
returned to Salinas. Dr. Dan 0. Gerstel transferred from the staff
of the Stanford Research Institute to the U. S. Dept. of Agriculture,
but remained at Stanford until January, 1948 before moving to the
Government Experiment Station in Salinas. Dr. Gerstel continued with
his researches upon genetic incompatabilities previously discovered
to exist between various plants and strains of guayule. Parentprogeny sterility was found to be frequent, and differences in the
behavior of the progenies of reciprocal crosses were also found. The
inheretence of incompatability factors in guayule is extremely complex, but the results so far obtained have been consistent and workable interpretation is in sight*
In addition to assisting Drs. DuShane, Wiggins and Rollins in
the instruction in General Biology, Dr. Regnery extended his investigation of some aspects of the genetics of two microorganisms, Neurospora and Chlamydomonas. The Neurospora research was concerned with
the clarification of factors controlling the genetic instability of
some mutant strains, the investigation of the genetics of the alga,
Chlamydomonas, was carried out in cooperation with Professor G. M.
Smith. Preliminary results indicate that this organism may prove
extremely valuable in the study of photosynthetic processes.
Dr. Cook and Mr. Swan contributed to the planning and execution
of the curriculum for General Biology. Dr. Cook also acted as Lower
Division Advisor, and completed research on morphology of larval
diptera for his Ph.D. dissertation. He received his degree in October
1947. Mr. Swan continued his studies toward obtaining the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy.
Under the direction of Professor Giese the School Seminar maintained the high standard of previous years and many distinguished
speakers who chanced to be in the vicinity were presented.
DOUGLAS M. WHITAKER
Dean

Hopkins Marine Station

125

HOPKINS MARINE STATION

High academic populations continued to reflect themselves in


the utilization of the Hopkins Marine Station. Some twenty-five
workers carried on research throughout the year at the Station, and
the number of students and investigators surpassed one hundred during the summer. Space, apparatus, and salt water pumping equipment
were taxed to the utmost during the latter quarter.
The resident staff consisted of Lawrence Rogers Blinks, Cornells Bemardus van Niel, and Tage Skogsberg, Professors; and Rolf
Ling Bolin, Associate Professor (the latter being on sabbatical
leave under Tenure of a Guggenheim Fellowship during 1947-48). During the summer quarter Professors Gilbert Morgan Smith and Arthur
Charles Giese joined the staff to teach courses; William Eugene
Berg (University of California) was Acting Assistant Professor;
John Samuel Hensill, (San Francisco State College), Clark Hubbs
and Nathan Wendell Riser were Acting Instructors; Arthur Russell
Moore (University of Oregon), Lecturer; and Jacob L. Stokes, Research Associate. Assistant Professor and Mrs. Robert S. Turner,
of the Stanford Medical School, carried on research during the summer. Visiting Investigators from other institutions included Professor T. A. Stephenson (University of Wales), acting as Timothy
Hopkins ^ecturer; Professor Olin Rulon (Northwestern University);
Dr. Gflsta Fahraeus (Uppsala, Sweden); Dr. Helge Larsen (Trondheim,
Norway); Dr. Erik Zeuthen (Copenhagen, Denmark); Dr. Irving ^ittler
(Brooklyn College); Dr. Mary Belle Allen (Mt. Sinai Hospital, New
York); Dr. Oskar Baudisch (Saratoga Springs); Dr. Irwin Gunsalus
(Indiana); and Dr. Jean Wiame (Brussells). Shorter visits were
paid by Professor Henri Prat (Montreal); Dr. Leo Szilard (Chicago);
Dr. Poul Heegaard (Copenhagen), and a great number of other biologists passing briefly through Pacific Grove.
As in 1947, space was occupied in the Agassiz laboratory for
six weeks in the summer by a class of 25 from the Zoology Department of the University of California, (Berkeley), which was taught
by Drs. Ralph Smith and Frank A. Pitelka, of that institution.
Emeritus Professor W. K. Fisher spent a part of the autumn
quarter at the U. S. National Museum, Washington, D. C., doing
bibliographic work covering two groups of worm-like animals, the
Echiuroidea and Sipunculoidea. He has identified collections of
these animals made by the U. S. Navy Antarctic Expedition of 1947-48,
and the collections made in 1946 and 1947 at Bikini and vicinity.
A review of the Boneliidae (a family of Echiuroidea) was completed
and submitted for publication as well as a paper on a new Echiuroid
from Hawaii and one on Additions to the Echiuroid Fauna of California.
Substantial progress was made on a monograph of the Sipunculoidea of
California.
Professor Blinks1 researches continued to center on photosynthesis
in marine algae. The Importance of the chromoprotein pigments of the
red algae, already shown in relative action spectra, was further emphasized by absolute measurements.
Mr. Conrad locum, research assistant, performed determinations
of quantum efficiencies using polarographic and Winkler determinations
of dissolved oxygen, the Warburg manometric method, and the Fenn
volumetric method (the latter apparently finding its first utilization
in photosynthetic studies). Efficiencies of 12 to 16 quanta per mole

126

Hopkins Marine Station

of oxygen were found throughout most of the visible spectrum in


green and brown algae, indicating participation of all the absorbing
pigments. But in red algae the quantum efficiency fell in the regions of chlorophyll absorption to low values (40 or more quanta per
mole 02), while remaining fairly high (14. to 18 quanta) in the green
and yellow regions best absorbed by phycoerythrin and phycocyanin.
Klaus Odenheiaer, research assistant, confirmed some of these
findings with the Cartesian diver technique, using a few or even
single cells of algae. Attempts were also made to confirm these
relative efficiencies by means of carbon-dioxide determinations;
the photosynthetie quotient (03/002) remains nearly the same throughout the spectrum, and in the red, brown and green algae, indicating
the participation of true C02 reduction in all cases.
Large quantities of phyooerythrin were extracted from appropriate
red algae for photochemical studies in vitro.
Mr. John Anderson continued study of galvanotropism in the slime
mould Physarum. The orientation is clearly by inhibition of growth
toward the anode, not by stimulation toward the cathode. Apparently
the protoplasm is gelled toward the anode, preventing normal streaming in that direction. Thresholds of current density to produce this,
and the possible role of various ions (especially Ca and H) were investigated.
Miss Isobel Burwash began a study of the acidity of the brown
alga Desmarestia. Mr. James Nash made measurements of respiration
and photosynthesis in the green alga Chaetomorpha at various salinity
values. Miss Beth Childs made a survey of algal ecology at several
points on the Monterey Peninsula.
Dr. Oskar Baudisch gave a seminar on the role of magnetic compounds in biology, and made studies of the growth of algae in mineral
spring water.
Professor Bolin briefly studied collections of fish in Amsterdam,
(Leyden, and Brussels; then spent most of the winter in the British
Museum of Natural History; and the spring at the Marine Biological
Laboratory in Copenhagen. He was Stanford's delegate to the International Zoological Congress in Paris in July, then went to Monaco,
Berlin and Vienna for further study of ichthyological collections.
Mr.- R. Baghu Prasad was awarded the Ph. D. Degree in June, his
dissertation being completed in Dr. Bolin's absence. Others of his
students have pursued their work toward the Ph. D. Degree as follows:
Fred H. Tarp continued a systematic study of the fish family
Embiotocidce. This included measurements, skeletal analysis and
statistical work.
H. G. Orcutt studied the starry flounder, Platiebthys stellatus.
with emphasis on embryology and early development; age studies by
scale and otolith readings; observations of gonads to determine age
at first maturity; biometric analysis with reference to sexual dimorphism, and observation of habits and habitats.
Under Professor Giese's direction, Mr. James Nash completed experimental work toward a Master's thesis in the spring quarter on
osmo-regulation in Sipunculid worms. Mr. Schuyler Hilts measured
the carbohydrate content of the body fluids of echinoderms.
Dr. Poul Heegaard (Copenhagen) studied plankton hauls during
the summer, with special reference to arthropod larvae.
Dr. A. R. Moore studied development of the pluteus and metamorphosis in Dendraster excentr^cus.

Hopkins Marine Station

127

Professor van Niel conducted experiments designed to show the


possible accumulation of oxidized materials in purple bacteria during
illumination in the absence of external reducing agents; the results
were negative, probably due to the small amounts produced in the
cycle, and to methods not sufficiently sensitive, Isopropyl alcohol
has been found to function as a simple hydrogen donor for sulfate reduction, being converted to acetone without being used for the synthesis of cellular material (the latter being elaborated entirely
from carbon dioxide and inorganic salts). The culture of various
"iron bacteria" has been begun: these organisms present many physiological and biochemical problems.
A grant from "UNESCO" was received to support the collection of
pure cultures of micro-organisms. This was used to continue lyophilizations; lyophilized cultures have been found viable after two years'
storage.
A chapter on "Comparative biochemistry of photosynthesis11 was
prepared for a forthcoming book edited by Loomis and Frank.
A three year grant from The Rockefeller foundation was received
in support of Dr. van Niel18 researches.
The following investigators worked under Dr. vanNiel's supervision:
Dr. Mary Belle Allen investigated the physiology and biochemistry of thermophilic bacteria. This study included comparison of
the catalase of bacteria grown at high temperatures and at low
temperatures; growth factors for high temperature organisms; the
chemistry of agar decomposition by thermophilic bacteria.
Dr. G0sta Fahraeus carried on experiments on cellulose decomposition by the Cytophaga and other bacteria, investigating the effects of glucose upon this process, and nutrient requirements for
growth.
Dr. Howard Gest (American Cancer Society Fellow) cultured purple
bacteria on phosphate-poor media. He found an interesting fermentation of glutamic and aspartic acids, with the production of hydrogen
in the light.
Dr. Irwin Gunsalus carried on studies of lactic acid bacteria,
soil bacteria, and the utilization of citric and c<keto-glutaric
acids by purple bacteria.
Dr. Helge Larsen (Fellow of the Royal Norwegian Council for
Scientific and Industrial Research) isolated two new strains of
marine green sulfur bacteria in pure culture. These utilize both
sulfide and thiosulfate as hydrogen donor in photosynthesis, the
sulfur compounds being oxidized to sulfate, as in purple sulfur
bacteria. Calcium and iron are essential for the growth, iron being
involved in the formation of the "chlorophyll". The absorption
spectrum of the living cells gives the characteristic absorption
maximum at 730 pu. The "chlorophyll" is very unstable after extraction with organic solvents. The corresponding phaeophytin is
stable and gives absorption maxima at 753, 672, 612 and 545 mu in
carbon tetrachloride.
Dr. J. L. Stokes investigated the metabolism of Escherichia
gol^ with respect to the nature and quantities of fermentation
products, the nature of the hydrogen activating enzyme systems and
the effect of (X>2 on dehydrogenases.
Dr. Irging Tittler (Fellow of the American Cancer Society)
investigated the effects of carcinogens on the growth of the ciliate,

128

Hopkins Marine b'tation

Tetrahymette eeleii. In thiamine-deficient media with glucose,


Tetrahvmena causes an accumulation of pyruvic acid, resulting in
an abnormally early decline of the cultures.
Mr. Wolf Vishniac (Standard Brands Fellow) continued studies
on certain colorless sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Some progress was
made in elucidating the pathways of oxidation of sulfur compounds,
but the critical enigma persists, as to why they do not use organic
substances in their metabolism.
Dr. Jean Wiame (Fellow of the Belgian-American Educational
Foundation) advanced the problem of thiosulfate oxidation by bacteria
which carry out this process in the absence of air by reducing nitrate.
Crude cultures contain two types of bacteria, of which the minority
organism seems to be the sought-for type.
Miss Barbara Wright completed work for the M.A. degree, her
thesis being entitled "Studies in the Biosynthesis of the Aminoacids Glycine and Serine by a variant strain of Escheriachia coli."
Glycine appears to be formed by a decomposition of serine, the
latter proceeding via ketomalonic and glyoxylic acids.
Mr. J. B. Phillips continued as resident Marine Biologist of
the California Division of Fish and Game. Sardine (pilchard) investigations were the main work, as in previous years. In this he
was assisted by Mr. Keith Cox. Mr. Harold G. Orcutt joined this
Division in a half time capacity in April, investigating the life
history of the crab Cancer magister.
Dr. Olin Rulon investigated the effects of various respiratory
poisons on the larvae of Dendraster. Plutei with nearly radial
symmetry developed in some cases.
Under Dr. Skogsberg's supervision the following students continued graduate work:
Miss Eleanor Boone (Mills College) continued studies, on the
earljr development of the polyclad, Leptoplana acticola. Larvae
produced by 50 adults collected once per month have been raised in
constant temperature baths at normal ocean temperatures. Permanent
preparations were made for subsequent study and numerous photomicrographs taken.
Mr. W. Gordon Fields continued study of the squid (Loligo
opalescens). its embryology, adult morphology and natural history
being covered.
Mr. Nathan W. Riser continued studies on the Tetraphyllidea
(Cestoda) begun in January of 1946. Additional collections were
made from Elasmobranchs of Monterey Bay and San Luis Obispo Bay.
Portions of the Linton collection were donated by the University of
Perreylvania for redescription. A small collection was donated by
Dr. R. T. Young of the San Diego Zoological Society. At the request of Dr. J. L. Linsdale, an investigation of the genus Taenia
parasitizing carnivores on the Hastings Natural History Reservation
was begun. A paper on a new Cestodarian was submitted to the
Journal of Parasitology.
Miss Sarah B. Wheetland completed work for the M.A. degree
with the thesis entitled: "The Life History of Aglaophenia struthionic
Mr. D. W. Wootton collected Psolidae, with special emphasis on
the development of Thyonepsolus nutrians. This sea cucumber was fixec
stained and sectioned for morphological study.
Under the direction of Professor Smith, Mrs. Merilyn Kretzer madi
a study of the reproductive cycles of algae through the autumn, a per:

Hopkins Marinetitat ion

129

which had not received much local study. Mr. Paul Silva continued
a study of algae between Monterey and Point Conception, and on the
Santa Barbara Islands. Mr. Ralph Lewin attempted culural studies
of red and green algae, with reference to alternation of generations.
Miss Margaret Dean attempted similar study in Spongomorpha.
Dr. T. A. Stephenson, as Timothy Hopkins lecturer through
September and October, gave addresses at the Station and the campusWith Mrs. Stephenson, he made intensive studies of the ecology of
the shores of the Monterey region, as part of a world survey in
which comparisons will be made with other North American, European,
South African and Australian intertidal zones.
Professor and Mrs. R. S. Turner carries on oscillographic recording of nerve impulses, especially of giant fibres in the sabellid
worm Eadistvlia. with a view to physiological mapping of its nervous
system.
Dr. Erik Zeuthen (Fellow of the Rockefeller Foundation) studied
metabolism during cell division in different marine eggs. With Dr.
Giese he found that the killing of the photosensitive red protozooan
Beloharisma is accompanied by a great increase in oxygen uptake. In
both investigations a refined Cartesian diver technique was employed.
Several honors have come to members of the Staff; Professor
van Niel has been elected to the American Philosophical Society,
Professor Smith to the National Academy of Sciences, and Professor
Bolin to fellowship in the Linnean Society.
There were two outstanding gifts to the Marine Station. A
22 foot steel lifeboat, with 4. cylinder engine, was acquired from
the U. S. Maritime Commission. When certain repairs and alterations
are completed, this will be a most useful addition to our collecting
equipment. Our library and research bibliography were enriched by
a legacy of books and reprints, but especially of an exhaustive card
index of Pacific Coast Invertebrates, prepared through many years by
EQward F. RicketLs of Monterey, whose tragic death occurred this
spring as the result of an accident.
Both of these acquisitions will be invaluable research tools in
the future, toward which the Station turns in confidence after the
most successful and active year of its history.
LAURENCE ROGERS BLINKS
Director
NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM
The teaching and curatorial staff of the Natural History Museum
consisted of LeRoy Abrams and Walter Kenrick Fisher, Professors Emeritus; Albert W. C. T. Herre, Curator Emeritus; Ira L. Wiggins (Director),
Gordon Floyd Ferris, Lloyd Glenn Ingles (Summer Quarter only), George
Sprague Myers, and Willis Horton Rich, Professors; Reed Clerk Rollins,
Associate Professor; Rimo Charles Bacigalupi, Acting Assistant Professor; Roxana Stinchfield Ferris ana Margaret Hamilton Storey, Assistant Curators; Elmer Ivan Applegel^ Acting Curator; Laurence Monroe
Klauber, James William Moffett, Oscar Elton Sette, and Alan Cowie Taft,
Lecturers; Joel F. Gustafson, Janet Haig, Lois C. James, end Joan E.
Thompson, Student Assistants; Beryl S. Jespersen, Sylvia L. Miller and
Barbara W. Law, Secretaries.

130

Natural History Museum


The Dudley Herbarium

Six graduate students engaged in work in systematic botany leading toward advanced degrees during the year, with John C. Moeur,
Henry J. Thompson, and Robert K. Vickery, Jr., completing the work
for the Master of Arts degree. Regul&r courses in taxonomic botany
were offered during all four quarters, with four to eight students
enrolled in each course.
Professor Bneritus LeRoy Abrams continued work on the "Illustrated Flora of the Pacific States.1* completing the manuscript for the
third volume and continuing with the preparation of the fourth and
final volume.
Professor Ira L. Wiggins continued the preparation of the manuscript for the "Flora of the bonoran Desert" and published several
short papers. He made a field trip into Sonora and Baja California,
Mexico, during May through the courtesy of Dr. Albert M. Vollmer of
San Francisco, and collected about 1200 specimens of plants and fishes.
Associate Professor J%ed C. Rollins continued his investigations of
the Cruciferae and of the rubber-producing plant, Guayule. He resigned at the end of the academic year to accept the Directorship of the
Gray Herbarium at Harvard University.
Acting Assistant Professor %mo C. Bacigalupi and Mrs. ^oxana S.
Ferris contributed to the work on the "Illustrated Flora gf the Paeifi;
States" and carried forward the curatorial work of the ^jdley Herbarium.
The total number of mounted specimens in the Herbarium now stands
at 318,230 sheets, A,039 of which had been added during the year. In
addition to those mounted, 6,518 sheets were accessioned during the
year, but have not yet been incorporated into the working herbarium.
Of this latter number 2,660 sheets were collected by staff members,
3,486 acquired through exchange, 924. sheets were donated to the Herbafium, and 443 sheets were obtained in exchange for the determinations made by staff members.
Several loans of specimens were made to workers in other institutions during the year, and the facilities of the Herbarium made available to several workers who visited the ^tanford campus for short periods. Dr. Carl Sharsmith and Mr. J. Frances MacBride made extensive
use of the library and collections during the year.
Entomological Collections
A total of 17 graduate students carried on work in Entomology
during the year. James W. Tilden and Joel F. ^ustafson completed
work for the Ph. D. degree and Feme Atkins, Muhamed Basheer, and
Wesley R. Nowell completed the requirements for the M.A.
Professor Ferris completed the preparation of Volume 5 of his
"Atlas of the Socle Insects pf North America" and brought to substantial completion a volume on a general treatment of the sucking
lice of man and other animals.
The journal MICROENTOMOLOGY is now in its thirteenth year, and
although hampered by rising cost of publication, has been carried
with a decreased output by the assistance of gifts from interested
persons. These gifts total $425 and are lietUindividually elsewhere. During the year a series of four papers by Miss Laura Henry
constituting a study of the comparative gross morphology of the

Natural History Museum

131

nervous system of the Annulata from the Annelid worms to the insects; a paper by Miss Rutn Hancke on the nervous system of the
leeches; and one by Professor Ferris on the principles of comparative
morphology have filled the volume.
Professor Ferris was honored by being named Correspondent of
the Museum National d'flistoire Naturelle de France. He was also appointed Research Scholar, under the administration of the so-called
"Fullbright Funds" and has been granted sabbatical leave for the
year 1948-49 to collect and study the scale insects of China while
affiliated with the Lingnan University, at Canton, China.
During the year two foreign scientists have made use of the
scale insect collections. Dr. V. Prabhakar Rao, of Bangalore, India,
spent approximately three months working with Professor Ferris under
a grant from the Indian Government. Mrs. Zeliah Duzgunes, a student
sponsored by the Turkish Government, spent six weeks here engaged in
similar studies.
Mr. Joel F. Gustafson acted as Assistant in Entomology throughout the year.
Zoological Collections
Dr. Lloyd Glenn Ingles of Fresno State College, joined the
staff during the Summer Quarter, 1948, to teach the course in "Birds
and other Vertebrates", and supervise the research of several graduate students. Miss Janet Haig was appointed for three quarters as
assistant in instruction and research. Miss Storey returned to full
time duty as Assistant Curator. Dr. Herre, Curator Emeritus, went
to the Philippines on a government fishery project. Professor Rich
worked on Alaska salmon problems during the summer for the U. S. Fish
and Wildlife Service and acted as Special Consultant on Salmon Fishery Investigations for the Service throughout the year. Mr. 0. E.
Sette, Mr. A. C. Taft, Dp. James W. Moffett and Dr. L. M. Klauber,
Lecturers, continued to aid us in teaching and Museum work.
Under Professor Rich, three Government of India students, Ra&hu
Prasad, Vishwa Jhingran, and Harbans Lall Arora, completed their
doctorate theses in fishery biology. 0. E. Sette, Francisco Lara,
and John C. Marr continued their graduate work in fishery biology,
and Ed Ray, John C. Briggs and Cardona Cooper commenced fishery work.
Under Professor Myers, Martin Brittah, Robert Harry and Clark
Hubbs worked on doctorate problems in systematic ichthyology and Miss
Janet Haig completed her Masters thesis upon silurid fishes. Miss
Patricia Barton began graduate work on African catfishes, and two
undergraduate students, Jay Savage and Janes Boehlke continued miscellaneous independent research in systematics. Mr. Walter Brown continued his doctorate problem on Solomon Islands herpetology.
The number of students in regular classes was nearly double that
of last year. This and the increased number of advanced and graduate
students put a severe strain on the small available space, as well as
upon funds and time of the staff. With Spring Quarter we had about
reached the utmost capacity in student load of which Zoological Collections, as a Museum teaching unit, is capable.
Research.- Little research was accomplished by faculty or staff,
except for Professor Rich, due to teaching, administrative and curatorial load. He continued his salmon research, and two papers were
published. Professor Myers published a few short papers based almost

132

Natural History Museum

wholly on research done during previous years.


Curatorial.- Greatly increased use of the collections by advanced and graduate students caused expanded curatorial duties in
necessary processing of Museum specimens used for comparison, just
as increased use of a library greatly increases the work of librarians,
For the first time the number of new specimens to be cataloged and
entered into the collections was exceeded by reidentified specimens
to be relabelled and returned to the collections. Curatorially, the
latter is as time-consuming as the former. Nevertheless, 720 lots of
new fishes, 240 specimens of reptiles and 210 of amphibians were entered.
We were at last able to get Hycar rubber gaskets for the cylindrical glass tanks housing the largest alcoholic fish specimens, and a
start was made on rehabilitating these tanks. Due to the sharp limitation of alcohol and assistance, only 21 of 290 tanks were completely
reconditioned. The contents were checked on 22 others, and an up-todate list of tank specimens started.
Efficient means to stop alcohol loss from specimen jars by evaporation are still being sought. New gaskets and liners, and a strippable plastic sealer were tried, with promising results. The physical
problem of application to the tens of thousands of jars remains to be
solved.
Because our large tank of formaldehyde specimens had rusted nearly
through, special funds were made available for the construction of two
stainless steel and redwood tanks, which are now set up behind the
Museum. Our rust-covered specimens from the basement tank were reconditioned and placed in one tank, and Bikini tunas, previously stored
in steel drums, were placed in the other.
The bird collections were worked over the specimens placed in systematic order, largely through the efforts of two students, William
George and Ben Stilwell. Much remains to be done, as many specimens
are uncataloged, and almost no nomenclatural changes have been made
through the years. Five new specimens were cataloged. Miss Storey
arranged the oological collection by A.O.D. numbers, and unpacked and
tagged the beautiful but as yet unidentified collection of eastern
EJcuadorean birds, received some years ago. Many of our mounted specimens are still unhoused.
William V. Mayer, a graduate student, virtually completed the monumental task of reorganizing the collection of mammals, untouched for
several years. This included identifying and cataloging more than
1170 specimens of skins, skulls, skeletons, preserved and mounted
specimens; matching skulls and skins; arranging the specimens in systematic order; redetermining and making the necessary name changes on
the labels and in the catalogs of almost all of the more than 4500
specimens. The serious need for proper cases to house this valuable
collection continues.
Practically the entire backlog of fish papers accumulated during
the war, consisting of 69 volumes of authors1 separates and reprints
were bound and made available for use. This fish pamphlet library,
begun by Dr. Jordan, now comprises 419 volumes, and substantially
reduces the need to have at hand about 1200 serials in which the
articles originally appeared. Only about 10 bound serials are maintained at this library, but several dozen, unbound for various reasons,
were prepared and sent to the main library to be accessioned and cataloged.

Natural History Museum

133

Gifts to the collections were numerous but mostly small.


Loans of specimens sent out to investigators in other institutions
were higher than usual but the return courtesy of loans for our student research work was also above average. The largest single loans
were those of our entire collections of the salamander genera Ensatina
and Aneides. to the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, University of California.
Our usual mutually beneficial relations continued with the 0. S.
Fish and Wildlife Service and California Division of Fish and Game
offices located on the Campus. Student and faculty research, as well
as teaching, were greatly aided by these offices.
Of especial importance this year was the Survey of Brazilian Marine
Fishes of Commercial Importance, a cooperative venture of the University and the National Museum of Brazil, which is housed at the Museum
and supported principally by direct payment of its bills by the Brazilian Treasury Delegation in New York. The Survey was begun by Professor Myers in Brazil in 1943, and the later parts of the program are
being completed at Stanford, Professor Myers acting as director. The
University contributes space, a small part of the fund's, and part of
the director's time. The Survey employed Miss L. V. Smith as Associate
Ichthyologist beginning in March, and Mr. R. R. Harry as Assistant
Ichthyologist for the Summer Quarter. The main shipment of specimens
of commercially important Brazilian marine fishes was received during
the year from Rio de Janeiro, and work on them and on a bibliography
and check-list was well under way by the end of the fiscal year.
The Stanford Natural History Club, a student organization centered in and sponsored by the Natural History Museum, had perhaps its
most successful year since its founding (as the Zoology Club) in the
spring of 1892. The big event of the year was a field trip during
Spring Vacation to Punta Penasco, Sonora, Mexico. Thirty-four students, staff, and guests participated, among whom special mention
should be made of an eminent Stanford alumnus, Dr. S. S. Berry of
Redlands, an authority on cephalopoda, chitons, and land snails. The
party camped en route on Dr. Berry's ranch at Redlands. A great deal
of experience in field biology and ecology was gotten by student
participants, and an important fish collection was secured for the
Museum.
The "Fischverein" an informal organization of local fishery
biologists and ichthyologists, student and professional, completed
its tenth year of meetings with a membership of about fifty-five.
IRA L. WIGGINS
Director

134

Graduate School of Business


GRADUATE SCHOOL OF BUSINESS

Herewith Is submitted my report on the Graduate School of Business for the fiscal year ending August 31, 1948. The year 1947-48 was
the twenty-third year of existence for the School and my seventeenth
year as its dean* During the year the School continued to experience
an unusually heavy program of work and had the largest registration in
its history* The total enrollment of 572 students for 1947-48 compares
with 4-97 students for 1946-47, and with the largest pre-war registration of 226 students for 1938-39. Of this total registration of 572
students, it is estimated that approximately 80$ were attending under
the provisions of the G.I. Bill of Rights, and that the average age of
the students in the School was approximately 26 to 27 years. A total
of 272 M. B. A. degrees and one Ph.D. degree were awarded at the June
Commencement.
The resident faculty for the year consisted of Jacob Hugh Jackson,
professor and dean; Herbert Edward Dougall, David Ernest Faville, Paul
Eugene Holden, Theodore John Kreps, Harry John Rathbun, William Alfred
Spurr, Edward Kellogg Strong, Jr., and John Philip Troxell, professors;
Jesse Knight Allen, Barrett Frederick McFadon, and John Metts Willits,
associate professors; Arthur Kroeger, Carlton Anker Pederson, and Frank
Kuhns Shallenberger, acting associate professors; Edwin Truman Coman,
Jr., assistant professor and director of the Business Library; Clausia
Dennis Hadley, acting assistant professor; Miss Helen Manilla Gibbs,
research associate; and Mrs. Rae Olsen Wirtz, instructor. Professor
Oliver Erasmus Byrd, of the Division of Health Education, and Associate
Professor Leland Taylor Chapin, of the Department of Speech and Drama,
also gave regular instruction in the School.
Special lecturers included Mr. Weld on Bailey Gibson, who gave the
course in Business and Government during the winter quarter and that in
Air Transportation in the spring quarter; Mr. Carl Elliott McDowell,
who gave the course in Ocean Shipping during the autumn quarter; Mr.
Sam T. Dickey, who gave the course in Purchasing during the winter
quarter; and Mr. Sherman Nelson Wyman, who gave the course in Business
Taxation during the spring quarter.
During the summer quarter of 1948, the Graduate School of Business
was especially favored in having three well known scholars from other
leading universities as members of its faculty. These included Dr.
Arthur Warren Hanson, professor of accounting in the Harvard Graduate
School of Business Administration, Dr. Harold Howard Maynard, professor
and chairman of the' department of business organization, Ohio State
University, and Dr. Charles Converse Center, associate professor of
insurance in the School of Commerce of the University of Wisconsin.
Professor Hanson and Dr. Center gave courses throughout the summer
quarter; Professor Maynard taught the advanced work in marketing during
the first term of the summer quarter only.
During the year under review, Dr. Jesse Knight Allen's title was
changed from acting associate professor of finance to associate professor of finance. Late In the year, Associate Professor Barrett F.
McFadon submitted his resignation from the University in order to engage in independent practice as a certified public accountant; he had
completed eleven years of teaching in the Graduate School of Business,
and this record would be incomplete without acknowledging his years of
efficient teaching and loyal service.

Graduate School of Business

135

Miss Carol Kernels continued to serve as the executive secretary


of the School* Mrs* Mildred Boorman, Mrs. Garnita Eriksen, Miss Edith
Kawabe, and Mrs* Gladys Williams have served as secretaries and office
assistants. In the Business Library, Miss Margaret Bird became acting
librarian in November, and associated with her have been assistant
librarians Mrs* Betty A* Akins, Mrs. Katharine Greisinger, Mrs* Adelaide . Mastin, and Mrs* Gertrude H. Saunders.
In addition to the resident faculty and staff named above, the
following prominent executives of the Pacific Coast continued to serve
during the year as consulting members of the faculty: Paul Stuart
Armstrong (general manager, California Fruit Growers Exchange, Los
Angeles), James Byers Black (president, Pacific Gas and Electric Company), S* Waldo Coleraan (president, North American Investment Company), Harry D. Collier (chairman of the board, Standard Oil Company
of California), Paul Lewis Davies (president, Food Machinery Corporation, San Jose), Ralph Kenneth Davies (president, American Independent Oil Company), Don Earl Gilman (executive vice-president, Western
Oil and Gas Association, Los Angeles), Alexander R. Heron (vice president, Crown Zellerbach Corporation), Richard Billiard (Billiard and
Pickthall), George Roscoe Keast (partner, Lybrand Ross Bros* & Montgomery), Joy Lichtenstein (retired; formerly vice president, Hartford
Accident and Indemnity Company), Edward Crossley Lipman (president,
The Emporium Capwell Company), Atholl McBean (chairman of the board,
Gladding, McBean & Co.), Floyd Lester McElroy (vice president, LoomisSayles & Co*), Ernest Boyd MacNaughton, (chairman of the board, First
National Bank of Portland, Oregon), William Adam Magee (president,
Thomas Magee & Sons), Theodore S. Petersen (president, Standard Oil
Company of California), Neill Petree (president, Barker Bros. Corporation, Los Angeles), Samuel Pond (formerly vice president and treasurer, Marine Chemical Company, Ltd.), Arthur B. Foole (vice president,
treasurer and director, American President Lines, Ltd.), Clifford
Ernest Schink (vice president and treasurer, California and Hawaiian
Sugar Refining Corporation, Ltd.), Paul Ainsley Sinsheimer (counselor
and dealer in investments), Dean Witter (partner, Dean Witter & Co.),
and Arthur Rowland Young (formerly vice president, United States Steel
Corporation), consulting professors; William Herbert Carr, (treasurer,
California Packing Corporation), associate consulting professor; and
Benjamin Franklin Warren (chief industrial engineer, Crown Zellerbach
Corporation), assistant consulting professor.
These consulting professors have continued to serve the School
generously and whole-heartedly. Many of them have lectured before our
classes, others have made available to the School valuable and confidential materials, while many of them have given of their wide and
varied experience in consultation with both faculty and students*
Their advice on School policy has been sought on several occasions,
and their interest and advice has been most helpful. The School has
continued to be most fortunate in having available the counsel and
friendship of these men who are outstanding leaders in Pacific Coast
Business.
During the year the School has offered regular courses leading to
both the M.B.A. and Ph.D. degrees in business. As in previous years,
every course has been reviewed and every effort has been made to keep
our entire program of work such that our graduates can meet the new
problems and needs of business in the post-war period. The appearance

136

Graduate b'chool of Business

of many business men before our classes during the year was most helpful in accomplishing this goal.
The total enrollment of 572 regular students in the School included 284. first-year students, 279 second-year students and 9 advanced students working toward the Ph.D. degree. As already stated
this enrollment was more than twice the enrollment of our largest prewar year, and compares with 497 regular students for 194-6-47.
At the regular Commencement of the University on June 13, 1948,
there were awarded 272 Master of Business Administration degrees and
one Doctor of Philosophy degree. Of the 272 M.B.A. degrees, 19 were
conferred as of the close of the 1947 summer quarter, ten at the close
of the autumn quarter, 125 at the close of the winter quarter, and 118
at the close of the spring quarter. These degrees were awarded to 26?
men and 5 women, making a total of 1,132 men and 27 women who have received the M.B.A. degree since the establishment of the School in the
autumn of 1925, A total of 1,237 degrees have been given by the
School during the twenty-three years of its existence; of these 1,159
were the Master of Business Administration, 9 the Doctor of Philosophy, 14 the Industrial Administrator (I.A.) wartime degree, and 55
A.B.'s in Pre-Business also awarded during the war years*
The classes in shorthand and typewriting, offered primarily for
undergraduate students, continued to be given, and some 320 different
students, representing a total of 473 separate enrollments, registered
for the courses. While the large majority of these registrations were
upper division students, a number of lower division students also took
the work. These courses in shorthand and typewriting are service
courses offered for undergraduate students of the University, and, although given under the auspices of the Graduate School of Business, do
not constitute a regular part of the curriculum of the School.
Because of the very large enrollment in the Graduate School of
Business during the year under review, the Business Library again
faced a very difficult problem, namely, that of serving effectively
more than 550 students in its reading room with only 180 seats. However, through the fine cooperation of the faculty, and with some variations in the teaching methods used in the School, the Library continued to be a most helpful source of aid to both the faculty and the
student body.
The Business Library, including the library of the Division of
Industrial Relations, now contains in excess of 13,000 volumes. The
pamphlets, including government and annual reports, total approximately 116,500. Additions during 1947-48 included 1,082 volumes (915
by purchase and 167 by gift), 4,306 annual corporation reports, and
approximately 2,100- miscellaneous pamphlets and government publications (1,150 in the main business library and 950 in the Division of
Industrial Relations). Six hundred forty-four financial, trade,
labor, and business publications are received currently, 394 of these
coming to the main business library and 250 to the Division of Industrial Relations library. The School also subscribes to seven or eigW
of the leading business, financial, and labor services.
The Division of Industrial Relations, under the leadership of its
director, Dr. John P. Troxell, has continued to promote the study of
employee relations, with special emphasis on trends and developments
in the western states. In accomplishing this the Division has had the
cordial cooperation of the executives in charge of industrial rela-

Graduate School of Business

137

tions of leading Bay Region companies. Forty-eight of these men constitute the Stanford roundtable of Industrial Relations, which meets
biHmonthly with the director of the Division for discussion of current
developments in the field, for advising upon research plans, and for
appraising interim reports of research.
The labor organizations, both the A.F. of L. and the C.I.O.,
have likewise given a good measure of cooperation to the Division* It
seems probable that a labor roundtable may be formed, similar to the
business group above mentioned, although this must await developments
within one of the federations, in order that the essential cooperation
between the two major labor groups may be forthcoming.
Coordination in the research programs of the West Coast Industrial Relations Centers is being achieved through the Labor Market
Committee of the Social Science Research Council* Our Stanford Division was host to this committee on August 12-13, 194&, at which time
the five centers
California Institute of Technology, University of
Washington, University of California at Berkeley, University of California at Los Angeles, and Stanford laid plans for the year ahead*
A brochure describing the work of these five centers, and their coordinated plan for the collection of materials in the field, was published by the Stanford Division in May; its title is11 "Industrial Relations Research Centers in West Coast Universities.
In August the Division published Number 10 of its industrial
relations studies, "Attitude Prediction in Labor Relations
A Test
of 'Understanding'" by Lester M. Libo, .a graduate student of the University. Another study nearing completion is "Employee Relations in
Ocean Shipping Companies" by Clark Henderson, also a graduate student*
The Division is also extending to cooperating organizations a service
of rendering information, Insofar as this is possible without imposing
expense upon the Division. As an example of this type of service a
brief study (mimeographed) was issued in July, under the title
"Workers' Earnings Compared with the City Worker's Family Budget: San
Francisco Bay Area." The Division of Industrial Relations has thus
not only continued to be a very active and integral part of the
School's program, but has also succeeded in bringing both the leaders
of industry and prominent labor leaders into contact with the Divisioftfc work and activities*
Early in the year under review the Graduate School of Business
agreed to undertake the preparation of a business history of Pope and
Talbot, Inc., pioneer San Francisco lumber and shipping firm* For
this purpose the company made a grant of $17,500 to the Business
School, and it is expected that the results of the study will be published as a volume in the Business School Series* The research and
writing is being carried on by Assistant Professor Edwin T. Coman, Jr.,
who is being assisted by Miss Helen M* Gibbs, research associate. It
is planned that the history will trace the development of the company
from East Machias, Maine, throughout California and the Pacific Northwest* The centennial of the company coincides with that of the gold
rush in California, and it is expected to have the history completed
and published for the company's centennial celebration*
The Business School alumni groups, both in Los Angeles and San
Francisco, continued to hold regular meetings throughout the academic
year under review. Moreover, the general Business School Alumni Association, of which the Los Angeles and San Francisco chapters are

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Graduate School of Business

integral parts, became a well-knit and efficient operating organization during the year. All alumni and former students of the Business
School, wherever located, are eligible for membership in the Business
School Alumni Association, and are being urged to became affiliated
with it* This is a very definite step forward in the alumni activities of the School, and it is believed that it will prove most beneficial both to the School and to all those who have formerly been
students registered in it*
On Saturday evening, May 15, approximately 205 faculty, alumni
and friends of the School gathered in the dining room of the Stanford
Union for the School's annual alumni dinner* Dr. Dexter S. Kimball,
Dean Emeritus of the College of Engineering of Cornell University, and
a Stanford graduate with the class of '96 was the speaker. Reports
and short talks were also made by several alumni representatives, and
Business School Alumni Association officers were elected for the succeeding year*
The Business School Loan Fund, which was established in 1932 by a
contribution of $200 from the students themselves, had a balance of
$14,510.98 as of August 31, 1947. During the year under review, gift
additions to the Fund amounted to $350.00, and interest accretions
added $36.23 more. The balance of the fund as of August 31, 1948 accordingly was $14,897.21. As of the close of the fiscal year there
were fourteen loans outstanding, having a principal sum of $4,072.64,
and leaving a balance of $10,824.57 for future loans. While this fund
has not had heavy demands made upon it during the period of the G.I.
program, it will shortly again become one of the greatest assets which
the School has in rendering service to students.
Additions to the Business Library endowment funds for the year
under review included gifts of $1,000 from Mr. S. Waldo Coleman,
$2,000 from Mrs. Domingo Ghiradelli, $2,500 from Mr. George R. Keast,
$500 from Mr. William H. Lowe, and $2,000 from Mr. Dean Witter. These
gifts, aggregating $8,000 during the year, bring the total endowment
of the Business Library to $42,725 as of August 31, 1948.
During the year under review, $340 was added to the principal of
the George W* Dowrie Scholarship in Finance, bringing the total principal pf that scholarship to $12,653.50 as of the close of the fiscal
year. The -sum of $1,000 was added to the Frederick Branson Cooley
Memorial Scholarship, making the principal of that scholarship $5,000
as of August 31, 1948. Current scholarship funds for 1947-48 included
two $500-scholarships from the Douglas Aircraft Company, Inc., and a
$1,000 fellowship (plus tuition in case the recipient was not a G.I.
student) from the Standard Oil Company of California. Current money
gifts included $500 in honorarium gifts returned from speakers of the
Stanford Business Conference, and miscellaneous gifts of $1,194.50.
The details of these gifts are included in the annual report of the
President of the University.
The Stanford Business Conference, being the seventh of these conferences held, convened during the week of July 19-23 inclusive. Approximately 250 business executives were registered throughout the
Conference and, in addition, the members of the faculty, the Business
School students registered during the summer quarter, and others about
the University also attended. A very strong program was presented to
the 400 or more people in attendance, with United States Senator Ralph
E. Flanders of Vermont as the keynote speaker of the Conference. A

Graduate School of Business

139

large number of enthusiastic letters were received from easiness men


following the conference and it is the belief of the faculty of the
School that the Stanford Business Conference has been, and will continue to be, one of the most constructive services rendered the business communities of the Pacific Coast by the Graduate School of Business.
Two of the volumes comprising the Stanford Business Series have
continued to sell well during1 the year* In the case of "Top Management Organization and Control * 2,810 copies were sold, and 616 copies
were sold of Professor Strong's "Vocational Interests of Men and
Women.* There has also been a very considerable demand for some of
the minor publications of the School, these being presented In the
form of research studies or brochures.
Volume 17 of the Business School Alumni Bulletin was issued in
November, March, and July of the year under review. Each issue consisted of approximately 18 pages of material in mimeographed form and
about 1,200 copies of each issue were mailed out to alumni, former
students, faculty and friends of the School* As in previous years,
each issue of the Bulletin contained a leading article, a brief massage from the Dean, news of alumni meetings, faculty and alumni notes,
and various matters of interest to our alumni and former students.
The Bulletin thus continues to be a means of keeping alumni and
friends of the School informed of current activities and interesting
developments.
As in previous years the faculty of the School continued to take
an active part in University matters and in business affairs on the
Pacific Coast. The publications of the faculty during the year under
review are reported separately, while their more general activities
are set forth in the following paragraphs:
Associate Professor J. Knight Allen served as a consultant on
financial research in connection with a number of projects being
planned and conducted by the Stanford Research Institute* During the
summer he travelled extensively throughout the United States, conferring with business executives, bankers, and university professors who
are concerned with economic and financial research. The planning work
was done for research on certain banking problems to be studied during
the year. Moreover the problems and methods of teaching finance and
banking and of carrying on research were discussed with a large number
of authorities in these fields.
Assistant Professor Edwin T. Coman, Jr., has spent the year
under review in charge of the Pope & Talbot, Lie*, business history
research project* He gave one-half time to this project during the
autumn quarter, and since January 1, 194&, has been on leave devoting
full time to this work. Also during the year he has served as first
vice president of the California Library Association, and as chairman
of the membership committee and of the constitutional committee of
that organization. He has also served as chairman of the executivecommittee and of the planning committee of the Far Western Regional
Group of the American Library Association, and as a member of the committee on evaluation of services of the Special Libraries Association*
During the year he was appointed a member of the Memorial Church Board
and a Danforth fellow, representing the William C. Danforth Foundation
on the Stanford campus.
Professor Herbert E. Dougall published the second edftion of his

140

Graduate School of Business

Corporate Financial Policy (Prentice-Hall, Inc.) with Professor H. G.


Guthmann of Northwestern University as co-author. He continued his
research in financial administration and served as consulting editor
of business publications for two publishing companies* He served as
chairman of the banking and finance roundtable section of the 194&
Stanford Business Conference and as a member of several of the standing committees of the Graduate School of Business* During the year he
spoke before several business and professional organizations*
Professor David E* Faville served during the year as chairman of
the University committee on publications, as chairman of the University Committee on Research, as a member of the University Radio Committee, as a member of the University Committee on the Development of
the Summer Quarter, as a director of the Stanford Book Store, and as
University representative on General Mark Clark's Civilian Selection
Committee for the Armed Forces Industrial and Economic Mobilization
Conference in San Francisco, He also served on the joint StanfordUniversity of California committee in the preparation of a report for
the government on the consumer price situation in central California.*
He participated in the University course on marriage and the family,
and in the faculty-student "Stanford Speaks" radio program over station KEEN. He addressed the Stanford Alumni Conferences in San Diego,
Los Angeles, and Fresno. He served as marketing panel chairman for
the Fourth Annual Northern California Management Conference* He also
served as editor of the Alumni Bulletin of the Graduate School of
Business, as chairman of the Scholarship Committee of the School, as a
member of the Ph.D. committee and Advisory Committee of the School,
and from time to time as Acting Dean. He was a member of the expansion committee of the American Marketing Association and served on the
education committee of the San Francisco Sales Managers1 Association.
During the summer of 194& he was visiting professor of marketing in
the School of Business of Columbia University* During the year he
published two articles and one book review*
Dr. Glausin D. Hadley assisted in the organization of the business and financial research roundtable of the 1948 Stanford Business
Conference and presided at two of its sessions* He attended the
annual meeting of the Pacific Coast Economic Association in December
and presented a paper at that time. In connection with his courses in
market research and industry analysis he supervised various applied
researches for the benefit of the students of the School. During the
year he published one article and two book reviews, and is at present
working on a volume in the field of applied business forecasting.
Professor Paul E. Holden continued to serve as a member of the
University committee on Who's Who in Latin America and was chairman of
a faculty committee on a new faculty club. In the Graduate School of
Business he was a member of the Advisory Committee and of the committees on Alumni Relationships and Research and Publications* He
continued to serve as president of the San Francisco chapter of the
Society for the Advancement of Management and of the Taylor Award
Committee of that organization. He was also a member of the General
Management Committee, the Administrative Management Committee, the
Honors and Awards Committee and the Work Standardization Committee of
the American Society of Mechanical Engineers He served as a member
of the general committee and as chairman of the Top Management section of the 4th Annual Northern California Management Conference, He

Graduate School of Business

141

was also a member of the Board of Governors of the Stanford Associates, of the Board of Directors of the Stanford Convalescent Home,
and of the Board of Trustees of Castilleja School. He served as consultant to the Stanford Research Institute on the "Expansibility of
Aircraft Industry* project.
In addition to his duties as dean of the Graduate School of Business, Dean Jackson continued to serve as president and a director of
the Stanford Bookstore and was president of the Stanford chapter of
the American Association of University Professors. Throughout the
year he served as a trustee of the Pacific School of Religion, of
Simpson College, of the Teachers Insurance and Annuity Association of
New York, of Kiwanis International, and of the Foundation for Economic
Education, Inc., of New York. He also served as a member of the committee on research of the National Association of Cost Accountants and
of a similar committee of the Controllers Institute of America* He
was a member of the committee which organized and conducted the 4th
Annual Northern California Management Conference in San Francisco. la
June he was elected international treasurer of Kiwanis, and he also
was a member throughout the year of the international finance committee
and international executive committee of the organization. He served
as general chairman of the Stanford Business Conference held during
July. During the year he spoke at the 33rd International Convention
of Kiwanis in Los Angeles, at the district conventions of the
California-Nevada District in San Diego and the Utah-Idaho District in
Ogden, and before approximately forty other business, professional and
service club groups. He published during the year his Harvard Dickinson lectures in accounting and three other short articles.
Professor Theodore J. Kreps was absent on leave during the winter
quarter to serve as Senior Specialist in Price Economics in the Legislative Reference Service of the Library of Congress., He was selected
as the Democratic Presidential elector for the 8th Congressional district of California in connection with the 194& presidential election*
He gave the banquet address at the Conference of the Chemical Industry
on Western Chemical Markets in San Francisco, and spoke during the
year at the Mills Institute of International Relations, the World
Trade Week in Modesto, at a special assembly in Cubberly Auditorium,
and before a number of Kiwanis clubs, student groups and forums. Dtujing the year he published two major articles and three book reviews.
In addition to his teaching load in the Graduate School of Business, Acting Associate Professor Arthur Kroeger assisted in organizing
the distribution roundtable for the 194# Stanford Business Conference
and presided at two of the sessions of that group. During the year he
supervised various market research projects in Palo Alto and Menlo
Park for the National Cash Register Company, providing an opportunity
for various students in the Graduate School of Business to obtain experience in Interviewing. He participated in the Conference on Sales
Management of the San Francisco chapter of the American Marketing
Association.
During the year, Associate Professor Barrett F. McFadon served as
director in charge of publications of the San Francisco Chapter of the
National Association of Cost Accountants. He attended the annual
meeting of the California Society of the Certified Public Accountants
in June, and the monthly and semi-monthly meetings of the Cost Association board of directors. He served as a member of the University

142

Graduate School of Business

panel of lower division advisors, as a member of the University committee on Latin-American studies, and as a member of the scholarship
committee of the Graduate School of Business* He represented the
Graduate School of Business at the meeting of the Purchasing Agent's
Association of Northern California in accepting the Davis B. Gray
Memorial Award for 1948. He spoke in May before the San Francisco
Chapter of the National Association of Cost Accountants on "Management
Requirements for Adequate Cost Control.* He resigned his position in
the Graduate School of Business as of August 31, 19-48 to enter independent practice as a Certified Public Accountant*
Acting Associate Professor Carlton A. Pederson was elected President of the Bay Section of the California Business Educators' Association* He served during the year as a member of the State Executive
Council of the Association and as program chairman for the 194B State
Convention. He also participated in the organization of the program
for the roundtable section on personnel and industrial relations of
the 1948 Stanford Business Conference and served as chairman of one of
the sessions. He vas re-elected secretary-treasurer of the Stanford
Business School Alumni Association at the annual dinner in May* He
spoke during the year before the San Jose Chapter of the National
Office Management Association and published one article during the
year* He has continued his work on a manuscript on salesmanship,
which volume he is preparing for one of the large eastern publishers*
Acting Associate Professor Frank K. Shallenberger continued to
serve during the year as a consultant to the Stanford Research Insti-*
tute, and organized and served as the leader1 of the production roundtable sessions of the 194B Stanford Business Conference* He served as
chairman of a committee to develop and promote courses in Industrial
Arts in the Palo Alto High School and conducted a series of community
roundtables on the subject which were addressed by prominent industrial and professional men of the Bay Area. Under his direction the
Graduate School of Business industrial laboratory was established
during the year, this representing a new experiment in providing realistic instruction in production techniques and incorporating a pilot
line manufacturing operation into the program of the School.
Professor William A. Spurr served during the year as chairman of
othe Stanford University committee on statistics and vice-president of
the San Francisco Chapter of American Statistical Association. In the
Graduate School of Business he was chairman of the Committee on Research and Publication and a member of the Advisory, Library, and
Doctor of Philosophy degree committees* He attended the annual meetings of the American Economic Association and of the Econometric
Society in Chicago in December, and the Institute of Mathematical Statistics in Berkeley in June. During August he held a series of conferences with government officials in Washington on methods of forecasting
business and estimating state income* During the year he organized
the Stanford Statistics Club, which organization he addressed* He
also spoke before the Stanford Chapters of the American Association of
University Women and the American Association of University Professors,
the San Jose Cooperative Society, and various other groups. During
the year he published four papers and one book review.
Professor Edward K. Strong, Jr. continued his research throughout
the year in the field of vocational interest* He spoke in February before the Public Administration Association in Los Angeles on "The

Graduate School of Business

143

Interest of the Public Administrator" and before the Palo Alto Rotary
Club in August on "Vocational Interest Tests*" He published one article during the year, this appearing in the December issue of the
Journal of Applied Psychology.
In addition to serving as director of the Division of Industrial
Relations, Professor John P. Troxell also served as a member of the
Advisory Committee, the Library Committee, and the committees on
Alumni Relationships, Doctor of Philosophy degree, and Research and
Publication of the Graduate School of Business. He spoke before the
California Personnel Management Association, his address being published as a brochure by that organization. As of the close of the
year, he had underway a study of communication channels in industry,
the first section of which, entitled "Plain Talk Between Workers and
Managers," may shortly be published as Industrial Relations study
No. 11.
Associate Professor John M. Willits served during the year as a
member of the Business School committees on Library and Scholarship
and has continued his research in the vocational problems of psychology. He developed during the year a new course, The Interview in
Business, which was first offered during the 1948 summer session of
the Graduate School of Business.
In concluding this review of the academic year 1947-48, it is
perhaps proper to state that the School looks forward to 1948-49 as
another year of large student enrollment, and with library and classroom facilities utilized to their maximum capacity. However, notwithstanding the heavy teaching loads and the unusually large class
enrollments which have characterized 1947-48, and will characterize
1948-49, every member of the faculty and of the staff of the School
has given complete and wholehearted cooperation. It is because of
this that we are able to record 1947-48 as a year of real progress
and genuine accomplishment in the Graduate School of Business.
J. HUGH JACKSON
Professor of Accounting, and
Dean of the Graduate School of Business

144

School of Iduoation
SCHOOL OF EDUCATION

The School of Education in the year 19U7-19U8 embarked upon


the following program:
I* An overall curriculum study program designed to give nore
freedom to the graduate student in his pursuit of his major interest
without curtailing his study of the fundamentals* This program
culminated in the development of a new curriculum for those working
toward the Ed* D* degree in Education* This curriculum devotes
the first two years to work in the fundamentals and allocates the
time of the last year for individual study in the student's field
of concentration*
II* A program for improving the training of secondary teachers.
The secondary teacher training program had been somewhat neglected
during the war period and the period of rebuilding following the
war* It was common practice to employ graduate students as instructors for the teacher education program and even though these were
experienced and well-trained persons the temporary nature of their
employment to some extent destroyed the continuity of the program*
The School of Education now has six full time members of the instructional staff assigned to the task of training secondary teachers*
These individuals have taken leadership in the teacher training
activities promoted throughout the state*
III* A program for training elementary teachers* Elementary
teachers had been sent to San Jose State College for most of their
professional work* Although San Jose presented them with a very
superior program the arrangement was not satisfactory in the eyes
of the students who wished to continue their Stanford contacts for
the four full years* The School of Education now offers a full
four year program for the training of elementary teachers*
IV* A program for improving placement of teachers and administrators. The placement office has added an additional staff member
who is also in the School of Education to take care of teacher
placement* The faculty has also widened its contacts along the
Pacific Coast with Improvement of placement in mind* The majority
of superintendents appointed in California this year have been
Stanford trained* Stanford trained superintendents were appointed
to the superintendencies of Santa ilonica, Redlands. Coronado* and
Coalinga* Former members of the Stanford Suaner School faculty
were appointed to the superintendencies of Pasadena, California*
and Portland^ Oregon* Some twenty-six recent doctoral candidates
were appointed to institutions of higher education*
V* A program for the enlargement of the suoner session. This
program resulted in an increase of almost one hundred per cent in
the enrollment of the 1U8 summer session over that of 19U7. Half
of the students enrolled came from out of the state*
VI.

School of Education

145

This program was made possible through the generosity of Allan and
Gordon Crary who gave the University a grant of $80,000 for this
purpose* The School of Education provided lecturers on the subject
of the teaching of American Ideals and these lecturers spoke in
most of the large cities of the country. The faculty is also completing a series of textbooks in the subject for classroom use*
VII* A program for enlisting the support of other departments
in the University in the training of teachers* The School of Education now has five instructors on joint appointments with other University schools and departments. As new faculty are added it hopes
to increase this number.
The School of Education was the host to the following
conferences^
Education Conference
Workshop on Community Leadership
Guidance Workshops (2)
The staff of the School of Education consisted oft A. John
Bartky, Professor of Education and Dean of the School of Education;
Professors Warren D. Alien*, John C. Almack, Oliver E. Byrd, Head
of the Department of Hygiene, William R. Cowley, Paul R* Hanna,
Ernest R, Hilgard*, Lucien B. Kinney, George Luckett, Quill McNeraar*,
and I. James Quillenj Associate Professors Reginald Bell (autumn,
winter), Alfred H* Groramon*, Walter V. Kaulfers (autumn, winter,
spring), Edward A* Krug (autumn, winter, spring), Henry B* McDaniel,
Donald Taylor (summer), Lawrence Gregg Thomas; Assistant Professors
James E. Curtis; Lecturers in Education Edna Baxter (summer), John
S. Carroll (summer), Herbert Clish (summer), William Cowan (summer),
Donald Drummond (summer), Gardner Hart (spring), Burton Henry (summer) , Genevieve Hoyt (summer), Henry Magnuson (summer), Ernest 0*
Uelby (summer), Edith Mitchell (summer), Virginia Riley (summer),
Isabel Schevill (summer), Frederic Shipp (summer), Andrew Stevens
(summer), Frank Thomas (summer), Emmett Thompson (summer), Paul
Witty (summer)} Teaching Assistants Chester Babcock (spring, winter),
Joseph Blacow (winter), Irving Breyer (winter), John Brown (spring),
Barbara Bruch (winter), Charles Bursch (winter, spring), Stanley C,
Clarke (autumn) Mary Corcoran (summer), Katharine Dresden (winter),
William Drummond (summer), Edwin Duryea (summer), William Dusel (summer), Ruth Ellis (summer), Robert Fox (Summer), Maurice Freehill
(summer, autumn, winter, spring), Marston Girard (autumn, winter,
spring, summer), Charles Gormley (summer), Albert Graves (summer),
Harold Gray (summer), Carl Greenhut (spring, summer), Arthur Hearn
(summer), Helen Helm (autumn), John Hemlick (summer), Margaret Keckler
(spring), Herbert Klausmeier (spring, stumer), Rod Langston (autumn,
winter, spring), Joseph Lantagne (autumn, winter, spring, summer),
Rod McDaniel (suamer), Mary McLean (Autumn, winter, spring), James
ttach (winter), Lucy Mallette (autumn, winter, spring), Ward Melendy
(summer) , Marion Merkley (autumn) , Florence Mote (stunner), Joseph
Morphy (autumn, winter, spring, summer). Mary Scotlock (spring),
Joseph Slack (autumn, winter, spring, summer), Edwin Smith (winter,
spring, summer), Joseph Stanley (winter, summer), James Stone (autumn,
*inter), Jack Sutherland (winter), Donavan Swanson (autumn, winter,

146

b'ohool of Education

spring, summer), Robert M. Thomas (winter, spring), Tiburcio Turabagahan (winter), Craig Vittetoe (summer), Courtland Washburn (spring),
Margaret Whitfield (summer), Raymond WhitfieId (summer), John Wilson
(autumn); Instructors B* Frank Gillette, Jean D* Qrambs, William
J. Iverson, Fannie Shaftel.
The following new persons were added to the staff of the
School of Education: Associate Professors James D. MacConnell (administration) , Harry W. Porter (history), Lloyd Q. Humphreys (psychology)*
Staff members have made the following individual contributions
to the furtherance of education;
Professor Alraack prepared a report on Education in California for the Senate ad interim Committee on Education*
Professor Allen served as member, Committee on Musicology
and Education, Music Educators* National Conference; chairman, Committee for the California Western Division, Music Educators'
Conference; chairman, "What Constitutes a Good Teacher of Music*1 section,
Stanford Education Conference*
Professor Byrd served as member, American Social Hygiene
Association Education Committee; member, California Committee on State
Credential Requirements for the Secondary field in Health Education;
member, Committee on Problems in Teacher Education, California Association for Health, physical Education and Recreation; member, Committee on Athletics for men; Stanford University; consultant, General
Mills Nutrition Workshop, Stanford University. He attended the
Eleventh Annual Spring Conference, Bay Section, California Association for Health, Physical Education and Recreation, February 28, 19^8.
Professor Byrd delivered several talks throughout the State of California.
Professor Cowley acted as consultant to the Air University at
Maxwell Field, Alabama, to Tuskegee Institute, and to Lewis and Clark
College. He addressed such organizations as The Western College Association, the National Association of Deans and Advisers of Men, the
National Association of State Universities, the National Conference
on Higher Education of the National Education Association, the Northwest College Personnel Association, the Hazen Conference at the University of California, the Ninth Annual Conference of Science, Philosophy
and Religion in New York*
Professor Curtis completed his doctoral studies at the University of California and chose for his doctoral dissertation, The Training of Physical Education Teachers." This research was undertaken
in cooperation with the California State Department of Education and
was directed toward an evaluation of the professional training of
physical education teachers in the public high schools of California*
Professor Gillette during the past year completed a Handbook
for Student Teachers * This is being distributed to the supervising

b'chool of Education

147

teachers of the nearby schools and also made available to the current
group of student teachers in the School of Education. In cooperation
with Professor Grambs, he has also organized the Stanford Council
for the improvement of Instruction*
Professor Grambs published an article in Sociatry, "The Dynamics of Psychodrama in the Teaching Situation.*An article written
in collaboration with Professor Kinney on "Sociodrama in High School
Classes'1 is scheduled for early publication in Social Education. She
has cooperated during the past year with the Palo Alto Youth Council*
Group Work section, in experimenting with a new program in teacher
education whereby prospective teachers are given guided leadership
experiences in local youth groups* She helped plan a local regional
conference on youth problems sponsored by the Palo Alto Youth Council
and the Governor's Conference on Youth* As one part of this conference, students in her class in Educational Sociology conducted a
peninsula wide survey of family serving agencies and reported on their
findings to the conference* She organized and conducted a six week
lecture series on "Love and Marriage Today" under the sponsorship of
the Palo Alto Adult Education Department of the Young liens Christian
Association*
Professor Gronmon served as consultant, Contra Costa County
Committee of Teachers of English, and served as dorector of the
Stanford Teachers of English conference. He made various talks
throughout the state.
professor Hanna served as consult, Los Angeles County Public
Schools; consultant, Philadelphia Public Schools; consultant, Seattle
Public Schools; member, Building America Editorial Board; member,
W. K. Kellogg Foundation Advisory Board; member, World Book Encyclopedia, Board of Editors; member, Curriculum Committee of National
Council for the Social Studies; member, Committee on Standards of
National Council of Geography Teachers; member, Committee, State
Curriculum Framework for California Curriculum Commission; member
Committee on Foreign Students, Stanford University; member Committee
on Latin American Studies, Stanford University; member, Committee on
Pacific and Asiatic Studies, Stanford University; chairman, Committee
on Advanced Graduate Degrees, School of Education; member, Committee
on Administrative Credentials, School of Education; Chairman,
School of Education Curriculum Committee; member, Stanford University
Humanities Anthropology group; member, Cleveland Conference; fellow,
International Society of Air Affairs; editor, teaching film continuity
for Encyclopedia Britannica Films. Professor Hanna made numerous
talks throughout the United States*
Professor Hilgard served during the year on the Committee on
Training in Clinical Psychology of the American Psychological Association, concerned with standards for the four year Ph. D* program in
teat field. In Collaboration with Professor David Russell of the
University of California he prepared a chapter on Motivation in School
teaming for a forthcoming yearbook of the National Society of the
Study of Education.

148

School of Education

Professor Iverson undertook a special research project


in the use of audio-visual materials in instruction* This resulted
in developing an audio-visual center serving the School of Education
and the Department of Psychology. Further, an integrated plan
in the professional sequence of courses for developing competency
with these materials was placed in operation. Professor Iverson
served as consultant in audio-visual materials to the Workshop on
Community Leadership*
Professor Kinney served as president, California Council
of Teacher Education; vice president, California Mathematics Council; member, State Accreditation Committee; director, Current
Materials Project of the California Council for the Improvement of
Instruction; member, Council on Cooperation in Teacher Education. As
a member of the latter Committee, he chaired a section at the School
for Executives at Estes Park*
Professor McDaniel served as diplomat, American Board of
Psychological Examiners; fellow, American Psychological Association;
national chairman, Ethical Practices Committee, National Vocational
Guidance Association; consultant, Administrators Summer Workshop,
San Francisco .City Schools; consultant, Hendocino County Committee
on Guidance Services; member, Board of Trustees, National Vocational
Guidance Association; member, Editorial Board, California Journal
of Secondary Education. He conducted guidance workshops for teachers
in Contra Costa County, Santa Cruz County, Tulare County, Los Angeles
County, San Luis Obispo County and the Palo Alto City Schools. At
Stanford University he served as chairman, Master of Arts Committee,
School of Education; chairman, University Vocational Guidance Committee; member, Baker Foundation Scholarship Committee; member,
Committee on Advanced Graduate Degrees Steering Committee, School
of Education.
Professor Thomas called together a representative group of
educational philosophers from five California colleges and universities for a two-day conference at Stanford last September to plan
a survey of the qualifications of instructors in philosophy of
education in the 31 teacher education institutions of Arizona,
California, and Nevada and of the content of the courses taught in
this field* The survey was completed under his supervision during
the fall and winter, and he reported its findings at the February
meetings of the Philosophy of Education Society in Philadelphia*
At these meetings he also was a member of a panel which presented
The Relations of Science and Philosophy," and served as chairman
of the Society* s nominating committee. For the coming year he
is continuing as chairman of the educational philosophers in this
western region who are participating in a national study of the
place of philosophy of education in the professional education of
teachers* His special responsibilities in the life of the University included membership on the Committee on Admission and Advanced
Standing, participating in the Panel of Lower Division advisers,
and faculty representative on the Student Employment Committee*

School of Education

149

DEPARTMENT OF HYGIENE
Division of Health Education.
The Division of Health Education experienced a heavy increase
in student enrolment during the academic year 191*7-1*8, student registration increased in both the non-professional and the professional courses in health education* A total of 2,021 students enroled
in the 27 health courses taught by members of the Department of Hygiene, Division of Health Education, faculty.
The Department of Hygiene, Division of Health Education,
serves both the undergraduate and the graduate student, with courses
in health which are intended for the general university student and
the student specializing in school health work, student enrolment
in the 17 courses which are open to general registration numbered
1,068* Registrations in the health courses which are intended for
the student specializing in school health or in the health education
course required of all teachers numbered a total of 9U3.
A total of U7 students embarked upon or completed a program
in health education during the year* The distribution of students
in terms of the degrees sought or obtained was A* B., 8; tf. A., 23;
Ed, D, 16.
Two types of research were conducted by faculty during the
year. One study was the nature of an exploration of the health
attitudes and interests of high school students* Preliminary work
in this field by faculty members led to acceptance of this problem
as a doctor's dissertation exploring the health interests of 3,000
high school students* The second study, which is still under way,
is concerned with an experiment in the classroom instruction under
the general term of "learning without compulsion,"
During the Summer Quarter, the Department of Hygiene and
School of Education sponsored a two-week workshop in nutrition which
was financed by a grant from General Mills, Inc,
Division of physical Therapy*
Graduate and undergraduate programs have been available at
Stanford with a total enrolment for the year of 105 students* In
addition, 3U physicians and 1U graduate physical therapists attended
special courses given during the summer. Enrolment by quarters is
aa follows: fall, 67; winter, 73; spring, 70; summer, 50; special
courses, U8, Thirty-one students completed the twelve months professional course for graduate and special students. Twelve undergraduate students received the A. B. degree in physical therapy* Ten
students received the A. M. degree in physical therapy*
Six teaching fellows of the
tile Paralysis have been enroled at
graduate students who have had from
perience in the field and have been

National Foundation for InfanStanford this year. These were


three to nineteen years of exstudying for advanced degrees.

150

School of Education

A Physicians' Course in the Treatment of Poliomyelitis was


offered at Stanford Land Hospital on July 7-9> by the Medical School
and the Division of Physical Therapy. Thirty-four physicians
attended.
A Workshop in Physical Therapy was offered sunnier quarter,
composed of two courses s Manual-Muscle Testing and Survey of Massage Techniques. These concentrated courses were given in a three
week period with an enrolment of lit students.
Miss Gertrude Beard, Technical Director of the Department
of Physical Therapy at Northwestern University, was a visiting instructor. Miss Fredrickson, teaching fellow, and Miss Wells, Miss.
Williams and Miss Daniels of the regular staff, completed the staff
for the Workshop.
The Division of Physical Therapy maintains a teaching clinic
which not only serves as a laboratory for the students, but renders
a service to the University and to the community. Patients are referred from the Stanford Health Service and from physicians in the
area and are treated without charge. Patients visited totalled 2521;
for the year*
Members of the staff for the past year were Lacille Daniels,
associate professor and director; William H. Northway, associate
professor and medical director; Marian Williams, assistant professor;
Helen Hardenbergh, acting assistant professor; Caroline Wells and
Beth Phillips, instructors; Barbara Fitch, research associate; Herbert Browne, Lucile Eising and Marshall I. Mason, special lecturers;
Eleanor Cabral and Dorothy Hewitt, acting instructors; Dorothy.
Young, Jeanne Hall and Maxine Schuldt, clinical supervisors; Dorothy
Frederickson, Ruby Green, Verona Hardy, Deborah Kinsman, Sarah
Semans and Esther Snell, teaching fellows*
Beth Phillips, instructor and clinical supervisor, attended
the annual conference of the American physical Therapy Association
held in Chicago in May and presented a paper regarding supervision
of clinical training at a meeting of the School Section. She served
as Chairman of the Education Committee of the Northern California
Chapter of the American Physical Therapy Association and as chairman
of an Emergency Poliomyelitis Committee. She organized a special
course for physical therapists in the Northern California area on
Poliomyelitis care, held in San Francisco, August 19U8.
Maxine Schuldt, clinical supervisor, served as national
exhibits chairman of the American Physical Therapy Association and
as program chairman of the Northern California Chapter of that organization. She attended the annual conference of the American
Physical Therapy Association in May and spent some time following
this meeting visiting hospitals and rehabilitation centers on the
East Coast.
Dr. Helen Hardenbergh, acting assistant professor, served as
a member of the Medical Advisory Committee for the Northern California

School of Education

151

Chapter of the American physical Therapy Association.


Marian Williams, assistant professor, attended the National
Conference of the American Congress of Physical Medicine in Minneapolis in September and later in the month, a three-day clinical
conference on poliomyelitis at Warm Springs, Georgia* In November,
she participated in an exhibit demonstration sponsored by the
National Foundation for infantile Paralysis at the annual conference
of the American Academy of Pediatrics at Dallas, Texas* There she
gave a demonstration twice daily of physical therapy procedures used
during the convalescent stage of poliomyelitis* In May, she attended
the annual conference of the American Physical, Therapy Association
in Chicago, as well as a pre-conference meeting of the national Executive Committee, In July, at the First international Poliomyelitis
Conference in New York City, she assisted with daily demonstrations
of manual muscle testing and with the Stanford Division of physical
Therapy exhibit on Abnormal Walking Patterns with Corrective Procedures* She served as National Relations chairman of the American
Physical Therapy Association and as co-chairman of the Legislative
committee of the Northern California Chapter of that organization.
This year she completed the editing of a series of twelve articles
concerning the various fields for the physical therapist which were
published in the Physical Therapy Review and are available in reprint
n
form,
'
Lucille Daniels, associate professor and director, attended
the National Conference of the Congress of Physical Medicine in
September in Minneapolis, Later in the month, she gave a paper on
"The physical Therapist and her Co-workers in the Treatment of
Poliomyelitis" at the Clinical Conference on Poliomyelitis at Warm
Springs, Georgia, In March, she attended a meeting in New York City
of the epidemic aid units of the National Foundation for Infantile
Paralysis, At the American physical Therapy Association's annual
conference held in Chicago in May, she read a paper on "Methods of
Teaching Manual Muscle Testing" before the School Section, Immediately following this conference, she participated in a two-day meeting
of a special committee composed of medical and technical directors of
physical therapy schools to discuss and make recommendations regarding the examination given by the American Registry of Physical Therapy
Technicians* In July, at the First International Poliomyelitis
Conference in New York City, she gave a brief demonstration daily of
manual muscle testing. This was presented in conjunction with the demonstration section of the program showing integration of treatment
procedures. An exhibit of abnormal gaits and their exercise treatment
which was prepared at Stanford, was shown daily in the scientific
exhibits section* In August, Miss Daniels served as chairman of a
panel discussing "Physical Therapy in the Treatment of the Poliomyelitis Patient," which was part of a special emergency course for
physical therapists in the Northern California area in poliomyelitis
care* She also served on the Board of Directors of the Crippled
Children1s Society of Santa Clara County.
A, JOHN BARTKY
Dean

152

School of Engineering
SCHOOL OF SNGINJ3HISQ

The past year hag been devoted to consolidating the post-war posttion of the School of Engineering. Additions to the staff have added
strength to the faculty of the School, and hare also made it possible
to provide instruction for an abnormally large number of students without general resort to undesirably large classes.
The laboratory facilities have also continued to be improved.
This has been accomplished by agressive1 search for surplus property,
the assistance of a special appropriation for equipment, appropriation!
from gift funds, and a certain amount of government furnished equipment obtained in connection with research projects. Undergraduate and
graduate instruction, and research have all benefited. If this same
rate of progress can be maintained during the next several years, the
laboratory facilities that Stanford has available to carry on work in
engineering at all levels, will compare favorably with those of almost
any engineering school in the country.
The government sponsored research program continues to grow; the
total of such expenditures for research in Electrical, Civil, and
Mechanical Engineering now approaches $300,000 per year. AS indicated
in last year's annual report, this research activity has been closely
integrated with advanced Instruction. As a result, Stanford is not
only doing more and higher quality research in engineering than would
otherwise be possible, it is also training more graduate students, and
is training them better than ever before.
Technical books are the fundamental tools of engineering, and the
Stanford engineering faculty has in the past been notably creative in
this respect. At the present time, in spite of the large amount of
faculty energy going into research, there is more creative writing taking place than ever before. During the past year, two new books and
three new editions of old books have been published by faculty members,
and active work is presently being done on at least eight more manuscripts.
An important trend since the war has been the increasing interest
on the part of industry in supporting fellowships for graduate students.
During the past year new fellowships have been established by the
A irborne Instruments Laboratory, Pacific Electric Manufacturing
Company, and Gilfillan Brothers, and the Sperry Gyroscope Company is
supporting an additional fellowship. There are now 1*1 such fellowship*
or scholarships effective in the School, and several others are under
negotiation.
The publication of a four-page single sheet leaflet entitled the
STAHFOED BXKHNEERING NEWS began during the year. This leaflet is
distributed to all engineering alumni, and gives a factual account of
the activities of the School. It is intended to enable alumni to
maintain a greater familiarity with the Engineering School after they
leave the campus than would otherwise be possible. The response to
this publication has been very enthusiastic.
The graduate enrollment in the School for the past year was slightly under that of the previous year, as a result of the policy adopted
in the spring of 19^7 to limit the number of new fifth-year graduate
students in any one department to approximately ^5. Undergraduate
enrollment has been reasonably constant during the past two years, but
with a steadily increasing proportion of the total number of undergraduates in the upper division. Since most of the undergraduate

School of Engineering

153

engineering instruction is at upper division level, the instructional


load continues to rise, and will probably not start dropping until
the fall of 19**9 or possibly until 1950.
A total of 182 Bachelor's Degrees were awarded at the June
Commencement as compared with 1^8 the previous year. It is anticipated this number will be still greater in 19^9. The advanced degrees
numbered 132, as contrasted with 136 the previous year. It is anticipated that the number of advanced degrees awarded will not change
materially the next year, except that there will be a substantial increase in Fh.D.'s above the 6 shown on the 19^8 Commencement list.
Dean's Activities. During the year Dr. Toman served as Regional
Director of the Institute of Radio Engineers, Director of the engineering College Research Council of the American Society for Engineering
Education, and as Chairman of the RCA Fellowship Board of the National
Research Council. He also was a member of the following committees;
Committee on Army Research Development and Contracting Procedures,
the Committee on Graduate Accrediting of the Engineer's Council for
Professional Development, Policy Development, Nominations, and Research Committees of the Institute of Radio Engineers, Basic Science
and Research Committees of the American Institute of Electrical
Engineers, Executive Committee of the Administrative Council of the
American Society for Engineering Education. Dr. Terman attended
conventions of the American Society for Engineering Education, the
Institute of Radio Engineers, the National Academy of Sciences held in
Austin, Texas, New Tork City, and Washington, D. C. respectively* He
was banquet speaker at the West Coast IRE Convention held in San
Francisco, presented a paper at the Regional Trust Conference of the
American Bankers Association, and before dinner meetings in San
Francisco and Los Angeles of the Stanford Associates and "R" Planners.
He was awarded the Medal for Merit for his war service as Director
of the Radio Research Laboratory*
FREDERICS EHMONS TXBtUJT
Dean

154

Civil Engineering
CIVIL ENGINEERING

Personnel. The active faculty of the department for the year


19*17-48 consisted of the following: Eugene Lodewick Grant, Leon
Benedict Reynolds, James Bertrand Welle, Donovan Harold Young,
professors; John King Vennard, Harry Andrew Williams, associate professors; Clarkson Hill Oglesby, assistant professor; Claud Clifford
Loaax, Jr., Ban Henry Reichel (simmer quarter), Bruce Gideon Woolpert,
Jr., acting assistant professors; Robert Richard Hatheu (winter and
spring quarters), lecturer; William Knapp MacCurdy, instructor;
Lawrance Frye Bell, instructor in industrial engineering; John
Frederick Brants, Joseph Bernard Franzini, Jr., Cedric William
Richards, Jack William Rolston, acting instructors; Oscar Charles
Holmes, Jr. (spring quarter), Roy Francis Hooley (spring quarter),
Newton Fillmore Spraggins (winter and spring quarters), Peter Andreas
Szego (winter and spring quarters), teaching assistants; Florine
Mclutosh, secretary; Otto George Warm, mechanician*
Professors emeriti were John Charles Lounsbury Fish and Charles
Moser; lecturer emeritus was Eugene Valentine Ward.
Individual Activities. Professor Eugene L. Grant served as
executive head of the department during the year. He was Chairman of
the Pacific Southwest Section, American Society for Engineering Education, during 191+7 And was the Section's delegate to the General Council
of the ASXE during 19*18. On June 2, 19*18, he spoke before the Public
Utilities Section of the Commonwealth Club of California on "Public
Utility Depreciation." On June 16 he presented a paper, "The Place of
Statistics Instruction in Engineering Education," at the annual meeting of the American Society for Engineering Education at Austin, Tezai,
He presented the same topic on June 2*1 at the western meeting of the
Institute of Mathematical Statistics at Berkeley, California. On
July 21 he gave the keynote address at the summer convention of the
American Society of Civil Engineers at Seattle, Washington, on the
topic, "Some Economic Aspects of the Development of Columbia River
Power." Throughout the year he was a member of the Executive Board of
the Palo Alto Community Players and served as chairman of that board
beginning in January 19*18.
Professor Oglesby, in addition to his regular teaching duties,
served as an Upper Division Faculty Adviser for civil engineering
students, and as a member of the Publications Committee of the School
of Engineering. He supervised the courses in Elementary Surveying.
Summer Quarter 19^8 he was Acting Executive Head of the Civil Engineer"
ing Department. On December 5, 19**7 he spoke before the northern
California Chapter of the Associated General Contractors on the subject
"Stanford's Construction Option in Civil Engineering." Later, working
with Mr. Winfield H. Arata, Manager of the Northern California Chapter
of the Associated General Contractors, and Mr. Robert Swenson of the
Stanford Appointment Service, he planned and established arrangements
by which Stanford Graduates could obtain employment with contractors.
On December 29, 19**7 he delivered a paper on "The Construction Option
in Civil Engineering" before the Pacific Southwest Section of the
American Society for Engineering Education. This paper was published
in the June 19*18 issue (Vol. 13, No. 3) of the Civil Engineering
Bulletin of the American Society for Engineering Education. He was a
member of the Highways and Transportation Section of the Commonwealth
Club of California, and wrote portions of the Section's report on the

Civil Engineering

155

subject of "A Second San Francisco Bay Crossing Where?" He also


presented the arguments "Favorable to a Parallel Crossing" when the
report was presented to the Club on May 26, 19*18. This stateaent was
published in the Transactions of the Commonwealth Club of California
(Vol. XLIII, Ho. 4, pages 185 * 188)*He continued as a member of '
the Committee on Construction Equipment Education of the American Boad
Builders' Association. On April 8 and 9, 19^8, he attended in San
Francisco the Western States Soils Compaction Conference sponsored
jointly by the Highway Research Board and American Road Builders1
Association. During the summer he attended a short court* in "Asphalt
Pavement Design" given by the Institute of Highways and Traffic of
the University of California. Through the year, in collaboration
with Dr. L. I. Eewes, Chief, Western Headquarters, Public Roads
Administration, he continued work on a textbook in Highway Engineering.
In August and September, he served as Engineer-Author with the Division of Bay Toll Crossings of the Department of Public Works of the
State of California, and, in this capacity, prepared the manuscript
of the Division1& report to the California Toll Bridge Authority.
The textbook for medical school students, Essentials of Public
Health, of which Professor Reynolds was one of four co-authors, and
which was based on the lectures given for the past twenty years at
our medical school, was published in July. It is one of the Essentials
Series published by Lippincott. Professor Reynolds continued to
serve as chairman of the Library Committee of the School of Engineering; he has been chairman since the committee was established in 19*12.
He continued as a trustee of the Matadero Mosquito Abatement District
and as chairman of the Revision of Constitution Committee of the
California Sewage Works Association; he was appointed on the committee
of the California Section of American Water Works Association to
select the recipient of the Fuller Award.
Professor Tennard devoted a large part of his time to strengthening the graduate courses in hydraulics and fluid mechanics and the
remainder to improvement of laboratory facilities for graduate instruction and research in these fields. He served on the University
Lower Division Committee. He was appointed representative of the San
Francisco Section of the American Society of Civil Engineers to the
new Heat Transfer and Fluid Mechanics Institute, and also served the
latter organization as a member of the Papers Committee. He alto was
a member of the Committee on the J. C. Stevens Award of the American
Society of Civil Engineers.
Professor Wells served on the Advisory Council of the Committee
on Engineering, Foundations and Walls, for the Pacific Coast Building
Officials Conference. He was chairman of the Board of Public Works
of the City of Palo Alto and continued as a trustee of the Matadero
Mosquito Abatement District. He was a member of the committee to
study new hospital facilities for the City of Palo Alto. He was
consulting engineer for Thomas and Whipple on various structural
engineering projects, consultant for Weihe, Frick, and Kruse in connection with structural problems of the proposed new Law School building
at the University, consultant for Spencer and Ambrose on the design
of structural features of Crothert Hall dormitory, and consultant for
the Pacific Telephone and Telegraph Company in connection with
preliminary investigations on rehabilitation of an existing exchange
building. He attended meetings of the San Francisco Section of the

156

Electrical Engineering

American Society of Civil Engineers, the Structural Engineers'


Association of Northern California, as well as subcommittee meetings
of the Pacific Coast Building Officials Conference.
Professor Williams continued his research on plastic bending of
aluminum alloy beams in addition to teaching courses in Applied
Mechanics. In January, 19*18, he submitted a report to the National
Advisory Committee for Aeronautics on "Pure Bending in the Plastic
Bange vhen Loads are not Parallel to a Principal Plane." This report
is being prepared for publication by N.A.C.A. further investigations
in this field were continued under the sponsorship of the Air force.
Professor Donovan H. Young gave new courses in Advanced Dynamics
and Arch Analysis in addition to regular undergraduate courses in
Engineering Mechanics. He served as chairman of a special committee
to design curricula and formulate general departmental requirements
for graduate degrees in Civil Engineering. The summer quarter was
devoted to revision of Engineering Mechanics and to reading proof
for a new book on Advanced Dynamics written in collaboration with
Professor Stephen Timoshenko.
Engineer's Degrees. Thirteen degrees of Engineer were awarded.
Master's DegreesT" Thirty-one degrees of Master of Science were
awarded.
EUGENE L. GRANT
Executive Head
Civil Engineering Department
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING
Personnel. The faculty during the academic year were Professors
3oaepV SoyieT Carroll, Hugh Rlldreth Stilling, Karl Spangeriberg, and
Frederick Emmons Terman; Acting Professor Leonard franklin Toller;
Associate Professors Leland Hermon Brown, William George Hoover, and
Ward B. Kindy; Acting Associate Professors Henry Porter Blanchard,
Lester Marshall field, Norman Hallam Moore, and Joseph Mayo Pettit;
Assistant Professors Skipwith Wilmer Athey and Edward Leonard Ginston;
and Acting Assistant Professors Robert Arthur Helliwell, Laurence
Albert Manning, and Oswald Garrison Villard, Jr.{ Lecturers were
Donald I. Cone, Harold farley Elliott, fred Charles Hanker, William
B. Hewlett, Josiah Pickard Jollyman, Charles Vincent Litton, and
David Packard. It is with deep regret that the death.of Esra
Frederick Scattergood, a lecturer in electrical engineering for nearl;
twenty-five years, is recorded.
Acting for the Summer Quarter were Professor Halph Judson Smith,
Assistant Professor G. Allen Smith, and Visiting Professor Andrew
Alford. Professor Karl Spangenberg was acting executive head of the
department during the summer.
Research associates and assistant, teaching assistants, and other
brought the total department staff to number over 110 persons.
fellowships were awarded to the following graduate students!
the Hewlett-Packard fellowship to frank Wesley Clelland, the Harris
J. Ryan High-Toltage Research fellowship to Tseng-Wu Liao, the
National Canners Association Lighting Research fellowship to David
Calvin White, the Sperry Gyroscope Company fellowship to Wayne G.
Abraham, the Sylvania fellowship to Vernon Byron Westburg, and the
Westinghouse fellowship to Preston William Byington. The Nathanial

Electrical Engineering

157

Richard Morgan Scholarship was awarded to Sills Lincoln Honey. Ho


award was made of the Electric Heating Research Fellowship, or of the
Harold Farley Xlliott Scholarship or the John Stewart Low Scholarship.
Establishment for the coming year of the Airborne Instruments Laboratory Fellowship, the Gilfillan Scholarship, an additional Sperry
Gyroscope Company Fellowship, and a substantial addition to the endowment of the Nathanial Richard Morgan Fellowship by Mrs. Frederick
8. Morgan are recorded with pleasure.
General. The level on which instruction is given, and also the
number of students receiving instruction in electrical engineering,
continued to increase during the year. Improvement in the undergraduate curriculum that has been brought about gradually during the
past five years has made possible an elevation of the quality of
electrical engineering instruction. The availability of new books
has contributed to this advancement. It may well be that * higher
level of competence of the students in the department, resulting from
more rigorous selection, is also an important factor. The number of
undergraduate students in electrical engineering courses has never
been so great, and may be expected to continue to increase for another
year or two.
The year opened with 112 graduate students in electrical engineering. Between 30 and 35 of these plan to work toward the doctorate.
The advantages of having a group of graduate students of this number
continues; the inspiration of many interests and varied backgrounds,
together with the opportunity to offer a broad variety of courses,
are of great value. Individual instruction and research for the more
advanced post-graduate students have been integrated with research
carried on under the sponsorship of industry and governmental agencies.
Indeed, the instruction and research programs have contributed so
much mutual value that either would be greatly handicapped without the
other.
The greater part of the departmental research activity is carried
on under contract with the Office of Naval Research. The Air Force,
the Signal Corps, and private industry also sponsor a number of
electrical research projects. The research policy continues to
follow the principles reported last year, for 19^6-^7. Most of the
faculty of the department take part in the research activities, and
all of the research faculty take part in the instructional program.
The outlook for the research program is that it will continue at
approximately the present level of activity. There is no apparent
reason for increasing the scope of research work at present, as both
staff and physical facilities are now fully employed, and the amount
of activity is favorably related to the number of graduate students,
and hence the University has declined to undertake certain additional
projects. On the other hand, it is not anticipated that there will
be difficulty in maintaining contract work on the present level for
the predictable future.
Individual Activities. In addition to the instructional program
of the" department, to which all the faculty contributed, the following professional and academic activities are reported*
Dr. Leland Hermon Brown was in charge of the illumination Laboratory and the Electrical Machinery Laboratory of the department, and
assisted with department administrative work. He was a vice president of the South Pacific Coast Region of the Illuminating Engineering Society, chairman of a United States sub-committee of the

158

Electrical Engineering

International Commission on Illumination on Classification of


Luminaires, and a member of the following national committees: InterSociety Color Council; Illuminating Engineering Society Committees
on School Lighting, Color and Illumination, Daylighting, Industrial
Lighting, Cannery Lighting, and Conference with the National Council
of Schoolhouse Construction; and the American Institute of Electrical
Engineers' committee on Production and Application of Light* He gave
addresses on lighting before various technical bodies at Seattle,
San Francisco, Stanford, and Sacramento* He also gave two evening
lecture demonstrations on lighting fundamentals for Sanitation Classes
of the National Canners Association. He attended the National Convention of the Illuminating Engineering Society in New Orleans in
September 19^7 and its South Pacific Regional Conference in Los
Angeles in November 19^7 where he was chairman of the afternoon
session* In the summer of 19^8, he attended a one-week lighting
conference for university professors at Nela park, the Lighting Research Laboratories of the General Electric Co. at Cleveland, Ohio.
He assisted the University in some of its lighting problems and was a
Lighting Consultant for Safeway Stores Inc., and for Dean W itter
Company.
Dr. Joseph Snyder Carroll directed the activities of the Ryan
High-Voltage Laboratory, and continued in charge of an Army Signal
Corps research project. The latter project was an Investigation of
the insulation in small high-voltage transformers. Other tests made
under his supervision included high-voltage impulse and sixty-cycle
wet and dry tests on a lightning protective gap to be used on the
Bonnevilie Power Administration 220,000-volt power transmission
system. During the summer Dr. Carroll made a trip to Los Angeles
to aid in the planning of a continuation of corona loss measurements
in the desert in cooperation with the Bureau of Power and Light,
City of Los Angeles. The purpose of this study is to obtain data for
the design of additional high-voltage power transmission lines from
the Colorado Elver to Southern California. Dr. Carroll served as a
member of the sub-committee on Instruments and Measurements of the
American Institute of Electrical Engineers.
Dr. Leonard T. Fuller continued to direct the operations of the
Office of Research Coordination for the School of Engineering.
Stanford research contracts with Government agencies Increased in
number and dollar total during the year. The Office of Research
Coordination now serves contracts in the Departments of Civil and
Mechanical Engineering, Mathematics and Metallurgy, as well as in
Electrical Engineering.
Mr. Bobert Arthur Helliwell continued in charge of radio propagation research sponsored by the Central Radio Propagation Laboratory
of the National Bureau of Standards. He attended the two joint meetings of the International Scientific Radio Union and the Washington
Section of the Institute of Radio Engineers held in Washington, D. C.
At the first of these meetings, in October 19^7, he presented a paper
On the Measurement of Ionospheric Virtual Heights at 100 Kilocycles."
Dr. William 0. Hoover was associated with the Signal Corps
sponsored investigation of transformer insulation at the Ryan Highvoltage Laboratory. He supervised graduate student thesis research
projects at the above laboratory; including studies of methods of
silver to copper attachment for electric contacts, breakdown of gaps
on the fronts of impulse waves and electric strength of oil and oil
vapors at various pressures and temperatures. In addition to

Electrical Engineering

159

conducting several impulse tests at the Ryan High-Voltage Laboratory


for various manufacturers, he participated in June in tests at Grand
Coulee Dam where he measured recovery voltages during short-circuit
interruption tests involving a greater power concentration than previously available anywhere in the world. He served as Counselor for
the Stanford Branch of the American Institute of Electrical engineers
and as chairman of the Student Affairs Committee of the Pacific
District of the same organization* In the latter capacity he attended
the summer General Meeting of the American Institute of Electrical
Engineers at Mexico City, Mexico.
Dr. Joseph Mayo Fettlt continued as supervisor of a research project sponsored by the Office of Naval Research, encompassing the
development of a new kind of microwave vacuum tube, and the advancement of certain aspects of communication circuit analysis. He
delivered a report before the Counter-measures Intercept Symposium
convened by the Research and Development Board in Washington, D. C.,
November 13, 19^7. In March 19^8, he attended the annual National
Convention of the Institute of Radio Engineers in New York City, and,
as a member of the Institute's Technical Committee on Radio Receivers,
met with this group during the Convention. Appointed by the Institute
of Radio Engineers, he served as Institute Representative at Stanford
University. He was selected for listing in the forthcoming new edition of Who's Who on the Pacific Coast.
Dr. Hugh Hildreth Skilling, as executive head, coordinated the
various activities of the department, participating in plans for future improvement and helping guide the plans and policies of the department. He served as a member of the following University committees}
Vocational Guidance, Public Exercises, Graduate Study, and Pacific
and Asiatic Studies. Following the retirement of Dr. Frederick Emmons
Terman from the committee elected by the faculty of Stanford University
to advise the Board of Trustees on the selection of a new president,
Dr. Skilling served on that committee also. For the American Institute
of Electrical Engineers, he served on the national Committee on
Education, the Program Committee of the San Francisco Section, the
Technical Papers Committee of the San Francisco Section, and the
Electronics Subcommittee of the Pacific Coast District. He attended
the Pacific Coast General Meeting of the Institute at San Diego in
September, 19^7* He continued giving public addresses on the general
subject of nuclear energy and the Bikini atomic bomb tests, to various audiences. He completed work on a book "Fundamentals of
Electric Waves,* second edition, which was published in August, 19*18.
He substantially completed work on a book, "Exploring Electricity*,
for non-technical readers, to be published in the coming year* He
began preparation of manuscript for a book on electric transmission
lines for future publication*
Dr. Karl Spangenberg continued direction of a research project for
the Office of Naval Research relating to broad-band microwave oscillators. He also continued to direct the electronic activities of the
department, and during the Summer Quarter he was acting executive
head of the department. He completed work on a book entitled "Vacuum
Tubes,* which was published in 19^8. At the end of the year he
completed arrangements to join the Office of Naval Research in Washington, D.C., where, on a temporary appointment for the coming year*
be will head the Electronics Division in charge of a program of fundaaental research sponsored by the Navy in university and industrial
laboratories.
HILDR]BPH SKILLING
Professor of Electrical Engineering

160

Meohanioal Engineering
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

Teaching Staff. The teaching staff for the year 19^7-48 consisted
of Volney Cecil finch, James Norman Goodier, Boynton Morris Green,
Lydik Siegumfeldt Jacobsen, Alexander Louis London, Alfred Sales Nilei
llliott G. Reid, Stephen P. Timoshenko, professors; Nicholas Minorsky,
acting professor; Henry Peter Goode, associate professor; Robert
Stevenson Ayre, acting associate professor; Donald L. Mason, frank
Fred Peterson, Albert Abbe Rove, assistant professors; Maxwell A.
Heaslet, Robert T. Jones, Gerald E. Hitzberg, lecturers; Paul G.
Bisslri, John A. Clawson, Charles R. Garbett, Villian M. Kays,
Marshall B. McDonald, R. Wallace Reynolds, instructors; Mrs. Evelyn G.
Sarson, department secretary; George M. Baggs, Holger J. Jespersen,
A. Philippidis, research associates.
General. The enrollment of graduate students in the department
averaged 73 during the academic year. The decrease in the number of
graduate students, to a large extent, Is attributable to the high
requirements demanded for entrance. It is the unanimous feeling of
the faculty that the caliber of our graduate students has been much
better this year than in the prerious onei The sponsored research
undertaken by several members of the faculty has progressed satisfactorily and is an excellent aid in keeping up high quality of
graduate work.
Emeritus Professors. At a ceremony at Moffett field. Dr. William
F. Durand was presented with the Presidential Medal for Merit in
recognition of his outstanding scientific contributions to aviation
during World War II.
Professor Timoshenko offered courses in the Fall and Winter quarters. He attended the December meeting of the American Society of
Mechanical Engineers. He obtained a research project under the OUR
the development of methods and new solutions for specific problems
in plasticity with especial regard to effects of strain hardening".
He left for Europe early in the Spring quarter in order to acquaint
himself with the research going on in numerous European universities.
Staff Activities. Professor Goodler offered new courses in
applied mechanics and also took over half of the courses formerly
offered by Professor flmoshenko in his two year series of graduate
instruction. Professor Goodier obtained a research contract with
she OKR to investigate "the application of the non-linear theory
of elasticity to elastic stability."
Professor Green, in addition to teaching his courses in kinematlci
and machine design, was in charge of the Ordnance Gage Laboratory.
The future plans for the Gage Laboratory are that the Stanford
Research Institute will take it over.
Professor Jacobsen acted as chairman of the department and supervised OHR sponsored research in the field of applied mechanics. Two
reports on the research work were completed and trips in connection
with the research were made to Seattle, Washington, and Boston,
Massachusetts. He was made chairman of the Advisory Committee on
Engineering Seismology and attended numerous meetings of this com**
mittee here on the Pacific Coast. He made four trips to Washington
as a member of the Research and Development Board's Panel on Seismology, Soil Mechanics and Tolcanology.
Professor London, in addition to his courses in thermodynamics,
had the supervision of two OHR research projects in the fields of

Mechanical Engineering

161

heat transfer and thermodynamics. His work has resulted in several


reports and two papers. Professor London attended the meeting of the
ASM! in December, the meeting of the American Society for Engineering
Education, and the Heat Transfer and Fluid Mechanics Institute in
June. In connection with his sponsored research work, Professor London made two trips to Washington, B.C., visited the Atomic Energy
Commission Laboratories at Oak Ridge, Tenn., and various manufacturers
of heat transfer equipment.
Professor Niles supervised sponsored research in the field of
aircraft structures. He also worked on the revision of his textbook,
"Airplane Structures". He visited several airplane factories in
Southern California. Professor Niles was appointed a trustee of the
Starr King School for the Ministry in Berkeley.
Professor Eeid, besides teaching his courses in aerodynamics,
investigated the possibilities of acquiring a high-speed wind tunnel
for Stanford. He attended the National Advisory Committee for
Aeronautics University Conference on Aerodynamics at Langley Field,
Virginia, the Summer Meeting of the Institute of the Aeronautical
Sciences at Los Angeles, and the NACA Conference on Supersonic
Aerodynamics at Ames Laboratory, Moffett Field, California.
Professor Minorsky gave a course throughout the year on the introduction to non-linear mechanics. He was in charge of a government
sponsored research project in the field of non-linear mechanics which
resulted in five reports and in four technical papers.
Professor Goode took an active part in the Society of Industrial
Engineers (for the Bay area). He is now vice-president of the organization. He gave three lectures on quality control to U.S. Navy
inspectors in the San Francisco area. He worked during the Summer
quarter on a Navy research project on sampling inspection by variables.
Throughout the year he acted as coordinator for the Stanford-Food
Machinery Corporation Cooperative Training Program.
Professor Ayre gave a course during the Summer quarter and was in
charge of the research work on applied mechanics. He visited several
Naval establishments in Washington, D. C. and took part in the meeting of the American Society for Experimental Stress Analysis. Two
reports were completed for the Navy by Dr. Ayre.
Professor Mason improved the facilities in the Foundry and in the
Forge and Welding Shops. The surplus equipment received by these
shops has now been permanently installed.
Professor Petersen did non-sponsored research on fuel additives
and sponsored research on a Navy project entitled "Investigation of
Mechanics of Cross Stiffened Steel Plates." Professor Petersen made
a trip to Wright Field in connection with the Army sponsored combustion research and a trip to Washington, D.C. in connection with the
research on stiffened steel plates. He was a Stanford delegate to
the Diesel Engine Manufacturers1 Association at Berkeley.
Professor Howe improved the facilities of the Machine Shop by
supervising installation of surplus equipment. He attended the meeting of the Society of Engineering Education at Mar in Junion College.
Mr. Garbett finished the design of a model high-speed wind
tunnel, especially adapted for heat transfer research. He published
paper jointly with Professor London.
Mr. Baggs worked on Professor Niles research and taught a course
during the Summer quarter.
Mr. Jespersen worked on Professor London1s research.
Mr. Kays conducted part of Professor London's research in heat
transfer.

162

Mechanical Engineering

Dr. Philippidia published several papers in the field of plasticity while working on Dr. Timoshenko's research.
Summer quarter. Twenty-nine graduate students were registered
during the Summer quarter. The following teaching staff was on duty:
Professors Jacobsen, Acting Associate Professors Ayre, Baggs, Assistant Professor Howe, and Messrs. Garbett and Reynolds.
Publications. The publications of the staff have been submitted
by the Individual
members to the University Library.
Engineer1s Degree. Jour Engineer's degrees were awarded.
Master of Science Degree. Thirty-nine Master of Science degrees
were awarded.
Doctor of Philosophy. The degree of Ph.D. was awarded to George
Ford.
Friges. The William Boberts Xckart price has not yet been awarded
this year.
LTDIK SEIGUMFBLDT JACOBSEN
Professor of Mechanical Engineering

School of Humanities

163

SCHOOL OF HUMANITIES

Staff* During the year the School was served by the following
faculty!Raymond D. Harriman, Janes A. Work (Summer), acting deans;
Felix M. Keesing, George T. Renner (acting), professors; Jeffery
Smith, associate professor; Bernard J. Siegel, acting assistant
professor; Weldon B. Gibson, William C. Steele, John L. Taylor,
lecturers! Ronald Hilton, director, Hispanic American Program, and
Anthony E. Sokol, acting director, Pacific-Asiatic and Russian
Program*
John W. Dodds, dean, and C. Langdon White, professor, were
absent on leave*
Members of departmental faculties who taught in the courses of
the School were: William Irvine (English), Philip W. Harsh
(Classics), George F. Sensabaugh (English), Friedrich W. Strothmann
(Germanic Languages), Virgil K. Whitaker (English).
Members of Committees* The Executive Committee members were:
Raymond D. Harriman, Ray N. Faulkner, Anthony E. Sokol, Richard F.
Jones, Bayard Q. Morgan, William L* Crosten, John R. Reid, Frederick
Anderson, and Hubert C. Heffner.
The personnel of the Program Committee was: Edward M* Farmer,
Raymond D. Harriman, John R. Reid, Virgil K. Whitaker, and James A*
Work.
Fields of Study. Under the Jurisdiction of the School for the
year were:Anthropology; Archaeology; Geography; Religion;
Hispanic American, and Pacific-Asiatic and Russian regional studies;
Honors Program.
Graduates. Students received the degree of A.B. for work in
the following concentrations: Anthropology, 1; Archaeology, 1;
Arts, 1; Geography, 17; Hispanic America, 10; Music, 1; PacificAsiatic and Russian, 16. One student was awarded the A.B. for a
major in History, with Honors in Humanities. Six of these fortyeight students were graduated with "Great Distinction," five with
"Distinction."
Honors Program. During its second year the Honors Program
developed steadily? Twenty-four students were enrolled in the
Program, two of whom were graduated: Paula Jones, who was graduated
with "Distinction," majored in History and wrote her Honors essay
on "The Development of Native Tendencies in Early American Art";
Roger Tilton, an Art major, completed his Honors essay, "The
Objectives of Painting in Terms of Its Visual Means," but was not
granted Honors in Humanities because, to save a quarter's time, he
was graduated "At Large."
The following committee administered the Program: Virgil K.
Hhitaker (chairman), Henry G. Bugbee (executive secretary), Ray N.
Faulkner, George H. Knoles, Jeffery Smith, and Friedrich W. Strothmann.
The first year's emphasis upon careful advising of the students
continued, and an increasing number of students came to members of
the committee to discuss the problems of their university programs,
even though they were not immediately interested in the Honors
Program. To many of these students the possibility of a carefully
planned program running through their entire undergraduate career

164

School of Humanities

came almost as a shock, and a very pleasant one. These conferences


were, in effect, a service to the university at large. Daring the
conferences it became increasingly apparent that the limitation of
the work in the Program to the School of Humanities and the Department of History prevented its meeting the needs of many students
who were interested in other subject-matters but who wished for the
kind of integrated program that the School offers.
It was necessary to drop several students because of their
failure to maintain a "Btt average. A few students, partly as a
result of their work in the Program, developed interests which led
them to withdraw so that they could concentrate somewhat more
narrowly in a chosen subject*
Twice each quarter informal evening discussion meetings for
the entire group were held in faculty homes. At one meeting Robert
Quinn outlined the project for his senior essay, and at another
the Reverend Joseph F. King, visiting chaplain, led a discussion
on contemporary religious problems. At the last of these meetings
the students in the Program entertained the faculty committee at a
picnic*
Hispanic American Program* This Program, under the direction
of Professor Ronald HiltonJ continued very successfully during this
academic year* Under the auspices of the Program, there is now a
sprinkling of graduate students doing research throughout Latin
America. In connection with the enlarged summer program of Stanford
University, a Hispanic American Institute was held during the summer
months. The highlight of this program was the meeting of West
Coast Latin Americanists held on June 19 and 20, which was attended
by distinguished Latin Americanists not only from the Western states,
but also from Washington and several Eastern universities. Mr*
John Qange gave a series of lectures on the Bogota conference. Dr.
Antonio Carneiro LeSb gave five lectures on the evolution of
society and education in Brazil. Dr. Agapito Rey, a visiting professor from the University of Indiana, lectured on the Spanish
period of California history*
The Casa EspaHola, one of the features of the summer session,
was approved on a regular basis and will henceforth function throughout the academic year*
Pacific-Asiatic and Russian Program* The work of this Program
has continued to grow in importance as an academic unit of the
University* The Program was served largely by the Department of
Asiatic and Slavic Studies, in cooperation with the departments of
Art, Music, History, and Political Science. It is constantly being
strengthened by the addition of new staff members in the Department
of Asiatic and Slavic Studies as well as in the other cooperating
units* During this year the number of majors in the Pacific-Asiatic
and Russian Program was: 23 in autumn quarter; 19 in winter; 17
in spring; and 11 in summer. Sixteen students were graduated with an
A.B. degree during the course of the year; of these, four were
elected to Phi Beta Kappa; two were graduated with great distinction,
and one with distinction. A number of graduates of this Program
are continuing their work as graduate students in other departments
of the University, especially in the Department of History. The
Pacific-Asiatic and Russian Program thus begins to serve in an
increasing measure as a preparation for graduate work in the field
of Oriental or Russian history*

School of Humanities

165

Daring this year the Chinese Ministry of Education continued


its Chinese Cultural Scholarships, from which five students benefitted.
Mr. Chan is the first member of the staff to take advantage
of the Rockefeller Travel Grants, which were established to enable
the faculty members of the Pacific-Asiatic and Russian Program to
keep in touch with developments in the countries of their interests
and so increase their value to the Program* Professor Claude
Buss, of the History Department, is in the Far East at the present
time, while other staff members are scheduled to begin their study
trips during the autumn quarter of 191*8-1$,
Foundation Support* In addition to the grants given for
faculty travel indicated above, the Rockefeller Foundation continued its support for the development of Far Eastern studies*
The Viking Fund Humanities-Anthropology project was continued
during the year, following the important conference held at Santa
Barbara in May, 19kl* The main activity was a series of fifteen
dinner meetings followed by discussion, in which some twenty-eight
faculty members from humanities and social science fields parti- 11
cipated. The central themes
chosen for analysis were "personality
("character") and "value.11 Records were kept of these discussions
and a report is being prepared on them by Dr. B. Siegel. Several
lines of possible collaborative research are being considered as
part of the continuation of this unique activity, made possible
by a Viking Fund grant*
Creative Arts Prizes. The School offered two prizes of $100
for work in creative art, one for musical composition, and one for
art* This is the first year a prize has been offered in music,
and it was the opinion of the judges that none of the manuscripts
submitted met the standards of the contest. The art prize, offered
for the second year, was awarded to Robert Bigelow upon the recommendation of a jury consisting of Mr. Spencer Macky, Director of
the California School of Arts and Crafts, Professor Ernest Hilgard,
head of the Department of Psychology, and Professor Victor Arnautoff
of the Department of Art.
Faculty Activities* Mr. Dodds spent his sabbatical leave
in study at the Huntington Library, Yale University, and the
British Museum* He has in preparation a book to be entitled
"Biography of a Decade:! I8iil-l85l," He continued to serve, in
absentia, as a member of the Executive Committee of the Pacific
Coast Committee on the Humanities for the American Council of
Learned Societies, as a director of the National Council of Teachers
of English, and as a trustee of Mills College. Before leaving the
campus in the fall he set up and launched the Humanities-Anthropology discussion meetings* Although inactive for the year on the
Editorial Board of The Pacific Spectator, he contributed an article
to the autumn issue of that journal*
Mr. Keesing, Professor of Anthropology, conducted regular
classes in this subject during the autumn, spring and summer
quarters. During the winter quarter he directed the writing of a
general handbook for the Navy Department on the Trust Territory
of the Pacific Islands, working with staff members of the School
of Naval Administration. This handbook, to be used in training
and administration, was prepared under a special contract with the
Navy, and is now in process of publication* Mr. Keesing directed

166

School of Humanities

the reorganization of anthropological collections in the Stanford


Museum, and the preliminary planning for the new Department of
Sociology and Anthropology which will open in the fall. With Mr.
Heffner he supervised the Viking Fund Humanities-Anthropology
project. He also took part in the research planning of the Hoover
Research Institute* During the late summer of 1?U7 he spent six
weeks in Western Samoa as expert consultant to a United Nations'
Mission investigating for the Trusteeship Council a petition for
self-government sent by the Samoan people of that territory. In
April he was appointed by President Truman as United States'
Senior Commissioner on the newly formed six-power South Pacific
Commission, and he made a quick trip to Sydney, Australia, in
May for the first session of this body. In November he was
among a group invited by the Social Science Research Council to a
conference in New York on World Area Research. In December he
attended the annual meetings of the American Anthropological
Association, presenting 1a paper on "Dynamics of a Nationalist
Movement: Western Samoa. * In May he was elected Vice President
of the Society for Applied Anthropology. In June he presided
over a symposium on Micronesian research presented by the Pacific
Science Board, as part of the AAAS. meetings held at University
of California. During the year he also gave a number of addresses
to groups in the Bay area, and wrote several articles and book
reviews.
Mr. Renner contributed two maps in color, together with
captions, to the American Magazine. The first was a map of the
United States showing vulnerability to atomic bombing to accompany
an article by Robert M. Hutchins, Chancellor of the University of
Chicago, in the December, 1U7, issue. The second was a world
map showing control of the oceans for an article by W. Stuart
Symington, Secretary of the Air Force, in the February, 19U8,
issue. This year Mr. Renner completed a study of the principles
of industrial localization, begun fourteen years ago under the
auspices of the President's Executive Office in Washington, D.C.
He also contributed four chapters and the seven sectional introductions to a textbook in geopolitics to be published soon by the
Thomas Y. Crowell Company. In July he addressed the summer
session faculty of Fresno State College on Russian-American
Relations. In August he addressed the Fresno Lions Club on the
Geopolitics of Post-War Europe. Mr. Renner collaborated with Mr.
HVhite in two projects (see below under "White), and was invited to
present a paper before the Canadian War College on the Pattern
of Military Defense for the Americas.
Mr. Siegel attended the annual meeting of the Anthropology
Association at Albuquerque in December. He also attended the
meetings of UNESCO in San Francisco (May 13-15) as a delegate of
the American Anthropological Association, and participated in the
"Human Relations" panel sessions. During the autumn quarter he
spoke before the graduate Psychology Club on "Problems in the
Culture-Personality Field." He participated as anthropological
discussant in the West Coast meeting of Latin Americanists held
at Stanford June 19-20, and in the Slavic Seminars at the Hoover
Institute during the academic year. During the summer quarter he
acted as anthropological research consultant in the Hoover Institute
on the project entitled "Revolution and the Development of

School of Humanities

167

International Relations." He served as curator of American


anthropology at the Stanford Museum, and directed work in preparing materials for student display. Hie participated in and analyzed
for the group the Viking Fund Humanities-Anthropology discussion
meetings* Mr. Siegel has in preparation a textbook in introductory
anthropology for McGraw-Hill Publishing Company; a book of readings
in anthropology for the Free Press, Chicago; an article entitled
"The Effect of Shifting Land Ownership and Population Increase on
The Pueblo Culture Pattern at Taos, New Mexico,11 based on research
carried on during the summer of 19U7* He is also engaged in a
joint research project with Dr. M. Levin of Washington
State
College on "Some Aspects of Personality and Culture.11
Mr. Steele spent the month of June in completing a survey of
social and economic conditions in Breathitt County, Kentucky, the
results of which are to be published in the Journal of Geography*
Mr. Taylor participated throughout the year in both the
geography and the Pacific-Asiatic and Russian programs in the
School* As a result of his interest Phi Chapter of Gamma Theta
Upsilon, National Geography Fraternity, was organized at Stanford
with twenty-five charter members in April. Mr* Taylor prepared
three papers for publication later this year* School and Society
will feature an article entitled "Problems of Education in the
American Trust Territory of the Pacific"; the Journal of Geography,
"Guam, Focus of the Pacific"; and Education, "The Little Red
School House Comes to Saipan." He participated in several research
problems for the School of Naval Administration. He also appeared
before campus and Peninsula groups where he spoke on various
phases of administrative, political, and geographic problems in
connection with the Trust Territory of the Pacific. He presented
a paper on "Land Utilization in Saipan1* at the annual meeting of
the Pacific Coast Geographers' Association at Berkeley in June.
He was elected to the Executive Board of the California Council
of Geography Teachers and became a charter member of the Far
Eastern Association, a newly established organization of persons
engaged in study, research and teaching of Far Eastern affairs*
He served as the representative of the American Society of Professional Geographers at the UNESCO Conference in San Francisco.
Mr* White has been Visiting Professor of Human Geography in
San Marcos University and the new Institute of Geography in Lima,
Peru, during the academic year. He made an economic geographic
survey for PANAGRA in Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador,
Panama, and Peru. This survey was concerned with air cargo possibilities* He also studied the possibilities of modern industrialism (manufacturing) in South America, carrying on field investigations in Brazil and Uruguay in addition to the countries mentioned
above. In collaboration with Mr. Renner and Mr. Weldon B. Gibson
he engaged in the preparation of a book dealing with the principles
of geonomics, a pioneer attempt to formulate the theory of economic
geography and resource utilization* Mr* White and Mr. Renner are
authors of a college textbook, Human GeographyAn Ecological
Study of Society, which was published this spring.
JAMES A.WORK
Acting Dean

168

Art
ART

The department faculty for the year included Ray Nelson


Faulkner, professor and executive head during the autumn, winter, and
spring quarters; Edward McNeil Farmer, professor; Daniel Marcus
Mendelowitz, associate professor and acting executive head during
the summer quarter; Victor Mikhail Arnautoff, Millard Buxton Rogers,
Victor King Thompson, assistant professors; John-David Paul
LaPlante, instructor; Friedolin Kessler, James A. Lawrence, acting
instructors; Anton Refregier, visiting professor; Michael Czaja,
Visiting associate professor; Edith Mitchell, lecturer*
In addition to his administrative and teaching responsibilities,
Mr. Faulkner was elected Chairman of the Policy and Research Committee and member of the Executive Committee of the Council, National
Art Education Association; acted as judge of the Second Annual Exhibition of Painting, Palace of the Legion of Honor, San Francisco,
Kingsley Art Club Exhibition, Crocker Art Gallery, Sacramento, and
Centennial Art Contest, California State Fair, Sacramento; served as
expert consultant for UNESCO conference, San Francisco. University
committees on which he served were Honors Committee, Graduation Committee, Viking Fund, Public Exercises Subcommittee-Motion Pictures,
and Summer Quarter Committee* Mr. Faulkner lectured to the following groups: Stanford Alumni Conference, San Diego and Los Angeles,
Women's Vocational Committee, Stanford, Adult School Institute and
Art Education Workshop, San Francisco, Oakland Art Teachers Association, Mills College, Oakland, and the San Jose Art Club, San Jose,
California,
Mr. Farmer, in addition to teaching, handled the advising and
registration of students for the department; was appointed Art
Editor of the Stanford art series to be published by the Stanford
Press; delivered a lecture at opening of Palo Alto Art Club annual
exhibition; executed one portrait commission; exhibited oil paintings
in Student-Staff show, Stanford Art Gallery, watercolors (onennan
show) at Mayfield Public Library, oils and watercolors (one-man show)
at Palo Alto Public Library; served as President of the Western
College Art Association, directed Western College Art Association
Conference at Stanford, April 19U8, was elected Secretary of Western
College Art Association for 19U9, served as Director of the Arts and
Skills Corps of the American Red Cross for Palo Alto and Redwood City;
taught adult classes at Palo Alto Art Club throughout Ili8.
Mr* Mendelowitz had one-man exhibitions at the Crocker Art
Gallery, Sacramento, California (watercolors), Thomas Welton Stanford
Art Gallery, Stanford University (oils and watercolors), Cowie
Galleries, Biltmore Hotel, Los Angeles (watercolors); exhibited in
group exhibitions of the Santa Cruz Art Association, Annual Exhibition
of California Artists, January 19U8, Student-Staff show, Thomas Welton
Stanford Art Gallery, Stanford University, Paintings of People,
Thomas Welton Stanford Art Gallery, Stanford University, Gump's.
Group of Contemporary Watercolorists, San Francisco, Skylight Studio,
Palo Alto; represented in the permanent collection of California
watercolorists collected by Cole of California. As guest lecturer
for December at Coe College, Cedar Rapids, Iowa, Mr. Mendelowitz
lectured on "Education Through the Arts," and "An Unfamiliar American
Art Tradition." He also lectured to the Turlock Reading Club on
"Pre-Columbian Art," Stanford Dames on "Contemporary American Art,"
Palo Alto Art Club on HA Painting Trip in the Northwest," Social

Art

16$

Science 120, Marriage and the Family, on "The Modern House," Education 11*6, Core Course in Secondary Curriculum, on "Art Education."
Mr. Mendelowitz co-chaired the exhibition of faculty-student work in
the Stanford Art Gallery; worked with Hoover War Library on the
Carnegie Foundation Project in Education on International Affairs;
served as a councillor to the Pacific Arts Association and as a member
of the jury for the San Jose Art Club,
In addition to his teaching, Mr. Arnautoff exhibited paintings
in the Student-Staff show at the Stanford Art Gallery and the
San Francisco Museum of Art's invitational exhibition of works by Bay
region artists, participated in the group exhibition of contemporary
artists at California Labor School, San Francisco, illustrated (wood
engravings) the limited edition of selected writings by Mike Quinn
entitled ON THE DRUMHEAD; served as President of the Russian American
Society and as a member of the Board of Directors of the American
Russian Institute, and served as chairman of the committee which
awarded the Humanities Department prize in art. Mr. Arnautoff gave
a talk on Russian painting at the Russian American Society and another on the art of Palekh at the Stanford Art Gallery.
Mr. Rogers lectured on "Chinese Art" on the Tuesday Evening
Series and "The Development of Space Representation in Chinese
Painting" at the deYoung Museum; served on the Pacific-AsiaticRussian Committee and the Library Committee for the Purchase of Books
on the Far East; made a survey of library resources on art history
and made a report to the Director of Libraries; initiated a research
project on the chemical analysis and the metallurgy of Chinese
bronzes. Beginning with the winter quarter Mr. Rogers assumed responsibility for advising graduate students.
Mr. Thompson collaborated with Mr. Mendelowitz in the design and
construction of the Student-Staff exhibition in the Stanford Art
Gallery; directed the design of the "Stanford Builds", exhibition which
nas produced by the architectural design students; built for Stanford
Planning Office a scale model of Crothers Hall and proposed Quadranglej
designed one residence in Saratoga, California and another in Palo
Alto; exhibited pottery at the Columbus Gallery of Fine Arts with a
group of Columbus, Ohio ceramic artists, and exhibited four watercolor paintings in the Young Artists Exhibition sponsored by the
Palo Alto Women's Club.
Art Gallery Staff. Mrs. Robert Cross acted as Associate Dire ctor~^fnEEe~Ga33!ery~"and was responsible for the temporary exhibitions. Professor Millard Rogers and Mr. John LaPlante undertook the
authentication of the Oriental materials. All clerical work was done
by part-time student assistants, an expedient that proved to be markedly inefficient and seriously retarded progress.
Museum Staff. The year's emphasis and main effort have been
placed on reorganization. Under the direction of Dr. Ray Faulkner,
Director, and Mrs. Robert Cross, Associate Director, this reorganization has resulted in the formation of three departments growing
naturally from an abundance of material in three separated fields,
and an urgent need for research on these materials. These departments are: the Department of Anthropology, with Dr. F. M. Keesing as
curator, assisted by Dr. Bernard Siegel; the Department of Classical
Antiquities, with Dr. Hazel D. Hansen as curator; the Department of
Oriental Art, with Mr. Millard Rogers as curator, assisted by
Mr. John LaPlante. Although the Egyptian collection is extensive,
no department has as yet been formed to work on it. During the

270

Art

summer Mr. Fred Triplett, with the advice and help of Professors
Hanson and Rogers, completed the renovation of the cases and the
objects, and arranged a new display. Mrs* Robert Cross is acting as
curator of Californiana and Stanfordiana, in addition to her other
duties* With the exception of Mrs, Cross, Mr. Rogers, and
Mr. LaPlante, the staff is composed of various members of other departments on a volunteer basis who are able to devote only a portion
of their time to the work. A great deal of assistance has come from
interested students who have voluntarily worked in the Museum under
staff supervision* All of the work of the staff has been seriously
retarded by the lack of competent, continuing clerical assistance*
Without a permanent secretary the work of cataloging and labelling
as well as the routine office details have been accomplished in a
slow, unsystematic fashion*
Instruction in Art
Program.The purposes of the instructional program, stated in
last year's report, continued to receive attention* Five ways in
which the program needed strengthening were listed, and the progress
made in these directions is as follows:
1. Orientation courses specifically planned for Lower Division
students*
Prior to this year there was no course or series of courses
planned to give students a basic orientation to art* During
the winter
quarter of 19U7-U8 an experimental "Introduction
to Art11 was offered as a lecture course* Supplementing the
lectures with laboratory and discussion sessions would have
greatly increased its effectiveness, but there was neither
faculty time nor suitable space for such activities. The
experiment will be continued next year*
A lecture course on "The Modern House" was also newly offered
to orient interested students in this art area of immediate
and practical concern*
2* More intensive historical and critical courses for students
in art and other areas of specialization*
The appointment of Millard B, Rogers made possible the offering of new courses in "Chinese Art," "Japanese Art," "Medieval
Art," "History of Sculpture," "Contemporary Art," and "Museum
Techniques" to augment the previous work in this area* The
additional courses not only strengthen the program for art
majors but have proved valuable to students in other specializations. The faculty, however, is unable to offer all
courses needed in this area which suggests the temporary expedient of appointing an art historian for one quarter each
year to enrich this area*
3. Craft and design courses emphasizing theory and practice in
three-dimensional work, especially as related to industrial
and architectural design*
The loss of Seymour Locks to San Francisco State College
weakened instruction in the general area of basic design and
in such more specialized areas as commercial art and textile
design* A faculty member whose competence lies in the area of"
design, possibly together with the handcrafts, is urgently
needed*
The appointment of Victor K. Thompson to take charge of the
Pre-Archltectural and Pre-Industrial Design curricula resulted
in numerous revisions of this phase of instruction* The

Art

171

courses most directly related to those curricula were markedly changed in content to place more emphasis on threedimensional organization nith studio problems directly related to contemporary practices and theories.
A new series of courses on "House Design," "Interior Design,11
and "Landscape Design" was offered*
"Wood Carving," offered on an experimental basis, proved highly successful. Plans to install a minimum shop to provide
opportunities for working with such materials as wood, metal,
and plastics have been formulated. When this shop is in operation, its facilities will do much to acquaint the limited
number of students for which space is provided with direct
understanding of the nature of some materials.
The need for instruction in ceramics, weaving, and more
specialized nork in wood and metal persists.
U. Art education courses emphasizing procedure at the public
school and college levels.
For several reasons (notably lack of sufficient faculty and
facilities for handcrafts), Stanford has never developed a
strong program in the training of art teachers. The appointment of Edith Mitchell to the summer session faculty marks a
step forward, but under present conditions it is still not
feasible to make this instruction either comprehensive or
intensive.
5. Courses in photography and graphic processes.
Woodblock printing and silk-screen printing remain the only
offerings In this area although the need for instruction in
other types of print-making increases.
Thus, considerable progress has been made toward achieving the
desired goal of an art program of """fi"" value to students majoring
in art as well as those in other fields. Nevertheless, as noted atone,
there are still phases of art completely neglected and others only
partially covered. Further development is necessary in the evolution
of a program that makes its full contribution both to liberal education and pre-professional art training.
Plans were laid to reatudy in detail during the coming year the
courses and curricula now offered. As the department has grown, the
need for coordination of the entire instructional program and for
careful consideration of the content and procedures of each course
has become self-evident. As a result of preliminary discussions, it
was proposed that the content of studio courses in drawing and painting be expanded to include critical study of master-works and increased emphasis on principles, theories, vocabulary, and materials;
and that studio courses in architectural design begin with intensive
study of varied types of construction in relation to the design of
small structures. The faculty plans to undertake a study which it is
expected will give additional understanding of such problems aat the
art needs of all Stanford students} the most effective course content;
and the most efficient procedures through irtiich this content can fulfill student needs.
Enrollment. Seventy-eight undergraduate (upper division) students were registered as majors in Art and the degree of Bachelor of
Arts was granted to forty-three. Thirty-seven students were registered for graduate work and the degree of Master of Arts was granted to
six.

172

Art

The yearly total class enrollment for the past seven years is
shown in the following table, together with the number of Art majors
(both upper division and graduate).

19lil-U2 19U2-U3 19U3-UU 1?UI^U5 19U5-U6 19U6-U7 19U7-U8


Students l,OUl
Majors

U8

721

718

739

1,123

1,581

1,80U

3U

29

19

52

98

11$

Space and Equipment. The new studios in the Art Gallery have
proved their worth during the past year although the need for increased light and ventilation in Studio III was marked* The installation
of a shop in the basement of the Art Gallery will be invaluable in
the instructional program and will also be of service in organizing
gallery exhibits.
The need cited last year for an art reference room continues to
be acute. Art reference and illustrative materials continue to be
inconveniently and more or less inaccessibly housed in two sections
of the Library and in three widely separated art buildings* There is
still no space in which students and faculty can pursue a coordinated
study of books, reproductions, prints, and lantern slides* The
further development of historical and critical work at the undergraduate and graduate level has sharply revealed the inadequacy of
present facilities.
Available reference materials have been carefully studied and the
many lacunae indicated. A few of these have been filled during this
year, but it will undoubtedly take several years to bring the collection of art books up to minimum standards. Illustrative materials,
such as original prints and reproductions of other works of art, suitable for critical study remain as meager as last year* The collection
of lantern slides, however, has been considerably strengthened.
Re commendations .
1. That the instructional program be strengthened through additional offerings in the history of art, in general and specialized types of design, in handcrafts, and in print making*
2* That the space and equipment needed for a coordinated program
of instruction and exhibitions be given careful study.
3* That steps be taken to bring the collection of reference and
illustrative materials to adequate proportions.
U* That an art reference room be provided.
Art Gallery
Program* The primary aim of the Art Gallery has been defined as
being twofold: first, the responsibility of providing exhibitions of
art which are an integral part of the total University programj and
second, to maintain a center of common interest for both students and
residents of the surrounding communities. The exhibitions scheduled
during 19U7-U8 were planned with these aims in mind. They were, in
so far as was feasible, integrally related to the program of instruction in the University, as demonstrated by the exhibitions of "Social
Satire of the 18th Century," "Frank Lloyd Wright Houses," "Cities of
Europe," "United Nations," and "The Inca." Shows were also planned
to coincide with and relate to public exercises, traditional functions
and ceremonies, as in the "Paintings from the Stanford Collection,"
"Student and Faculty Exhibition," and the "Stanford Builds" exhibits.

Art

173

The value of planning shows in this manner is reflected in the


increased Gallery attendance for the year. Gallery attendance rose
from 21,251 the previous year to 27,128 or an increase of 2B% over
the preceding year with no comparable rise in total University enrollment*
Permanent Collection. Many objects from the permanent collection
of the University, both from the Museum and Art Gallery, were shown in
the Gallery during the year. The earlier documentation of the Leventritt Gift of objects in the permanent collection had seemed somewhat
inadequate. During the past year a reauthentication of the Chinese
art objects was completed, and these objects were documented and rearranged. Six new wall cases were constructed for the cross gallery
to increase the possibility of showing small objects. These cases
are being utilized at present in showing pieces from the collection
of Siamese and Japanese pottery, porcelain, lacquers, and sculpture
from the permanent collection of the Gallery.
The problem of proper maintenance and necessary restoration of
objects in the permanent collection remains unsolved. A goodly number
of them are in serious need of expert care of the sort beyond the resources of staff and budget.
The desirability of having an adequate collection of prints and
reproductions, cited in last year's report, has been intensified by
the development of the instructional program in art history.
Acquisitions. All additions to the permanent collection were
acquired through gifts. Mr. Mortimer C. Leventritt made two gifts to
the Gallery: a gilt bronze Buddhistic votive image of the early T'ang
Dynasty, China; and a three-color glaze incense burner of the Ming
Dynasty, China.
Miss Helen Furman of Los Angeles donated two oil paintings of
Mrs. Leland Stanford's aunt and uncle (her own great grandparents).
Loans. Several temporary loans were shown in the Gallery during
the year as the basis of, or in connection with, the regular exhibitions. These included: various groups of prints from the collection of Mr. Moore S. Achenbach of San Francisco, a group of Peruvian
ceramics and textiles from the University of California, and a show
of "Contemporary Watercolors and Drawings11 from Mills College. In
addition, several individual objects and paintings were loaned at
various times by residents of the surrounding area.
Temporary Exhibitions. Exhibitions and Gallery attendance have
been mentioned.Following is a schedule of shows and attendance
figures for each.
Exhibition

Dates

1. "Paintings of People"
Sept.23-0ct.19
2. "Mendelowitz Retrospective" and
Oct. 26-.Nov.l6
Lorin Barton etchings
3. "Leventritt Collection" including
Nov. 20-Jan. U
Goya etchings
U. "Paintings and Drawings by Edgar Swing" Jan. 6-Jan, 25
5. "Cities of Europe" and Stanford
Jan. 27-Feb.l
Camera Club
6. "United Nations" and The Elements of Feb. 17-Feb.22
Design. Palekh Lacquers from Russia
in cross gallery.

Attendance
21UU
2U65
2078
1727
1805
Ul;0

174

Art

1. "The Inca" LIFE photographs. Peruvian Feb.


ceramics and textiles. Recent Russian
wood engravings in cross gallery.
8. Mills College Collection "Contemporary Mar.
Watercolors and Drawings" and "Ivan
Messinger Lithographs"
9. "Department of Art Student and
Mar.
Faculty Exhibition"
D. Art Center Photographs
Apr.
XL. "Stanford Builds"
May

2l*-Mar. 7

1171

9-Mar.27

1221

33^Apr.25

3UOO

27-May 11
l$-Aug.29
Total

1695
8982
27128

Space and Equipment. With minor exceptions, the space and equip
ment problems cited in last year's report maintain: lighting is insufficient; suitable space and equipment for necessary work is lacking; and the facilities for storage are highly inadequate.
Recommendations.
1. That the documentation of the permanent collection be continued.
2. That plans be formulated for disposing of those objects of
insufficient merit to be maintained as part of the permanent
collection*
3. That those objects to be retained be properly restored and
maintained*
U* That a lending collection of prints be started.
. That a full-time stenographer become part of the staff.
6. That the lighting in the galleries be improved, and that
suitable work and storage space be developed.
The Leland Stanford Junior Museum
Program. The program of the Museum has been largely one of
expediency because no long-range plans for the continuance of the
Museum have been approved. Under such circumstances, it has seemed
advisable to perform those labors basic to any program formulated in
the future.
Behind the locked door labelled "Closed for Inventory," objects
have been assorted, some of them partially documented, and reorganization of three major areas undertaken* It is clear that without
greatly increased financial support the Museum cannot be opened to
the public.
At present the Museum serves as an admirable place for a few
selected students in Art, Archaeology, and Anthropology to pursue
advanced study and to learn something of museum techniques. In the
near future it is expected that portions of the Museum collection can
be made available to interested students for study and research, eithi
individually under supervision of the staff or in larger class groups
Thus, the program is developing in the direction of a study museum,
not an institution for public exhibitions. This, of course, onlyhints at the educational potentialities inherent in a university
museum*
The Anthropological Collections. In the spring of 19U7 Dr. Keesing was invited to assume responsibility for the anthropological materials in the Museum and during the summer these materials were
segregated from the other objects. In the fall Dr. Keesing was joined by Dr. Siegel and subsequently both members of the faculty gave
what time they could to the reorganization* Several advanced students in anthropology also gave assistance. Dr. Siegel assumed

Art

175

supervision of the American Indian collections which form the most


extensive anthropological materials in the Museum. Dr* Keesing
assumed over-all supervision and gave attention to the collections
from other regions, including the Pacific Islands, and to potential
display materials in physical anthropology and prehistory. All artifacts in the Museum have been assembled either in the anthropology
gallery on the second floor of the Museum or in the anthropology
storage section of the basement, and have been sorted into regional
categories. The anthropology gallery mas cleared out with the cooperation of the Museum staff, the display cases re-planned, and displays prepared in a preliminary way. This work, however, is at the
most rudimentary stage due to the very limited staff time allotted on
a voluntary basis to these activities, the lack of basement lighting,
storage facilities, reasonably cleaned-up work space, and technical
equipment.
The Collection of Classical Antiquities. This collection consists almost entirely of the Cesnola Collection of objects excavated
on Cyprus and displayed in the Museum prior to the earthquake of 1906.
The collection consists of about U,000 vases, 300 lamps, 300 figurines,
200 glass vessels, a small group of ivories and bronzes, and several
hundred coins. The vases range over a 2000 year period from the
Bronze Age down to the Roman Period, while the rest of the objects
belong to the classical Greek and Roman periods* More than half of
the objects were broken during the earthquake and the rubble relegated
to the basement where it lay abandoned in chaotic disarray for many
years. In the fall of 19U6 Dr. Hazel D. Hansen of the Classics Department assumed the responsibility of salvaging the collection* With
the aid of three students, the first two quarters were spent in removing debris, packing crates, and nonrelated material from the entrance
to the storage area and in finally uncovering the material itself
which had been massed into heaps upon the floor. Work progressed
slowly at first. As there was no electricity in the basement, it was
necessary to use flashlight illumination. The next year lights were
installed and the University constructed storage shelves in the room
as well as a washtub outside the Museum to facilitate washing the
sherds. During the autumn quarter 1?U7 Professor Hansen was on leave
of absence from the University and the work begun was carried on by
her students* Throughout the winter and spring quarters these students, three majors in archaeology and one in chemistry, gave invaluable assistance, devoting three full afternoons and Saturday
morning of each week to the task of repairing the vases. During the
past year much progress has been made. The enormous mass of about
300,000 sherds, now washed and assorted, were more thoroughly cleaned,
segregated, and arranged in chronological sequence* Two hundred small
vases and twenty-eight large ones have been completely repaired* Work
in progress includes two hundred partially repaired vessels of various
sizes* These vessels are as complete as possible at present and await
their full restoration using plaster replacements of missing sections.
4. catalogue of the collection is being carried to completion as the
pieces are restored and documented. A gallery on the main floor of
the Museum was set aside for the display of the better pieces and
during the summer the room was renovated, the cases painted, and an
exhibition arranged. This collection offers to the student of classical archaeology a splendid and unrivaled opportunity to learn firsthand some of the major techniques of archaeological procedure and to
gain practical experience in restoration of archaeological material*

176

Art

As a result of the renewed interest in the collection, a laboratory


course has been organized and is now offered each quarter.
The Oriental Collections. In the fall Mr, Millard Rogers was
invited to assume the responsibility for all the objects of Oriental
art in the Museum. Mr* John LaPlante was asked to assist Mr. Rogers
and both devoted a specific portion of their time each week to carrying the work forward. The aim of the Oriental Department is seen to
be that of providing the University student in general and more specifically those in the fields of art history or the Orient with a
broader concept of the cultures of Southeast Asia through first-hand
experiencing of the art of these cultures. To this end it was felt
desirable that the Oriental gallery of the Museum should be equipped
to: (1) display the better objects owned by the University in the
field of Oriental art, and (2) to provide easily accessible and adequate storage in the same room of the large number of objects temporarily not on display but invaluable as potential study material* It
also seemed advisable that those students specializing in the field
of museum practice should be given the opportunity to work with the
actual objects* Therefore, through the course in museum techniques,
their aid was enlisted in reorganizing and cataloging the material
before display, in designing suitable case arrangements, and in
labeling the finished displays.
It is now felt that the Oriental gallery should be kept flexible
enough to provide a "training ground" for students of museum procedure
in the future. The exhibits planned and arranged by these students,
under staff supervision, have great potential educational value to
students in many fields of learning in the University. To these ends,
all Oriental art materials in the Museum have been concentrated in one
gallery and a simplified arrangement of thirteen display cases has
been devised* Twenty-four storage cases in the same room but not
accessible nor visible to the public contain the great bulk of the
collection* All Oriental art objects have been classified and arranged on the shelves of these storage cases in alphabetical and
chronological order, assigned a specific location, and the contents
of each case listed successively on the back wall of the case. This
procedure greatly facilitates location of the many and varied objects
both by country and dynasty, and material of construction* The cases
containing fragile material, such as porcelain, have been protected
against the objects falling from the shelves during tremors by wire
mesh. The value of the collection made this precaution a foremost
thought in the minds of the staff* About twenty objects of doubtful
origin are still in the process of authentication, as are many of the
Japanese paintings*
Total Permanent Collection. In spite of the valiant labors discussed above, the permanent collection of the Museum remains a miscellany of objects varying widely in merit and usefulness* Many of
the objects have deteriorated, many fall into the category of sentimental curios* Without a positive supported program of acquisition
and maintenance this is all that can be expected* The permanent
collection as a whole needs much intensive study to determine which
objects are of genuine educational worth, to restore and exhibit those
of value, and to formulate plans for relinquishing those without value
to Stanford*
A new cataloging system was initiated during the year to replace
the outmoded and inadequate existing catalog file*

Art

177

Space and Equipment, With ndnor exceptions last year's discus siOT~o7~Spa58aia~Equipinent could be repeated* The building is
not well located, designed, or equipped for its present use* Therefore, changes have been minor consisting chiefly of moving and painting some of the cases*
Acquisitions, Mrs. Emily Pope Montgomery of San Francisco
presented, on behalf of herself and brothers, a collection of Indian
baskets union were formerly housed in the Museum on a loan basis*
Work in Progress* Work begun by each department of the Museum
is being carried to completion as mentioned above* In addition, the
combined Museum-Art Department staffs began on May 1, 19^8 a general
revaluation of. all paintings owned by the University* The Mm is to
segregate those paintings of aesthetic merit from those of historic
value. A procedure such as this cannot be completed rapidly and it
was felt desirable to continue the segregation over a period of
several months in repeated sittings. This work is still in progress*
The need for a print room and adequate storage facilities for the
prints in the permanent collection of the University has been felt
for some time. Work is now in progress to convert a small workroom
on the first floor of the Museum into such a print room*
Recommendations.
1, That effort be continued to secure approval of a long-range
Stanford Museum program.
2. That the program continue to be temporarily directed toward
study purposes, and that it be more adequately supported.
3* That.a full-time secretary be employed to expedite the work
and to relieve faculty members of clerical duties*
RAT FAULKNER
Executive Head

178

Asiatic and Slavic Studies


ASIATIC AND SLAVIC STUDIES

During the academic year 1U7-W, the Department of Asiatic


and Slavic Studies has continued to develop along the lines laid
down in our previous report* It is now in a position to grant
AB. degrees in Chinese and in Russian, and it is strengthening its
offerings in the reading of classical and historical Chinese* It
is hoped that within another year or two the work in these two
languages can be carried on to the M.A, level*
Staff, The staff consisted of the following members t A*
Sokol, Professor of Germanic Languages (Executive Head); Shau Wing
Chan, Associate Professor of Chinese; Jack A. Posin, Associate
Professor of Russian; Helen R. Ban, Sarra Kliachko, and Frederic
Spiegelberg, Instructors; Nasser Jehanbani, Nina Wiren, and Kathleen
Yuan, Teaching Assistants; Leib Schapiro, Lecturer*
Summer Quarter* During the summer quarter an intensive course
in Elementary Russian (15 units) was again offered, and was taught
by Mrs. Olga S. Zingale* The response of the students to this
course, in number of applicants, interest, and enthusiasm, is such
that it should become a permanent part of this department's work.
For the first time this summer, the department was able to invite
an outstanding scholar of Russian language and literature as a
visiting professor; this position was filled by Dimitri S. von
Mohrenschildt. Professor Peter A* Boodberg, Head of the Oriental
Languages Department at the University of California in Berkeley,
was invited to serve as visiting professor of Chinese language and
literature during this quarter*
Staff Activities* Miss Helen Ban received her M.A. degree in
the School of Education, having completed her thesis, "Vocational
Interests of Japanese Youth in Selected High Schools of Central and
Southern California," of which she is now preparing an abstract for
publication* She translated Japanese folk songs for children (19th
and 20th century), which were recorded by the Tokyo Record Company,
Los Angeles, and will be used in the elementary schools of Japan*
She was also active, under the sponsorship of the Pacific Society
of Cultural and Religious Education in Los Angeles, in relocating
young Japanese men and women in jobs, schools, and housing* Miss
Ban prepared a romanized version of the Naganuma textbook used in
class work, and added supplementary material for the grammar section
of the same text* She also prepared scripts for oral reading and
for voice recording* Her translations during the year included
17th century Noh songs, Long Songs (Cho Ka), Haiku (short poems),
and third century chants (songs used in rituals)*
Mr* Chan participated in the Stanford Alumni Conference in
Portland, and gave several other talks during the course of the
year* Among these were: a lecture in the Great Books Series of
the San Jose Adult Education Forum; a talk to the Modesto Lions
Club; and a panel discussion in the seminars offered by the
Institute of International Relations at Stanford. In the spring
and summer quarters he traveled in China on a Rockefeller Grant,
studying conditions in that country, renewing his contacts with
scholars there, and making purchases of books to augment the Chinese
collection in the University Library*

Asiatic and Slavic Studies

179

Mr. Posin published an article on "Russian Studies in American


Colleges" in the Russian Review of Spring, 191*8, and wrote a chapter on Russian literature for tlhe Guide to World Literature, edited
by Professor Charlton G. Laird of the University of Nevada. He
gave lectures for the Stanford Philological Association on "Soviet
Satire," one on War and Peace for the Great Books series of the
San Jose Adult Education Center, one on "Karamzin and Pushkin,
The Problem of the Individual," in the Hoover Institute's Slavic
Seminar, and another on "Russian Literature and the Problem of
Personality" for the Humanities-Anthropology group*
Mr. Sokol published an article on "The Name of Quelpaert
Island" in Isis, and has prepared for publication an article on
"Production and Communication in Indonesian History," itiich will
appear shortly in the Far Eastern Quarterly* Another article
will be published in the Quarterly of the California Historical
Association, and will deal with a possible new explanation of the
name of California.
Mr. Spiegelberg published a book, The Religion of No-Religion,
an introduction to comparative religion, and has completed the
English translation of his earlier German book on Hatha Yoga. He
was elected President of the Pacific Coast Association for Religious
Studies, and presented a lecture to that society on "The Theology
of Existentialism." He participated in the Stanford Alumni Conferences at Los Angeles and San Diego, and in the Institute of
International Relations at Stanford. To the Theological Discussion
Group of San Francisco, he read a paper on "Indian Analogies to
the Psychology of Religion," preached a sermon in the Stanford
Memorial Church, and met with religious discussion groups at
Stanford Village and in two Palo Alto churches. "Problems of
India" was the title of a talk he delivered to the San Uateo Lions
Club. In addition, he gave two series of ten lectures each to
private groups in Palo Alto, and spoke for two of the San Jose
Adult Education series: on the Bible in the one on Great Books,
and on "Who Are the Favored Few" in the forum entitled "What Is
Man."
Messrs. Chan, Posin and Sokol were all members of the
Humanities-Anthropology discussion group, nhich met at frequent
intervals throughout the year
A. . SOKOL
Executive Head

ISO

Classics
CLASSICS

The staff consisted of Hermann Ferdinand Frtnkel. Hazel


Dorothy Hansen, Raymond Davis Harriman, professors; Philip Whaley
Harsh, Lionel Pearson, associate professors.
In addition to their regular work the members of the department engaged in the following activities:
Mr, Frftnkel completed the revision of his manuscript "Dichtung
und Philosophic des frtthen Griechentums" (800 pages in typescript)
to be published by the American Philological Association in the
Monograph Series.
Miss Hansen continued to serve as a member of the Managing
Committee of the American School of Classical Studies, Athens,
Greece; as a member of its Committee on Placements; as secretary
(for half of the year) of the San Francisco Society of the Archaeological Institute of America. She also served as chairman of the
Henry Rushton Fairclough Latin Contest for Latin students in the
high schools of northern California. Thirty-four schools participated
with sixty-two second year students and fifty-two third and fourth
year students sending in translations. During the autumn quarter
Miss Hansen was in Greece, dividing her time between the American
School of Classical Studies in Athens and the island of Skyros. She
attended the annual meeting of the Archaeological Institute of
America in New Haven in December, and the meeting of the Managing
committee of the school in Athens in New York in May. A large part
of her time has been given to work in the Museum where she is arranging and preparing for display and subsequent publication of the
Cesnola Collection of Greek antiquities.
Mr. Harriman served as Acting Dean of the School of Humanities
in the absence of Mr. Dodds.
Mr* Harsh delivered a paper at the meeting of the American
Philological Association at New Haven, December 29 and gave a
lecture on the development of t he Greek theater before the Southern
California Society of the Archaeological Institute at Pasadena,
March 11. He also served on the Textbook Committee of the American
Classical League. A study begun during his recent sabbatical leave
was completed and arrangements made for publication in the form of a
monograph.
Mr* Pearson attended both the annual meeting of the Philological
Association of the Pacific Coast at Stanford, November 28, and the
annual meeting of the American Philological Association held at
Tale University December 29-31, 19U7* where he read a paper entitled
"Thucydides as reporter and critic." This paper is to be published
in the Transactions of the American Philological Association. A
short article("Note on the digression of Thucydides") and a book
review are awaiting publication in the American Journal of
Philology. He is at present working on a study on the early
historians of Alexander the Great.

English

181

ENGLISH

Staff. The staff of the Department of English for the year


1947-48 consisted of: Richard Foster Jones, John Wendell Dodds,
Hubert Grouse Heffner, William Irvine, Herbert Dean Meritt, George
Frank Sensabaugh, Wallace Earle Stegner, James Aiken Work, professors; Hereward T. Price of the University of Michigan, visiting
professor, summer quarter; Margery Bailey, Alfred H. Grommon,
Francis Rarick Johnson, John McClelland, Virgil Keeble Whitaker,
Arthur Yvor Winters, associate professors; Robert W. Ackerman,
Roland Blenner-Hassett, Newell Ford, Richard Flngree Scowcroft,
assistant professors; Leo Camp, Margaret Dille Hudson, John Kelly
Mathison, Clarence J, Simpson, Phyllis Kerr Towell, Instructors;
Jean Byers Gushing, Mitchell Marcus, Graham C. Wilson, acting instructors*
The Department was grieved by the sudden death of Leo Camp,
instructor in American literature, on June 7, 1948, at the Stanford
Lane Hospital in San Francisco, following a heart attack and hemorrhage. Despite his frail health, Mr* Camp had been admired as a
young man of unusual brilliance and promise. He had been at Stanford
two years*
Graduates* Forty-eight candidates were awarded the Bachelor
of Arts degree during the year, two with great distinction, two with
distinction*
Seven candidates received the degree of Master of Arts: Audrey
Norah Beckh, thesis, "The Romantic Theory of the Drama in the Works
of Coleridge, Hazlltt, and Lamb: An Analysis of Romantic Concepts
in Relation to the Drama"; Edgar Fisher Daniels, thesis, "Theories
Concerning the Authorship of Arden of Fever sham"; Helen Marie Mally,
thesis, "A Study of Middleton*s Use of the Sources in The Changeling";
Frances Roberta Malovos, thesis, "A History of English and American
Criticism of Thomas Traherne*s Principal Works"; Mary Leonore Mardel,
thesis, "Legends of the California Missions"; Barbara Jean Ringheim,
thesis, "Ellen Glasgow's Interpretation of Human Action and Ethics
as Reflected in her Novels and Essays"; Samson 0* A* Ullmann, Jr.,
thesis, "Ruskln and Music".
Byron Clyde Guyer, Jr., and Helen Virginia McHugh were awarded
the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Mr. Guyer*a dissertation was
entitled, "Theory and Practice in Francis Jeffrey's Criticism of
Poetry"; Mother McHugh*s dissertation was "English Devotional Prose,
1200-1535".
Fellowships and Scholarships* The first Creative Writing
Fellows under the grant of Dr* Edward H. Jones were Dean Cadle,
short stories; Boris Ilyin, novel; Berating Olson, drama; Robert
Sellers, novel; and Walton Pearce Young, poetry*
The Doris Clayburgh Stelner Fellowship in English was held by
Mr. Thornton Young Booth. The George Loomis Fellowship in American
Literature was held by Margaret J. Davles* Mrs. Mary Electa Brown
and Jack Elliot Fink held Abraham Rosenberg Fellowships for the
year, and Irving L. Robinson held a Royall Victor Fellowship*
Joanna E. KLasson held a Bookstore Scholarship, Katherine Phelps
held a Converse and a Derby Scholarship, and Helen A. Pinker*on

182

English

held a Chartier Scholarship.


Frizes, The Creative Writing Prizes established by Dr, Edward
H, Jones were awarded as follows: the Margery Bailey Prizes in
Drama, Herbert Blau, Pershing Olson; the Edith Mirrielees Prize in
the Short Story, Evan Shelby Connell; the Wallace Stegner Prize In
the Novel, Robert Carver North; the Tvor Winters Prize in Poetry,
Eleanor Alice Haines.
The Clarence Dray Poetry Prize was won by W. Wesley Trimpi,
for a poem entitled Pygmalion* Honorable mention was given to
Helen A, Pinkerton and to Walton Pearce Young* Judges for the
contest were Mr. Herbert Dean Meritt, Mr. Hereward T. Price,
visiting professor from the University of Michigan, and Mrs* Richard:
Scowcroft* The Irene Hardy Poetry Prize was not awarded in 1947-48.
The Stanford Writing Center* During the past year the writing
program sponsored a number of visiting lecturers and writers* As
the first incumbent of a visiting lectureship set up by arrangement
among Stanford, Pomona, and Redlands, and the Pacific Coast Committee of the American Council of Learned Societies, Miss Katharine
Anne Porter, short story writer and novelist, spent the week of
April 26-31 visiting writing classes and working individually with
writing students* The indications are that this arrangement, which
will bring two such visitors to the campus each year, can be made
permanent if we wish it* Other visiting writers, most of them part
of the special summer program of the Writing Center, were: Anais
Nin, novelist, February 27; George R. Stewart, novelist, June 20;
Stephen Spender, poet, June 22; Edith R* Mlrrielees, editor of the
Pacific Spectator. July 13; Walter van Tilburg Clark, novelist and
short story writer, July 19-24; Idwal Jones, novelist, August 2-9;
Helen Howe, novelist, August 13; Jessamyn West, short story writer,
August 16-21.
In April, 1948, the Stanford University Press published the
second annual volume of Stanford Short Stories, selected from the
best work done by students in Stanford writing classes* The volume
contains fourteen short stories by thirteen authors* In addition,
writing students published during the past year as follows: Short
stories: Maxwell Arnold, "Never Hit a Cripple," Harpers; Richard
Arnold, "A Problem in Creation," Pacific Spectator; Eugene Burdick,
"Two Cages," Tomorrow; Jean Byers, "End of May," Harpers, and "The
Nightmare," New Mexico Quarterly; Boris Ilyln, "Down the Road a
Piece," Pacific Spectator; Donald Maclnnis, "A Small Parcel of
Fish," New Republic; Christine Tapley, "The Ghostly Rider," Saturday
Evening Post; Allan Wendt, "The Plexiglas Heart," Pacific; William
George, "Something You Never Forget," Atlantic; Robert Sellers, "The
Great American Lion Hunt," Script* Poems: Donald Drummond,
"Caution," "The Froward Gull," and "Time at Tlmberline," Hudson
Review; Wesley Trimpi, "Leda," Hudson Review, and The Sea Wall,"
"Indecision," and "The Glass Swan," New Mexico Quarterly; Helen
Pinkerton, "Sunlight," "Subjectivity," and two sonnets, New Mexico
Quarterly.
In addition to the Creative Writing Prizes listed in the preceding section of this report, Eugene Burdick*s story "Rest Camp
on Maul" won second prize in the 0. Henry Memorial Award Contest

English

183

for 1947, and Donald Maclnnis* story "A Small Parcel of Fish" iron
third prize in the G. I. Short Story Contest conducted by the Hew
Republic,
Activities of Staff Members. Mr, Jones served as Executive
Bead of the Department during the autumn and winter quarters, and
attended the December meeting of the Modern Language Association at
Detroit* He served on the University Committees on Research, on
Graduate Study, on University Publications, and on Teacher Education,
and on the Faculty Advisory Committee on the Selection of a new
President. He also continued to serve as a member of the Executive
Council of the Mddern Language Association of America*
Mr, Dodds* activities are listed in the report of the School
of Humanities*
Mr. Heffner's activities are listed in the report of the Department of Speech and Drama*
Mr. Irvine served as secretary-treasurer of the Faculty Research Club* He collaborated in producing a yearly article on
"Victorian Bibliography," which is published in Modern Philology.
In the absence of Professor Albert Guerard, he delivered a lecture
before the College Section of the national meeting of the English
Association at San Francisco. During the summer he was Visiting
Professor of English at the University of North Carolina*
Mr* Meritt served as Acting Head of the Department during the
summer quarter. He was a member of the Advisory Committee of the
Old English Group of the Modern Language Association, and read a
paper, "Guessing with the Scribes", at the meeting of the Philological Association of the Pacific Coast. He published an article,
"Studies in Old English Vocabulary", in the Journal of English and
Germanic Philology* Mr. Meritt also gave a talk about Chaucer to
the Adult Education Group at San Jose in October, 1947, served as
Chairman of one of the sessions of the English-Education Conference
at Stanford in July, 1948, and addressed a second session*
Mr* Sensabaugh published in the academic year 1947-48: "Committee Report on English Language and Literature", in Continuity
in Liberal Education in High School and College, (1947) (with Alfred
Groomon and Sallie HiH^ "A State Survey of English Courses of
Study", in the English Journal (May, 1948); a review of An Introduction to Stuart Drama, by F. S. Boas, in Modern Language Quarterly
(December, 1947). Mr* Sensabaugh spoke to the Adult Education Committee at San Jose, California, on the subject of Milton's Paradise
Lost* He also delivered at the Thanksgiving meeting of the National
Council of Teachers of English a paper entitled "A State Survey of
English Courses of Study", and read before the Stanford Philological
Association a paper entitled "Milton Be-Jesulted"* He gave a dinner
address .before the American Association of University Women at Santa
Rosa, California, on "How Practical are the Humanities?". Mr.
Sensabaugh was elected to the Advisory Committee of the "Period of
Milton" of the Modern Language Association. He was also appointed
to serve on the Committee for a Milton Variorum, also of the MIA*
In addition to his regular committee duties for the Department and
for the University, he served as Faculty Representative for alumni
conferences in Seattle, Portland, Fresno, Los Angeles, San Diego,
and on campus. An ACLS grant allowed Mr. Sensabaugh to establish

184

English

summer residence in Washington and New York for study in the Folger
Library and in the McAlpin Collection at the Union Theological
Seminary.
In addition to the administrative and other duties of the
Creative Writing Center, Mr* Stegner published in 1947-48: "Packhorse Paradise", Atlantic (September, 1947) an article; "Backroads
River", Atlantic (January, 1948) an article; "The Sweetness of the
Twisted Apples", Cosmopolitan (March, 1948) a story; "Wobbly
Troubadour", New Republic (January 5, 1948) an article; "New
Climates for "file Writer", New York Times Book Review (March 7, 1948)
an article; "The Double Corner", Cosmopolitan (July, 1948) a
story; "Meeting Crisis with Understanding: UNESCO", Pacific
Spectator (Summer, 1948) an article; "The View from the Balcony",
Mademoiselle (July, 1948) a story. Mr. Stegner spoke to the Phi
Beta Kappa chapter and to the faculty and students of the University
of Utah, December 7, 1947, when he was elected an honorary member
to Phi Beta Zappa. He spoke also to the Alumni Conference of
Stanford, at Los Angeles, March 7, 1948 and to the Utah Writers'
Conference, at Logan, Utah, June 25 and 26, 1948.
Mr. Work, in addition to his activities In the Department of
English, served as a member of the Program Committee of the School
of Humanities and, during the summer quarter, as Acting Dean of the
School. During the year he participated in the Viking Fund series
of conferences on Anthropology and the Humanities; attended the
meeting of the Western College Association held at San Francisco in
November; attended the convention of the National Council of
Teachers of English at San Francisco in November, serving as Chairman of the meeting on "Speaking and Listening in the English Class";
attended the meeting of the Modern Language Association of America
at Detroit in December, reading a paper on "Fielding's Religion"
before the Eighteenth Century English Literature Group; attended, as
a delegate-at-large, the Pacific Regional Conference on UNESCO at
San Francisco In May, Participating in the Communications sectional
meetings; and attended the English-Education Conference at Stanford
in July, serving as Chairman of the session on "Teaching Skill in
Writing". Mr. Work continued to serve as Secretary-Treasurer of
the Stanford Chapter of the American Association of University
Professors; and he spent a portion of the spring quarter at the
Huntington Library, continuing his study of Henry Fielding and his
edition of Fielding's Tom Jones,
Miss Bailey continued her subject index of eighteenth century
novels, and taught in the summer session at the University of
Southern California where she gave the third lecture in a series
begun by an address from Mr. Stephen Spender subject, "The
Gentry as Men of Letters." Miss Bailey's stories for children were
produced on the radio from librarians' story hours In Seattle, Akron,
and other centers. In June, for the Veterans' Theatre of the Air
of KVSM, Miss Bailey read the part of Lady Macbeth with a group of
Stanford Flayers, Mr. Roy Poole reading the title role. In the
absence of any class in advanced play-writing, Miss Bailey supervised
the work of the 1947-48 Fellow for Drama in the Creative Writing
Center, Mr. Pershing Olson; his play took second place under regulations for the Drama Award established by Dr. Edward Jones, and
was praised as timely and very well-written by Miss Lynn Fontanne

Enqlish

185

and Mr. Kenneth MacGowan. During the year Miss Bailey acted as
usual as proctor for the alumni association called Dramatists'
Alliance, and as supervisor of its publications*
Mr. Gromraon's activities are listed in the report of the School
of Education.
Mr. Johnson served as the 1947 President of the College English
Association of the Bay Area which, together with California Council
of Teachers of English, Central Section, acted as hosts to the
National Council of Teachers of English for the national convention
held in San Francisco November 27-29, 1947. For the year 1948 he is
a member of the Executive Committee of the Association. In December
he attended the meeting of the Modern Language Association of
America, where he served as secretary of Group English 17 (The
Period of Spenser) and of Group Special Topics Till (Bibliographical
Evidence), and as Chairman of the Advisory and Nominating Committee
of Group English 71 (The Period of Milton). For the year 1948 he was
elected Chairman of The Period of Spenser group and secretary of the
Bibliographical Evidence group. As a member of the Executive Council
of the History of Science Society, Mr. Johnson attended its sessions
in Cleveland, and also its joint meeting with the American Historical Association, at which he led the discussion of the three papers
on the program. He continues as a member of the Executive Council
and as associate editor of the Society*s journal, Isis. The
Philological Association of the Pacific Coast, through its Executive
Committee, has chosen him to act as Chairman of English Section I
(English Literature to 1700) for 1948, to initiate its new policy in
the formulation of the programs for its sessions. During the year
Mr. Johnson was a member of the Executive Committee of the Stanford
Chapter of the American Association of University Professors, and of
the university committee for the selection of Rhodes Scholarship
candidates. He acted as Visiting Professor of English in the
graduate school at Claremont College for the summer session of 1948,
and continued his research in Renaissance rhetoric and prose style
at the nearby Huntington Library.
Mr. McClelland was 71 si ting Professor in English at the second
of the six-week summer terms at the University of California in
1947. He also served as one of the judges for the 1947-48 James D.
Hielan Award in Literature, and as Director of English Composition
for the Department in the spring and summer quarters of 1948.
Mr. Whitaker served as Director of English Composition, autumn
and winter quarters of 1947-48. He also served as Acting Head of
the Department during the spring quarter and as Director of the
Honors Program in the School of Humanities throughout the year. He
was Chairman of the University Committee on Schedules and Examinations and the alternate to Dr. R. F. Jones on the Special Advisory
Committee to the Board of Trustees on the new President. Mr. Whitaker
attended the meeting of the Modern Language Association in Detroit,
December 29-31, 1947. He participated in bi-weekly conferences on
Humanities and Anthropology held by the School of Humanities under
the auspices of the Viking Fund. He also read a paper on "The Development of Shakespeare's Thought" at the Faculty Research Club on
February 18, 1948, and participated in a panel discussion on "What
makes a good teacher" as part of the Stanford Summer Education
Conference, July 15, 1948. Mr. Whitaker will spend next year at the

186

English

Huntington Library writing on a book on the development of Shakespeare's thought. His publications in 1947-48 were: "Aims of a
Liberal Education", Continuity in Liberal Education: High School
and College, and "The Humorless Indian", Pacific Spectator. I (1947!
Mr, Winters Inaugurated the Hudson Review Lectureships at
Princeton in March, 1948. He also spoke to the English-Education
Conference at Stanford in July.
Mr. Ackexman read a paper, "An Index of the Arthurian Names
in Kiddle English", before the Philological Association of the
Pacific Coast at Stanford University in November, 1947. He acted
as Secretary-Treasurer for the Stanford Philological Association,
1947-48. He was awarded a grant in aid of research by the American
Council of Learned Societies in May, 1948.
Mr. Blenner-Hassett attended the Modern Language Association
meeting held in December, 1947, at Detroit, where he addressed the
Arthurian Committee, explaining to them the nature of Professor
Ackerman's work on the Arthurian Onomasticon. In March, 1948,
under the chairmanship of Professor William Nitze, one of the two
Pacific Coast directors of the American Council of Learned
Societies, preliminary steps were taken toward enlisting the cooperation of Arthurian scholars throughout the country in preparation of a general index of names for Arthurian literature. Mr.
Blenner-Hassett was appointed secretary of a committee for this
purpose.
Mr. Ford read a paper entitled "Keats: Eremite or Aesthete?"
at the annual meeting of the Philological Association of the
Pacific Coast in November, 1947. During the year four of his
articles were published: "Endymion; A Neo-Platonlc Allegory?"
ELH, March, 1947; "The Meaning of fFellowship with Essence' in
Endymiony" PMLA, December, 1947; "Some Keats Echoes and Borrowings,1'
MLQ,. December, 1947; "Keats, Empathy, and 'The Poetical Character,'*
SP, June, 1948. He completed the manuscript of a book.
Mr. Scowcroft directed the special program of the Stanford
Writing Center during the summer of 1948.
RICHARD FOSTER JOKES
Executive Head

Germanic Languages

187

GERMANIC LANGUAGES
&
/
STAFF; Bayard Quincy Morgan , professor and executive head; o
Friedrich VJilhelm Strothmann, professor; Kurt Frank Reinhard.tr ,
associate professor; Helmut Robert Boeninger, assistant professor;
Henry Blauth, Gunther M. Bonnin (part time), Hughes Brewster, Mrs.
Stephanie Lombardi, Daniel C. McCluney (part time), Elisabeth M.
Mayer, Mrs. Jakoba B. Radkey (part time, autumn and winter quarter),
Mrs. Rita Spiecker, Arthur R. Watkins (part time), Mary A. Williams,
instructors; Mrs. Ruth B. Schroeder, secretary,
^Superscript numbers indicate quarters of absence on leave.
ENROLLMENTS; Autumn and winter enrollments, 733 and 708 respectively, exceeded those for any quarter in the history of the department;
spring enrollments dropped to 498, those of summer quarter were
about 170.
DEGREES; The B. A. degree was conferred in June oh Rosemary Hines.
The M. A. degree was conferred on Gunther M. Bonnin, with the thesis,
"Intellectual and Moral Incentives of the Munich Student Revolt of
1943."
PROJECTS IN PROCESS; Under this heading we list from year to year
extra-curricular activities of the staff of scholarly or professional character.
Professor Morgan: (l) is continuing editorial work, together
with A. R. Hohlfeld, on two Wisconsin dissertations to prepare them
for publication, probably in 1949; (2) has submitted to the Stanford
Press a selection of Goethe's poems in English translation, with
notes and a brief biography; (3) has been notified by the Stanford
Press that a grant of the American Council of Learned Societies
will make possible the early publication of the medieval MS prepared by Professors horgan and Strothmanri, referred to in previous
reports.
Professor Reinhardt is at work on a new book, "The Crisis of
Human Existence," being a study of the historical background and
problems of Existentialism.
Professor Strothmann: (l) is continuing the translation of
parts of the "Summa Theologica" of Thomas Aquinas in collaboration
with Professor J. G. Hagerty; (2) expects soon to begin proofreading the medieval MS referred to above under Morgan,
PERSONALS; Dr. Helmut R. Boeninger, who had left us in 1946 to
join the staff of the San Francisco Junior College, has been
appointed Assistant Professor of German for a term of three years.
Dr. Elisabeth Mayer was appointed as instructor from quarter to
quarter and is on regular appointment for 1948-49.
Personal activities of staff members include the following
items. Professor Morgan attended the convention of the Modern
Language Association of America In Detroit during the Christmas
holidays; he read a paper before the German Section on "Form and
Substance in German Literature." Previous to that he read the same
paper, in a somewhat modified form, at the meeting of the Philological Association of the Pacific Coast in November. In March he
attended a meeting of the Executive Council of the Modern Language
Association in New York. En route he delivered five lectures, some
of them in German, before college audiences on "German Song as an
Art Form." In May he reported to the Stanford Research Society on

188

Germanic Languages

"Editing a Medieval M3." Later in May he addressed the annual


2.
dinner meeting of the Stanford Philological Society under the
title, "German Teacher in America." In June he was given a farewell
dinner by the staff of the German Department. For joint labors
with Professor Strothmann, see below.
Professor Reinhardt gave ten lectures in the Extension Division
of the University of California on "Problems of Existentialism."
He also lectured in April on "The Crisis of Human Existence" at
the Newman Center, University of California, Berkeley, and on "The
Existentialism of Jean-Paul Sartre" at the University of San
Francisco. His book, "A Realistic Philosophy," is to appear shortly
at Rio de Janeiro in a Portuguese translation. - Professor Reinhardt
served as Acting Executive Head of the Department during the
summer quarter.
Professor Strothmann, in collaboration with Professor Morgan,
completed two textbooks during the year: (l) "Reading More German",
an alternate to the authors' "Reading German," and "Shorter German
Reading Grammar," intended as an alternate to "German Reading
Grammar" by Sharp and Strothmann. Both books will be published by
Ginn and Co. in 1949. - Professor Strothmann was in charge of one
quarter of'the course in World Literature given by the School of
Humanities, and is a member of the Honors Committee functioning
under that School.
PUBLICATIONS; Professor Morgan: "Space in Speech," American Speech.
October 1947. Professors Morgan and Reinhardt and Miss Mayer have
had signed reviews published in Books Abroad, of which Professor
Morgan is Contributing Editor.

BAYARD QUINCY MORGAN


Executive Head

Music

189

MUSIC
Staff: William Loran Crosten, associate professor of music
and executive head of the department; Warren D. Allen, professor
of music and education; Herbert Jan Popper, associate professor
of music and director of Opera Workshop (acting executive head,
summer quarter;) Harold C, Schmidt, associate professor in music
and director of University Chorus and Choir; Leonard G. Ratner,
instructor in music; Joel J, Carter, acting instructor; Herbert
B. Nanney, acting instructor in music and University organist;
Julius Shuchat, band director; James Schwabacher, Jr., teaching
assistant.
Space Used; As in 1946-47, the central offices and classrooms
of the Music Department were located on the first and second floors
of The Knoll* Due to the expanding program in music, however, it
was necessary to requisition additional space as follows: One room
on the third floor of The Knoll for the Music Library and two rooms
in building x-B (former gymnasium for women) for the Opera Workshop.
The music library room needed only minor alterations to become
serviceable, but it was necessary to remove a large partition and
construct a stage in the gymnasium in order to make the latter suitable for the opera classes.
Equipment Added During the Year: Three upright pianos; one
earphone model phonograph; and one portable phonograph.
Music Library; In the winter quarter a departmental library
was established in The Knoll with Mrs. Nancy Bonnin as librarian.
This was done because it was considered to be of great advantage
both to students and staff to have the music collection placed within
easy range of phonographs and pianos* The music library is still
exceedingly modest in scope, but it is being extended gradually
through the operation of a long-range purchasing program designed
to give Stanford ultimately a first-class music collection.
Curriculum: Courses for the General Student: Based on the assumption that music may be studied with profit by the general as
well as the specialising student, a series of courses was instituted
for the former. Beginning with Music I. Introduction to Music, the
series was continued by several more restricted courses, each devoted to the literature of one particualr medium or form of musical
expression. It should be added that the student demand for Musle I
courses was so great it proved impossible in any quarter to provide
as many class sections as were requested.
Undergraduate Major: 1947-48 marked the first year in which a
program of study leading to the A.B. degree with a major in music
was offered at Stanford. Requiring work in the theory, the history
and literature, and the performance of music, this program provides
substantial training in the three principal phases of music study,
yet it is designed throughout to fit easily into the liberal arts
framework.
Opera Workshop; Beginning in the winter quarter, a fullfledged program of professional opera training was inaugurated for
qualified singers who might be either regular or non-matriculated
students in the University. Enrollment was by audition only and
was limited to fifteen singers per quarter. The intent of the
Workshop was to try to bridge the gap between the studio and the

190

Music

stag* by offering young artists a comprehensive course of study in


the singing and acting techniques of the modern lyric theater. This
was an ambitious undertaking, but the results, culminating in the
productions of the opera, "Peter Grimes*, would appear to justify
the program. The Workshop was aided very greatly by generous help
from the entire Department of Speech md Drama, from Professor Elwyn
Bugge and Professor Miriam Lidster of the Physical Education Department, and from Professor Morgan and Mr* Gunther Bonnin of the German
Department,
Music Education: A review was made of the teachers' credential
program in music and a mumber of changes were thereafter effected
in both the academic and the applied music requirements in an attempt
to raise the standards of proficiency in these fields*
Summer Session Program; A flexible schedule of classes was
provided to accommodate students who wished to enroll for a term
of four or eight weeks or for the full term of ten weeks* In addition to a representative group of standard ourricular items, the
Music Department offered certain new courses designed especially
for teachers and community leaders of music. In particular, mention
should be made of the work done in the Choral Institute and in the
course entitled Musico-Dramatic Productions n Schools.
During the summer session conference on "What Makes a Good
Teacher* sponsored by the School of Education, one section meeting
was devoted to music education with Professor Allen acting a& Chairman.
Enrollment:
Autumn Quarter: 11 Classes offered
Students 228
6 Musical organizations
*
315
Total
543
Winter Quarter: 17 Classes offered
Students 358
6 Musical organisations
"
261
Total
619
Spring Quarter 12 Classes offered
Students 354
7 Musical organizations

342
Total
696
Summer Quarter: 18 Classes offered
Students 205
2 Musical organisations
*
Total
Total enrollment academic year 1946-47
These figures indicate a total increase in enrollment for the year
of approximately 18$ over 1946-47* For the summer seesion alone,
the increase was about 30/(.
16 undergraduate students were enrolled as music majors*
14 students pursued graduate work in music education leading to the
M.A. degree* Of this number, 8 began and 3 completed their course
work during the year.
The following candidates completed the requirements for the Master's
degree in music education with thesis subjects as indicated:
Barbara Lambe, J.S. Bach as an Educator; Joan King Holtzman, A Study

Music

191

of the Relationship of Music and Words in Elementary School Songs:


Marion Curry, Elementary Music Education in California.
On the doctoral level, one student continued work toward the Ed.D.
degree, and six students pursued studies leading to the Ph.D. degree
in ausic and education*
Memorial Church Services; As usual, the University Choir sang
for all regular services in Memorial Church.
Organ Recitals: The series of Thursday afternoon organ recitals
was continued throughout the year by Mr. Herbert Nanney. In addition
to these, Porfessor Allen played four special programs of Baroque
organ music in the autumn quarter, one recital in the winter quarter,
and two recitals in the summer quarter,
Music I Concerts; In the final week of each quarter, a concert
of vocal and instrumental music was presented at The Knoll as a
supplement to the work of this course.
Other Public Performancest
October 25. Peninsula Children's Concert presented by University Singers in San Mateo.
November 20. Program of Renaissance music presented by the
University Singers in Memorial Church.
December 2. Joint concert presented by the University Orchestra and Chorus on the Tuesday Evening Series.
December 14. Special Christmas program presented in Memorial
Church by the University Choir, University Singers, and Brass Choir.
February 19, 20, 21. University Male Chorus of one hundred
voices appeared with the San Francisco Symphony in performances of
Liszt's Faust Symphony.
March 2. Joint concert presented by the University Choir,
Chorus and Brass Choir on the Tuesday Evening Series.
March 3. Scenes from operas presented by the Opera Workshop
in the Women's Clubhouse*
March 9. Founders' Day program presented by the Choir, Chorus,
Orchestra, and Brass Choir.
March 28. University Choir appeared on the Easter morning NBC
coast-to-coast broadcast*
April 22, 23, 24. The University Chorus appeared with the
San Francisco Symphony in performances of Beethoven* s Ninth Symphony.
May 2* Concert presented in Memorial Auditorium by the University Band and the Brass Choir.
May 9. Concert of chamber music presented in the courtyard of
The Knoll by faculty and student ensembles.
May 21, 22. The University Band presented programs for alumni
meetings in Visalia and Modesto.
May 27, 28, 29. Benjamin Britten's opera, "Peter Grimes11, presented in Memorial Auditorium by the Music and Drama Departments.
This was undoubtedly one of the most ambitious ventures in opera
production ever attempted in this country by a university music
department. The performances of this new work, however, were extremely successful. So great, indeed, was the critical acclaim that an
additional performance was requested and given later in the San Francisco Opera House to a capacity audience*
May 31. Outdoor concert presented in the Union Court by the
University Chorus.
June 29. "Peter Grimes" repeated in the San Francisco Opera
House.

192

Music

July 15* Concert presented by the Choral Institute in the


Women's Clubhouse.
July 24. Broadcast performance of Mozart's "Magic Flute*
given by the Opera Workshop in conjunction with the NBC Radio
Institute.
August 20 and 23* Scenes from opera presented by the Opera
Workshop in Building x-B.
In addition to these performances, the music department, as
usual, furnished music frequently for various meetings, student
assemblies and rallies, drama productions, campus radio broadcasts,
etc..
Music at Hornet Until the death of Dr. Tressider, this series
of informal weekly programs was continued under the direction of
James Schwabacher in the President's home on Wednesday evenings.
The Friends of Music at Stanford presented again a fine series
of chamber music concerts in Cubberley Auditorium. From its proceeds of the previous year this organization gave the Music Department a generous gift of $500.00 for the purchase of scores and
records.
Faculty Aetivitieet
Mr. Crosten gave one of the San Francisco Symphony Forum lectures on March 5. In April he read a paper on "Opera Production in
1830" for the California chapter of the Americal Musicologloal
Society; on May 3 he read a paper on "Scribe and the Opera Libretto"
for the California section of the American Society for Aesthetics;
and on May 15 he spoke at the Stanford Alumni Conference. In June,
the Columbia University Press published his book entitled French
Grand Opera: An Art and a Business. During the year, he carried on
research dealing with techniques and styles of musical characterization in opera, and participated in the meetings devoted to Anthropology and the Humanities which were sponsored by the Viking Foundation.
Mr. Allen attended the Music Educators' National Conference in
Detroit in April and participated in forum discussions on Musicology and Education and on Contemporary Music.
Mr. Popper conducted performances of the Intimate Opera Players
in several California cities, including an engagement of three weeks
in Hollywood. In addition, he made numerous concert appearances on
the coast as pianist and accompanist.
Mr. Schmidt not only served as director of choral activities
for the University, but also devoted much time to the organization
of the department's programs of studies for the general student.
Mr. Ratner read a paper in October on "Harmonic Aspects of
Classic Form" for the California chapter of the American Musicological Society. On December 2, he conducted the Stanford Orchestra
in the first performance of his composition for orchestra entitled
"Pastorale". During the year he completed the first movement of
his Second Symphony} wrote the score for Welland Lathrop's ballet,
"Jacob", presented in San Francisco on April 11 and April 18, and
composed Instrumental music for the Stanford productions of "Richard III" and "Cyrano de Bergerac".
Mr. Carter spent the autumn quarter doing graduate work at
Columbia Teachers' College in New York. In April he presented a
song recital for the Tuesday Evening Series and made numerous other

Music

193

public appearances during the year in concert and as a member of


the Intimate Opera Players.
Mr* Nanney conducted the San Francisco Bank Chorus in several
public concerts and in January played a recital in Sacraaento for
the Northern California chapter of the American Guild of Organists.
Mr* James Schvabacher made numerous concert appearances during
the year and sang also in the productions of the Intimate Opera
Players,
WILLIAM L. CROSTEN
Executive Head

194

Philosophy

PHILOSOPHY
The staff of the department for the academic year consisted
of the following! John Robert Reid, professor; Lawrence A.
Ximpton, dean of students, and professor; John Leland Mothershead,
Jr., associate professor; Jeffery Smith, associate professor of
humanities and philosophy; Henry Greenwood Bugbee, assistant
professor*
Mr* Kimpton, because of heavy administrative duties, was unable to teach any courses in philosophy during the year, but he
hopes to be able to do so in the future* Although not teaching,
his Judgment and advice have been most valuable on many problems*
Mr. Mothershead was on sabbatical leave. Having this period,
free from the work of teaching, has enabled him to make excellent
progress in writing a book on moral philosophy*
Mr* Smith attended the meetings of the Pacific Division of
the American Philosophical Association at Los Angeles, and served
as a member of the Honors Committee of the School of Humanities*
Mr. Bugbee, during the year, acted as secretary of the
Honors Committee of the School of Humanities, and spent much time
informally discussing the problems of philosophy with students*
Mr* Bugbee resigned from his position at Stanford to accept an
offer from Harvard University* We are sorry to lose him and wish
him well in his new position*
Mr* Reid read a paper at a Viking Fund dinner on "The Nature
and Status of Values." During the spring quarter he was ablethrough a grant from the Viking Fundto go East, in order to
carry on some studies in anthropology and psychiatry at Yale and
Harvard. While attending the national meeting of the American
Psychiatric Association in Washington, Mr* Reid was invited to
speak on the relations between religion and psychiatry. He had
published in April a paper on "The Concept of Psychogenesis," in
the American Journal of Psychiatry*
Mr. Smith, Mr. Bugbee, and Mr. Reid all served as members of
the Viking Fund Humanities-Anthropology discussion group during
the year*
The members of our department welcome the appointment of Mr*
Alfred B. Glathe as assistant professor of philosophy. Mr.
Glathe comes to us from the University of Utah.
JOHN R. REID
Acting Executive Head

Romanic Languages

195

ROMANIC LANGUAGES
The regular teaching staff consisted of Frederick Anderson,
Georges Edouard Lemaitre, Stanley Astredo Smith, professors;
Ronald Hilton, Alexander A. . Naughton, Juan Baptista Rael,
William Leonard Schwartz, associate professors; Aurelio Macedonio
Espinosa, Jr., assistant professor; Christian Bourdery, Earl
Kendall Carter, Benjamin F. Culler, Grace Knopp, Felix Legrand,
Robert Hawkins Poole, Roberto Benaglia Sangiorgi, instructors;
Julia Antoinette Braralage, Lawton B. Kline, Consuelo W. Seymour,
acting instructors; JoSo Baptista Pinheiro, Brazilian consul in
San Francisco, Isabel Magana Schevill, M&rio de Souza Lima,
professor at the University of Sao Paulo, lecturers.
The following graduate students served as teaching assistants
for one or more quarters* Elizabeth Barecevic, Anita M. Dubowy,
Eleanor Frierson, Terry Hansen, Frederick Jungemann, Ronald
Kaufman, Beatrice M. Kimball, Francis X. Maggipinto, Andre Michel,
Joseph M. Ochoa, Thelma Richmond, Carlos Robaina, Joseph W
Stanley, Eugenie Topas, Barbara L. Velasco, John P. Wonder, Marie
Wagner. Rafael de la Coste, Georges Ferriere and Jessie E. Smith
also served as teaching assistants*
Twenty departmental majors, fourteen in French and six in
Spanish received the degree of Bachelor of Arts*
Twelve students received the degree of Master of Arts and
presented theses as follows: William Harris Guantlett, "Andre
Maurois in America"j John Bostwick Holley, "The Ideas of Pierre
Loti on Turkey"; Jerald Wayne Keenan, "The Idealism of Martin
Luis Guzmn"; Beatrice Helen Moore Kimball, "The Traditional
Spanish Ballad in Modern Jewish-Spanish Tradition"; Francis
Xavier Maggipinto, "The Social Ideas of Jose7 Rube*n Romero";
Molly Allen Moore, "Mexican Church-State Relations in the Field
of Education"; Eustace Rojas, "Federico Gamboa: Interpreter of
Mexican Life"; Robert Cornelius Schiffner, "Church and Theater
in Seventeenth Century France"; Benjamin Frank Sedwick, "The
Morphology and Syntax of the Verb in Judeo-Spanish"; Leo Weinstein,
"The Don Juan of Tellez and Moliere"; John Paul Wonder, "A Study
of Argentine Spanish as Reflected in the Dramatic Works of
Florencio Sanchez"; Leona Margreta Jakobsen Woods, "A Study of
the Cinderella Story in the Spanish Folklore of New Mexico and
Colorado."
The degree of Doctor of Philosophy was received by one
student, who presented a thesis as follows: Ernst Zacharias
Rehbock, "An Inquiry into the Philosophy of History of Honore"
de Balzac."
Mr. Anderson gave an address before the Adult Education
Center in San Jose, February th, on "The Elite in a Democracy."
Otherwise he devoted all his spare time to department administration and to work on his book, Reason and Relativity, which is
now one-third completed*
Mr. Espinosa continued his investigations in the field of
Hispanic folklore and popular literature, preparing notes on the
tales contained in his extensive collection of Spanish folktales,

196

Romanic Languages

Cuentos populares de Castilla (a collection of $20 folktales


gathered in Spain, io. 1936,~under the auspices of the American
Folklore Society). The text of the tales is ready for publication
and the notes will be completed by the end of the year 19k9
In the field of Mediaeval Spanish language and literature, Mr*
Espinosa is preparing a history of the development of the language
and an anthology of readings, to make available to the student
the results of recent investigations* During the year he served
as Council Member of the American Folklore Society. As Associate
Editor of Hispania he continued to publish in this journal a review of current "literary and professional periodicals from Spain*
During the summer he served as Lieutenant Colonel, SA-Res, on the
staff of the Department of Analysis and Research, The Command and
General Staff College, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas; and with other
Reserve Officers, representing various colleges and universities,
he collaborated in a survey of certain aspects of the educational
program of the Command and General Staff College*
Mr* Hilton continued to direct the Hispanic American Regional
Program, and in this connection organized a number of lectures in
the Hispanic series, as well as a Hispanic American Institute for
the summer session (see under School of Humanities). He gave a
number of lectures to various civic groups. Recognition of work
in the field of Portuguese and Brazilian studies came in the
awarding of the Brazilian order of the Cruzeiro do Sul. Mr. Hilton
was the third Stanford professor to receive this award, the
earlier recipients being President Branner and Professor Percy
Alvin Martin. Mr. Hilton was appointed a contributing editor to
Books Abroad, an international journal devoted to cultural matters.
He carried on the preparation of the iJUho's Who in Latin America
series, and continued his research into the cultural history of
Spain and Latin America*
Mr. Georges Lemaitre has continued the preparation of his
work on French civilization,
Mr* Naughton is preparing a study of the novelist's social
role from Rousseau and Richardson to the present day, tracing
the change in the novelist's position of mere story teller to
his prestige enjoyed in certain spheres, as moralist and prophet
who attempts to influence the actions of modern men.
Mr. Rael carried to completion a school edition of the
Mexican novel, La Parcela, and a "Bibliography of New Mexican
Spanish Folklore", the first in collaboration with Robert S.Luckey
and the second one in collaboration with Marjorie Tuliy. Both
of these works are now in press. He also completed a long study
on "The New Mexican Alabado", which will be published in book form*
Aside from this, he delivered several talks to clubs and civic
organizations on Mexican culture and on New Mexican folklore*
During the summer he conducted an educational tour to Mexico for
teachers and students*
Mr. Sangiorgi, upon his return from Europe, where he spent
last summer doing research work at the Bibliotheque Nationale of
Paris and at the Biblioteca Vaticana of Rome, has worked on a
book "I drammi editi e inediti di G.E. Casti," which will be
published in Italy. In collaboration with Miss Grace Knopp he
has in preparation a school edition of a novel by Manuel Rojas

Romanic Languages

197

"La Ciudad de los Cesares." During the course of the year Mr,
Sangiorgi gave several talks in the Bay Area on the cultural and
political problems of Italy and delivered a lecture at the
University of California, Berkeley, on the topic "The Reconstruction
of Italy." In the autumn quarter he participated in a panel discussion held in the Tuesday Evening Series given in conjunction
with the Western College Congress on the topic "Soviet-American
Competition in World Reconstruction." At the meeting of the
American Association of Teachers of Italian held in Detroit,
Michigan, last February, Mr. Sangiorgi was elected Councilor of
the Association.
Mr. Schwartz read a paper on "The French Language in War and
Reconstruction" at the annual meeting of the Philological Association of the Pacific Coast, He was elected chairman for 19k8 of
the French Section of the Association, and is secretary for 19U9
of the General Phonetics section of the Modern Language Association
of America, He has been granted leave to serve as visiting
professor of English at the National University of Haiti, upon the
recommendation of the Department of State*
Mr. Smith has been president of the Stanford Philological
Association during the past year*
RONALD HILTON
Acting Executive Head

198

Speech and Drama


SPEECH AND DRAMA.

Staff* The staff consisted of Lee Onerson Bassett, professor


emeritus; Elisabeth Lee Buckingham, associate professor emeritus;
Hubert Grouse Heffner, professor of dramatic literature and executive
head of the department; Virgil Antris Anderson, professor; Harry
Caplan, Cornelius C, Cunningham, acting professors; Leiend Taylor
Chapin, James Gordon Etaerson, D. Paul McKelvey, F. Conies Strickland,
A* Nicholas Vardac, Herbert Jan Popper, H. Donald Winbigler, associate professors; Hayes A* New by, assistant professor; Helene Blattner,
Claire MacGregor Loftus, Clarence Miller, acting assistant professors}
Skipwith Athey, assistant professor of speech and drama and electrical
engineering and technical supervispr of radio; Allen Miller, director of Stanford radio institute; John V. Zuckerman, director of Stanford radio workshop and audio-visual aids program; James H. McCulloch,
technical director; Wendell Cole, William D Lucas (on leave), Virginia Opsvig (Kerr), Nonnar! Fhilbrick (on leave), Helen W. Schrader,
instructors; Clifford Hamar, David Hawes, Alfred Larr, George Emery
Nichols III, Howard Runkel, acting instructors; Hazel Glaister Roberteon, Fairfax P Walkup, lecturers; Richard Eertrandias, Alfred Crapsey, James Day, John Elwood, Anthony Freeman, John Grover, Donald Hall,
Budd Heyde, Marjorie McGilvrey, Malcolm Meacham, Inei Richardson,
John Thompson, Hal Wolf, lecturers in radio institute; Aline MacMahon, Clarence Dement, Yfhitford Kane, Theodore Marcuse, senior artists-in-residence; Richard Hawkins, Eermit Shafer, James Stearns,
Frances Waller, Walt Witoover, junior artists-in-residence; Regine
Bartling, Courtenay Perren Brooks, Selma Chapmond, Jesnnette Cranmer,
Allen Forbes, Marion Gaber, Rebecca Grimes, Helen Hacnigan, Kenneth
Jones, Anne Nelson, Milton Valentine, Helen Ann Willey, teaching
assistants; Paul Hostetler, Walter Krumm, Ralph McCormic, Betty McCee, Harry Muheim, Charles Patton, technical assistants; Chester Wing
Barker, secretary; Dorothy Quate, assistant secretary.
Degrees and Credentials* During the year, a total of 71 students
pursued graduate work "in the^department. Eight candidates completed
the work for the Master of Arts degree. This year, as in former years
the department (in conjunction with the School of Education) offered
work leading to a special credential in the correction of speech defects under the direction of Dr. Virgil Anderson. During the year one
candidate completed this program, and was recommended for this credential.
Thirty-one students have elected speech and drama as the special
field for a teaching major or minor, and are now working toward a
general secondary credential* Five with a major in speech and drama
will have completed the requirements for the general secondary credential by the end of the summer quarter. Of the ninete-jn speech and
drama majors, two are working for the Master's degree in Speech and
Drama; six for Master's degree in education. The Speech Interview,
a speech test formerly required of credential candidates in all fields,
was discontinued at the close of the winter quarter. In its place,
students in the teacher training program will be required to take
Education 46s Speech for the Classroom teacher. This course carries
three units of credit and is designed to develop the teacher's ability
to communicate effectively. Two sections of this course were offered
spring quarter, and two or more sections will be offered esch quarter

Speech and Drama

199

hereafter. Ten graduate students in Speech and Drama have elected


Education aa a minor. Of these, eight are working toward the degree
of Doctor of Philosophy; two for the Master of Arts*
Those candidates completing advanced degrees along with their
thesis and dissertation titles were as follows:
Master of^Arts Degree
Teanette Gray Cranmer
"The Psychoanalytical Theories
of Stuttering."
Glen Woodrow Haley
"Augustin Daly1 8 Second Revival
of THE MERRY WIVES OF WINDSOR."
Walter Courtney Krumm
"Strindberg1s THE FATHER: A
Production Book."
Betty Ruth McGee
"A Production book for Maxwell
Anderson1 s WINTERSBT."
Harry Miles Muheim
"IT'S A DEAL, a Musical Play in
Two Acts."
Marjorie Farr Walsh
"A Production of THEY KNEW WHAT
THEY WANTED, Toy Sidney Howard.
Helene Har Lin Wong
"An Appraisal of Investigations
Dealing with the Relationship of
Speech Defects to Reading Disabilities."
The registration by quarters was as follows:
Graduates UnderSpeech Majors Total
Graduates
Registration
Autumn
63
797
38
898
Winter
68
715
41
824
Spring
71
893
42
1006
Summer
84
423
20
527
Speech Clinic The Speech Clinic, under the direction of Dr.
Virgil Anderson, with Dr. Hayes Newby as assistant director, reported
total registration for the year as follows:
Cases
Clinicians
Autumn
26
7
Winter
62
17
Spring
53
13
Summer ..........45
15
186
Total individuals treated in the clinic
88
Total students trained as clinicians ....... 36
For the past several years the total registration of the clinic
has been steadily rising, the total reported for the present period
being the largest in the history of the clinic. Further examination of the data reveals that, while total registration was 20 per
cent higher this year than last, the number of individuals treated
declined by approximately 10 per cent* This means that the oases*
on the average, remained for a longer period of treatment than previously* Two factors are reflected here: (l) There has been a steady
trend toward the more serious type of speech disorder among those
enrolled in the clinic; the specialized services of the clinic are
being devoted more and more to those cases most in need of those

200

tipeech

and Drama

services. (2) It seems logical to assume that the quality o^ clinic


services has developed to the point where satisfied oases are returning for further help or are remaining until the speech problem is
entirely cleared up* Of the cases registered in the olinic- during
the year* 20 were of pre-sohool or kindergarten age* The majority
of speech problems presented by this group were of the delayed speech
variety* Fifteen of the oases were of elementary school age and nine
were in high school* Seven cases were in some way connected with
the faculty or staff of the University and the remaining 37 were
Stanford students*
In last year1 s report* a reference is made to the proposal to
make a small charge beginning with the autumn of 1947 for clinic cases
not connected with the University* This proposal was carried through
and during the year a total of over $600 was taken in from fees for
clinic services* These fees went into the University's general fund
and for the first time the Speech Clinic had its own operating budget,
out of which equipment could be purchased and student assistants could
be paid for service*. This arrangement has contributed substantially
to the Clinic* s development.
Because of many requests from people outside the University seeking help with the problem of stuttering* the Speech Clinic this year,
organized a group of adult stutterers* Although the psychodrama technique employed in the previous year had proved successful in benefiting
stutterers among other types of "patients," it was thought desirable
to experiment this year with group techniques which would attack the
problem of stuttering more directly from the speech correotionist1 s
standpoint* Accordingly* early in the autumn quarter, notices of the
organization of the stutterers' group were sent to a number of people
whose names were in the olinic files. Throughout the autumn quarter
the group met once weekly for a two hour evening meeting which concluded always with an informal social hour*
In the autumn quarter also the Clinio organized a group of
stutterers from the University students who had registered for individual work* This group met during the noon hour once each week under
the direction of Hiss Lucy Lawaon, graduate student in speech correction* At the end of the autumn quarter it was decided to combine the
two groups, keeping the evening meeting hour for the convenience of
those from outs5.de the University* While Dr. Newby served as chief
sponsor and advisor to the group, Mr. Gerald Giles, graduate student
in speech correction, was from the beginning in direct charge of the
evening meetings* Throughout the year an average of eight to ten
stutterers attended the meetings*
The group therapy was organized to serve three purposess
1, To obtain independence from the clinical situation
2. To develop in the individual participants an objective
attitude toward the problem of stuttering*
3* To attack the symptoms of stuttering directly through
various assignments, performances* and drill techniques
On several occasions* students from speech correction classes were
invited to attend the stuttering group meetings to serve as an audience for the members, and to observe the application of the group
therapy techniques* DThile at the beginning the stuttering group was
approached as an experiment, by the end of the year it was felt that
many valuable techniques had evolved which made it worthwhile to
continue the group work as a regular activity of the Speech Clinic,

Speech and Drama

201

The reaction of the individual members of the group was generally


enthusiastic and several demonstrated remarkable improvement. For the
University students, the group served to supplement their individual
clinical work, but for the "patients" from outside the University
the group constituted their only olinioal contact.
The Speech Clinic has made and is making every effort to extend
the scope of its services so far ae the needs here at the University
are concerned* Every effort is being made to strengthen the cooperation between the Clinic and the Psychological Clinic* the activities
of the Dean of Students' Office* and the Student Health Service* As
an example of this cooperation it is proposed that* beginning with
the winter quarter of 1949* every student entering the University
will be given a hearing test with the Pure Tone audiometer as a part
of his routine health examination. It is hoped that in the near
future* a comprehensive screening test for speech will be included
as a part of the general matriculation requirements of the University*
Die chief problem whioh the Clinic faces at the present time
is lack of adequate quarters for carrying on its work. The space
where it is housed at present on the 2nd floor of the Physical Education Building has inadequate facilities for the proper conducting of
the Clinic work. Hot only is there an insufficient number of rooms
available in which clinicians can meet oases* but the Army and Navy
military programs have expanded to the point where the Clinic has
very litfle use of the rooms whioh do exist* We feel that this is a
critical problem and hope that some solution can be found to it in
the near future*
Theatre and Dramat The Stanford Players* the producing organization of the Department of Speech and Drama whose productions and performances offer the practical laboratory training to students enrolled
in theatre and drama courses* presented during the year 16 productions
for a total of 49 performances, including 6 in the large theatre and
10 in the Little Theatre. There were a total of 1021 participants in
these performances, whioh were presented before a total audience of
27,491 persons* In the Memorial Hall Auditorium performance a were
witnessed by 22*504 persons} in the Little Theatre 4*987 persons
son performances.
The Stanford Players organization is charged with the responsibility of presenting plays for the general public in such a way as
to serve the training program of those students who are studying the
theatre* and to bring to all the students of the university a significant program of living theatre. To accomplish these two alms* the
Stanford Flayers divided their work into two distinct programs t the
subscription series,whidi is designed to include the finest possible
productions of significant dramas* and the Studio Theatre series
whioh is planned to give to the students the best training in all
phases of theatre work* Inevitably both programs contribute to the
achievement of both aims. The regular subscription series offered
by the Stanford Players was again four productions. Two additional
plays (to be mentioned later) were presented during the summer quarter.
All major productions were presented in Memorial Auditorium* whioh
nade it possible to raise the limit on the number of subscriptions
vhioh could be sold* In 1945-46 subscriptions had been limited to
800; in 1946-47 the limit was raised to 2100. Actually 1453 subscriptions were sold*

202

Speech and Drama,

The Stanford Players again presented two separate but related programs; a subscription series of three plays and an opera* and a nonsubsoription series of 8 plays and 2 playreadings. A special summer
program was also sponsored by the Stanford Players and will be described later* The subscription series plays were presented in the
Memorial Auditorium and directed and designed, by members of the
faculty of the Speech and Drama Department, with the students participating as members of the oasts and crews* The non-subscription
plays were presented in the Little Theatre and were directed and
designed by students under the direct supervision of members of the
faculty. In most instances the plays in this series represented an
integral part of the regular class work of our students* Both programs received gratifying response from the audience. 1453 subsoriptions were sold, 597 less than the proceeding year, but the sale
of individual tickets to single performances increased considerably*
The total number of paid admissions to the subscription series was
15858, an increase of 373 over last year* The non-subscription series
had a total audience of 4987, an increase of 1753 over the proceeding
year. In addition, a single performance of the opera, PETER GRIMES,
was presented in the War Memorial Opera House in San Francisco before
an audience of 3273 persons* The total paid admissions to all Stanford Players productions was 29,764, an increase of 6,577* The generous public response to these productions has convinced the staff
of the soundness of the general policy, and it has been decided to
continue the same plan next season*
The first production of the subscription series was RICHARD III
by William Shakespeare* It was directed by Associate Professor A*
Nicholas Vardao, who also designed the single setting, which was
an interesting adaptation of the main features of the stage on which
the play was first produced* The costumes were designed by Virginia
Opsvig and the lighting by James H. MoCullooh* The play was praised
by our audiences and received very complimentary reviews from the
newspapers* The second production of the series was the Brian
Hooker translation of CYRANO DE FBERGERAC by Edmund Rostand. It was
directed by Associate Professor * Cowles Strickland, designed by
Wendell Cole, costumed by Virginia Opsvig and lighted by James
MoCullooh. The audiences were even larger than those for RICHARD III
and again the press notices were generous in their praise* The third
production was DEAR BRUTUS by Sir James II. Barrie* It was directed
by George Nichols III, designed by Wendell Cole, costumed by Virginia
Opsvig and lighted by James MoCullooh. The audiences were smaller
for this play, but this can be accounted for by the limited appeal of
the play and by the fact that the two previous productions were more
spectacular. The play was enjoyed by those who saw it and response
was very favorable. The large size of Memorial Auditorium does not
permit a play of this type to be seen to the best advantage. The
final production of the subscription series was PETER GRIMES, an opera
by Benjamin Britten with a libretto by Montague Slater* It was presented in cooperation with the Music Department* Associate Professor
Herbert Jan Popper was the musical director, assisted by Leonard
Ratner, Harold Schmidt and Herbert Hanney* Associate Professor F.
Cowles Strickland was the stage director and the settings were designed by Wendell Cole, the costumes by Virginia Opsvig, and the
lighting by James MoCullooh. PETER GRIMES drew the largest audiences

b'peeeh and Drama

203

ever to see a Stanford Flayers production and was most enthusiast!*


cally praised by the newspaper critics. For the first time, all of
the San Francisco newspapers sent their critics and several of the
Los Angeles newspapers also sent representatives* The critics from
Los Angeles had recently seen the New York Metropolitan Opera production of PETER GRIMES and they were very complimentary to the
Stanford Players production as compared to the production of the same
work by the leading opera company of the world* It is interesting
to note that the Stanford Daily refused to review the opera and instead chose to run an editorial adversely criticicing the Music
Department and the Stanford Players for choosing to do a work which
could not be adequately presented by-students without the assistance
of a few professional singers and instrumentalists to augment the
cast and the student orchestra. Howard Ross of Los Angeles was
engaged to sing the difficult title role and gave a performance of
great power and fine musicianship. Marjorie Dickinson* a former
Stanford student and the wife of a Stanford instructor was engaged
to sing the tole of Ellen* and Stanley Noonan of San Francisco was
hired for the role of Balstrode. All three were paid modest salaries
which did little more than compensate them for the time and expenses
involved in the long rehearsal period devoted to this difficult work*
The orchestra was augmented by seven professional musicians* and
several non-professional musicians ir the community contributed their
services* The enthusiasm of the students who participated in this
production demonstrated that they considered it a rare educational
privilege to be a part of the ensemble* and the large size of the
audience showed that the community as a whole appreciated our efforts
to give this challenging work an adequate performance* Immediately
after the Stanford performances of PETER GRIMES, Mr. Paul Pose
offered to sponsor one more performance of the opera in the War
Memorial Opera House of San Francisco* He assumed all financial
responsibility and personally undertook the promotion of the ticket
sales. The various stage unions generously cooperated to make this
venture possible and the entire Stanford production was moved to the
city. Again all tickets were sold before the performance began*
This was fortunate because the expenses were very large and only a
modest profit was realized* This profit was shared by Stanford University in accordance with a contract signed with Mr, Posz*
The non-subscription plays were all presented in the Little
Theatre and the name of the Studio Theatre was used in order to differentiate these plays from the regular subscription plays. Four
of the productions were directed by graduate students in the department who did this work as partial fulfillment of the departmental
requirements for a Master's degree* In each case the student director
was given an adequate budget and was allowed to cast* rehearse and
produce the play exactly as he would be required to do it if he were
employed by a school or a community theatre. The first of these '
Studio Theatre plays was THE FATHER by August Strindberg* directed by
Walter C. Krumrn* The settings were also designed by Mr* Krumm*
The play was well received by eur audiences* but the staff felt that
Mr. Krumm* while doing an adequate production* had failed to understand the full psychological meaning of the play* The staff also felt
that this failure was not entirely the fault of Mr* Krumm* since he
had baen allowed to progress with rehearsals with a minimum of faculty

204

b'peech and Drama

supervision. Arrangements were made so that the same mistake would


not happen with future students* Miss Betty HcGee directed and
designed WINTERSET by Maxwell Anderson. This was an outstanding
piece of work and well deserved the high praise which was given it*
All perfromances were sold out before the play opened and an extra
matinee performance was given, whioh also sold out* Moliere's
L'AVARE (The Miser) was directed by Harold Todd and the setting was
designed by 0*G. Brockett, a graduate student whose major field is
design and who submitted his work on this play as partial fulfillment of the requirements for a Master* e degree. Both students did
very fine work and the play was a favorite with our audiences. Jules
Irving was the director of OF MICE AND MM and again O.G. Brockett
was responsible for the settings. They play was sensitively presented
and the poetic tragedy of the migrant workers was emphasized to make
a production of merit*
Two programs of one-act plays were presented in the Studio Theatre. The first of these was a group of plays written by our own students in playwrljhting* The plays were WBAT RHYMES WITH HARRIET, by
Herbert Blau, A PRAYER IN GALILEE* by Herbert Blau, and 0 FOOLISH
LOVE, by Roy Poole. All of the plays were directed by advanced
students in directing and the settings; costumes and lighting were
also designed by students. The program was only moderately successful, but it is the hope of the staff that in the future we will be
able to present more plays which are wtitten by our own students*
The second program of one-act plays was presented as exercises in
directing and the casts included the Junior Artists-in-Residence*
The productions of these plays were very modest and the program was
more in the nature of a play-reading than a formal production and
was offered to the public for the very modest fee of thirty cents.
Two play-readings were also presented by the Studio Theatre.
These were informal productions of LYSISTRATA by Aristophanes and
of PHAEERE by Racine. These productions are presented as exercises
in acting and directing and as a means of allowing our students of
dramatic literature to see some of the dramatic values of plays whioh
will not be offered in more formal productions*
An innovation of this season was the production of MEDEA by
Euripides, which was presented by the Department of Speech and Drama
of San Jose State College under the direction of James H. Clancy,
with settings by J* Wendell Johnson and costumes designed by Paula
Athey. MEDEA had been presented previously in San Jose as a regular
part of the drama program of San Jose State College. Our own students
and the general Palo Alto audience were grateful to us for bringing
this unusual and fine production to the Stanford campus. It is hoped
that in the future we may be able to bring other productions here
from other sbhoolE in the vicinity and that an opportunity will arise
so that some of the Stanford productions may be seen in the theatres
of other schools and colleges*
Another innovation of the season was a special production of a
play during the Commencement week-end* The play selected was JASON
by Samson Raphaelson, and it was directed by Associate Professor A*
Nicholas Vardao* For many years it has been the hope of the staff
of the Stanford Players to be eBle to have a play presented at this
particular time so that it might be seen by the parents of graduating
students and by alumni who are returning to the campus* Since no

tipeech and Drama

205

classes were in session during the rehearsal period for this play,
all of the cast were students who volunteered their services* and
the Junior Artists-in-Residenee. The settings were designed by
Kerait Shafer, and the costumes by James Stearns* both technical
Artists-in-Residenee, Ho students were required to participate
in the play and all extra labor was hired by the Stanford Players*
The result was* that in spite of sold out houses for three performances* the production showed a loss of $92,43. The staff felt that
the appreciation of the audiences, the experience for our Junior
Artists-in-Residenoe, and the advantages to the Stanford Players of
having their work seen by the parents of the students and the alumni
of the university, fully compensated for this small financial loss*
Two special performances were presented during the summer quarter with three distinguished professional actors who were appointed
to the faculty of the Speech and Drama Department as Artists-inResidence* It has been found that the opportunity to work with mature and experienced actors provides an invaluable learning experience
for student actors. It was especially fortunate that Hiss Aline MacHahon* Mr, Whitford Kane and Mr. Clarence Derwent were able and willing to come to Stanford and participate in the productions of
L'ARLESIENHE by Alphonse Daudet and TEE RIVALS by Richard Brinsley
Sheridan, Both Hiss MaoMahon and Mr. Kane arrived at Stanford at the
beginning of the summer quarter and remained for eight weeks* devoting their time to the rehearsals of the two plays* to participating in classroom work with our students* and to individual work with
some of the students* Mr* Derwent, who is the president of Actor1 s
Equity Association* was detained in Prague where he was attending the
UNESCO,conference so that he was able to be at Stanford for only
four weeks and appeared in the oast of TEE RIVALS only. He also
gave generously of his time to the students while he was here* Both
summer plays were directed by Associate Professor F. Cowles Strickland, Wendell Cole designed the seta for L'ARLESIENUE and students
under his direction designed the sets for TEE RIVALS, Mrs* Fairfax
Proudfit Walkup, who was a member of our summer faculty* designed
the costumes for both plays* The full score of incidental music
which had been composed by Georges Bizet was used in the production
of L'ARLESIEKKE and Dr* Herbert Jan Popper conducted the orchestra
which was provided by the Music Department. Both summer plays won
high praise from the newspaper critics and from our audiences,
L'ARLESIENNE aroused considerable interest because it has been so
rarely performed in this country. All of the San Francisco newspapers sent critics to review it. Everyone was impressed with the
brilliance and power of Miss MacMahon' s performance in the role
of Rose Maaai, It was also an interesting experience for our students and our audiences to see a play which was almost continuously
accompanied by a full symphony orchestra. TEE RIVALS provided the
Artists-in-Residentoe with fine opportunities to display their skill
in playing comedy roles and all three of them gave extremely able
performances. Mr, Derwent was especially admired by our students
for his skill in timing comedy lines*
This was the fourth time that the Stanford Players have brought
professional actors to participate in the esmppa productions and it
proved to be the most successful both in the finished performances
which were enjoyed by our audiences and in the rehearsal periods

206

Speech and Drama

where our students were able to learn a great deal from these more
experienced artists* As in the past, the salaried for the Artistsin-Residence were met by the Stanford Flayers* The audiences were
sufficiently large at both productions so that these salaries could
be paid directly from the box-office receipts without drawing on
the reserve funds* The experiment carried on last year of bringing
young professional actors and technicians to Stanford as Junior
Artists-in-Residence had been so successful that the staff of the
Stanford Players was eager to do it again this season* The National
Theatre Conference which had contributed to the funds used for this
purpose last year was unable to make another appropriation for this
type of fellowship until after the first of January* At that time
they appropriated I500 for Junior Artist-in-Residenoe fellowships
to be used this year and $1000 to be used for the same purpose in the
academic year 1948-49* Because of this delay the fellowships were
not available until the beginning of the spring quarter* The University provided (2000 and the Stanford Players appropriated $2500 so that
five fellowships* each for $1000,were offered* The plan of the fellowships was exactly the same as that of the previous year, except that
the recipients were here for only the spring and summer quarters and
received $1000 each instead of $1500 as in the previous year* Again
the heads of departments in other schools and universities were asked
to nominate former graduates as possible recipients of the fellowships. A large number of applications were received and the staff of
the Stanford Players finally awarded the fellowships to Frances Waller
from Marion College, Alabama, Walt Witcover from Cornell University,
Richard Hawkins from Baylor University, Kermit Shafer from Kansas State
College and James Stearns from the University of Wichita. The Junior
Artiets-in-Residence again proved of great assistance in our teaching
program. In addition to appearing in the regular productions of the
Stanford Players, they also appeared in plays directed by our students
in directing* The production of JASON would not have been possible
without the aid of Mr.Stearns and Mr* Shafer who designed and constructed the scenery and Miss Waller, Mr* Hawkins and Mr* Witcover
who played leading roles in this special production* Last year, our
students were antagonistic toward the policy of bringing Junior Artistsin Residence to the campus. Fear was expressed that thesefellowship
students would deprive our own regularly enrolled students of opportunities* This year, the attitude was entirely changed. It has
been demonstrated that these fellowship students actually help to
provide more and better opportunities* Our graduate student directors
now try to schedule productions of their plays in quarters when the
fellowship actors will be available* A very fine and cordial relationship between our students and the fellowship actors and technicians
was established this year* The staff decided that it is better to
have the Junior Artists-in-Residenoe here for three quarters instead
of two, and plans have already been started to announce the fellowships during the fall quarter of next year and have the recipients
arrive at Stanford for the beginning of the winter quarter*
In addition to the plays produced at Stanford, the Stanford Players accepted the invitation of the San Francisco Examiner to present
the Coloma Pageant in San Francisco* This pageant had been presented
at Coloma on the anniversary of the discovery of gold and it was
thought that it would be appropriate as part of the San Francisco

207

Speech and Drama

celebration of I Am An American Day. The pageant was rehearsed at


Stanford under the direction of Associate Professor F. Cowle? Strickland. The *rTm1n**r provided the same scenery which had been used
at Coloma and also paid all the expenses of transporting the Stanford
cast to the San Francisco Civic Auditorium where the pageant was
presented before an audience of approximately 10,000 persons*
As in other years, the Stanford Players paid from the boxoffice receipts all of the expenses incurred in the production of the
plays. They also contributed $2,500 to the funds for the Junior
Artist-in-Residenee fellowships and also paid the salaries of the
Artists-in-Residenee who were engaged for the special summer productions* From time to time the Stanford Players have also voted sums
of money to provide new equipment which is used in both the production of the plays and in the regular teaching activities of the department* Among these items were a sewing machine,$118.59, new
lights for the costume room* $120*41, a new ground cloth for the
stage, $285*98, new spot lights, 1521.72, and new Lekolites, $129,57.
All of this new equipment is used by other groups using the auditorium*
The Stanford Player* also contributed $493.35 to the funds available
for the purchase of books for the Drama Library*
Total
Play
Attendance
Box Office Receipts
Season
Caah
IptaC.
Subscription series
3179 $1219755 $726.00
$1975.55
RICHARD III
3944
726.00
2478.75
1752.75
CYRANO DE BERGERAC
726.00
1551.05
805*05
DEAR BRUTUS
2572
8187*74 1455.00
4640.74
PETER GRIMES (opera 6165
910626.09
$6995.09 $3651.00
Sunnier series
$2942.60
2991 $2942.60
L'ARLESIENNE
2619.40
2655
2619.40
TEE RIVALS
95562.00
5646 95562.00
Studio theatre
THE FAl'ttBK
ONE ACTS
WINTERSET
MEDIA.
THE MISER
ONE ACTS
JASON
OF MICE AND MEN
Playreadings
LYSISTRATA
PHAEDRE
TOTALS t

628
507
838
710
700
92
465
710
4648

311.40
252.90
415.90
484.50
558.50
23.00
542.75
546.20
2514.95

197
142
539

49.25
35.50
984.75

26491 $15156.79

311.40
252.90
415.90
484.50
538.50
25.00
542.75
546.20
2614.96
49.25
56*50
984.75"
$5651*00

$18787.74

208

Speech and Drama

Radio Workshop. Mr* John T. Zuokerman* director of the Radio Workshop* handled the professional courses in radio* while Dr. Skipwith
W Athey, Assistant Professor of Electrical Engineering and Speech
and Drama, taught the technical courses. Daring the year it was
recommended to the Department Faculty that a laboratory course at the
intermediate level be added to provide opportunity for the use of
Station ESU as as educational facility* This course was incorporated
in the stonier curriculum ac a part of the Radio Institute. All courses
offered in the Summer Radio Institute were renumbered to conform to
the numbers of their counterparts during the academic year* and their
contents revised to fulfill the same requirements* (See report of the
Radio Institute). It was suggested to the Department that further
expansion of radio course work be undertaken during the following a eademio year.
During the year* station KSU continued to develop until there
were more than 120 students engaged in its operation at the end of the
Spring Quarter* The station was approved for permanent addition as
an educational facility of the University in February. It is guided
by a Committee on Radio, appointed by the President* with faculty and
student members from the appropriate organizations. The station
manager and graduate assistant in radio sit on the committee ex officic
New equipment was added to the station during the year* whioh provided
for more faithful broadcast quality* and enabled the broadcasting of
events remote from the studios with excellent fidelity. Mr* Charles
R. Patton served as graduate assistant from September* 1947 to June*
1948. His efficiency was instrumental in maintaining KSU operations
on a high level. Mr* Byron S. Phillips* Jr.* was the station manager
for the same period* and though he is an undergraduate* has been recommended for the assistantship for the academic year* 1948-49* because of his excellent service to the station*
During the year* the department was responsible for a number
of radio programs broadcast to the general public* A series of programs from February through August over KEEK* San Jose station, was
titled "Stanford Speaks" and comprised discussion groups of students
with some faculty participation* The subject matter ranged over
current topics of local and national significance* with the summer
series of six programs being given over to discussions of international affairs,in cooperation with the Stanford Institute of International
Relations. A series of four programs broadcast during July on KQW
dealt with the international situation* These were made possible
through the cooperation of the faculty and graduate students of the
Hoover Research Institute and Library* A second annual Easter program was broadcast over the VBC network* this time from Memorial
Church* with the University Choir* organ* choral readers* and the
Chaplain as participants* Students
of the Department participated in
dramatic programs over the Veteran1 s Theatre of the Air* broadcast
over KVSM* San Mateo* and in July* the Department presented a halfhour version of L'ARLESIEHHB over that s talon with Miss Aline MacMahon* and Mr. Whitford Kane* senior artists-in-residenoe, as the
leading players*
Mr. Zuokerman was given responsibility for organizing the recording facilities of the department, with Dr. Athey as technical
supervisor. In addition to classroom use of this facility* the equipment made possible the recording of the entire opera, PETER GRIMES*

tipeech and Drama

209

as well aa many other Stanford events, including speeches by the


President, special recordings of poetry reading by Mr. Charles K.
Field (member of the Pioneer class) and other important work. A
total of 164 requests for recording service were processed*
NBCStanford Summer Radio Institute. The seventh consecutive
Summer Radio Institute conducted by Stanford University in collaboration with Station KNBC of the National Broadcasting Company, was
held from June 17 through August 14, 1948.
The idea on which the
Institute was founded was that advanced and carefully selected students would derive much value from exposure to the principles and
practices of broadcasting as expounded by active professionals in the
industry* Again, this principle was basic. The theme most stressed
this year was that of radio as a socially responsible medium-wherein it is most deficient; where it has been most skillfully used,
and how it may be made more responsible* The other principal change
in stress was the noticeable lessening of emphasis on skill training
of emergency talent* The war-time needs are over. So too, is the
immediate postwar rush to get rapid placement during a period of
flux* Students were, in many instances, eager for employment but
they were evidently concerned with learning as a way of competing
for better jobs because of a sound basis of knowledge and ability*
The course structure was much the same as in recent years* The
major changes were, l) the elimination of "Control Room Practice11
and 2) the addition of "Programs in the Public Interest," The former
was originated during the war to train the combination men (announceroperators) when the FCC relaxed its rules requiring a substantial
knowledge of electrical engineering of all operators* The postwar
tightening of FCC regulations made the course inadequate for the
training of operators. However some practice in control room
operation was given many interested students through supervised
non-credit practice sessions* "Programs in the Public Interest"
was added to the curriculum to make available to advanced students
the Director's views on educational broadcasting tor adults which
were derived from twenty-two years of experience in that field*
The faculty consisted of the following persons distinguished
in their individual fields of experiences
From KNBC:
John E, Elwood, General Manager*
Richard Bertrandias, Writer Producer
Alfred w. Crapsey, Local Sales Manager
James Day, Director of Public Affairs and Education
Anthony Freeman, Musical Director
Don Hall, Engineer
Budd Heyde, Staff Announcer
John H* Thompson, Manager of News and Public Affairs
Hal Wolf, Chief Announcer and Assistant Program Manager
John B* Grover, Staff announcer and producer
Otherst
Allen Miller, Director of the Institute, Director of the
Rooky Mountain Radio Council.
Kenneth K, Jones Jr., Instructor in Speech, Stanford University.
Miss Marjorie MeGilvrey, Teacher of English, Speech and
Journalism at Mountain View High School.

210

Speech and Drama

Malcolm R, Meacham, Freelance writer and producer.


Mrs* Inez G. Richardson* Curator of the Ray Lyman Wilbur
Collection on Social Problems, Research Associate
of the Hoover Library, Stanford University.
John Zuckerman, Director of the Radio Workshop, Stanford
University.
Thirteen courses were offered during the Institute. The campus
carrier current station, KSU, served as an outlet for practice products of workshop efforts. In addition, individual practice with
criticism was made available in most courses. Four discussion programs were produced as projects in "Programs in the Public Interest."
Outstanding authorities were combined with advanced students in round
table discussion on international problems. The programs were broadcast by KQW* A series of eight student discussions in the series
"Stanford Speaks" were broadcast over KEEN as a product of the Radio
Workshop. Many programs by, or including, members of the Institute
were broadcast over KSU.
The total enrollment of 69 consisted of 44 men and 25 women*
Until the withdrawal of one woman at the end of six weeks, the enrollment figures of 70, divided 44 men, and 26 women were identical
with 1947. More students were registered for credit this year* 61
in contrast to 43, hence there were fewer non-credit registrants,
18 as against 27* However* fewer students enrolled for a full program of three or more courses. This year 51 took full courses and
18 took one or two* In 1947 there were 62 full registrations and 8
with fewer than three courses.
Geographically* the students came from 19 states in addition
to California* and from the Phillipines and India. The greatest
number, as usual, came from California and the other coast states;
48 were from California; 12 were from other western states; and
6 were from the lliddlewest. None was from the east. Some thought
should be given to analyzing courses and to developing methods for
recapturing student interest in that area*
Guest lecturers included) Miss Nadine Miller of C. E. Hooper
Inc; Donn Tatum of Lillick, Geary and MoHose; Floyd Farr and George
Snell of Station KEEH: Jennings Pierce and Hall Book of NBC lollywoo
William Smullin of the NAB; Paul Corbin of Station Kiait Miss Ethel
Gilchrist and Henry Schacht of KNBC in addition to special lectures
by many of the regular KNBC-Stanford faculty group; and Gerald Pock
formerly of BBC.
Courses were held on the campus on Mondays* Wednesdays* and
Fridays; in the KNBC studios in San Francisco on Tuesdays and Thursdays* The best written half-hour student script was produced and
transcribed as a part of the final ceremonies which were held on
Saturday, August 14* The production, in Studio A, was open to member
of the Institute and to their guests. The author of the winning
script* Richard Bennett,was given a prize of $50*00, by NBC* The
closing exercise was a luncheon at Omar Khayyam's at which oertifioal
were awarded to those completing the courses satisfactorily*
Stanford Student Speakers' Servicet This year the Stanford
Student Speakers' Service was contained entirely within the scope of
the course of study known as "Public Performance" designated Speech
and Drama 105 in the University Bulletin. The Director was Howard
William Runkel* Acting Instructor in the Speech and Drama Department.

Speech and Drama

211

Because the Student Speakers' Service was seen as a primarily educative effort* the former policy of having students write an address
early in the autumn quarter and give that address exclusively was
abandoned. Instead* organizations requesting
speakers were asked to
advise the Service at least two weeks1 in advance regarding their
choice of topic and the nature of the audience* The student best
qualified by virtue of his studies or non-academic experience to discuss the subject requested was then selected to fill the assignment*
This required that he meet the problem of building a speech from the
beginning through the required steps in speech construction. The
Director guided him in his research* organisation of material and practice in delivery. Audience adaptation was the keynote throughout
the preparatory period* This method provides
practice which will
definitely be most applicable to the student1 s future platform work
in the business or professional world. Participants and host organizations alike have been generous in their expressions of approval of
this procedure*
In accord with the new approach to the problem of furnishing
speakers for outside organizations outlined above* no speech rosters
were printed this year. The record of 1946-1947 shows that the publication of announcements of students participating and their topics
was done at substantial expense in time and money* Of the 300 organizations to whom rosters were mailed* only 12 responded with invitational
Correspondence with host organizations during 1947-48 shows conclusively that the performance of a student speaker itself is most productive of future invitations from the same group* as well as from
others* Many organizations informed the Service that their budgets
do not allow the procurement of speakers for fees* It was decided
during the spring quarter to suspend the charging of fees wherever
the host organization provides transportation for the speaker. This
policy can be expected to bring forth many more invitations in the
future* thus giving the Service its most vital training outlet*
The Student Speakers* Service this year used Speech and Drama
Department stationery and telephone equipment* Ho need exists* therefore* for an income* No secretarial assistance has been available
this year and none will be needed as long as no rosters of speakers
are published and no fees are charged.
During the spring quarter, the Institute of International Relations Speakers' Group registered for ^peeoh and Drama 105 and received training and academic credit for their addresses on current
international problems delivered to audiences through the Bay Area*
A total of 32 students registered with the Speakers' Service throughout the year* This group delivered 68 addresses to 28 different
organizations before a total of over four thousand persons. This
does not include the audiences of unknown size who heard the 14
broadcasts over Radio KEEN during the year. The above presentations
have taken place in communities ranging from San Rafael in the north
to San Jose in the south* Present indications are that the Stanford
Student Speakers' Service may expect to receive even more calls for
addresses next year. Again the objective of the Service will be,in
addition to reflecting credit on the University, to train member
students in the vital activity of public communication of ideas.
Faculty Speakers' Service* So Faculty Speakers' Service
activity was conducted this year by the Director of the Student
Speakers' Service*

212

tipeech

and Drama

Debate. During the year 1947-48 the debate program was enlarged to include a weekly discussion group on contemporary problems.
Seventy-one students participated in this program* The purpose of
this project was to interest students in the solution of current
problems. The excellent response to this type of program indicates
that it should be continued as a regular part of the debate and discussion activities of the Speech and Drama Department*
The debaters participated in the programs of the Pacific Forensic League, the Western Speech Association* and the Rocky Mountain
Conference* At the Rocky Mountain Conference, Dow Carpenter, Stanford sophomore, received first place in the extemporaneous speaking
contest. One hundred forty students representing 50 colleges from
the 14 western states participated in this program,out of which Dow
Carpenter and Townsend Brown, Stanford freshman, were selected as
the champion debaters* Richard Kelton, Stanford sophomore, was
selected as the outstanding speaker at the meeting of the Western
Speech Association*
The 54th Annual Debate for the Medialle Joffre was held at the
University of California on May 17th. Leonard Hesterman of the
University of California won first place by a margin of two points*
Stanford won second, third, and fourth places*
The 71 debaters participated in a total of 156 debates during
the school year* The Associated Students have increased the budget
each year for this activity, in recognition of the excellent record.
Mr* Paul Edwards and Professor Hubert C, Heffner addressed the debaters at their final meeting of the year* Professor Leland T,
Chapin served as chairman of the debate council and faculty adviser
throughout the year.
Awards were made as follows:
EONALD KAY MEMORIAL AWARD - Richard l.M. Eelton
... Beverly Hills
MELLINKOFF AWARDS
- Townsend Brown.. Chicago, 111.
Richard l.M. Kelton..Beverly Hill
DONALD B. TRESIDDER PERPETUAL AWARD - Dow Wheeler Carpenter,
Jr. .. Beverly Hills
RAY LYMAN WILBUR AWARD
Thomas Hawthorn Armstrong
.. New Richmond, Wis.
Activities of Members of the Faculty. During the autumn
quarter, on September 30, Professor Heffnergave a lecture on "The
Grtfat Books Series" of the San Jose Adult Education Program, entitled "Aeschylus' Oresteia Trilogy." On November 26 he spoke on
the program of the thirty-seventh annual meeting of the National
Council of Teachers of English in San Francisco on the subject "The
Educational Value of Dramatics." He attended the meetings of the
1947 Convention of the American Educational Theatre Association and
the Speech Association of America in Salt Lake City from December
29 to 31 inclusive. At the Convention he served as chairman and
organized the program of the Section on Directing and also read a
paper, entitled "The Educational Theatre Finds Significance in the
Professional Theatre1 s Decline," on the Section program devoted to
Theatrical Research* On February IS and 14 he attended the meetings
of the Northwest Drama Conference and Regional Meeting of the American Educational Theatre Association held at the University of
Oregon* He participated in all of the meetings of this conference

tipeeoh and Drama

213

and spoke at the General Session on "The Responsibilities of the


Educational Theatre." Again* on January 28, he spoke for the San
Jose Adult Education Center on their symposium series, "What is Man?",
on the subject of the influence of communications in the shaping of
citizens*
On February 20, he spoke to the Board of Directors of the San
Francisco Theatre Association on the present state of the professional
theatre in America and the aims and goals of a San Francisco Professional theatre. On April 17 and 18, he attended the meetings of the
Pacific Coast Committee on the Humanities of the American Council of
Learned Societies held in Pasadena, representing, in the absence
of Dean John Dodds, Stanford University and the Pacific Spectator.
He has served through the academic year on the Pacific Coast Committee.
On May 13, 14, and 15, he attended meetings of the UNESCO
Pacific Regional Conference in San Francisco as a delegate representing the Theatre Library Association and the American Educational Theatre Association. At this conference he participated
in the meetings on international cultural relations* On June 1,
again in San Francisco, he spoke at the annual meeting of the California Writers Club on "What Makes Writing Dramatic?"
At the Annual Convention of the American Educational Theatre
Association, December 29 to 51 inclusive, he was elected Vice-president of that Association. As Vice-president he is in charge of the
program of the forthcoming annual convention to be held in Washington
on December 28,29, and 30, 1948.
During the year, while Dean John Dodds was on leave of absence,
he has served as Acting Chairman of the Editorial Board of Pacific
Spectator. He has also served as co-chairman, with Professor Felix
Keesing, of the Viking Fund Group, a group of Stanford faculty members
from Humanities and the Social Sciences organized to explore the relations between anthropology and the humanities and to explore areas
of mutual cooperation in research between scholars in humanities and
scholars in the social sciences. He and Professor Eeesing planned
the series of bi-weekly meetings held during the three regular academic quarters*
In the spring of 1947, Professor Heffner was asked to serve as
Associate Editor of the Quarterly Journal of Speech, in charge of the
section, of that journal devoted to theatre and drama* He has continued his editorial duties in that position through the academic year*
Professor Heffner was invited by the English Department of Cornell University to offer a course and a seminar during the sixneeks summer term at that university* On the way to Cornell he stopped
at the University of Michigan for a series of conferences and at
Ohio State University where he gave a series
of three public lectures, entitled "The Conception of Man1s Life as Presented in the
Drama," "The Drama's Representation of Human Personality," and "The
Decline of the Professional Theatre in America."
He served through the year as chairman of the sub-committee on
the Tuesday Evening Series and as acting member of the Executive
Committee. He was appointed a member of the Academic Advisory Committee of Bratideis University and has served in that position through
the year* During the spring quarter, he served as a member of the
Board of Judges of the Alameda County Centennial Celebration Committee,
helping to select the pageant-drama from a group of thirty-two original pageant dramas submitted to be presented in celebration of California's centennial*

214

b'peeoh and Drama,

Professor Virgil A* Anderson continued as director of the


Speech Clinic, -with the exception of the autumn quarter when he was
on leave* He concluded six years of service as book review editor
of Western Speech, as well as six years as Associate Editor of Speech
Monographs, being responsible for articles in the field of the speech
sciences* He likewise concluded three years of service as Associate
Editor of The Quarterly Journal of Speech. He was elected a member
of the Executive Council of the Speech Association of America and
attended its annual convention held in Salt Lake City during the
Christmas holidays, where he gave an address before one of the general
sessions on the subject, "A Speech Correctionist Looks at Drama."
During the autumn Dr. Anderson appeared on the program of a special
one-day session devoted to speech correction sponsored by the Palo
Alto Public Schools. In April he organized and presided over the
section program on speech correction, which was a part of the "Conference on Education of Exceptional Children" sponsored by the California State Department of Education and held at San Francisco State
College* During the Summer he appeared on the program of the Stanford
Summer Educational Conference* During the year he was asked to become
a member of the Dental Health Advisory Committee of the Oakland Public
Schools* He continued as chairman of the Faculty Committee on Foreign
Students. When Professor Heffner wes on leave during the summer quarto
Dr. Anderson served as Acting Executive Head of the Department. During
the year he prepared a number of book reviews, which appeared in
Western Speech.
In addition to his regular teaching assignment, Professor
Chapin served as chairman of the Debate Council, chairman of beginning public speaking sections, chairman of a faculty sub-committee
of the Stanford Associates, chairman of the committee on contemporary
public address of the Speech Association of America, and chairman
of the conmittee on International Debating of the Pacific Forensic
League* He read a paper on the Select Society of Edinburgh before
the Stanford Philological Society in January, delivered an address
on the Scottish Libraries before the Pacific Coast Philological
Society in November, and read a paper on the debates between Churchill
and Atlee at the meeting of Speech Association of America in December.
He also participated in a forum of the California Round Table, delivered a two-hour, lecture before the Adult Education School in San
Jose, and addressed the Kiwanas Club of Palo Alto. Mr. Chapin contributed five book reviews to Western Speech, and is continuing
his research and writing on Scottish Rhetoricians. During the year,
Professor Chapin taught two public speaking courses for the Graduate
School of Business to 138 students*
Associate Professor James Gordon Emerson continued on a
half-time basis throughout the year. Professor Emerson served as
a lower division advisor and as faculty sponsor of the Stanford
chapter of Delta Sigma Rho, national honorary debating society*
He was in charge of the department* e library file as well as the
sub-committee on curriculum study in rhetoric and public address* He
continued to offer his unique course in pre-legal argumentation to
an increasingly large enrollment of pre-legal students. Stanford
has the distinction of being the only University to offer such a
course, and numerous inquiries have been received with a view to
the establishment of a similar course in other institutions. During

b'peeoh and Drama

215

the year, Professor Emerson was appointed as expert advisor to the


Palo Alto Public Forum Committee*
Associate Professor D Paul MoKelvey continued as chairman of
the department* s Oral Skills examination Committee and organised and
directed the Workshop in Communication Arts given during the sunnier
quarter* He also administered oral examinations to 87 candidates for
teaching credentials in the School of Education. He attended the
annual meeting of the Western Speech Association and the Speech
Association of America in Salt Lake City during the Christmas holidays where he participated as a member of the panel on the section
program devoted to communication skills* He also attended the winter
meeting of the Bay Area English Association at San Francisco State
College as a part, of the program of the summer education conference
of the Stanford School of Education. He served as chairman of the
section meeting devoted to the topic: "What Makes a Good Teacher?"
He continued his association with the project in communication skills
at San Francisco City College through March of this year and served
as a member of the Board of Directors of the Penninsula School* having
been elected chairman of the Board in May* He also served as secretary and as director of the Civic League of Palo Alto whose activities resulted in the bringing of a special planning consultant into
the school system. He prepared a review for the Quarterly Journal of
Speech of "Papers Given at A Conference on College Courses in Communication". "
Associate Professor F Cowles Strickland was not on duty during
the fall quarter. During part of this time he was employed by the
San Francisco Theatre Association to conduct a survey of work which
had been done by that association toward establishing a permanent
theatre in San Francisco* Mr. Strickland completed the survey and prepared a report which was unanimously approved by the Board of Directors of the Theatre Association and which has since been used by them
as a guide in carrying on their work*
He also re-directed the production of Mozart's COS I FAN TDTTI.
The opera was presented for three weeks at the Las Palmas Theatre in
Los Angeles where it was received with the highest praise, both from
the music critics of the area and from the reviewers from national
musical magazines*
In the winter quarter, Mr. Strickland returned to the campus
and in addition to his regular teaching* directed Rostand1s CYRANO
DE BERGERAC, staged Benjamin Britten' 8 PETER GRIF'ES and arranged
and directed a special summer program of Baudot's L'ARLESISNNE
and Sheridan1s THE RIVALS. He also taught an extra course in acting
for the students of the Opera Workshop in the winter and summer
quarters* He delivered two addresses* one to the Palo Alto Women's
Club and one to the Tuesday Reading Club of Turlock, California.
Associate Professor A. Nicholas Vardac completed the research
for and the preparation of a volume which will be published under the
title of STAGE TO SCREEN in 1948 or early 1949 by the Harvard University Press. He also designed and directed the Stanford Players'
Production of RICHARD III in November, and directed JASON, the Stanford Players' offering for the 1948 Commencement Program. During the
summer of 1948 he served as guest director at the Camden Hills, Theatre*
Camden, Maine where he staged JOHN LOVES MARY and other plays.
He presented a paper dealing with the Junior Artist-in-Residenoe

216

Speech and Drama

policy of the Department at the Annual Convention of the American


Educational Theatre Association held at Salt Lake City in December
of 1947* He is currently serving on a committee designated by the
Association to explore the relationship between the various theatrical
media, radio, stage and screen*
Hayes A> Newby -was appointed Acting Assistant Professor for the
summer quarter, 1947, and Assistant Professor commencing with the
autumn quarter. During the summer and autumn quarters, in the absence of Professor Anderson on leave, Dr. Newby served as Acting
Director of the Speech Clinic. He is presently Assistant Director
of the Clinic and is developing a program of courses in the field
of audiology (hearing and hearing disorders). During Dr. HoEelvey*s
absence on leave in the winter quarter, Dr. Newby served as
Coordinator of Basic Courses.
In the autumn, Dr. Newby appeared as a guest speaker at a speech
correction institute sponsored by the Palo Alto Board of Education.
He delivered a paper at the annual meeting of the Speech Association
of America in Salt lake City entitled,"Evaluating the Efficiency
of Group Screening Tests of Hearing."
His publications during the
year included an article in the Journal of Speech Disorders
entitled,
"Group Pure Tone Hearing Testing in the Public Schools*1"' and a book
review in Western Speech.
Throughout the school year, Dr. Hewby acted as critic for the
Palo Alto ToastaaistressClub under the sponsorship of the Adult Education Program of the Palo Alto school system. On two occasions he
appeared as guest critic for the Belmost-San Carlos Toastmasters*
Club.
In the Autumn quarter, Dr. Anderson and Dr. Hewby sponsored the
formation of an adult stutterers* group as an extra-curricular activity
of the Speech Clinic. During the rest of the school, year, Dr. Hewby
served as advisor to this group and to the graduate student in speech
correction directly in charge of the group* s activities* Dr. Newby
also acted as a Lower Division advisor for the autumn and winter
quarters*
In addition to her regular teaching dutues, Acting Assistant
Professor Helene Blattner served as a Lower Division advisor and was
a member o? t&e Oral Skills committee of the Department of Speech and
Drama* She was also the director for the courses in the Interpretative Reading sequence in the Department*
Miss Blattner directed a reading-recital by students in the
Department who read a group of short stories written by students
in Stanford's Creative Writing Center. In preparing and presenting
the Easter Sunday broadcast from Memorial Church over NBC, Miss
Blattner assisted by directing a verse-speaking group that participated in the service. She also served as the Stanford correspondent to the Quarterly Journal of Speech, contributing to the Hews and
Notes department regularly. During the fall quarter, while on leave
from Stanford, Miss Blattner completed work for the Doctor of Philosophy degree at the University of Iowa, and received the degree at
the January Commencement. While at Iowa she spoke twice to the seminar in doctoral research in the Department of Speech and Dramatic Art.
Later, she prepared for publication in the 1948 edition of Speech
Monographs an abstract of her doctoral dissertation, "AN EXPERIMENTAL
STUDY OF THE TESTING OF PRONUNCIATION."

Speech and Drama

217

Assistant Professor Skipwith Wilmer Athey taught half-time in


the two departments of Speech and Drama and Electrical Engineering*
In the Department of Speech and Drama he introduced a different version of an old course. Broadcast Control Techniques, designed to
inform non-engineering personnel about the basic techniques in radio
broadcast inland a new course in Broadcast Audio Engineering* specifically for Electrical Engineers at the senior level, in order to
fcive them the engineering fundamentals of specialized broadcast techniques*
He consulted with the Planning department concerning re-design
of the Cubberly Auditorium and with the Business Office concerning
a new public address system for the Memorial Auditorium* He was a
member of the Carrier Current Committee, and the Committee on Radio,
and was the Technical Supervisor of Radio Station KSU* In connection with the Carrier Current Station, he supervised the extension of
coverage of the station, the change to the new frequency of 880
Kilocycles, and the installation of improved studio facilities of the
Station* He designed and supervised the sound arrangements for
several Stanford Players productions during the year*
He received the degree of Ph,p, in October 1947, in Electrical
Engineer ing, with a minor in Speech and Drama*
Director of Badio John V* Zuokerman completed the requirements
for the Master's Degree in Psychology in addition to teaching the
courses in radio, directing the Radio Workshop, and serving as advisor to station KSU. He participated in the design and construction
of a modification of the Lazarsfeld-Stanton Program Analyzer for use
in testing audience reaction to radio programs and motion picture
films* He was named a member of the President's Coratiittee on motion
pictures for the University and served as executive officer of the
University committee on radio*
In addition to his regular duties as Technical Director, Mr.
James H McCulloch made his services available for lighting assistanoe and staging assistance for programs of the Friends of Music,
Stanford Mothers Club, Rams Head, Orohesis, I.R.E. Society, the
Alumnae Association, Associated Students, Concert Series, Sigma Chi,
Public Exercises Committee, and Rally Committee* Mr. MoCulloch was
appointed to the Committee on Theatre Lighting of the Illumination
Engineering Society-of America*
Instructor Wendell Cole, in addition to his .regular teaching
assignment,designed the settings for the Hollywood production of
COSI FAN TUTTIin the fall and the settings for the Stanford production of PETER GRIMES at the San Francisco Opera House in June*
In February, he lectured to the Palo Alto Women* s Club on the subject of Contemporary Scene Design* During the year he continued
work toward his Ph.D. degree*
In addition to her teaching duties, Instructor Virginia Opevig^
designed and supervised the construction of all of the costumes for
the Stanford Players productions in Memorial Hall, as well as for
the Opera Workshop productions* She was also responsible for the
costuming of the repeat performance of the opera in San Francisco,
&nd for the "I Am An American" Pageant staged by the San Francisco
jjaauniner at the Civic Auditorium in San Francisco.

218

tipeech

and Drama

In addition to her regular teaching duties, Instructor Helen


W* Sohrader served on the Committee on Teaching Credentials and the
Committee on Teacher Training in the School of Education* During the
winter quarter she conducted the Speech Interview for the School of
Education* and served as chairman of the Oral Skills Examination in
the Department of Speech and Drama* She advised graduate students
in speech education* and supervised student teachers of speech and
drama* In November, she addressed the Student Leader* s Conference
at Burlingame High School* and in the spring the Northern California
Council on Improvement of Instruction* at Stanford* and the American
Association of University Women at San Jose*

VIRGIL A. ANDERSON
Acting Executive Head

School of Law

219

SCHOOL OF LAW

The largest enrollment in the history of the School, just under


five hundred students, exceeded that of 19^7-19^8 by seventy-five.
Eighty-eight per cent of the students were G.I.'s. The average age
of the student body is slightly in excess of twenty-five years.
About one-half of the men are married and a large number of them
find it necessary to supplement their incomes through outside employment.
One hundred thirty-seven graduates were awarded the LL.B. degree
during the year. All but one of the seventy-three graduates who
took the bar examination for the first time during the year successfully qualified for admission to practice.
The most important new activity was the law review program.
Two issues of an Intramural Review, which provided essential training for the first editors, were published in the spring and summer.
The first issue of the Stanford Law Review is now scheduled for
publication in October, most of the work having been done during
the summer quarter. In addition to the new law review program, an
expanded Moot Court program was undertaken with the cooperation of
members of the bench and bar of the Bay Area.
The student body has been organized so as to facilitate collaboration between students and faculty on such problems of common
interest as the curriculum, teaching methods and extracurricular
activities. Student reports on curriculum and teaching methods
have been very helpful to the faculty in its deliberations on those
subjects.
A law internship program, under which about fifty students
worked in as many law offices during the summer months, was successfully initiated.
Crothers Hall, the new law dormitory made possible by a gift
from Judge George E. Crothers, will be occupied in the autumn
quarter of 19U8-19U9* The remodeling of the new Administration
Building has begun and it is anticipated that we will be able to
occupy our new quarters at the beginning of the academic year
191*9-1950.
The teaching staff included the following permanent members
of the faculty: Marion Rice Kirkirood, George Edward Osborne,
William Brownlee Owens, Lowell Turrentine, Stanley Morrison, James
Emmet Brenner, Harry John Rathbun, John Bingham Hurlbut, Charles
Fainnan, and Carl B. Spaeth, professors; and Samuel David Thurman,
Jr., associate professor.
The full-time teaching staff was brought to a total of fifteen
by six additional appointments: Ferdinand Fairfax Stone, acting
professor; Charles Edward Corker, John Richard McDonough, Gordon
Kendall Scott, Richard Shipman Young, and Harold Joseph Berman,
acting assistant professors. The following members of the California Bar continued their helpful service to the School as
Lecturers: Charles Alexander Beardsley, Marsden Scott Blois,
Walter E. Bruns, Herbert W. Clark, Oscar Kennedy Gushing, Herbert
Leonard Hahn, Henrie Granville Hill, Marian A. Jones, Edward
Durley Landels, Everett Seymour Layman, Bert W. Levit, Robert
M. C. Littler, Leonard Saxton Lyon, Francis Price, and Joseph
Daniel Sullivan.

220

tichool

of Law

Instruction during the summer quarter, which provided a substantial offering of courses for approximately two hundred students,
was carried on by the following members of the regular staff:
Professors Kirkwood and Owens; Associate Professor Thurmanj by
visiting Professors Nathanson, Sears and Green and visiting Associate Professors Tunks and Kaplan*
The activities of the resident faculty during the year have
been as follows:
Professor Kirkwood continued to serve during the year as Chairman of the Advisory Board and as a member of the University Patent
Committee. He concluded his service as a member of the Executive
Committee of the Academic Council in May, and was elected a member
of the faculty committee to advise the Board of Trustees in the
selection of a President. He has also continued as a member of the
Board of Directors of the San Francisco Legal Aid Society, and the
Law School Editorial Board of Foundation Press, Inc., of New York.
During the year he accepted appointment to the United States Civil
Service Regional Loyalty Review Board, and the Advisory and Editorial Committee on Bar Examinations and Admission to Practice Law,
which is a part of the national survey of the legal profession now
in progress under the auspices of the American Bar Association.
Professor Osborne served as a member of the Executive Contmittee of Academic Council, of the Graduate Study Committee, of the
Board of Editors, American Law of Real Property, and of the Round
Table on Remedies, Association of American Law Schools. He was
National Vice President, Order of the Coif, and President of the
Stanford Men's Faculty Club. He attended the meeting of the Association of American Law Schools in Chicago, Illinois, in December of
19U7* He completed three plus chapters in text on Real Property
Mortgages, to be published by West Publishing Company late in 19U9.
Professor Owens continued to serve as Chairman of the Stanford
Union Executive Committee. He continued as a member of the Callfornia .Code Commission, appointed by the Governor to codify the
statutory law of California, and attended several meetings of the
Commission. He published the regular biennial supplement to his
book "Forms and Suggestions for California Practice".
Professor Turrentine served as a member of the University
Committee on Pacific-Asiatic Studies and completed work on California Annotations to Restatement of Property, Tols." 3 and U* He
was visiting professor at the University of Southern California
during summer of 19^8. He attended the State Bar Convention at
Santa Cruz in September, 19U7.
Professor Morrison participated as lecturer in the lecture
series entitled
"A Survey of Problems in Taxation for the General
Practitioner11, under the auspices of the State Bar Association.
He prepared syllabus on Federal Income Taxation of Trusts and
Estates. He continued in part-time tax practice as counsel with
McCutchen, Thomas, Matthew, Griffiths and Greene, San Francisco.
Professor Brenner served as a member of Board of Editors of
the American Bar Association Journal, Council for the Survey of
the Legal Profession, Advisory Board of the Journal of Legal Education, Board of Governors of the California Maritime Academy, and
American Bar Association Committee on Refresher Courses for Veterans
He was appointed Director, Western Area of the program of the

b'chool of Law

221

American Law Institute and the American Bar Association for Continuing Legal Education; Secretary and member of the Executive
Committee of the National Conference of Bar Examiners; Research
Director of the Committee of Bar Examiners of the State Bar of
California; Secretary, Stanford Law School Plan. He attended the
annual meeting of State Bar of California in Santa Cruz, California,
in September, 19U7; annual meeting of American Bar Association and
National Conference of Bar Examiners held in Cleveland, Ohio, in
October, 19b7; annual meeting of the Association of American Law
Schools held in Chicago, Illinois, in December, 19U7; meeting of
Committee of the American Bar Association and the American Law
Institute on Continuing Legal Education held in New York in January,
19^8; midwinter meeting of the American Bar Association and a meeting of the Council of the Survey of the Legal Profession held in
Chicago in February, 19^8; annual meeting of the American Law
Institute held in Washington, D. C. in May, 19U8; annual meetings
of the State Bar Associations of Arkansas, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana,
Iowa, Minnesota, Tennessee, and Montana* He held conferences with
officers of the State Bar Associations in twenty-three additional
states. He prepared chapter on "Loose-Leaf Services" for "How to
Find the Law", published by the West Publishing Company,
Professor Rathbun has continued to serve during the year as
a member of the University Committee on Lower Division Administration and of the Committee of Lower Division Advisors, of the
special University Committee on Teacher Education, and of the
Graduate School of Business faculty committee on scholarship. He
has also served as chairman of the School of Law faculty committee
on pre-legal education. He has continued to teach the courses in
business law given under the auspices of the School of Law for
upper division and graduate students throughout the University,
and the special courses in that field given in the curriculum of
the Graduate School of Business. The total enrollment in these
courses during the year was in excess of three times the ordinary
pre-war enrollment. He gave an evening course of forty-two hours
of classroom instruction in negotiable instruments for the American
Institute of Banking under the auspices of the Peninsula Chapter
of that Institute, serving bank employees in the area between
South Palo Alto and South San Francisco, He participated in various
discussion groups with students and addressed upwards of two dozen
different educational, civic, and religious groups and conferences
during the year. He continued to serve as leader of the Sequoia
Seminar in its two seminars held during the summer of 19^8. This
is a project providing means for a critical group study of Jesus
of Nazareth in the effort to evaluate His thinking and thus to
discover its relevance to the human problems of today.
Professor Hurlbut served as a member of the University
Library Committee, He was a visiting professor at the University
of Southern California for the summer term.
Professor Fairman's publications during the academic year
*ere: American Constitutional Decisions, New York, Henry Holt
and Company, 19W3; "The Estate of Political Science", 1 Western
Political Quarterly l-l (19l;8); "Some Observations on Military
Occupation", 32 Minn. Law Review 319-3U8 (March, 19^8). He spent
the summer on the staff of the Committee on the National Security

222

tichool

of Law

Organization of the Commission on the Organization of the Executive


Branch of the Government.
Dean Spaeth attended and addressed the meeting of the Association of American Lair Schools in December and the State Bar Association Meeting at Santa Cruz in September. He continued as a member
of the State Committee on Collaboration Between the Bar and the
Law Schools, and also took an active part in the direction of the
program of continuing education which has been inaugurated by the
State Bar of California in collaboration with the law schools of
the State. He continued to serve as an editor of the Michie Law
Book Publishing Company and participated in the editing of three
new books released in the Law Book Series by the Michie Company
during the year. At the invitation of the Carnegie Foundation
the Dean attended the Conference on Inter-disciplinary training
held at Buck Hill Falls, Pennsylvania,in April, at which common
problems of professional education were considered by representatives of schools of divinity, engineering, medicine, business and
law. He devoted a substantial amount of his time to international
affairs. He addressed both alumni and public groups on various
subjects in the field of international affairs at Los Angeles,
San Francisco, Oakland, Seattle, and at a number of other meetings
in the Bay Area and throughout the State. He served as vicepresident and member of the Board of Trustees of the World Affairs
Council. In the spring he gave one of the talks on the Tuesday
Evening
Series, speaking on the subject "Our Latin American
Policy11 in the forum on international affairs. At the invitation
of the BrookLngs Institute, the Dean attended the Conference on
International Affairs which was held at Dartmouth College in
September of 19k7j he also was an active participant in the conference held on the campus under the same auspices this year. He is
now engaged in the preparation of a special study, to be published
during the next year by the Brookings Institute, on the interAmerican system. In support of the Stanford Law School Plan and
in the development of new projects at the Law school, the Dean
met with groups of alumni on the West Coast, at Salt Lake City,
and Denver, and in the Middle West. In the autumn he addressed
the annual meeting of the Southern Society, and in the spring
addressed the corresponding meeting of the Northern Society of
Stanford Lawyers. Executive Committees of the Northern Society
and of the Southern Society were appointed to consult with the
faculty on problems of curriculum and teaching methods, and the
Dean met with these committees from time to time to keep the
alumni informed of developments at the School.
Professor Thunnan served during the year as Associate Dean
of the School of Law and continued as a member of the Committee
of Lower Division Advisors of the University. He became a member
of the Public Exercises Committee, acted as Chairman of the 191*8
West Memorial Lectures and as Co-chairman of the Graduation Committee. He delivered a number of speeches in the Stanford Area
during the year and attended the Santa Cruz meeting of the California State Bar Association in September of 19h7, as well as
the meeting of the Association of American Law Schools held in
Chicago, Illinois, in December of 19U7. He served as Treasurer
of the Stanford Chapter of phi Beta Kappa and as SecretaryTreasurer of the Stanford Chapter of the Order of the Coif,

b'chool of Law
honorary legal fraternity. Professor Thurman represented the
University at the Economic Mobilization Conference held by the
Industrial College of the Armed Forces from March 22 to April 2*2,
19U8, in San Francisco, He contributed an article to the May,
19li8, issue of the Journal of the Bar Association of the State of
Kansas on "The Coming Test of the Supreme Court", Vol. 16, pg.
362-373.
CARL B. SPAETH
Dean, School of Law

223

224

School of Medicine
SCHOOL OP MEDICINE

The otherwise very satisfactory academic year


19l|7-19i|.8 was marred by the unexpected death of President
Donald B. Tresslder on January 28, 191^8. This tragedy
was a blow not only to the entire University but particularly to the School of Medicine from which Dr. Tressider
graduated. We have been fortunate, however, in having
the wise leadership of Acting President, Alvin C. Eurich,
for the remainder of the year.
In reviewing our activities and accomplishments the
following appear to be of special importance and deserve
mention in this annual report:
Faculty. Dr. Caroline B. Palmer, Clinical Professor
of Surgery (Anesthesia), Emeritus, passed away on December 19, 19147 Th members of the faculty and the hundreds
of students who were trained by this outstanding teacher
mourned her passing.
At the completion of this year, the following members
of the faculty become emeritus: Dr. Sylvan L. Haas,
Associate Clinical Professor of Surgery; Dr. George D,
Lyman, Lecturer in Pediatrics; Dr. Karl L. Schaupp, Clinical Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology; Dr. E. Bancroft
Towne, Associate Clinical Professor of Surgery. The deep
appreciation of everyone at Stanford goes to these men
who have given generously of their time, abilities and
knowledge to our student bodies during the past many years.
The following resignations were accepted during the
year: Dr. William H. Games, Associate Professor of
Pathology, effective September 30, 19k?; Dr. Virgil E,
Hepp, Clinical Instructor in Surgery (0torhinolaryngology),
effective February 1, 191$; Dr. Elwood R. Olsen, Assistant
Clinical Professor of Medicine, effective January 19, 19^8;
Dr. Merlin T. R. Maynard, Associate Clinical Professor of
Medicine, effective August 31, 1914.8; Dr. Willard M.
Meininger, Assistant Clinical Professor of Medicine, effective August Jl, 1914.8.
The following new appointments to the faculty were
made: A. Carol McKenney, Assistant Clinical Professor of
Medicine; Clarence M. Tlnsley, Jr., Instructor in Medicine;
Charles D. Armstrong, Clinical Instructor in Medicine;
Sergius Bryner, Clinical Instructor in Medicine; Harold I.
Harvey, Clinical Instructor in Medicine; William E* Rapp,
Instructor in Obstetrics and Gynecology; Homer Hunt,
Clinical Instructor in Pathology; Frank W. Alter, Clinical
Instructor in Surgery, assigned to Otorhinolaryngology;
Thomas F. Conroy, Clinical Instructor in Surgery, assigned
to Genito-Urinary Surgery; Meade Monun, Clinical Instructor
in Surgery, assigned to Otorhinolaryngology; Charles C.
Wycoff, Clinical Instructor in Surgery, assigned to Anesthesia; James Edwards, Clinical Instructor in Surgery;
Max L. Dlmick, Instructor in Obstetrics and Gynecology;
Henry Howard Jones, Instructor in Radiology; Ralph W.
Schaffarzick, Instructor in Pharmacology; Foon Poo Chin,

School of Medicine

225

Clinical Instructor in Medicine; Edward C. Mayer, Jr.,


Clinical Instructor in Surgery, assigned to Anesthesiology;
Saul J. Robinson, Clinical Instructor in Pediatrics.
On September 1, 19lj.7, the appointment of Dr. William
H. Northway, Associate Professor of Medicine and Chief of
the Division of Physical Medicine, to the new position of
Assistant Dean in the School of Medicine became effective.
Dr. Northway has made a splendid contribution to the
Medical School during his first year in office and everyone is delighted with his selection.
The following new appointments for the year 19h8-19l-9
were made: Henry S. Kaplan, Professor of Radiology;
John A. Luetscher, Jr., Associate Professor of Medicine;
Winston W. Benner, Instructor in Medicine; Herbert K.
Hultgren, Instructor in Medicine and Pediatrics; Robin
Michelson, Clinical Instructor in Surgery, assigned to
Otorhinolaryngology; Edward A. Maumenee, Professor of
Ophthalmology; Nathan Wasserman, Clinical Instructor in
Surgery, assigned to Otorhinolaryngology.
The following promotions to the faculty of the School
of Medicine will become effective with the new year September 1, 19^8: Bacteriology, Sidney Raffel to Professor.
Medicine, Lowell A. Rantz to Associate Professor; David
A. Rytand to Associate Professor; DeWitt K. Burnham to
Assistant Clinical Professor; Frederick A. Fender to
Assistant Clinical Professor, assigned to Neuropsychiatry;
Forrest Willett to Assistant Clinical Professor, Obstetrics
and Gynecology, Albert E. Long to Clinical Instructor,
Pathology, Leiland J. Rather to Assistant Professor.
Pediatrics, Charles W. Leach to Associate Clinical Professor; Alvin H. Jacobs to Assistant Clinical Professor;
Samuel Scarlett to Clinical Instructor. Radiology, Merrill
Sisson to Clinical Instructor. Surgery, Jerome W. Bettman
to Associate Clinical Professor, assigned to Ophthalmology;
Albert D. Davis to Associate Clinical Professor; Nelson
Howard to Associate Clinical Professor; Robert S. Irvine
to Associate Clinical Professor, assigned to Ophthalmology;
James Ownby, Jr., to Associate Clinical Professor, assigned
to Genito-Urinary Surgery; Aubrey G. Rawlins to Associate
.Clinical Professor, assigned to Otorhinolaryngology;
William L. Rogers to Associate Clinical Professor; Victor
Richards to Assistant Professor; Clarence B. Cowan to
Assistant Clinical Professor, assigned to Otorhinolaryngology; Max Fine to Assistant Clinical Professor, assigned
to Ophthalmology; William Wallace Greene to Assistant
Clinical Professor; Avery M. Hicks to Assistant Clinical
Professor, assigned to Ophthalmology; Harry Howard to
Assistant Clinical Professor, assigned to Anesthesiology;
Paul J. Moses to Assistant Clinical Professor, assigned
to Otorhinolaryngology; Robert P. Watkins to Assistant
Clinical Professor, assigned to Bone and Joint Surgery;
Albert J. Brinckerhoff to Clinical Instructor, assigned
to Ophthalmology; Ernest W. Denicke to Clinical Instructor,
assigned to Ophthalmology; Earle H. Me Bain to Clinical

226

School of Medicine

Instructor, assigned to Ophthalmology; Alvln P. Wold


to Clinical Instructor, assigned to Ophthalmology.
Dr. Wallace D. Clark will discontinue full-time work
on the faculty at the end of the year to enter the private
practice of obstetrics and gynecology in San Francisco.
He will continue as a part-time member of the faculty,
however, after September 1, 191+8 .
Student Body. Registration in the School of Medicine
for the year was as follows:
First Second Third Fourth
Year
Year Year
Year
Autumn Quarter
o"5
5^
^
615
Veterans
3
1*8
25
11
Other Men
21
Women
k
iU

Total

Winter Quarter
62
Ve ter ans
l\8
Other Men
11
Women
3
Spring Quarter
6l
Veterans
Iff
Other Men
11
Women
3

[7

60

59

25
21
25

60

60

30

60

60
3?

21^0

21
Hi.
On June 13, 19ij.8, the degree of Doctor of Medicine
was awarded to fifty-seven students who had completed
successfully the required four years of work in the Medical School and an interneship of one year.
The degree of Bachelor of Arts in Nursing was awarded
to fifty nurses on June 13* 19i|B This is one of the
largest classes to graduate from the School of Nursing*
Beginning with the academic year 19l|B-19l49> the
degree of Bachelor of Arts in Nursing will be discontinued
and the degree of Bachelor of Science in Nursing will be
the award thereafter*
The Student Health Service in San Francisco has completed a very successful year without significant illness
or epidemics among the medical students. Immunizations
and annual examinations were carried out as usual and the
health records of the students have been unusually good*
Loans and Scholarships for Medical Students. The
following loans and scholarship awards were made to
students during the year: National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis Scholarship to E. Muriel Bennett; the
Carrie Hassler Scholarship to Vivian Fleming; the Newell
Scholarship to Edward Free and Donald C. Tanner; the
Agnes Walker Scholarship to Helen M. Kipple; the Anna B.
Eyre Scholarship to Elizabeth H. Tarr; the Guiberson
Scholarship to Alfred Bob Phillips; Dr. Robert Patek
Memorial Loan Fund to James M. Burnell, John C. Green and
Richard P. Jobe; Hoffman Loan Fund to Rex M. Alvord,

b'ohool of Medicine

227

Thomas D. Griffith and Elizabeth Osterman; Romaine


Josephine Stanley Loan Fund to Samuel T. D. Anderson;
Mrs. Ernest J. Sultan Loan Fund to James 0. Culver;
Sullivan Loan Fund to Robert A. Greairman; Kellogg Loan
Fund to James M. Fries; Charles A. Dukes Loan Fund to
William B. Wallace; Alameda County Medical Society
Women's Auxiliary Loan Fund to James 8. Nixon; Merged
Medical Loan Fund to Rex M. Alvord, Samuel T. D. Anderson,
James M* Burnell, James 0. Culver, Vivian R, Fleming, James
M. Fries, John C Green, Robert A* Greenman, Thomas D.
Griffith, Richard P. Jobe, Carl M Johnson, James B. Nixon
and William B. Wallace*
During the year the following new endowment funds
for scholarships and fellowships in Medicine and in Nursing were announced: Blair Scholarship in Medicine; Anna
B. Eyre Scholarship in Medicine; De Go11a Graduate fellowship in Medicine; Delta Gamma Association Graduate fellowship in Medicine; San Bruno Community House Student Loan
Fund; Blair Scholarship in Nursing; Robina Bidwell
Scholarship in Nursing. Each of these produces an annual
scholarship fund to be awarded on recommendation of the
Dean of the School of Medicine and the President of the
University.
Nineteen physicians were appointed as fellows in the
School of Medicine assigned to the various departments.
These were as follows: John Abendroth In Surgery-Pathology
at San Francisco Hospital; Edward W. Baker in Urology at
San Francisco Hospital; Karl E. Carlson in Obstetrics and
Gynecology at San Francisco Hospital; Foon Poo Chin in
Medicine at San Francisco Hospital; James R. Dillon, Jr.,
In Urology (U.S. Navy); William R. Eastman in Pathology
(Medical Postgraduate); Robert P. Gilbert in Medicine
(Weingarten); Bayles R. Kennedy in Radiology at San
Francisco Hospital; Harvey W. Kring in Otorhinolaryngology;
Patricia F. Lanler in Medicine (Beal); Margaret Lee in
Medicine (Life Insurance); Go Lu in Pharmacology (Winthrop);
William W. McLaughlin in Pathology (American Cancer
Society); Robert M. Hanson in Medicine at San Francisco
Hospital (Schilling); Edward C. Persike, Jr., in Medicine
(Columbia); Robert J. Rife in Pathology-Surgery at San
Francisco Hospital; Madoka Shibuya in Medicine (Life
Insurance); Walter E, Weber in Pathology (Medical Postgraduate); James Yee in Surgery (Medical Postgraduate)*
The 1914.8 Julian Wolfsohn Award, made to the interne
at Stanford University Hospitals or on the Stanford'
service at the San Francisco Hospital who during the year
has done the best work In Internal Medicine and Neurology,
was made to Ralph J. Splegl.
Lecturers and Guest Speakers. During the past year
the Medical School has entertained the following lecturers
and guest speakers: Dr. Gregory Zllboorg, Jacob Gimbel
Lecturer, on "A Concept of Illness", on October 11, Ijltfi
Dr. Wilder Penfield, Professor of Neurology, McGlll
University, and Director of Montreal Neurological Institute^

228

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of Medicine

on November 18, 1914-7 J Dr. C. N. H. Long, Professor of


Physiological Chemistry and Dean of Yale University
School of Medicine, on "Endocrine Control of Carbohydrate Metabolism", on March l\.t 19U8.
Lane Medic al Lee ture s . Dr. Wilder G. Penfield
delivered the 19^7 Lane Medical Lectures on November llth,
12th, IJth, 17th and 18th. His subject was "Physiological
Observations on the Cerebral Cortex of Man."
Gimbel Lee tares. The Gimbel Lectures on Sex Psycho logy~T"6TF~T!9Ij!8rwTTl be given by Dr. John C. Whitehorn,
Professor of Psychiatry at Johns Hopkins and Director of
the Phipps Institute in Baltimore. These lectures will
be given in October 19lj8.
Herzstein Lectures. The 19l|8 series of Herzstein Lecture s'~wTIirTe~~gTverin5y~Dr . Robert E. Gross, Professor of
Surgery and Chief Surgeon at Children's Hospital in Boston.
These lectures will be given the latter part of October
Popular Medical Lectures* The attendance at the 19l|B
series of Popular Medical Lectures was as follows:
April 2nd: "Some Effects of the Atomic Bomb on the
Children of Hiroshima and Nagasaki," William W. Greulich 280; April' 9th: "Rheumatism: The Great Crippler,"
Roland A. Davison, Donald E. King, William H. Northway 190; April l6th: "Can Streptomycin Cure Tuber culo si sT"
William M. M. Kirby - 116} April 30th: "Filtrable
Viruses: The Invisible Killers," Edwin H. Lennette - 70*
Gifts. It is with real pleasure and gratitude that
I report the receipt of gifts totalling $392,0l|2.61j.
during the year. The majority of these gifts were for
specific research purposes, but generous funds have been
received for loans, scholarships and fellowships, free
beds in the Hospital, the Lane Medical Library and, best
of all, unrestricted funds to promote the best interests
of the School of Medicine. The entire faculty joins me
in expressing our appreciation to our many friends and
donors for their generous support during the year.
Stanford Eye Bank. The Stanford Eye Bank celebrated
its first anniversary on March 12, 19ljB. The Eye Bank is
a community service laboratory for the collection and
distribution of human corneas for corneal transplantation
operations here at Stanford and by qualified ophthalmologists throughout the State. During the first year of its
activities our Eye Bank supplied thirty three new corneas
each one of which was successfully transplanted. Several
patients whose eye sight had been restored by a cornea
from the Stanford Eye Bank attended the anniversary party
held in the auditorium of the School of Nursing. This
new laboratory has made an outstanding contribution to the
community and now is the center of a laboratory for research in ophthalmology,
Research. Research activities by the faculty have
been outstanding this past year and plans for the immediate
future are even greater. I cannot refrain from expressing

School of Medicine

229

the opinion that a considerable part of this research


activity is the direct result of the numerous post-war
fellowships established at the Medical School by special
funds provided under the leadership of the Medical Alumnae
Association. These graduate fellowships began early in
1946 and the last to be provided from this particular fund,
have been appointed for the year 19)4.8-14.9 In the meantime
graduate fellowship funds have been made available to us
from several new sources. It is our hope and desire that
sufficient financial support for at least two graduate
fellowships for research and teaching in medicine can be
provided for each department in the Medical School. A
list of the publications by members of the faculty for
the current year is published elsewhere in the President's
Report, but it is with considerable pride that I point to
the accomplishments of the faculty in this field.
Lane Medical Library. This great library, an integral
part of the University Libraries, is outstanding. Improvements and reorganization of the staff in the Lane Medical
Library are progressing steadily under the direction of
Dr. Clarence Paust, Director of University Libraries. A
marked increase in the budget for the Lane Library has
been secured for the coming year. The appointment of
Miss Clara Manson as Chief Medical Librarian, and the
selection of a Research Librarian, effective September 1,
19ii8, is assured.
Postgraduate Refresher Courses. The 19lj.7 series of
postgraduate courses was held September 8th to 12, 19t|7>
inclusive. The following eight courses were given:
Oncology, Internal Medicine, Fractures and Orthopedic
Problems, General Pediatrics, General Surgery, Problems in
Surgical Specialties, Diabetes and Obesity, Neurology and
Psychiatry. Classes were held at Stanford University
Hospitals and Clinics and at the San Francisco Hospital.
One hundred and eighty practitioners attended and their
reports to us were enthusiastic. There seems to be an
increasing demand on the part of medical practitioners for
such formal courses each year and a similar series is planned for the coming autumn.
Hospital and Clinics. Stanford University Hospitals
have been very active with high occupancy during the year,
and the number of visits to our Out Patient Department has
increased steadily. Operating expenses, however, have Increased sharply and almost continuously throughout the
entire year. There has been a shortage of nurses and
institutional workers. The reduced staff, combined with
the steadily Increased cost of operation has made hospital
administration difficult in the extreme. Dr. Rourke,
Physician Superintendent, and the Clinical Committee have
been hard put to maintain superior service under such
circumstances, and it has been necessary to Increase Hospital rates during the year. In spite of these handicaps,
high standards of medical care and superior laboratory
service has been maintained. Dr. Rourke and his staff are
to be complimented and praised for their splendid accomplishments in spite of the many difficulties.

230

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of Medicine

Future Plans. Considerable time has been spent by


the executive and administrative personnel on the future
plans of the Medical School. The University's retirement
rule and the emeritus status for members of the faculty
aged sixty five, makes necessary a number of replacements
in the Medical School during the next three years. This
relates particularly to executives of departments and
chiefs of divisions. Several new appointments have been
made in the past three years and several more must be
made by September 1, 191$ The appointment of Dr. Henry
S. Kaplan, Executive of the Department of Radiology,
Dr. Edward A. Maumenee, Chief of the Division of Ophthalmology, and of Dr. John A. Luetscher, Jr., Division of
Clinical Chemistry in the Department of Medicine, effective September 1, 19^8, already have been announced. New
executives for the Departments of Anatomy, Pediatrics,
Physiology, the Division of Urology and the Medical Service
at the San Francisco Hospital must be selected by the end
of the coming year*
Many meetings have been held by members of the
Medical School faculty with President Eurich, a committee
of the Board of Trustees, and several friends of Stanford,
concerning fund raising for the Medical School and its
Hospital, It is our hope that through such Universitywide backing, additional capital funds for new buildings
and expansion of our present facilities will be secured
in the immediate future. The need for additional space
is so acute and of such vital importance that it may be
impossible to maintain our present superior faculty and
staff unless these needs are met promptly.
After considerable study by Acting President Eurich
and members of the University Faculty, tuition fees at
Stanford University will be increased by $100 per student
on September 1, 19U8. This increases the student fees at
the Medical School to $699 per year. This fee Includes
tuition, student health, microscope and ophthalmoscope
loan fees and certain laboratory charges.
In completing this report I express my sincere thanks
and deep appreciation to each member of the faculty of
the Medical School, Nursing School, and Hospital staff for
their devoted services. Our studies this year have made
us more than usually aware of our Inadequate physical
plant, but at the same time have increased our awareness
of the superior and outstanding ability of our personnel.
It is due only to the confidence and faithfulness of such
a staff that we have been able to complete this year with
so much success*
LOREN ROSCOE CHANDLER, M.D.
Dean

Anatomy

231

ANATOMY

The teaching staff this year included Charles Haskell Danforth and
William Walter Greulich, professors; Hadley Kirkman, associate profesor; Robert Lewis Bacon, David Lee Bassett, and Robert Stuart Turner,
assistant professors; William Archer Hagins acting instructor; Paul
Applewhite Roach, teaching assistant. Dr. Sydney Frlssell Thomas, clinical instructor in medicine, continued to supervise the work involving
radiological interpretations. Drs. Richard Allen and John Mott acted
as assistants in gross anatomy. Mrs. Irene Anderson Bacon took principal responsibility for the course in practical anatomy during the autumn and winter quarters, while Miss Verona Hardy and Vinton S. Matthew
conducted the same course during the summer. Messrs. David 0. Jesberg,
Bobbins Sydney King, and Leland W. Nicholas assisted in embryology during the spring quarter. Mrs. Doris Thompson and Mrs. Priscilla Pigott
have served as secretaries, Frank C. Barrett, Cecil Kimbrough and
Yoshio Okumoto as technicians, and Frank Roseberry as animal caretaker.
Dr. Donald James Gray, associate professor, was on leave during the year.
Our teaching has been along the same lines as previously, but with
further efforts to increase opportunities for students who have speci&l
interests and aptitudes. As heretofore, teaching assignments have been
rotated to a certain extent for the purpose of maintaining broader interests and fostering closer coordination of courses in the department.
All members of the permanent full-time staff have served on University
or Medical School committee during the year.
At the annual meeting of the American Association of Anatomists,
held at Madison, Wisconsin, six members of our sttiff and one student
were in attendance. Between them, eight papers were presented or read
by title. Dr. Greulich attended meetings of the executive Committee of
the Association and Drs. Greulich and Danforth those of the Committee
on Anatomical Nomenclature.
Dr. Greulich has served on a number of other committees, including one on Child Development for the NRC; Research Consulting Committee,
Society for Study of Sterility; consultant on contraceptive devices to
the AMA Council on Physical Medicine; Consultent on the NRC Committee
on Atomic Casual!ties. He has continued as director of the Brush Foundation and es a member of the Board of Governors, Society for Research
in Child Development. He has recently been appointed to the editorial
board of the Anatomical Record. Before returning to the campus last
fall, Dr. Greulich completed, with the naval government pf Guam, a
study of the health and nutritional status of Guamian children and made
a preliminary survey of Japanese children who survived the bombing of
Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and of children in the "control" cities of Kure
and Sasebo. During the year he has given a number of public lectures,
including one on growth and development of puberal and adolescent children, by invitation of the National Institute of Health, Tokyo, Japan;
on cutaneous and skeletal effects of the bomb in children of Hiroshima
and Nagasaki, at Western Reserve University Medical School; on the
study of victims of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic boabs, representing Stanford at a meeting of the Atomic Casualty Committee; and on similar topics in the Popular Medical Series in Lane Hall, and as guest
speaker before the American Pediatrics Society meeting in Quebec. Dr.
Greulich also participated in a round-table discussion at Stanford
University, and discussed, by invitation, papers presented at the San
Francisco meeting of the American Society for the study of Sterility.

232

Anatomy

He served as chairman for the section on Natural Sciences at the UNESCO


Conference in San Francisco in May.
Professor Kirkman has devoted much of his research time during the
past year to a continuation of a previously mentioned study of certain
peculiar granulated cells in the transitional epithelium of the rat.
He has found these cells to appear in response to bladder worm infestation and has identified them as similar to the so-called Schollenleukocyten described by others in intestines and stomachs of representatives
of all the vertebrate phyla. They do not appear to have been described
before in urinary tracts, nor does their presence elsewhere seem to
have been attributed to infestation with parasitic worms. Professor
Kirkman*s histochemical study of these mysterious cells has shown them
to be out of the direct cell lineage of hematogenous eosinophiles, erythroblasts and histogenous mast cells. They do not appear to be hemophages or Russell-body cells, although they possess similarities to
certain types of plasma cells believed to be precursors of Russel-body
cells. Their granules possess a saliva-resistant mucoprotein in combination with an acidophilic substance still under investigation. In association with Mr. Matthews and Dr. Bacon he has completed and published a preliminary survey of sexual differences in kidney damage induced
in golden hamsters by the chronic administration of diethylstilbestrol.
With Dr. Bacon he presented a demonstration of estrogen-induced kidney
tumors at the annual meeting of the American Association of Anatomists.
Dr. Griffen, of the Biochemistry Department is making chemical analyses
of the nucleic acid and vitamin B content of the tumor-bearing, and the
normal, hamster kidneys. A continuation of this and of closely related
work is being supported by grants from the American Cancer Society and
the U. S. Public Health Service. With Mr. Carl von Essen and Miss
Cecil Kimbrough he presented a paper at the meeting of Anatomists describing a longitudinal periodicity in the argyrophilic properties of
smooth muscle fibrils and disproving the claim that this periodicity is
due to the distribution of glycogen in, or on, the fibrils.
Professor Gray has devoted the year, in which he was on leave at
Wayne University, to completing and extending work on developmental and
functional aspects of articulations begun some years ago in collaboration with Professor Gardner formerly of this department. Part of his
work has already been presented and it is anticipated more will be
ready for publication in the near future. The final results will probably appear in monographic form.
Professor Bassett has devoted much time during the year to perfecting techniques for plastic embedding, on which several notes have
already been published, and in further studies on the finer vascular
anatomy of the thyroid and corpus luteum. Considerable advance has
been made in the latter study and one preliminary report has been published, as well as presented at the Anatomists* meetings. In studies
of both human and rat corpora lutea he has made successful use of a
colchicine technique. He again gave a series of lectures for residents
in ophthalmology at Stanford University and University of California.
During the current year he has also served as consultant in neurology
at the Veterans' Administration Hospital in Palo Alto and conducted a
course in Neurology for resident members of the hospital staff. With
Dr. Bacon he has adapted a technique for staining the cut surface of
embryos which have been embedded in clear plastic. Material prepared
by means of this technique has already proved to be a helpful teaching
aid in Dr. Bacon's course in embryology. A. description of the method
has been published.

Anatomy

233

Professor Bacon's work on the myocardium of the mouse, recorded


last year as in progress has now been completed, reported to the Association of Anatomists, and published in the American Journal of Anatomy. Materials for a similar study of the human heart are being accumulated steadily, but more slowly. His work on estrogen-induced tumors of the kidney in male hamsters has been referred to in a proceeding
paragraph. A preliminary paper announcing the discovery of the tumors
has already been published in the Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine. In the Department of Psychology, Mr. H.
E. Rosvold, working under the direction of Dr. Calvin P. Stone found
that convulsive electric shock treatments of pregnant rats led to
death and resorption of the fetuses, and Dr. Bacon has undertaken an
analysis of the anatomical and embryological factors involved in this
reaction. Thus far it appears that the pituitary glands and the ovaries have'undergone changes following this treatment. A preliminary paper is in press and further work is under way. Dr. Bacon presented a
paper at the meeting of the American Association of Anatomists, and
collaborated with Dr. Kirkman in a demonstration at the same meeting.
He gave lectures on "Endocrines and Cancer," before the staff of the
Palo Alto Clinic, and the staff of the Santa Clara County Hospital. Mr.
David 0. Jesberg, a graduate student working under Dr. Bacon's direction, is beginning a study of certain enzyme poisons (Lewisite and nitrogen mustard) on embryonic development. He is attempting to produce
and analyze in chick embryos certain specific anomalies, particularly
of the eye. The results thus far look promising.
Professor Turner continued research on factors influencing form
and velocity of the nervous impulse. It was found that moderate stretching of single nerve fibers apparently increases conduction velocity,
but after a point has been reached at which the diameter of the fiber
is actually decreased, then conduction velocity either decreases or remains constant. With A. R. Moore of the University of Oregon an investigation was carried out on the possible role of myelin in the action
of various narcotics on nerve. It was pointed out that the conventional notion of myelin acting as a protective sheath against drug action
is unable satisfactorily to account for the order of recovery of anaesthetized fibers. Through the use of mixed nerves all of whose fibers
are unmyelinated it was shown that certain drugs have effects indicating a fundamental difference in susceptibility between slow (sensory)
and fast (motor) fibers. Dr. Turner has been granted a Special Fellowship by the National Institute of Health and will spend next year in
Neuro-physiology at the University of"California at Los Angeles.
Professor Danforth has studied effects of^bringing together, by
hybridization, traits which have developed separately over long periods.
Data are Inadequate and, with reference to man, opinions on the subject
are diverse. Some of his findings were reported before the Society for
Study of Sterility. Papers were also presented before the Western
Pheasant Society, and the Western Society of Naturalists. During April
Professor Danforth attended meetings of the American Association of
Anatomists in Madison, the American Philosophical Society in Philadelphia and the National Academy of Sciences in Washington.
Departmental publications are listed elsewhere in this report.
CHARLES H. DANFORTH
Executive Head

234

Bacteriology and Experimental Pathology


BACTERIOLOGY AID EXPERIMENTAL PATHOLOGY

The department staff consisted of Edwin William Schultz and


Charles Egolf Clifton, professors; Sidney Raffel, associate professor; S. Cottrell White and Dean Albert Anderson (sunnier), research
associates; Helen S. Thayer, teaching fellow; Harriet II. Behring,
Viola E. Setter (stumer) and Joseph W. Winter (summer), teaching
and research assistants; Frances J. Danz (winter) and Jean C. Wyse
(winter), teaching assistants; Charlotte J. Davidson (autumn and
winter), C. Dean Dukes, Jean Fellows, Jean M. Haley (spring), Hazel
H. Miller, James H. Nakano, Lucille E. Umbreit, research assistants;
Roberta R. Bell, department secretary.
The courses offered during the year, and the number of students
enrolled in them, will appear in the Annual Register of the University. The year was an exceptionally heavy one both from the standpoint of the teaching load and the number of research projects which
were underway. Although no formal courses were offered during the
summer quarter, the activity of the department during this quarter
was not appreciably under that of the regular school year. Fifteen
graduate students continued their thesis problems through the quarter,
while the faculty members took advantage of the freedom from formal
courses to push their individual research projects.
Professor Clifton continued his studies on the relation between
respiration and assimilation in suspensions of microorganisms. He
was assisted in this work by James H. Nakano. With Mr. Alexander
Petzinger, he carried out studies with particular reference to the
efficiency of assimilation by Aerobacter aerogenes; with Miss Jean
Haley, he studied factors influencing the growth and maximum crop
yield 11of coliform bacteria, with particular reference to the "staling
factor of Levine; with Mr. James H. Nakano, he studied the production of biochemical mutants of Escherichia coli and their characterization, the results of which were presented at a meeting of the
Pacific Division of the American Association for the Advancement of
Science at Berkeley in June; with Miss Charlotte J. Davidson, he
studied an unknown growth factor for yeast, one which appears to be
involved in the oxidative system of yeast. Other work by him included studies on technics for staining bacteria and on quantitative
methods for the separation and identification of the lower fatty
acids.
Professor Clifton continued to serve as editor of the Annual
Review of Microbiology and as associate editor of the Journal of
Bacteriology. He also served on local and national committees of
the Society of American Bacteriologists.
Professor Raffel continued his studies on resistance and allergy
in tuberculosis, and on delayed allergies of non-tuberculous origin.
His studies on tuberculosis continued to receive support from the
National Tuberculosis Association and the California Tuberculosis and
Health Association. His studies on non-tuberculous allergies were
aided by the Medical Research Fund of the School of Medicine. Miss
Lucille E. Umbreit and Miss Jean Fellows assisted him in his tuberculosis studies during most of the year. With Mr. John E. Forney, he
completed a study of the effects of wax of the tubercle bacillus in
provoking delayed allergic reactivity to a simple chemical substance,
picryl chloride; with Messrs. Louis E. Arnaud, C. Dean Dukes and

Bacteriology and Experimental Pathology

235

Jwo-Shauo Huang, he carried out a similar investigation based on the


use of a non-infectious protein antigen, egg albumin. With Mr. C.
Dean Dukes, he continued studies on the relationship of the chemical
components of the hemolytic streptococcus to the production of
delayed hypersensitivity and rheumatic fever; with Messrs. Robert K.
Julien and Victor Caglier.i, studies on the relationship of the components of vaccinia virus to delayed allergic reactivity, and with
Mr. John E. Forney and Mrs. Jean M. S. Embach, he undertook a study
regarding the possible role of the lipids of the human skin in determining the occurrence of delayed hypersensitivily to picryl
chloride and penicillin.
Professor Raffel continued to serve during the year as associate
editor of the Annual Review of Microbiology, as a member of the editorial board of the Stanford Medical Bulletin, and as a member of
Board of Directors of the Santa Clara County Tuberculosis and Health
Association. He attended the Federation of American Societies for
Experimental Biology at Atlantic City in March and gave several talks
before West Coast scientific and medical groups on the subject of
delayed allergy, regarding which his studies have contributed important information.
Professor Schultz continued his work on poliomyelitis." With
Dr. S. Cottrell White, research associate, he studied the antigenic
relationships of certain mouse-adapted strains of poliomyelitis virus,
the possibility of adapting other monkey passage strains to cotton
rats or mice, and related problems. With Mr. Dudley B. Shean and
Miss Jean C. Wyse, he carried out studies on the cultivation of
certain strains in the presence of individual kinds of embryo tissue
explants; with Mr. Robert B. Schultz, he continued attempts to adapt
strains for growth in developing hens eggs. This included attempts
to grow strains isolated from the stools of recent cases to determine
whether such newly isolated natural strains might prove more pliable
than .animal passage strains in this respect; with Mrs. Hazel H.
Miller, he studied the possibility of developing a dependable complement fixation test for determining the presence of antipoliomyelitic
antibodies in blood; with Mr. Robert A. Evans, he studied the influence of rapid and continuous passage in mice of a cotton rat
passage strain on the virulence of this strain for cotton rats and
for monkeys; with Miss Viola E. Setter, he investigated the possibility that cotton rats, hamsters and guinea pigs may harbor encephalomyelitic viruses in their intestinal tracts, of the kind
frequently present in the intestinal tract of mice. These studies
on the poliomyelitic viruses were aided by a generous grant from
Mr. Howard Frost of Los Angeles. With Mr. Kelly H. Eldredge, Professor Schultz continued studies on the effect of selected amino acids
on the generation of bacteriophage by certain phage-susceptible
strains of the colon bacillus; with Dr. Shao-po Chen, fellow of the
American Bureau for Medical Aid to China, Inc., studies on the cultivation of rabies virus; with Mother Frances J. Danz, he continued
studies on gelatinous variants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa; with
Miss Harriet M. Behring and Mr. Joseph M. Winter, studies on Bacillus
laterosporus and its antibiotic activities and with Mrs. Helen S.
Thayer, teaching fellow, studies on bacteriophages active for
JJisterella monocytogenes.
During the year Professor Schultz reviewed the recent literature

236

Bacteriology and Experimental Pathology

on "The Neurotropic Viruses" for the Annual Review of Microbiology


and presented a paper on the "Structure and Repair of the Olfactory
llucosa in Rhesus Monkeys" before the Federation of American Societies
for Experimental Biology in Atlantic City in March. In October he
attended the annual meeting of the American Society of Clinical
Pathologists in Chicago, and later that of the American Association
of Pathologists and Bacteriologists, in Philadelphia. During the yeai
he was elected a Founding Fellow of the College of American Pathologists, and has continued to serve as a trustee of the American
Board of Pathology. Early in the year he was appointed a member of
the Advisory Editorial Board of the American Journal of Clinical
Pathology.
Dr. Dean A. Anderson, Associate Professor of Bacteriology on
sabbatical leave from Brigham Toung University, spent the summer
quarter in this department, as Research Associate. He began work,
which he expects to continue through the coming fall quarter, on the
effect of bacteriostasis on bacteriophage production.
EDWIN WILLIAM SCHULTZ
Professor of Bacteriology
and Experimental Pathology

Medicine

237

MEDICINE

I herewith submit the annual report of the Department of Medicine. Teaching was continued along the same
general lines as in previous years but a number of changes in organization should be mentioned. The medical outpatient department has been placed under the direct supervision of Dr. C. W. Barnett, and students no longer work
in the general clinic but are assigned only to those subclinics in which special methods of diagnosis and treatment are to be learned. Conduct of the general clinic
is now carried by &ouse Officers under the supervision
of Staff consultants. The chest clinic has been reorganized under Dr. W. 1. M. Kirby who is now chief of this Division, both at Stanford and at the San Francisco County
Hospital Stanford Service. The advantage of'having a highly trained and resourceful full-time physician in charge
of this work has been immediately evident.
It is with great regret that I report the withdrawal
of Dr. Thomas Addis from active work in the Department because of Emeritus status. Dr. Addis has been at Stanford
for forty odd years and during most of this time he has
been chiefly occupied with research in renal disease.
But this specialized work has been only the center from
which his influence both on students and staff has penetrated into every corner of the institution. His broad
knowledge, his keen insight into the problems of academic
medicine, his genius in research have strongly influenced
innumerable classes of Stanford Medical students. HO less
important have been his contacts with his colleagues to
whom his unfailing kindness and sound and patient advice
have always been invaluable. This is perhaps not the place
to dwell on those other qualities which have won for Addis
not only the admiration but the affection of his friends.
To take charge of the Chemical Division of the Medical
Clinic we have been fortunate in securing Dr. John A. Luetscher, Jr., recently Assistant Professor of Medicine at
Johns Hopkins. Dr. Luetscher brings wide experience both
in clinical chemistry and in the handling of patients and
will be a strong addition to the Staff.
We note with regret the resignation of Dr. Willard
Meininger, for many years a resourceful and industrious
worker in The Division of Skin Diseases and in Syphilis.
The past year has been an active one for our staff
members. With the present strong vogue for post-graduate
assemblies all and sundry have been called on to participate in symposia not only locally but widely around the
country. In spite of an ever increasing load of administrative and committee work research has been actively pursued and numerous papers have been submitted for publication by various members of the Department.
Yours very truly,
Arthur L. Bloomfield, M. D.
Executive Head

238

Nursing

BOBSIHG
Thla year the fifty-second class was graduated from the
School of Horsing. Jifty students received, their Baccalaureate
degrees in June, one being graduated with "great distinction",
and eight with "distinction".
Total enrollment is decreasing, due to the fact that fall
classes hare been smaller since the end of Vorld War II, and for
the second consecutive year, a Spring class was not admitted due
to insufficient applicants. We can expect this to continue for
another /ear since we will be graduating two classes in 1949,
and in all probability, admitting only one class. Soring the
academic year 1947-1948 twenty-six new students were admitted
to the School. Three students resigned from the School, two
for reasons of health, and one to be married, but the two who
were ill were re-admitted later in the year and completed the
program.
The total student census as oft
August 31, 1942 was 119
1943 was 12?
1944 was 157
1945 was 153
1946 was 136
1947 was 106
1948 was 86
In addition to our own students we accepted students from other
schools for thirteen weeks affiliation in Psychiatry, twelve
weeks in Pediatrics and four weeks in Private Patient Hursing.
Tewer students affiliated this year, undoubtedly due to a decrease in the enrollment in other Schools of Horsing.
Our participation in the United States Cadet Horse Corps
will terminate with the graduation of the class of 1948. The
last six months of the 36 months curriculum for students in
the Cadet Corps is called the "Senior Cadet" period. The
assignment of the thirty Stanford "Senior Cadets" this year has
been as follows*
2 to the Veterans Administration
2 to the San francisco Visiting Burse Association
26 remained at Stanford.
The latter acted in the capacity of assistants to the Head Burses.
This was valuable experience for these students, and since they
largely replaced graduate nurses, it was likewise of invaluable
assistance to the Hospital. We else accepted eleven "Senior
Cadets' from other hospitals who elected to come to us.
Last year, of the courses offered by the School of Horsing
dealing with the medical aspects of disease, 82jt were taught
by the Medical Vacuity above the Besldent level and 18 by
Residents. The qualify of instruction received by the students
is best demonstrated by the results of the two State Board

Nursing

239

Examinations, (a National Test-Pool, three day examination) la


which our student* participated. The grade distribution for the
forty-one students
follows: "A", fourteen students; "B", twentyone students; NCN, six students.
Throughout the year groups of pre-nursing students fro
nearby high schools and Junior colleges visited the School.
Student nurses acted as guides and escorted then on tours through
the Hospital. The Educational Director visited seventeen
Junior colleges in the northern and southern part of the state
to discuss our program. In all she met with two hundred fourteen
students and fifty-four faculty members. Counsellors as veil as
students expressed an interest in these visits and suggested
that they be made every two years. There has been a marked increase in the number of inquiries concerning the program offered
since these visits were started two years ago.
Recruitment of nurses is also the objective of the Saa
francisco Student Burse Association. Our students have been
active in this organization, and have spoken to groups of high
school students, helped to write radio scripts, and have participated in radio programs over station HA. They acted as
hostesses to students and faculty from all other schools of
nursing in San franelsco at an Open House preceding the annual
lightingale Services.
The Blair Scholarship fund was established in 19^7 through
a gift of over $13,000 to the University. The income is used
as scholarships for students during their second and third
years in the School of Horsing. Ve are fortunate to be able
to assist and reward deserving students in this manner, from
conferences with prospective students and their parents, X feel
that our three Scholarship funds will serve as a very strong
inducement to girls selecting a school of nursing. We are
keenly aware of the need for financial assistance at the present
time, and are happy to report that six girls received tuition
scholarships this year from the Hindes and Bidwell Scholarship
funds.
Last September all students became members of the Associated
Students of Stanford University, and enjoyed the privileges of
that membership.
Through the cooperation of the faculty of the University
it was arranged this year to teach a course in Butrition (with
laboratory) i.e., Iducation H96, at Stanford. This means that
all students taking their first two years of the five year
curriculum at Stanford can satisfy the requirements for the
Horsing Curriculum on the campus.
Improvements in the Burses' Residence continued to be madet
twenty-four student rooms were painted, and in addition, the
Music and Living Booms were completely re-decorated. Through
the combined efforts of the student group and the faculty group,
over $1,000 was earned, and, together with a small additional
amount provided by the University, it was possible to have all
of the furniture in these two rooms re-covered.
The Director of the School attended the Bational League of
Surging Iducation Convention last September in Seattle and the

240

Nursing

Biennial Convention of the three national nursing organizations


in Chicago last May. Two students also attended the Biennial,
defraying all of their own expenses. This is the first time in
several years that Stanford has had two student representatives
at a national convention, and it was gratifying to know that
they were sufficiently interested in their profession to request
permission to attend.
The understanding and fine cooperation given "by the members
of the Clinical Committee and Medical School Faculty is deeply
appreciated and gratefully acknowledged.
0-. *

OSACB 1. BURJEBSSJ^ B. N.
Director, School of Horsing

Obstetrics and Gyneoology

241

OBSTETRICS AND GINECOLOGI


On September 1, 1947 the chairmanship of the department was assumed by Dr. Chas. E. McLennan and at the same time Dr. William E.
Bapp began his work as full-time instructor. On June 1, 1948 Dr. Max
Dimick, a former resident in this department, joined the staff as fulltime Instructor. Drs. John A. Spencer and Robert W. De Voe were added
to the staff during the year as teaching assistants, and Drs. Karl L.
Schaupp, Jr., John Schaupp and Robert Q. da Mailly assumed similar positions upon completion of their residencies June 30, 1948.
Dr. W. Dayton Clark resigned his position as full-time acting assistant professor on June 15, 1948 in order to enter private practice
in San Francisco. Dr. Clark will continue to serve as clinical assistant professor. His position in the full-time group has not yet been
filled, but several possible candidates are under consideration currently.
Research activities have increased to some extent in the past
year. Dr. Koets has completed a sequel to his 1947 report on 17-Ketosteroids in arthritic3, two studies on hyaluronidase in semen (with
Drs. Michelson and Hainan), and a most interesting study on the role of
the adrenal cortex in hirsutism. Dr. Fluhmann has resumed his experimental work on augmentation effects of ovarian steroids and chorionic
gonadotropin. Dr. Rapp has been investigating the correlation between
basal body temperatures and endometrial histology in infertile women
and has, in addition, extensively reorganized the operation of the outpatient sterility clinic. Dr. McLennan has continued two studies begun at the University of Utah, one on blood volume changes in pregnancy,
and one on stereographic roentgen pelvimetry. Dr. Karl Schaupp, Jr.,
of the resident staff, has been conducting a clinical study of the
comparative values of caudal and low spinal analgesia in obstetrics,
and Dr. Richard Gratton has been making a survey of the safety with
which large amounts of pitocin may be used for induction of labor.
Attendance at the Women's Clinic increased from 16,385 patients
last year to 16,601 this year. The maternity service delivered 2,360
women, a decrease of 193 below the previous year. Of these, 1,022
were clinic patients and 1,338 private. On the Stanford obstetrical
service at the San Francisco Hospital there were 742 deliveries, compared to 697 the year before.
The in-patient clinic gynecological service handled 331 patients
during the year, and there were 94 major and 89 minor operations performed by the resident staff. At the San Francisco Hospital, Stanford
service, there were 842 gynecological admissions, with 79 major and 161
minor operations. For the first time an accurate summary of private
gynecologic patients at Stanford Hospital is now being maintained by
the resident staff. In the past year there have been 625 such admissions, 216 major and 340 minor operations under the supervision of departmental staff members. These figures do not include the occasional
gynecologic patient handled by a member of the general surgical staff.
The gynecological laboratory processed and described 1,612 pathologic specimens and 513 biologic tests for pregnancy were performed
on specimens of urine from clinic as well as private patients. Since
January 1, the department has had a full-time fellow assigned to the
pathology laboratory and thus it has been possible to prepare more extensive descriptions of the tissue specimens. For the first time since
the inception of the departmental pathology laboratory, a m

242

Obstetrics and Gyneoology

charge is being made for processing surgical specimens and the income therefrom is used to defray the greatly increased costs of
technical assistance.
A tremendous loss was sustained by the department on October 18,
1947 when Pierre Lassegues, our faithful technician and photographer
for over twenty-fire years, died suddenly from coronary occlusion.
Pierre's passing leaves a void which never can be adequately filled.
We have been fortunate, however, in obtaining the services of Mr,
Harry Norman, until recently tissue technologist at St. Mary's Hospital, San Francisco.
The examination of vaginal smears by the Papanicolaou technique
was begun in the departmental laboratory early in 1948. In preparation for this very specialized activity, Drs. H. M. Lyons and Kathleen
Murphy attended a two-week course at the Massachusetts General Hospital in January and in June Dr. Dimick enrolled for a similar course at
the University of California Medical School. Tuition fees and travel
expenses for Drs. Lyons and Dimick were paid by the California State
Department of Health.
In June 1948 an additional secretarial worker was added to the
departmental staff to assist with the cancer follow-up program which
has been instituted. We hope to trace as many as possible of the cancer patients treated for gynecological tumors in the past 20 years and
to maintain a complete follow-up on all current and future patients.
Several speaking engagements have been met by departmental personnel during the year. Drs. Clark and McLennan participated in a refresher course in San Luis Obispo, sponsored by the California Medical
Association. Dr. McLennan was guest speaker at the annual dinner of
the Los Angeles Gynecological Society in April, took part in Cancer
Symposia in San Diego and Oakland, and spent a week in May assisting
with an obstetrical refresher course planned by the Oregon State Department of Health. Talks were given (three daily) in Astoria, Salem,
Eugene, Coos Bay and Medford. Drs. McLennan and Rapp appeared before
a meeting of the Stockton Postgraduate Study Club in October.
CHAS. . MC LE8NAN
Executive

Patholoqy
PATHOLOGY

The teaching staff for the academic year consisted


of Dr. Alvin J. Cox, Jr., Professor; Dr, David A* Wood,
Associate Professor; Dr. Gert L. Laqueur, Assistant
professor; Dr. Lelland J. Rather, Instructor, and Dr.
Alvin E. Lewis, Teaching Assistant. The position of
Associate Professor left by the resignation of Dr.
William H. Carnes was not filled. Dr. Justin R. Dorgeloh resigned as Lecturer in Pathology, and Dr. Homer
H. Hunt was added to the Department as Clinical Instructor. The Resident and Fellowship group of trainees
in pathology consisted of three men who had appointments
for one year and six who had training periods of six
months. One of the Fellows was supported by a grant from
the American Cancer Society. Four of the trainees were
assigned from the Department of Surgery.
The teaching program was not changed during the
year. All members of the staff participated in teaching
and in the examination of surgical and autopsy specimens.
Dr. Wood continued to take an active part in the
activities of the American Cancer Society. He remained
National Professional Director of Region 6 and Secretary
of the California Division of the Society. He was also
a member of the Medical and Scientific Committee, Chairman of the Committee on Miscellaneous Grants, and a
member of the following committees of the Society:
Committee on National Division of Funds, Irene B. Dernham Trust Committee, Budget, Service, Survey and Education Committees of the California Division. He was
Secretary of the Cancer Commission of the California
Medical Association and Member of the Joint Committee of
the Cancer Commission and the California Department
of Public Health to study state participation in the
Cancer Control Program. He was a member of the Committee
on Hospital and Institutional Relations of the College
of American Pathologista. He remained Branch Consultant
to the U. S. Veterans Administration and Consultant to
the U. S. Naval Hospital, Oakland, California. He delivered six addresses and talks on different aspects of
cancer to medical audiences in several western states.
He attended the Fourth International Cancer Research
Congress, and the American-Canadian Conference on Exfoliative Cytology in the Diagnosis of Cancer, as well
as meetings of the American Society of Clinical Pathologiats, College of American Pathologists, American
Cancer Society, American Radium Society and American
Medical Association.
Dr. Carnes presented a paper on "Studies on the
Etiology of Sarooidosis" at a joint meeting of the Los
Angeles Pathological Society and the Trudeau Society in
October, 19^4-7 and spoke on a phase of the same subject
at the annual meeting of the American Association of
Pathologists and Bacteriologists.

244

Pathology

Dr. Laqueur has continued his experimental studies


on the pathology of the endocrine system in animals and
man with the aid of special methods of hormone assay*
He presented a paper on "Testicular Pathology in cases
of Endocrine Disorder" before the American Society for
the Study of Sterility.
Dr. Rather continued experimental work upon the
storage and excretion of protein by the kidney. This
was done in collaboration with Dr. Addis. Dr. Rather
has also carried oh studies of hypertrophy of the heart
and changes in the arteries of the rat during experimental
hypertension, and he has studied a series of cases of
liver cirrhosis with respect to the incidence andnature
of associated testicular atrophy.
Dr. Cox has completed a quantitative study of
arteriosclerosis based upon analysis of the extractable
fatty substances in the aorta. He has continued observations upon the effect of the carcinogenic agent, acetaminofluorene, in experimental animals, and has carried
out further experiments referable to changes in the
gastric mucrosa. He has served as Consultant in Pathology to the U, S. Army during the year, and he presented
a paper on "Variations in the Gastric Mucosa" at the
Army Institute of Pathology in Washington, D. C.
ALVIN J. COX, JR.
Executive

Pediatrics

245

PEDIATRICS

The number of required hours allotted to the


teaching of pediatrics at Stanford, 169, appears to be
less than in any other first-grade American medical
school. Inadequate for years this amount of time has
of late, with the recent great advances in pediatrics,
become critically so. On the basis1 of the reports of
the American Academy of Pediatrics Study of Child
Health Services, Stanford's 169 hours should be considered in the light of the following tabulation of
the pediatric hours in 59 American medical schools:
400 or more hours, 6 schools; 300-399 hours, 20 schools;
200-299 hours, 25 schools; under 200 hours, 8 schools.
The average (not the optimum) for all the schools was
290 hours, or 121 hours more than the Stanford figure.
The relative importance of the problems of adults and
children is certainly not in proportion to the
Stanford ratio in allotted teaching time of 924:169,
or 5.4-6:1. I wish to point out that while our junior
students spend 16 weeks at the City and County
Hospital, where the Department of Pediatrics has for
30 years or more provided attending and staff service in
the pediatric, isolation, newborn and tuberculosis
wards, no provision has yet been made there for undergraduate teaching in pediatrics, all the time allotted
to medicine being assigned to adults.
I have for many years been dissatisfied with this
arrangement and have repeatedly protested. Under
present conditions, our students have obtained only a
brief period of contact (about 2^ weeks) with
hospitalized children and their training in pediatrics
has consequently been seriously deficient.
We have a fairly large and decidedly competent
teaching staff who have made the best possible use of
the limited teaching time at their disposal.
Our Saturday morning Grand Rounds in the Children1 s Ward continue to be well attended by the staffs
of this and other Departments, and by visiting
physicians, often from considerable distances.
The research program in poliomyelitis, supported
for many years by the National Foundation for
Infantile Paralysis,. has continued and progress has
been made in the problems of entry and exit of the
virus. It has been discovered that the virus enters
through the throat with greater ease than through the
intestine; and that it is excreted through the tiny
surface nerves in the throat and perhaps elsewhere.
This research program is now in its ninth year; the
laboratory is one of the best equipped>in the Country,
employs 4'fttHand part-time workers and has housing
facilities for 75 monkeys, as well as for a large
number of mice. Work in this field is necessarily slow

246

Pediatrics

and laborious, requiring long-term planning. Ten


papers have been completed and published, and several
other projects are in progress, some of which will require one or more years to complete. For the International Poliomyelitis Conference at the WaldorfAstoria Hotel in New York in July 19-43, we prepared an
exhibit which attracted some interest. In recent
months we have also collaborated with Drs. Schmitt and
De Robertis of the Department of Zoology of the
Massachusetts Institute of Technology in preparing
material in which, by means of the electron microscope,
they have photographed minute bodies, presumably poliomyelitis virus, within the minute tubules of nerve
axons and measured their rate of progression therein.
This is a discovery, both startling and profoundly
important, to which we have been most happy to contribute. e are continuing to collaborate in the
further developments of the project. I wish to
acknowledge the able and, indeed, indispensable
assistance of Miss Rosalie J. Siiverberg who has done
so large a share of the experimental work on poliomyelitis in this laboratory since it started.
In the clinical field we are exploring the treatment of acute leukemia in children an extremely
malignant form of cancer with a new drug,
aminopterin, recently found by Dr. Sidney Farber of
Boston and his associates to produce temporary remissions. A promise of financial support for one year
has been obtained from the Dernham Foundation.
Sixteen patients have already been treated by us with
the laboratory assistance of Drs. Evans and Hattersley
of the Department of Medicine.
Dr. Miller has continued with his studies of
active immunization in whooping cough, tetanus and
diphtheria. He read a paper on tetanus immunization
at the May meeting of the
American Pediatric Society
in Quebec. Dr. Shirley1 s new book, "Psychiatry for
the Pediatrician" was published by the Commonwealth
Fund in March 194-8. Dr. Dickey read a paper on
"Tuberculosis in Childhood" at the April meeting of
the California State Tuberculosis fAssociation in April
at Long Beach and another on Wilm s Tumor at the
meeting of the Pan-Pacific Surgical Association in
Honolulu in August.
Largely through the efforts and urging of Dr.Ann
P. Purdy, who is in charge of the cardiac division of
the Children's Clinic, a new facility is being set up
for the catheterization of the heart, a comparatively
new technique important in diagnosis of congenital
diseases of the heart. This unit is formally under
the Department of Pediatrics but is actually a cooperative affair administered by a committee representing the Departments of Medicine, Surgery and Pediatrics,

Pediatrics

247

Dr. Herbert N. Hultgren, a Stanford graduate, has been


placed in direct charge, with an appointment in this
Department.
Dr. Rantz, who holds appointments in both the Department of Pediatrics and the Department of Medicine,
with the assistance of Dr. Margaret Lee, is making a
comprehensive study of streptococcus infections and
related problems in children. Data on normal children
collected incidentally to the main study may prove to
be of considerable value in establishing certain
normal standards.
The new nursery for the newborn in Stanford University Hospital, which was made possible by gifts
from Mr. and Mr~s. Richard H. Shainwald and Mr.Walter
Heller and is a memorial to Mrs. Shainwald whose
tragic death occurred before its completion, has
attracted a great deal of favorable attention. It is
believed to be one of the most modern and best
equipped nurseries in the country and embodies facilities and techniques for the care of infants, including
the premature, which are in some respects new, and in
general are of the highest standard. While not
available to the undergraduate student, members of the
house staff in pediatrics all have opportunities to
work in it and to learn the best methods of infant
care. It is quite impossible to express to the full
our gratitude for this most generous and useful gift.
Many other welcome donations of various sizes
have been received during the year from the friends
of Stanford and of the staff. They are individually
listed elsewhere in the President's report. A particularly appreciated type of donation has been to
the Special Gifts Fund to be used at the discretion
of the executive of the Department. From this fund,
for example, it was possible during the year to
purchase several additional incubators for the premature nursery, an electrocardiograph for the
Children's Ward, other needed equipment, and also to
supply |1500.00 for the care of prematures whose
parents are unable to defray, wholly or in part, the
necessarily heavy costs of this prolonged and
expensive service. For the Special Gifts Fund,
$38.40.00 was received in donations, ranging from
$1.00 to $2500.00, from Mr. Edgar Rickard, Dr. and
Mrs. Oscar Johnson, Mr. and Mrs. Harry L. Baker, Jr.,
Mrs. Margaret Whitcomb, Mrs. E.E.Childs, Dr. Mary H.
Layman, Dr. H.K. Faber and staff, Mr. and Mrs. M.C.
Miller, Mr. Reuben W. Hills III, Dr. Walter Beckh,
and Mr. Brayton Wilbur. For the Children's Ward
Christmas Fund, $45.28 was received from Mrs. Lillian
Z. Berggruen, Mrs. Alice H. McNulty, Miss Harriet
Jolliffe, Mrs. Everett Layman and Mrs. H.K. Faber.
For Free Beds, $565.00 was received from Mrs. S. M.
Haslett, Mr. Edward M. Mills, Dr. William J.Newman,

248

Pediatrics

and Mrs. illiam F. Traughber. Miscellaneous gifts


amounting to $25.00 for research were received from Mr.
and Mrs. Harry L. Baker, Jr. and Dr. Edward Defoe. The
National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis,Inc. contributed $21,550.00 for support of poliomyelitis research under Dr. Faber's direction. For the new
nursery Mrs. Richard H. Shainwald, Mr. Walter D.Heller
and Mr. Richard D. Shainwald made gifts amounting to
$18,043.44. The total of $44,068.72 for the year is
impressive evidence of the appeal which children and
their problems have for the public and of the devotion
to Stanford and its pediatricservice displayed by so
many of our good friends. To them all we offer our
sincerest thanks.
As for so many years past I wish once more to
express the gratitude of the Department to all the
members of the faculty, house staff, research workers,
nurses, social workers and volunteers for their
loyalty, fine performance of their various tasks and
splendid team work. A special tribute is due Miss
Fannie Hadden for her long, faithful and efficient
service.
Harold K. Faber
Professor of Pediatrics and
Executive

Pharmacology and Therapeutics

249

PHARMACOLOGY AND THERAPEUTICS


Staff.Most of the staff remained unchanged from
last year. New appointments were: Dr. Ralph W. Schaffarzick (M.D., Stanford), instructor in pharmacology, Mr.
Frank Way (A.B., U. of California) research assistant in
pharmacology, vice Miss Ann Sparks resigned, Miss deLorez
Meyer (A.B., Stanford) research assistant in therapeutics,
vice Mrs. Helen B. Trip! resigned, and Dr. Go Lu, formerly
Fellow, American Bureau for Medical Aid to China, Winthrop
fellow in pharmacology. Dr. Nai Chu, Fellow,American Bureau for Medical Aid to China, after 8 months with us, transferred to Georgetown University Medical School, Washington,
D.C.
The following collaborated at various times: Dr. R. C.
McNaught and Dr. A. G. Rawlins, assistant clinical professors of surgery, Mr. P. Smith, third year student and Mr.
W. Lacy, second year student, with Dr. Cutting; Dr. Roland
Davison, assistant clinical professor of medicine, Dr.
Peter Koets, Agnes Lemme Schilling research fellow in obstetrics and gynecology, and Dr. G. L. Laqueur, assistant
professor of pathology, with Dr. Kuzell; Dr. Henry Newman,
associate professor of medicine, Dr. Laqueur, and Messrs.
Henry Puro (tenth quarter only) and G. L. Ordway, both
fourth year students, with Dr. Hanzlik.
Teaching.Dr. Cutting's elective course in experimental chemotherapy was abandoned as there were no applicants among the fourth year students. After some lapse of
interest, the elective course in prescription writing for
second year students was given by Drs. Dreisbach and Schaffarzick during the sixth quarter. Except for a small reduction in hours all required courses were given as usual.
Dr. Cutting's second edition of his Manual of Clinical
Therapeutics appeared in January.
Research.Papers published during the current year
are listed
in the Publications of the Faculty of the Presf
ident s Report.
The program in anticonvulsants was intensified in
several respects. The details of a previous study of vasomotor drugs on the convulsant threshold with and without
diphenylhydantoin were published. Vasoconstrictors, especially ergotamine, ergonovine and ergot, consistently
raised the threshold and increased the anticonvulsant action of diphenylhydantoin while vasodilators had an opposite effect and lowered the threshold. Whether cerebral
blood flow changes were responsible for these effects is
not known. Considerable attention was focussed on the
anticonvulsant action of isopropyl alcohol, about which a
detailed report was published by Drs. Chu, Driver and
Hanzlik. Dr. Newman examined the electroencephalograms
of rats drinking this alcohol for 3 months but found no
difference from the normal brain wave patterns although
all had a marked acetonemia. With Mr. Way, Dr. Hanzlik
continued a long term study of this alcohol to determine

250

Pharmacology and therapeutics

effects on the growth, body weight, food consumption,


blood, tissues and blood acetone, comparing it with acetone, some other ketogens, and ethyl alcohol. Messrs. Ordway and Puro examined 46 new compounds for their effects on
electrical convulsions in different species, but found
only 5 moderately depressant and none increased the blood
acetone. The synthesis of other compounds which might
satisfy certain desiderata is continuing. Messrs. Ordway
and Puro began and Mr. Way and Dr. Schaffarzick continued
a detailed study of various aspects of the hyperketonemia
produced by isopropyl alcohol in relation to the anticonvulsant and other acute effects. With Dr. Laqueur, Mr.
Moy and Dr. Hanzlik extended their observations of continued administration of phenobarbital under conditions of protein and vitamin deficiencies. These researches were supported by the Stern Fund for research in anticonvulsants.
Studies of virucidal agents in eggs and mice were continued by Dr. Cutting, Miss Neff, Mr. Smith and Mr. Lacy.
A report of the results with a number of the agents was
submitted for publication. Tests were also made with similar agents as antagonists of spontaneous mammary tumors
and of the malignancies of acetaminofluorene. The work on
virucides was supported, in part, by a grant from the
United States Public Health Service, and on carcino-inhibitors by the American Cancer Society.
Dr. Kuzell, Mrs. Trip! and Miss Gardner continued
tests of a large number of chemotherapeutic agents with
gold as a standard for comparison in the experimental polyarthritis of rats caused by pleuropneumonia-like (14) microbes. Observations of such environmental factors as
cold, heat, fatigue, ultraviolet, etc., were completed and
the results prepared for publication; no appreciable effects were demonstrable. Prolonged administration of thiouracil was found to increase the severity of the polyarthritis; the results were prepared for publication.
Thiouracil also caused a nodular hyperplasia of the thyroid,
a preliminary report of which was published, but this drug
did not demonstrably affect the blood and other tissues.
Drs. Kuzell and Pillsbury concluded their study of the antagonism of BAL (2, 3-dimercaptopropanol) to the toxicity
of gold and published the results; positive, protection
against, and an increase in urinary excretion of, gold was
demonstrated. Among other antagonists of chronic toxicity
from gold, methionine, a sulfur containing amino acid, appeared especially promising; animals survived repeated
surely fatal doses of gold. With Miss Meyer, Dr. Kuzell
undertook studies of gold excretion in urine of methionine
treated animals and of patients receiving gold therapeutically. However, certain non-sulfur compounds were also protective, but might have objectionable features. A report
on the protective effects of methionine in acute gold toxicity was in preparation for publication. These researches were supported, in part, by funds from the Office of
Naval Research and, in part, by the Stern research fund for

Pharmacology and Therapeutics

251

experimental arthritis. A report on the effects of roentgenotherapy on urinary 17-ketosteroid excretion in ankylosing spondylarthritis in patients by Drs. Davison, Koets
and Kuzell, and a review of the clinical concepts of ankylosing spondylarthrits by Dr. Kuzell, were submitted for
publication.
Dr. Dreisbach completed tests of the protective effects of procaine in experimental skin sensitization (Arthus phenomenon) to penicillin and horse serum with negative results as to objective changes; a report was published. With Dr. Lu, Dr. Dreisbach undertook tests for a similar skin sensitivity to sulfonamides and the possible contributory effects of these drugs on predisposition to penicillin sensitivity; provisionally the results seemed negative. Dr. Dreisbach and Dr. Lu also undertook a study of
the vasomotor reactions of certain alkaloids. These studies were supported by a grant from the Therapeutic Research Committee of the Council on Pharmacy and Chemistry,
A.M.A.
Dr. Lu described in a published report an improved
assembly of the Hartung-Clark double cannula for the isolated frog heart which is highly useful in demonstrations and
pharmacological studies of drugs on the fundamental characteristics of the heart. With this method, Dr. Lu completed an extensive study of sparteine which was found to
be quinidine-like in action though weaker and less toxic.
A preliminary report of comparisons with quinidine and an
illustrated detailed report were published. Dr. Lu is continuing studies of sparteine on the mammalian circulation,
its fate in the body and other features. Dr. Lu also completed a study of claims for sparteine as a diuretic, with
negative results which were submitted for publication.
Acknowledgement is made of generous supplies of synthetic compounds and other materials most of which were used in the various researches and a few in teaching exercises to Dr. Melville Sahyun, Santa Barbara, Calif., and
Dow Chemical Co., Midland, Michigan, anticonvulsants; Merck
& Co., Rahway, N. J., crystalline sodium penicillin; Nepera Chemical Co., Yonkers, N. Y., Ciba Pharmaceutical
Products, Inc., Summit, N. J., Parke Davis & Co., Detroit,
Michigan, Merck & Co., Rahway, N. J., various antihistamines; Drs. Hubert Loring and John Pierce, Stanford department
of chemistry, Sharpe & Dohme Inc., Glenolden, Pa., California Spray Corp., Richmond, Calif., American Cyanamid Co.,
Stamford, Conn., Dr. F. A. French, Mt. Zion Hospital, San
Francisco, Pharmacia, Caroline Hospital, Stockolm, Sweden,
various agents as possible virucides and against cancer;
Wyeth Inc., Philadelphia, Pa., methionine; Mr. Harry Lusk,
Phelps Dodge Corp., Douglas, Ariz, gold assays; Societe
Parisienne DExpansion Chinique - S.A., Paris, cupralene;
Cutter Laboratories, Berkeley, Calif., horse serum.
Miscellaneous.Dr. Hanzllk attended the annual meeting of the Council on Dental Therapeutics, A.D.A., in
Chicago, addressed the Institute for Nurse Anesthetists of

252

Pharmacology and Therapeutics

the Am. Hosp. Assoc., in Oakland and the Am. Veterinary


Medical Assoc., in San Francisco, attended meetings of
the Northern California Rheumatism Association in San Francisco, revised the official antidotes for the California
State Board of Pharmacy, and gave assistance to various
agencies with medicinal and toxic drugs. .Dr. Cutting discussed virus chemotherapy at the annual meeting of the
American College of Physicians, the University of California Hospital, both in San Francisco, and before the Palo
Alto Clinic, Palo Alto, heparin and dicumarol before the
San Francisco County Medical Association, drugs on the
respiratory system before the American Trudeau Society,
organic cardiorespiratory diseases before the Northern
California Mental Hygiene Association, and new drugs at
the Veterans Hospital, all in San Francisco; continued as
editor of the Stanford Medical Bulletin, and undertook the
editorship of a new publication, Annual Review of Medicine,
and attended the annual meeting of the Therapeutic Trials
Committee, A.M.A., in Chicago. Dr. Kuzell discussed rheumatoid arthritis, or experimental polyarthritis, before the
Permanente Foundation Hospital Staff, Oakland, Medical
Physics Seminar, University of- California, Berkeley, Northern California Rheumatism Association (also Mrs. Trip!)
and the Santa Clara County Medical Society, San Jose, gave
5 lectures on edocrlnology to nurses of the St. Francis
Hospital, San Francisco, and continued as assistant editor
of the Stanford Medical Bulletin. Dr. Dreisbach presented
a paper before the Pharmacological Society and attended the
meetings of American Federation of Societies for Experimental Biology in Atlantic City. A majority of the members
of the department presented reports at, or attended the
regular meetings of, the Society for Experimental Biology
and Medicine in the San Francisco Bay region and Drs.
Kuzell, Dreisbach and Lu each gave a paper before the annual meeting of the Pacific Divion, A.A.A.S., in Berkeley.
P. J. HANZLIK
Professor of Pharmacology

Physiology

253

PH1SIOLOGT
The active staff of the Department of Physiology for 1947-194#
consisted of frank Walter Weymouth, James Percy Baumberger,
John Field II, and Victor Ernest Hall, professors; Jefferson Martineau
Crismon, associate professor; Frederick Fuhrman and Margaret Lindsay
Turner, instructors; Charles D. Armstrong, clinical instructor in
medicine assigned to physiology; Percy Millard Dawson, Alfred Dean
Storey, and Sydney Frissel Thomas, lecturers; Ronald Grant, Monroe
Jerome Hirsch, fiodil Schmidt-Nielsen, and Knut Schmidt-Nielsen,
research associates; Ruth Lenore Dryer, Forrest Albert Ellis, Jerome
Tobias Fishgold, Geraldine J. Fuhrman, Jane Huram, Clarence Norman
Peiss, Marilyn Robbina, Eminger Stewart, Fred G. Williams, and
Kathleen Bardwell, research assistants; Cathrine Stanton Crismon,
teaching assistant (Winter Quarter).
This year has been an active one both in teaching and research*
The sustained high enrollment, particularly marked at the graduate
level, brought many students to the Department, both as members of
routine courses and as independent workers. This was reflected in the
greatly increased research activity at the student level which has
been limited only by space and research funds*
Meetings. The Atlantic City meeting of the American Physiological
Society in March 1948 was attended by Professors Baumberger, Field and
Hall, all of whom presented papers. Professor Crismon presented an
invited paper before the Agricultural and Food Chemistry Section of
the American Chemical Society in Chicago, April 22. The paper, part
of a Symposium on the Flavonoid Pigments (Vitamin P) was entitled
"The Patholgoical Physiology of 'Capillary Fragility1 in Relation to
Vitamin P and Changes in the Local Blood Flow."
Editorial Activities. Professors Hall and Crismon served as
editor and associate editor of Volume X of the Annual Reviews of
Physiology. Professor Hall attended a meeting of the Editorial 'Board
of the Annual Reviews of Physiology in connection with the Atlantic
City meetings. Professor Baumberger served as associate editor of
Physiological Reviews and attended a meeting of the Editorial Board
in Chicago in October 1947.
Committee Service. Professor Veymouth continued to serve as
Chairman of the Committee on Admissions and Advanced Standing of the
School of Medicine during the past year. Professor Crismon served on
the same committee in the absence of Professor Gray of the Department
of Anatomy. Professor Field was appointed to membership of the Panel
in Physiology of the Research and Development Board and attended the
meeting of June 30, 1943 in Washington, D.C.
During the academic year 1947-48, Instructor Margaret Turner
completed one phase of the study of temperature regulation and
hereditary obesity* A comparison of the body temperature adjustments
of obese yellow mice and normal mice of the same strain was made when
these two types of animals were subjected to environmental temperatures ranging from 5 to 40C. There is evidence of disturbed
temperature regulation in this form of hereditary obesity. At low
environmental temperatures, the temperature of obese mice continued
to fall during one-hour exposures, while that of the controls fell
only during the first ten minutes and remained at a new low level.
At higher environmental temperatures all animals showed an elevation

254

Physiology

of body temperature; the obese mice regulated at a higher level* The


data together with a summary of the evidence Implicating the hypothalaraus are published in the American Journal of Physiology, Volume 152.
Further investigation of the mechanisms of temperature regulation
In hereditary obesity was undertaken with the technical assistance of
Geraldine J. Fuhrman. The oxygen consumption rates and activity
ratings of obese and thin mice of the seme strain were determined over
a wide range of environmental temperatures. It was found that the
rates of the obese animals were higher than that of the thin mice in
spite of the depressed activity, even when the rates were calculated
on the basis of unit weight. These findings are yet to be completed
and published. In addition, the possible correlation of structure with
function of the hypothalamlc temperature regulating centers is being
investigated with the aid of Robert S. Turner of the Department of
Anatomy.
Doctors Jefferson M. Crismon and Frederick A. Fuhrman continued
an investigation of local metabolic changes following ischemia with
the support of the John and Mary R. Markle Foundation and the Medical
Research Fund of the Stanford Medical School. Three general phases of
this problem have been Investigated during the past year: a) changes
in muscle following ischemia produced by various methods; b) renal
function following introduction of glass microspheres into the renal
artery; c) effect of vasodepressor substances and of flavonoid
compounds on the small vessels of the rat mesoappendix.
Limbs of rats and rabbits have been rendered ischemie by
tourniquets, ligation of the femoral artery or by the intra-arterial
Injection of glass microspheres approximately 45 microns In diameter.
Blood flow, measured directly by means of a bubble flow meter, and
oxygen consumption, calculated from arterial-venous oxygen dirferences,
decrease immediately after a single Injection of microspheres into
the femoral artery; both blood flow and oxygen consumption subsequently
increase to approximately the control value. Following a second
injection of microspheres .blood flow and oxygen uptake decrease and do
not return to normal. These results suggest that a single injection
of microspheres is effective in occluding arterioles open at the time,
but that within a short interval other vascular channels open in
sufficient numbers to permit considerable restoration of blood flow.
The failure of such re-established flow to maintain tissues rendered
bloodless by the Initial sphere injection is indicated by the
accompanying changes in muscle glycogen and electrolyte. Estimates
of the adequacy of collateral blood supply were obtained by observations of changes in muscle tonus, muscle excitability and the
measurement of the time of appearance in the muscle of Intravenously
Injected fluorescein. Functional impairment was much more marked
after sphere injection than after ligation of the femoral artery.
Glycogen content of rat and rabbit leg muscles was determined after
production of ischemia by a) tourniquets left In place for two
hours; b) tourniquets left in place for four hours; c) femoral
artery ligation and dj injection of glass microspheres into the
femoral artery* Rapid disappearance of glycogen from the ischemie
muscle occurred in all cases but resynthesis of glycogen, indicative
of resynthesis of high-energy phosphate, occurred only in .5. and .
Ischemia produced by four-hour tourniquets resulted in penetration
of large amounts of sodium Into the intracellular phase. This

Fhysiology

255

appeared to be reversible after about three days. Although ischemia


produced by tourniquet or by femoral artery ligation resulted in
increased amounts of muscle chloride it was found that this chloride
was confined to the extracellular phase. Following the intra-arterial
injection of glass microspheres more severe damage to cells was
indicated by the penetration of both chloride and sodium into the
intracellular phase.
Following the introduction of microspheres into the renal artery,
direct blood flow measurements show that flow is at first markedly
decreased but tends to return toward normal. Observation of the renal
vein during and after sphere injection showed that bright red blood
streaks appeared in the vein in a manner similar to that described by
others after renal ischemia induced refiexly. Anatomical studies made
on thin sections of kidney fixed and cleared after sphere injection
followed by India ink showed that spheres lodged in the middle third
of the interlobular arteries. The cortical tissue was relatively
bloodless, but the medulla and a few adjacent gloneruli were filled
with ink. A limited number of renal clearance studies on kidneys
blocked with microspheres showed that glomerular filtration and
tubular reabsorption of glucose as well as water reabsorption were
greatly reduced in those animals suffering the greatest renal damage.
Less severe degrees of damage caused impairment of water reabsorption
but no change in glomerular filtration rate or tubular reabsorption
of glucose. In three animals there was increased reabsorption of
both sodium and potassium from the tubular fluid.
Tests on the small blood vessels of the rat mesoappendix by the
Chambers and Zweifach method showed that rutin and certain other
flavonoids rendered the smooth muscle of metarterioles and precapillary sphincters of normal rats more sensitive to epinephrine and
presumably to other constrictor influences. Intravenous injections
of edema fluid collected from the legs of rats after four-hour
tourniquet injury or after frostbite caused the smooth muscle of the
terminal blood vessels to become refractory to epinephrine. Once the
refractory state had been induced by the injection of edema fluid, it
could be reversed by the intravenous injection of rutin. These
observations support the view that the mechanism of flavonoid action
in preventing gangrene following severe cold injury may depend upon
the influence of such compounds upon local blood flow.
The following graduate students carried out the indicated studies
under Professor Crismon's direction.
Mr. Eminger Stewart devised a method for the separation of glass
microspheres into various size groups and studied the changes in
kidney function in rabbits following the obstruction of renal
circulation by intra-arterial injection of spheres of known size.
Mr. Stewart presented a thesis entitled "The Preparation and Use of
Glass Microspheres and Their Application in Experimental Studies on
the Rabbit Kidney" and was granted the degree of Master of Arts.
Mr. Ronald Berez carried out studies of the capillary bed of the
rat mesoappendix following the method of Chambers and Zweifach. His
work showed that the flavonoid pigments render the smooth muscle of
metarterioles and precapillary sphincters more sensitive to topically
applied epinephrine; edema fluid collected from rat and rabbit legs
rendered ischemic by frostbit* or tourniquet was found to contain
a material which depressed the smooth muscle response to epinephrine.

256

Physiology

The flavonoids were found to restore the sensitivity of smooth muscle


depressed by edema fluid injections. Mr. Berez presented a thesis
entitled "Some Chemical Factors Affecting the Motor Elements of
Terminal Vascular Units" and was granted the degree of Master of Arts.
Mr. John Watson assisted in experiments with the bubble flow
meter used in measuring the changes in blood flow in the hind legs of
rabbits following the injection of glass microspheres into the femoral
artery. Similar measurements were made on renal blood flow following
introduction of spheres into the renal artery.
The study of the relationship of brain metabolism to the behavior
of the temperature regulation mechanism, being carried out under
a contract with the Air Force Air Materiel Command, Wright-Patterson
Air Force Base, has been continued throughout the academic year by
Professors Victor E. Kail and John Field II, with the assistance of
Dr. Ronald Gr nt, Miss Marilyn Bobbins, Mr. Clarence N. Peiss,
Mr. Jerome T. Fishgold, Mrs. Jane Hunm and Mr. Albert Ellis, as paid
members of the staff. Mr. Chaille Love, Mr. James Craig, Mr. James
Ferryman, Mr. Frank Attardo and Mr. George Denzler assisted as advanced
students, the first two of which received A.M. degrees on the basis
of their work.
As the results of determinations of the effect of a series of
substances: typhoid-paratyphoid vaccine, pyrexin, magnesium salts,
antipyrin, dinitrophenol, malonate, iodoacetate and urethane on the
oxygen consumption, anaerobic glycolysis and chollnesterase activity
of cerebral cortex slices in vitro and on the thermostatic behavior
of intact animals it must be concluded that no clear relation has
been established between the actions of these substances on brain
metabolism and on temperature regulation. Thus we have no evidence
to support the hypothesis that the metabolic activity of the thermoregulatory centers is a factor in determining the level at which body
temperature is regulated, although other temperature-sensitive nervous
processes are doubtless Involved.
However the studies have contributed a number of significant
findings to our knowledge of temperature regulation. Some of these
are: the action of pyrogens in high doses is a complex result of
a fundamental alteration of the thresholds for activation of heat
regulation mechanisms and a toxic action on various bodily functions;
pyrogen-induced fever in rabbits is almost entirely due to reduction
in heat loss rather than increased heat production; pyrogens induce
a state in which animals are temporarily refractory to the feverproducing effects of subsequently injected pyrogens; the fever
induced by Menkin's "pyrexin" is almost identical with that produced
by bacterial pyrogen; it is Improbable that bacterial pyrogens
produce fever indirectly by inducing release of endogenous "pyrexin"
from tissues; the current hypotheses concerning the neural mechanism
of thermal panting are inconsistent with the pattern of respiratory
changes occurring during its onset and will have to be revised;
emotional disturbances in rabbits induce activation of heat loss
mechanisms thus introducing a disturbing factor into experimental
work on temperature regulation in these animals*
Among the results of the quantitative study of the effect of the
above substances on brain metabolism in vitro the following may be
cited: neither the oxygen consumption nor the anaerobic glycolysis of
brain slices was affected by the addition of typhoid-paratyphoid

Physiology

257

vaccine or pyrexin to the suspension medium; furthermore, these


metabolic processes were not significantly different in slices taken
from normal rabbits and from febrile rabbits; antipyrin, in doses
lowering body temperature, likewise leaves oxygen consumption and
anaerobic glycolysis rates unaffected; the magnesium ion, which also
has an antipyretic action, increases the anaerobic glycolysis of
cortical tissue, without altering oxygen consumption; sodium
saiicylate and acetylsalicylic acid, also antipyretics, do not change
anaerobic glycolysis rate, the former, however, increases the oxygen
consumption; 2-4 dinitrophenol, which raises body temperature,
greatly accelerates oxygen consumption, but does not alter anaerobic
glycolysis of brain slices; sodium malonate, which does not affect
body temperature, inhibits oxygen consumption of brain tissue* In
fever, the liver appears to be an important source of heat production;
however, the oxygen consumption of liver slices taken early in fever
is not greater than that of control slices. Finally, in view of the
known sensitivity of the hypothalamus to alterations in its temperature and of its important role in temperature regulation, the oxygen
consumption rate of hypothalamic tissue has been studied at graded
temperature levels by means of the Cartesian diver technique. The
results of these studies show that the rate of respiration of hypothalamic tissue is not peculiarly sensitive to temperature, since its
temperature coefficient is almost identical with that of the
respiration of cerebral cortical tissue.
The results of parts of the work described herein were communicated by Professor Hall to the Western Society for Clinical Research
at its meeting in San Francisco on November 7, 1947 and to the American Physiological Society at its meeting in Atlantic City in
March 1948.
In June Professor Field was granted a contract by the Office of
Naval Research to investigate the importance of possible changes in
the regulation of tissue metabolism, especially in poikilothermic
animals, as a feature of adaptation to cold. It is proposed to do
this by comparing the effect of dinitrophenol and of drugs of like
action on the metabolism of tissues of arctic animals and of related
forms in warmer climates. If the metabolic "brakes" are off, in part
at least, in the arctic forms it may be expected that the11above
agents, which appear to act by Inhibition of such "brakes will have
relatively less effect on arctic than on corresponding temperate and
tropic zone forms* Moreover, the extent of the difference in the
effect of dinitrophenol on the metabolism of arctic- and warm-adapted
forms may provide a quantitative measure of the changes in regulator
or "enzyme brake" action in this adjustment. Mr. Clarence N. Peiss,
now research associate under this contract, is working at the Arctic
Research Laboratory, Point Barrow, Alaska* Professor Field was also
at this laboratory during the summer and served as acting director
during Dr. Irving's absence.
Professor Field and Mr. Peiss completed a study of the effect of
dinitrophenol on the respiration of brain slices and homogenates
which provided evidence in favor of the view that this drug acts by
inhibiting a regulator of metabolism rather than by direct augmentation of metabolic processes. Professor Field and Mr. Jerome T.
Fishgold also completed an examination of the value of selected
metabolites in maintaining the capacity for respiration and

258

Physiology

anaerobic glycolysis in rat cerebral cortex tissue. It was found


that these processes could not be maintained when succinate was the
sole exogenous fuel even though the rate of oxygen consumption was
well maintained by succinate* This suggests that the energy supplied
by succinate oxidation is not made available for cell maintenance
in this tissue.
Professor James P. Baumberger has continued research on blood,
including the problem of clotting, cellular metabolism, and interstitial gels. Mrs. Kathleen Bardwell has assisted him in many aspects
of his research work. The following students took part in the
indicated problems: Frank Fales, anaerobic systheses; Naomi Fried
(Brush Foundation Fellow) and Helen Chinn, byaluronidase inhibitors;
L. E. Davila, role of sulfhydryl in blood clotting; George F. Leong,
hemoglobin-like properties of cobalto-dihistidine; Richard S. Welsh,
paramagnetic properties of hemoglobin; Fred G. Williams, a rapid
platinum oxygen electrode; L. V. Nicholas, osmotic pressure measurement; Gabor Markus, oxygen diffusion in various solutes as measured
by the polarographic method.
Professor Veymouth completed the investigation and submitted
a final report on the contract, of which he was the responsible
investigator, with the Air Materiel Command dealing with distance
discrimination. Eight publications based chiefly or wholly on this
work have appeared over the signature of Dr. Monroe J. Hirsch, chief
Research Associate of the project, or of Professor Veymouth. With
Burton Vilner, a graduate student, statistical analyses were made of
certain features of distance discrimination tests to determine the
most efficient methods of testing.
During the summer of 1948 Professor Weymouth analyzed with
Dr. Monroe Hirsch the latter*s data on the refraction of school
children. Together they commenced a review of the literature on
errors of refraction, chiefly myopia, in preparation for a projected
study of refraction as a feature of the growth of children.
Mr. Fred Williams, a graduate student, assisted in this work.
FRANK WALTER WETMOUTH
Executive Head

Public Health and Preventive Medicine

259

PUBLIC HEALTH AMD IREVENTIVE MEDICINE


As a departmental collaborative effort a text, "Essentials
of Public Health11, has just been published. Dr. William P Shepard
shouldered the responsibility of pushing through the task. Chancellor Ray Lyman Wilbur prepared the keynote foreword emphasizing
the public health opportunities and responsibilities of the practicing physician.
The interest and practical vlue of the departmental instruction was greatly benefitted by the collaboration of Dr. Geiger1s
San Francisco Department of Public Health with whose personnel
our students spend a very considerable period of time. We were
privileged to have join in our teaching program the California
State Department of Public Health, the East Bay Municipal Utility
District, the San Francisco Board of Public Works and the Board
of Park Commissioners, Cutter Laboratories, The Metropolitan Life
Insurance Company, Pan American World Airways, Pacific Telephone
and Telegraph Company, Borden's Dairy Delivery Company, Swift and
Company, Bethlehem Steel Company, Paraffin Products Company, and
W. P. Fuller Company.
"The Patient in His Environment", Senior Medical Student
course given jointly with the Medical Social Service, was greatly
strengthened by having the following participants in its classroom discussions: Miss Nellie Woodward of the Family and Childrens
Agency, Mr. Peter Sandi and Miss Rose Chew of the International
Institute, Dr. William A. Pettit of the California Department of
Social Welfare, Division for the Blind, Miss Mary Adams of the
Central Committee on Homeless Children of the Native Sons and Native
Daughters of the Golden West Adoption Agency Inc., Mrs. Miriam
Darwin of the Florence Crittenton Home, Miss Ruth Burcham of the
San Francisco Visiting Nurses Association, Dr. Percy Poliak of
the San Francisco City and County Hospital, Mr. Philip Schafer of
the U. S. Bureau of Vocational Rehabilitation, Mrs. Rose McGroary
and Dr. Lieb Schapiro of San Francisco Juvenile Court, Dr. George
Becker of the Division of Communicable Disease of the San Francisco
Department of Public Health, Dr. Marcia Hayes, Chief of Crippled
Children's Services of the California State Department of Public
Health, Mr. Alex Sherriffs of the San Francisco Legal Aid Society,
Miss Katherine Sutter of San Francisco Unified School District.
Research in coccidioidomycosis continued under the support
of the Commission on Acute Respiratory Diseases of the Army Epidemiological Board. With the aid of the U. S. Public Health Service, arrangements are being made with a well-known biological
manufacturer to provide coccidioidal diagnostic materials. This
will relieve us enormously from the drain of providing coccidioidin
and serological services to the entire country. The problem of
laboratory infections, vhich has been especially vexatious this past
year, appears to be under control with the use of a new closed
transfer chamber paid for by a generous gift from the Standard
Oil Company of California.
Dr. Jacob C. Geiger's affiliations continue as described in
the report of last year. During the past year he received five
decorations or awards from foreign countries comprising the Chevalier du Tastevin of France, and also from France the Officers

260

Public Health and Preventive Medicine

Cross of the Legion of Honor, the Presidential Medal of Honor and


Merit from Nicaragua, the Commander's Cross of the Heraldic Order
del Liberatador San Martin from Argentine (which made special mention of his professorship at Stanford), a citation from, the Republic of Costa Rica. He was also cited by our Navy for his outstanding services and was presented with honorary memberships in
Varieties Clubs International and the San Francisco-Oakland Press
Photographers Association and an honorary gold Fire Chief star by
the San Francisco Fire Commission.
During the months of February and March he toured the installations in the Pacific and the Orient at the request of the United
States Navy to advise them on all public health problems.
He addressed a score of community organizations on various
aspects of local, national and international public health problems. He also addressed the American Trudeau Society on "Tuberculosis Control in Cities" and the National Restaurant Association on "Prevention of Food Poisoning". He was presiding officer
at an institute on evaluation of public health practices at the
University of California School of Public Health.
Dr. William P. Shepard continues as Chairman of the American
Public Health Association Committee on Professional Education, attending its numerous meetings in New York. His services on the
Governing Council of the American Public Health Association and
its Western Branch continue as does his membership on their other
committees mentioned last year. He continues leadership in the
National Tuberculosis Association, being on its Executive Committee, By-laws Revision Committee and a number of its other committees. He has just been appointed to the Editorial Board of the
American Review of Tuberculosis. He continues membership on the
board of directors of the National Health Council, California
Heart Association, and Western Association of Industrial Physicians.
He is President of the San Francisco Social Hygiene Association.
He served as Consultant to the Surgeon General in the Public Health
Study Section and to the State Board of Health in Health Education.
He also serves on the Chronic Disease Advisory Committee of the
State Department of Public Health. He was chairman of the committee of examiners which selected the Assistant Director of Public
Health for San Francisco. Other appointments and memberships in
local and national health and welfare organizations continue as
described in the reports of previous years.
He attended the annual meeting of the American Public Health
Association where he addressed its first special session on "Professionalization of Public Health" and also led a panel discussion on "In-Service Training of School Health Personnel". He addressed the annual meeting of the National Tuberculosis Association on "Some Unmet Needs in Tuberculosis Control - A Challenge
for the Future", the Western Branch of the American Public Health
Association on "Voluntary Agencies in Cancer Control", the Western
Association of Industrial Physicians and Surgeons on "What Kind
of a Specialty is Industrial Medicine", and also attended the annual meeting of American Association of Industrial Physicians and
Surgeons. He also addressed meetings of the Northern California
Public Health Association, the Onondago (N.I.) Health Association,
the California Congress of Parents and Teachers as well as local

Public Health and Preventive Medicine

261

groups. He participated in the institute for hospital administrators at Stanford, the postgraduate course given by the American
Trudeau Society, and the institute on evaluation of health practices at the University of California School of Public Health and
another for tuberculosis workers given by the California Tuberculosis and Health Association.
Dr. Rodney R. Beard served as President of the Pasteur Society
of Northern California, Chairman of the Committee on Industrial
Health of the San Francisco County Medical Society, Chairman of
the Health Council and member of the Social Planning Committee of
the San Francisco Community Chest, member of the Board of Directors
of the Western Association of Industrial Physicians and Surgeons
and member of the Executive Committee of the San Francisco Committee for Education on Alcoholism. As Medical Officer of the PacificAlaskan Division of Pan American World Airways, he made two inspection trips over the entire Pacific Division which were of great
public health importance and invaluable for teaching material. Besides attending the annual meetings of the California Medical Association, Western Association of Industrial Physicians and Surgeons and American College of Physicians, he participated in the
annual meeting in Toronto of the Airline Medical Directors' Association and the Aero-Medical Association. He and Dr. Leon Lewis
of the School of Public Health of the University of California
organized for the University of California Extension Division a
series of Industrial Hygiene round tables jointly sponsored by
Stanford Medical School and the University of California School
of Public Health. He addressed a meeting of the Junior League on
convalescent care in San Francisco, the San Joaquin County Medical
Society on Industrial Medical Problems in General Practice and
also participated in the San Francisco Social Hygiene Institute.
Dr. Charles E. Smith continued as Expert Consultant to the
Surgeon General of the Department of the Army and as Special Consultant to the Surgeon General of the United States Public Health
Service. He also continued as President of the California State
Board of Public Health and during the year served as President of
the Northern California Public Health Association, and of the Board
of Directors of the Family and Children's Agency. He continues
on the Epidemiology Section Council and has been elected to the
Governing Council by the American Public Health Association. Other
appointments mentioned in the report of last year remain in effect
including the Chairmanship of the Stanford University Public Health
Committee. In addition, he served on three civil service selection
boards, one in San Francisco for the Assistant Director of its
Department of Public Health, one in San Mateo for its Director of
Health and Welfare and one in Oakland for the Health Officer of
Alameda County.
He attended the annual meetings of the American Public Health
Association, the California Medical Association and the American
College of Physicians, Where he presented a paper, "Pathogenesis
of Coccidioidomycosis", and also took part in a panel discussion
of Coccidioidomycosis. He attended the National Health Assembly
in Washington. He participated in various postgraduate courses,
including that for the American Trudeau Society, spoke before the
Northern California Public Health Association, presented discus-

262

Public Health and Preventive Medicine

sions of coccidioidomycosis to a nunber of medical groups and participated in social hygiene programs in San Francisco and Vallejo.
CHARLES E. SMITH
Professor of Public Health
and Preventive Medicine

Surqery

265

SURGERY

Regretfully the department records the retirement of


two valued members of its clinical staff, Dr. Edward Bancroft Towne in Neurosurgery and Dr. Sylvan L. Haas in Bone
and Joint Surgery. Dr. Towne was for many years active in
the care of patients and in the teaching of students at
the San Francisco County Hospital. Dr. Haas has gained
national recognition for his experimental studies on bone
growth and repair, which have been conducted over many
years in our experimental surgical laboratory.
Several members of the staff have been active in the
conduct of national organizations. Dr. Reichert has now
served for several years on the American Board of Surgery
as the representative of the Pacific Coast Surgical Association. He has also presided at the 1948 meeting of the
Pan-Pacific Surgical Congress as its third president. Dr.
Chandler is serving as a member of the Committee on Surgery appointed by the U.S. Department of Public Health. Dr.
Holman has been appointed to the newly created Board of
Thoracic Surgery, has served two years as a member of the
Committee on Surgery of the National Research Council, has
been elected vice-president of the American Surgical Association and president of the Society for Vascular Surgery.
There has been increased activity in the Laboratory
for Surgical Research, largely due to the great interest
being developed in the surgery of congenital cardiac disease. Dr. Francis Rundle of St. Bartholomew's Hospital in
London, a travelling Fellow on a Rockefeller grant, spent
two months in association with Dr. Frank Gerbode working in
the laboratory on surgical problems related to the heart.
In the division of Ophthalmology, the addition to its
technical staff of a specially trained pathologist has enabled them to begin more complete studies on the pathological changes incident to disorders of the eye, a study that
may be extended to cover pathological material sent in by
outside doctors. An additional assistant resident has been
added to the house staff, permitting a more thorough three
years training by utilizing the facilities at the County
Hospital. The possession of a special fundus camera has
enabled the division to record permanently the various disorders of the fundus.
In the division of Anesthesiology, the staff has been
engaged in clinical and experimental studies of two new
drugs, which may replace morphia and demerol as premedication agents before general anesthesia.
In the division of Bone and Joint Surgery, a plan for
more thorough training of the house staff has been instituted which involves rotation of service through LaneStanford and San Francisco County Hospitals.
The publications of the surgical staff are listed
under publications of the faculty.
EMILE HOLMAN, M.D.
Professor of Surgery

264

Military Soienoe and, Taotios


MILITARY SCIENCE AND TACTICS

Personnel*At the beginning of the academic year, the following


officers were on duty with the Army and Air Force ROTO Units
Colonels Basil Perry* Field Artillery*
Lt* Colonelis John E Fitzgerald Jr., Air Foroei l&artin G*
Ifegioa* Ordnance Department*
Majors: William R. Kugler* Quartermaster Corps*
Captains: Jaeob A* Hutchison, Air Foroei Clarence A* Strawn*
Air Force*
During the year the following changes and additions were mades
Major George J* Eayerle Jr* Coast Artillery* appointed Assistant Professor of Military Science and Tacticsj Captain Robert 0*
Graham Jr** Quartermaster Corps* appointed Assistant Professor of
Military Science and Tactics vice Major William R* Kugler* Quartermaster Corps* relieved* Lt* Colonel Martin G Megioa* Ordnance Department* relieved*
General,At the end of the academic year the Ordnance Unit was
withdrawn by the Department of the Army* in accordance with policy of
withdrawing such units as were not producing sufficient graduates to
justify expense of maintenance* During the year Artillery instruction included Antiaircraft Artillery as well as Field Artillery* Due
to decision that the combination did not result in efficient instruction in either -type of artillery* instructions have been received to
discontinue the combined course and teach Field Artillery only in the
Academic Year 1948-49* Thus the unite continuing into the next academic year will be Field Artillery* Air Force and Quartermaster*
Students and Instruotors*-!rLe attitude and esprit of the students have been remarkably high* probably due to the fact that all
are voluntarily taking the course* As predicted in the last report*
increased interest has been evidenced by a doubling the sice of the
Unit; total maximum enrollment being 156* Due to the influence of
the Selective Service Act of 1948* in addition to the normally expected increased interest* the Unit should again double in sice in
the Academic Year 1948*49*
Buildings and Grounds,Classroom space has been adequate during
the academic year; however a great increase in enrollment may require
additional classrooms. Office space has not been adequate* not only
in size but also in location* At present the tremendous amount of
administrative work performed in connection with the unit itself is
greatly augmented by that required in connection with the many officer-students undergoing instruction in the University under the Depar latent of National Defense program* In addition to the turmoil
occasioned by this work* the location of the main offices* in the
midst of the Athletic Department offices* is not conducive to efficient administration.
The recent painting of the exterior of the buildings in the former stable area has considerably alleviated the run-down appearance
thereof* It is believed pertinent to call attention to the three
sections of an old eating house which are now 'parked* in the stable
area* These constitute an eyesore as well as a potential source of
danger to life and limb and should* if no future requirements preclude* be removed*

Military Science and Tactics

265

MILITARY SCIENCE AND TACTICS

Awards ware made to students as follows*


THE FIELD ARTILLERY ASSOCIATION MEDAL, awarded to the outstanding student of the Field Artillery Second Year Advanced Courses

Charles S* Crookham
THE ORDNANCE DEPARTMENT MEDAL, awarded to the outstanding student of the Ordnance Second Year Advanced Courset
Willard R Jarohow
THE QUARTERMASTER ASSOCIATION MEDALS, awarded respectively to
the outstanding students of the Quartermaster Second aad First Year
Advanced Coursest
John Lehaann
Ralph N* Cole
TEE PALO ALTO RESERVE OFFICERS MEDAL, awarded to the outstanding
student of all unitst
Charles S Crookham
Under new regulations promulgated jointly by the Departments of
the Army and of the Air Force, the following designations were madet
DISTINGUISHED MILITARY GRADUATES
Charles S* Crookham
Albert J Eorn
Willard R Jarohow
Dorsey fi Kindler
John R. Lehmann
William A* Perkins
DISTINGUISHED MILITARY STUDENTS
Jackson N* Baty
Walter C* Lundin
Peter C* Morris
Richard C* Stanton

COLONEL BASIL H. PERRY


Executive Head

266

School of Mineral Sciences


SCHOOL OF MINERAL SCIENCES

The geology staff consisted of A. Irving Levorsen, professor


and dean; Siemon William Muller, Charles Frederick Park, Jr.,
Hubert Gregory Schenck#, Aaron Clement Waters##, professors;
Arthur David Howard, Colin Osborne Button, Konrad Bates Krauskopff,
Benjamin Harkham Page, Vertress L. VanderHoof, associate professors;
Clifford Carl Church, lecturer; C. Melvin Swinney, George Albert
Thompson, Jr. (fall quarter), Richard W. Lounsbury (autumn quarter)
and Norman H. Dolloff (-winter and spring quarters), acting instructors; A. Myra Keen, curator of paleontology; Robert van Vleck
Anderson, George L. Harrington, Anna Hietanen Makela, and Hans K.
Stauffer, research associates; KLsbeth Madvig and Betty Jo Cornett,
department secretaries, A. A. Tihonravov and Ruperto Laniz,
technicians.
Assisting Professor Benjamin M. Page during the summer quarter
for Summer Field Geology were Julian D. Barksdale, acting associate
professor; Earl F. Cook, Frederic R. Kelley, Jay Glenn Marks,
Ellis Earl Roberts and Cutler Webster, acting instructors.
The mining staff consisted of Welton Joseph Crook, Orson Cutler
Shepard, professors of metallurgy; Frederick George Tickell,
professor of petroleum engineering; Fred LaSalle Humphrey, instructor in mining engineering; Alfred Kenneth Schellinger, acting
instructor in mining engineering; Hadley R. Bramel, research
associate; Margaret L. Sogorka until January 1, 194$, subsequently
Mora M* Reichling, department secretary.
Eliot Blackwelder, Austin Flint Rogers, Bailey Willis*emeritus
professors of geology; Theodore Jesse Hoover, emeritus professor
of mining engineering.
In celebration of the School of Mineral Sciences' "first
birthday", an open house was held on February 26, from 4 to 9 p.m*
at which time $100,000 in new scientific equipment was displayed
to students, faculty members and the general public. It was
attended by 700 or 300 people, including many students from other
fields. Among the equipment on exhibit was the metallograph for
photographing and examining polished surfaces; X-ray apparatus
used to examine the inner secrets of rocks and ores; high temperature ovens used in metallurgy; a diamond saw for sawing hard rocks;
and many other tools of modern geological science. In addition, a
complete collection of western fossils, map exhibits, and topographical models were on display. Much of the new equipment shown was
in use by students who were actually doing assigned work with it.
A continuous sound movie, projected with our own new instrument,
featured mining and petroleum films. The School is indeed grateful
to the Geology and Mining Associates and friends, for it was largely
their contributions that afforded us the opportunity to purchase
much of this badly needed equipment.
It is planned to hold an open house every two years because
of the success of the initial effort.
# On leave of absence
W On Sabbatical leave

School of Mineral Sciences

267

During the year, the School of Mineral Sciences was fortunate


in having a number of outstanding men as guest lecturers.
Mr. Paul Paine, Los Angeles petroleum valuation engineer, gave
two lectures on the valuation of oil lands, and spoke to a combined
Mineral Sciences-Law School-Business School group. Dr. Olaf P.
Jenkins, chief of the State Division of Mines, spoke before the
weekly meeting of the Stanford Journal Club on "The Program
of the Geological Survey in California". Dr. Jenkins was a former
student member of Stanford. Mr. David A. Phoenix spoke before
the Journal Club in May on the subject} "Occurrence of Ground
Water in Nevada". Mr. Phoenix is a member of the U. S. Geological
Survey.
The annual all-School field trip was held May 7-3-9 with the
destination being the Kettleman Hills oil fields in the Caalinga
district. The field party Bade their headquarters at the Standard
Oil Company Camp at Avenal, California. A number of Standard Oil
Company and Kettleman North Dome Association officials gave
lectures on the history and production of the Kettleman Hills, and
various field parties were dispatched to view some of the interesting
outcrops and fossil localities in the field.
During the summer quarter, the mineralogy and petrography
buildings were completely remodelled to include the addition of a
second floor. This alteration is a part of the University's long
range plan for the modernization of the quadrangle, and is of
great importance to the departments concerned, as it provides
twice the floor space for an enrollment that has tripled* New
equipment now can be made use of more fully, and revised storage
facilities for valuable mineral and rock collections will make
these collections more readily available for classroom and research
use.
Two new faculty members were appointed to the School of Mineral
Sciences during the year associate professors Arthur David Howard
and Colin Osborne Button.
Dr. Howard came to Stanford in January, 1948 after two years'
service with the United States Geological Survey. Previous to
that he had worked for the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey and the
Office of Strategic Services. He also was a member of the
geologic contingent with Admiral Byrd's Antarctic expedition of
194.6-47. Professor Howard has been teaching courses in geomorphology
and map interpretation, and has been building up an internationally
representative map and photograph collection. During the summer
he continued his investigation of glacial geology of eastern Montana
and western North Dakota for the U. S. Geological Survey.
Dr. Button came to Stanford from the University of Otago,
Dunedin, New Zealand, and assumed teaching duties in September, 1947.
Professor Hutton has been teaching courses in petrography and
petrology in addition to other advanced courses in X-ray analysis,
petrofabrics, crystallography, and seminars. He worked with the
preparation of plans for the re-organisation of the mineralogy and
petrography departments, and during the summer completed his investigation of the radioactive and rare earth minerals of Nelson and
Westland, South Island, New Zealand.

268

School of Mineral Sciences

Dr. Keen carried out her regular curatorial duties and in


addition, taught micropaleontology with the assistance of Clifford
C. Church and Alexander Tihonravov. She instigated the organizational meeting of a Pacific Division of the American Malacological
Union held in Los Angeles in April, 1943, and presided at the annual
meeting of the American Malacological Union held in August at
Pittsburg, Pennsylvania,
In addition to his regular duties as dean and professor of
petroleum geology, Dean Levorsen has been engaged in numerous outside
activities, in December, 1947 he presided at the annual meeting of
the Geological Society of America which was held in Ottawa, Canada.
His presidential address, entitled "Our Petroleum Resources", was
published in the April Bulletin of the Geological Society. At
the annual meeting of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists
held in Denver in April, he was awarded the Sidney Powers Memorial
Medal, "for distinguished service in the field of Petroleum Geology"
From March 16 through March 28, under the auspices of the American
Association of Petroleum Geologists, Professor Levorsen spoke as
their Distinguished Lecturer before various geological societies of
five southwestern states*
In addition to his regular teaching duties, Professor Park
presented several papers on groundwater before various scientific
groups. He attended the Geological Society of America meetings in
New York and Pasadena, and worked for the U. S. Geological Survey
the summer quarter near Itabira, Brazil, South America examining
iron ore deposits. His preliminary report on the Red River District,
New Mexico, was prepared for publication by the New Mexico Bureau
of Mines.
Outside of his regular teaching schedule, Professor Muller was
engaged in many field trips taken with elementary and advanced
students. His class in Paleontology visited fossiliferous localities
along the coast where a large collection of fossils was obtained;
the class in Stratigraphy worked several weekends in the hills
immediately east of the Bay; the Geology of California class studied
the Coast Ranges north of San Francisco Bay, visited the JohnsManville diatomaceous deposits at Lompoc, examined the Coast Ranges
from Ventura to Maricopa, participated in the School of Mineral
Sciences' field trip to Kettleman Hills, and made observations in
the Coast Ranges east of Hollister. Dr. Muller took part in the
Research and Development Board panel on Permafrost. He was elected
chairman of the Cordilleran Section of the Geological Society of
America and also a Councilor of the Society; and became a Fellow
of the California Academy of Sciences,
During the fall quarter, Professor Page completed a report on
California steatite deposits, soon to be published; did field work
and made a report on the geology northeast of Santa Barbara,
California. He spoke before the American Institute of Mining and
Metallurgical Engineers and the San Francisco Chamber of Commerce
on "Some California Talc Deposits of Steatite Grade". In the spring,
Dr. Page spoke before the Cordilleran Section of the Geological
Society of America at Pasadena, on "A Possibly Intrusive Mass of
Sedimentary Rock, Santa Inez Range, California". During the summer
quarter, as Director of the Stanford Geological Survey, Dr. Page,
together with the Summer Geology staff and students, did field

b'ohool of Mineral b'oiences


mapping the first half of the quarter on the Hollister ranch,
Santa Inez Range near Gaviota pass; the second half was devoted
to the study of plane table methods in mapping a district near
Candelaria, Nevada.
Professor VanderHoof represented Stanford as a member of the
University of California* s paleontological field trip to Egypt
from September 29, 1947 to January 1, 1948. The expedition conducted a search in the Fayum Desert of Egypt for traces of the
world's first anthropoid ape, traced to the Qligocene epoch about
40,000,000 years ago. With the return to his regular teaching
duties in the Winter Quarter, Dr. VanderHoof secured valuable
teaching collections of fossil and Recent vertebrates from the
Los Angeles Museum and the University of California. He spoke
before numerous groups during the year on his Africa trip; and
read a paper on desert erosion phenomena before the Cordilleran
Section meeting of the Geological Society of America at Pasadena.
Professor Waters was on sabbatical leave dux&C the academic
year, and devoted the larger part of his time to work on the
preparation of a textbook on geology*
Professor Blackwelder continued his research and field
studies of the Mojave Desert and the Plateau of northern Arizona*
He and Mrs. Blackwelder went abroad in June to attend the
International Geological Congress in London. Much of
Dr. Blackwelder1s time during the year was devoted to community
service not directly related to geology.
Professor Willis was guest lecturer many tines at Stanford,
speaking before the regular geology classes and consulting with
students on various problems arising in the course of their
graduate work. He continued his research studies in terrestrial
dynamics with special reference to the problems related to the
origin and structure of the crust of the earth and its major
features. His book on China has been completed and is awaiting
publication. Dr. Willis consulted with Mr. Alf Brandin, Business
Manager of the University, on the drilling locations for domestic
water. Four wells were drilled of which two were successful.
Dr. Willis completed a study of the agency of artesian waters
under the Gulf coastal plain in promoting the accumulation of
salt in salt domes. It was published under the title: "Artesian
Salt Formations11 in the July Bulletin of the American Association
of Petroleum Geologists*
Robert van V. Anderson, Research Associate, in addition to
his research studies, attended the Geological Society of America
meeting in Ottawa, Canada in December, 1947, and presented a
paper on "Origin of the Libyan Oasis Basins". During the summer,
he worked on the problem of the geologic history of the Nile
Valley, and attended the international Geological Congress in
London.
Mrs. Anna Hietanen Makela, Research Associate, continued her
petrological research in the Feather River Canyon region.
Hans Stauffer, Research Associate, attended the a*miMi meeting
of the Swiss Geological Society last summer, and made a number of
excursions in Switzerland. At present he is continuing his research studies in oil development of the world.

269

270

b'chool of Mineral Sciences

Professor Tickell, in addition to regular teaching duties,


carried out the administration of facilities and accounts for the
School of Mineral Sciences. He supervised the research of graduate
students, candidates for the M. S. and Engineer's degrees. In
addition, he has been engaged in a revision of his book, "The
Examination of Fragmental Rocks".
Professor Crook was engaged primarily in revising and combining
courses offered in metallography and heat treatment. The combined
course now runs through three terms of the year covering both
lectures and laboratory. As time permitted, he carried on research
on the subject of "Normalizing and Tempering" as applied to certain
construction, steels. During the war, U. S. Patent Mo. 2,343,338
"Heat Treatment of Steel" was assigned Professor Crook, and is
related to the above subject. During the summer, he was engaged
as expert for the defendant in a patent suit, General Motors
Corporation, Plaintiff vs. California Research Corporation,
Defendant. This case is to be tried before U. S. District Court
for the District of Delaware.
In addition to his regular teaching duties, Professor Shepard
wrote a paper with Kenneth Schellinger on "Simultaneous Grinding
and Flotation". This has been accepted for publication by the
American Institute of Mining and Metallurgical Engineers and will
be printed soon. During the year, he directed an investigation
sponsored by the Office of laval Research, to study the effect
of environment on the properties of metals at elevated temperatures. This field of investigation is relatively new and will
require several additional years* work to obtain full information
regarding the effect of strain rate and temperature on the ductility
of metals in an inert environment. Professor Shepard, as a result
of the above research, is carrying on another project for the
General Electric Company involving the study of properties of
metals.in a molten lead-bismuth alloy environment. His time during
the summer waa spent on these two projects.

A. IRVING LEVORSEN
Dean

Naval Science

271

NAVAL SCIENCE

During the academic year 1947-1948, the staff of the NBOTC Unit
consisted of the following officers! Captain C, E. Crombe, USN,
Professor of Naval Science, Commander H. Mullins, jr., USN, Commander
M. H* Buaas, USN, lieutenant Commander A. A. Clark III, USN, Lieutenant Commander L. J* Tobln, USN, and Captain J. M* Rouse, USMC. In
addition, Commander R. L* Ramey, USN, Commander L. G. Findley, USNR,
Lieutenant Commander C, E. Anderson, USNR, and Lieutenant Commander
J. L* Taylor, USNR, were assigned to the Staff of the School of Naval
Administration in the Hoover Library*
On 31 August 1947, thirty Naval officers from the rank of Ensign
to Captain were graduated from the School of Naval Administration and
ordered to duty in the islands of the TRUST TERRITORI OF THE PACIFIC,
The staff was reduced; some of the Reserve Officers were ordered to
inactive duty and continued on as civilians to complete the task of
writing general and regional "Micronesian Handbooks* under contract
with the Office of Naval Research and Stanford University. At the
end of Summer Quarter, 1948, the records and uncompleted work of the
SONA were transferred by the one remaining staff member, Commander
L. G. Findley, to the General Line School, Naval Post Graduate School,
Monterey, California, for completion of the remaining four regional
handbooks*
Other Navy schools and programs operated under the Professor of
Naval Science are: the SCHOOL OF PERSONNEL ADMINISTRATION AND TRAINING, in the School of Education of Stanford University - for the
training of selected Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard Officers;
the SCHOOL OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION - for a coordinated program of
training of Supply Corps Officers in the Graduate School of Business
and in various private industries; the NAVAL AVIATION CADET PROGRAM;
and the "LESS THAN 5 TERM* program - for Naval aviators who have
attended college less than 2^ years*
The second year of the NROTC Unit under the Holloway Plan began
with a total enrollment of 122 Midshipmen, of which 95 were Regulars
and 27 were Contract Midshipmen* Regular students are those who are
appointed Midshipmen, USNR, and who obligate themselves to attend
all the requisite summer cruises and to serve at leaat 15 months on
active duty, after being commissioned as Ensigns, U. S. Navy, or
Second Lieutenant, USMC* They may also remain as career officers in
their chosen branch of the. service. Such students while in training
as Midshipmen, receive retainer pay at the rate of |600 per year,
plus payment of their tuition fees, books, lab expenses, and uniforms
for a maximum of four years* While on summer cruises they receive
the pay of Midshipmen on active duty ($78 per month).
Contract students are civilians who have contracted with the
Navy to accept a commission in the Navy or Marine Corps Reserve, and
who are designated Reserve Midshipmen for administrative purposes
only. They do not receive the compensation or benefits paid to those
in the Regular category. They are entitled to the uniforms provided
the Regulars, and they receive payment of commuted rations during
their final two years of NROTC training ($24 per month). During the
vacation period, between their junior and senior years in college,
they are required to make a three-week cruise. Upon graduation and
commissioning they may, if so desired, and providing their services

272

Naval Science

are required, apply for active duty and serve for two years, with
the further option of applying for retention in regular service if
selected.
A third type, the Naval Science Student, may also enter the NROTC
program. These students take selected parts of the NROTC curriculum
as elective for credit, but have no "ties* with the program. Navigation and Naval Law are the two subjects which have drawn most of
these special students (usually veterans wanting to take "refresher"
courses in connection with their Reserve commissions).
Morley P, Thompson, Class of 1948, was the Battalion Commander
throughout the year, and as such, held the rank of Midshipman Lieutenant Commander, In May, 1948, Midshipman James M, Brannaman, Class
of 1949, was awarded the annual MAGNELL-BIERI AHARD as the outstanding Midshipman of the year; he was presented a Hamilton wrist watch,
appropriately engraved.
Early in the Autumn Quarter the QUARTERDECK SOCIETY was established, patterned after similar social and professional clubs in
other NROTC Units, The aims of this club are to form a more perfect
bond between Midshipmen and the Officers of the United States Navy;
to promote and further the interests and prestige of Naval activities
at Stanford University; to uphold the customs and traditions of the
United States Navy; to further the professional knowledge of the members through frequent lecture and discussion sessions conducted by
outstanding leaders in various fields.
Another NROTC-sponsored activity, the NROTC Pistol Team, placed
4th in the nationwide SECRETARY OP THE NAVY TROPHY MATCH, which is
all the more creditable when it is considered that this was only the
second year of such competition for most of the members of the team.
By the end of the academic year, eight graduating students had
been commissioned as Reserve Officers! six received commissions as
Ensigns in the Line, USNR, one was commissioned as an Ensign of the
Supply Corps, USNR, and one was commissioned as a Second Lieutenant
in the United States Marine Corps Reserve*
Indications are that the enrollment in the Autumn Quarter of the
next academic year will be considerably larger than the normally expected quota under the Holloway Plan, Such an expansion of the NROTC
Program parallels the general expansion of all training within the
National Military Establishment,
7SOM K. DAVIS
Captain, United States Navy
Professor of Naval Science

Physical Education and Athletics

273

PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND ATHLETICS

The departmental staff for the academic year 1947-48 consisted


of the following persons:
(1)

Administrative Personnel Alfred R. Masters, Director of Athletics and Physical Education; Eunice Du Prau, Office Manager and Executive Secretary; Donald E. Liebendorfer, News Service Director and
Administrative Assistant; D. Gene Coldiron, Manager of Operations (Until August 1, 1948); Robert G. Young, Manager
of Operations (From August 1, 1948); Jacob C. Irwin, Mana
ger, Encina Gym Store; Emanuel B. McDonald, Superintendent,
Athletic Buildings and Grounds; E. W. Van Gorder, Superintendent, Stanford Golf Course; Mr. and Mrs. Allen Poss, Codirectors, Stanford Riding School

(2)

Athletic and Physical Education Personnel (a) Football: Marchmont Schwartz (Director)
Philip Bengtson, Ray Hammett, Allen H. Elward and
Charles Taylor
(b) Basketball: Everett S. Dean (Director)
Philip Bengtson and Jack Dana, Student Assistant
(c) Baseball: Harry M. Wolter (Director)
Ray Hammett
(d) Track and Field: Jack A. Weiershauser (Director)
Ray Dean
(e) Tennis: Elwyn Bugge (Director)
Student Assistant
(f) Swimming, Diving, and Water Polo: Ernst M. Brandsten
(Advisory Director) Thomas Haynie, Myron Sprague
(g) Golf: Edward M. Twiggs (Acting Director')
(h) Gymnastics: Ernest P. Hunt (Director)
Student Assistants
(i) Fencing: Elwyn Bugge
(j) Rugby: James Wylie and W. J. Classen
(k) Boxing:

Ray Lunny, Student Assistants

(l) Soccer: John Segel

274

Physical Education and Athletics


(m) Wrestling:

Charles Taylor, Student Assistants

(n) Intramural Sports:


(o) Trainer:

Charles Taylor, Student Assistants !

D. Conrad Jarvis

Retirements: Ernst M. Brandsten retired at the end of the year as Advisory Director of Swimming, Diving and Water Polo. Thomas Kaynie
will assume the duties of the head coach for these sports.
Edward M. Twiggs also retired at the conclusion of the year as our
golf coach and will be repleced by Charles Finger.
Our intercollegiate program for this year was not as successful
as the previous year if we are thinking in terms of the number of victories against the number of loses. There are several reasons for
this apparent decline and among the most important are:
(1) Last year we had a number of our pre-war athletes return
to school after the war to complete their education. Practically all
of these boys had only one year left with the result they were lost
to the teams this year.
(2) Most of our alumni lost interest in our program, due to our
inactivity throughout the war period, with the result that very few
outstanding athletes enrolled at Stanford this year. Our material was
therefore very inferior to our competitors.
Our head football coach and the Director of Athletics spent considerable time during the winter end spring quarters visiting our alumni organizations in the l?;rger cities of Californis with the express
purpose of inducing our alumni to again become interested in the athletic program at Stanford and to talk Stanford to outstanding boys in
their communities.
It should be recorded here that at these meetings the Director
of Athletics was very careful to point out to the alumni the regulations of the Pacific Coast Conference Code in respect to proselyting
and they were reouested not to violate the provisions of this code.
It appears at this writing that Stanford will get her share of the
"athletic crop" for next fall.
It was recorded in last year's report that the National Collegiate Athletic Association had interested itself in the problem of proselyting. Since then a compliance committee has been selected and expects to be in full operation next year, in the enforcement of the National Collegiete Code. While it is too early to determine how successful this program is going to be, it is believed it will go a long
way toward curbing unsatisfactory recruiting practices.
The department is extremely handicapped for lack- of indoor space
and a great amount of deferred maintenance has accumulated during and

Physical Education and Athletics

275

since the war. Wrestling, boxing, weight lifting, fencing ani intramural basketball suffer considerably due to lack of sufficient playing areas. It is hoped that some dey before too long a new basketball pavilion will be possible and in which would be included areas to
cover the above mentioned activities. The seats in the present basketball- pavilion could be removed, thereby making three excellent intramural basketball courts.
Our intercollegiate program for the year did not resch the prewar level although the department did have competition in every sport
on the pre-war program. It might be interesting to note that
$3,800.00 was spent on team travel during the year and this amount
transported 1251 athletes. It is surprising to note that baseball
leads the list with the most men on trips, followed by football and
basketball with only a difference of two men between the last two
named sports. There were a total of ten sports for which we provided travel and meals.

Alfred E. Masters
Director of Athletics
and Physical Education

276

Physical Education for Women


PHYSICAL EDUCATION FOR WOMEN

Staff.- Maud Lombard Knapp, director and associate


professor; Largaret c. Barr, Marie Fenner, Miriam B.
Lidster, Luell A. Weed, assistant professors; sylvia P.
Cain, Marie Lantagne, Marian Ruch, instructors; Phyllis
Leveen, uickie shainwald, Georgia Williams, teaching
assistants; Zenna Higgins, secretary; uella Hucker
January, locker room attendant; Jane Pfyl, supervisor
of recreational swimming summer quarter.
Professional Program.- With the acute need for more
and more women physical education teachers, every effort
should be made to encourage more lower division women to
enter the field and also to expand the graduate program
to attract greater numbers. The quality of our present
graduates is outstanding* superior teaching of our graduates has increased the demand for Stanford women physical educators, ureater cooperation with other schools
and departments will help improve the training of these
majors.
rour women completed all requirements for the
Master's degree, seven received teaching credentials
and three completed the B.A. degree during the year.
263 students were enrolled in professional classes.
several of the professional courses were opened to
men and to women majoring in general elementary, thus
increasing the teaching load in the professional program.
Activity classes.- uo-educational classes in folk,
square and social dancing and equitation were extremely
popular. Dressing facilities for men is a real problem
to be met in order to expand the co-educational program.
aiding classes increased in popularity in spite of
the fee charged, <jolf continued to be elected by a
large number of women. All classes were filled to
capacity, students experienced difficulty in playing
on the Stanford Golf course so had to travel to other
courses on week ends in order to fit in their practice
hours, uance, tennis, golf and swimming attracted the
greatest number of students, ury skiing and bowling
classes were filled to capacity during the quarter they
were offered. A total of 2960 students were registered
in activity courses.
^xtra-curricular.- The newly organized swim club
under Ivliss Ruch presented an "Aquacade" on May 19th which
was most enthusiastically received. They gave programs
for the jaast tsay section of the Stanford Mothers Club
and for the Mothers ulub of Miss Barker's School.
rhe increasing requests for co-recreational use of
the swimming pool and its use by members of conferences
created an administrative problem which was met during
summer quarter by the university appointing a supervisor
of recreational swimming and the associated students
hiring a student police and life guards. Approximately

Physical Education for Women

277

2000 men and women used the pool during recreational


hours 8 weeks summer quarter, miring autumn and spring
quarters the women's Athletic Association paid for supervision of the building and life guards, strict regulations reserving use of pool to registered students and
faculty is necessary.
xhe women's Athletic Association installed lights
over the pool which has increased the number of hours
the pool can be used.
ski ulub for the first time secured approval of
the Department and university to enter a women1s team
in selected ski meets. iue to weather conditions the
team did not participate at sun valley meet.
Archery classes under Mrs. Barr entered Telegraphic
intercollegiate Archery Tournament and placed 15th-out
of 65 entrants.
Badminton ulub met each week for co-recreational
badminton.
Orchesis, dance club, presented the annual concert
two evenings in April, both concerts were well attended.
The concert was repeated at sacramento ^pril 16. Mrs.
Lidster, accompanied by urchesia, gave lecture demonstrations at sequoia union nigh school January 24th,
burlingame High school, April 10th and sacramento uollege
April 17th.
Jtioedowners folk dance club sponsored the spring
festival for the iMorthern California .colk jjance ^ederetion. several thousand participated in the dancing on
the play fields adjacent to the women's Gymnasium.
The Department, in cooperation with the Hoedowners
and folk dance groups in the vicinity brought Lloyd
Shaw and his group to the Stanford Sampus for a demonstration and series of lessons in square dancing. The
Department also sponsored a series of lessons in English
rolk L>ance taught by May Gadd, noted authority.
intra-mural sports under the wAA with Mrs. Lantagne
adviser were enjoyed by a large group of women students.
Volleyball in the autumn quarter had 36 teams with
approximately 400 women, basketball in winter had 23
teams with 220 women, softball in spring under Miss
Leveen had 15 teams with 135. Badminton in the spring
elso had 71 entrants.
The women's Athletic Association was hostess to 12
sports days with Bay Colleges and attended 4 sports days
on other college campuses.
ivov. 13, Archery, san Jose state uollege at Stanford.
uec. 6, Hockey and riding, san Jose at Stanford.
Jan. 16, volleyball with san Jose and san ^rancisco
otate Colleges at Stanford.
*eb. 7, rennis with san Jose state college at Stanford
*'eb. 12, Basketball with san Jose at san Jose,
eeb. 19, Badminton with Mills Uollege at Mills.
*eb. 21, basketball with i-iills uollege at Stanford.
*eb. 27, Badminton with s'an &ateo Jr. Uollege at Stanford,

278

Physical Education for Women

Mar. 6, Basketball with San Francisco State College at


San Francisco.
May 7, Tennis with San Francisco at Stanford.
May 8, Annual Tri-Sports Day with California and Mills
at California, swimming and tennis.
May 8, Archery with San Jose State at Stanford.
May 8, Tennis with College of Holy Names at Stanford.
May 14, Softball with San Francisco State College at
Stanford.
The riding classes under Mr. and Mrs. Ross presented a Horse Show on May 22nd. The show demonstrated
the high caliber of work done in these classes.
The golf classes under Mrs. Cain held a golf
tournament each quarter. Approximately 76 girls took
part. Many students had an exceptional opportunity
this year for field trips to watch both local and some
national golf players. The State Women's Championship
in April and the Northern California in May were held
on nearby courses.
Tennis club 7/ith Miss Weed as adviser was active
during the year. Three-all-university tennis tournaments were held, one autumn with 31 women entrants,
one spring with 22 women singles and 16 teams mixed
doubles, and one in the summer with 10 entrants.
Through the stimulation of the staff many students
took the tests and received national and local rating
for officiating in.hockey, basketball and tennis and
as Red Cross Life Savers and Instructors.
Staff Activities.- Mrs. Knapp in addition to
administrative duties as director of physical education
for v7omen was program adviser for the students specializing in physical education, adviser to 11 students working on masters theses and one on a doctor's dissertation, a lower division adviser, faculty adviser to
physical education major group, Pi Lambda Theta, Women's
Athletic Association and Co-recreational Committee.
She was a member of the Master's Committee, School of
Education, Credential Committee, School of Education,
University Graduate Study Committee, Summer Quarter,
She gave talks to the San Mateo Unit Meeting, AAHPER,
Stanford Mothers Club ana the Curriculum Class, School
of Education, winter and summer quarters. She is
president-elect of the Bay Section of the California
Association for Health, Physical Education and Recreation. She was Conference Chairman for the Bay Section
Conference at Stanford, February 28th, Section Chairman
for //omen's Physical Education Section, Education
Conference, July 9th, on Executive Board of the CAHPER.
She attended the Bay Section Conference at Stanford,
February 28, CAHPER Convention at San Diego, March 20-30
The Southwest District Meeting AAHPER, Salt Lake City,
April 15-17 and the National Conference AAHPER, Kansas
City, April 18-24.
Margaret C. Barr was a member of the coaching staff
of the Northern California Coaching Clinic held at

Physical Education for Women

279

Stanford, Member of study group for western Society,


subject "Competition". She was a member of Examining
Committee for basketball and field hockey of San
Francisco, of Bay County
Board of Women's Officials,
member of special committee for above board (Judicial;.
Member of Lower Division Adviser's Panel at Stanford,
secretary-treasurer Santa Clara Unit CAHPER, She attended the Bay Section Meeting of CAHPER Feb. 98 at Stanford
and presented part of the demonstration program; the
State CAHPER convention at San Diego where she was member
of panel on College Women's Program; Convention of
American Camping Association at Los Angeles; meeting of
Western Society of Departments of Physical Education
for College. Women at Corvallis, Oregon as official
representative; National Archery Tournament at Reno,
Nevada in August. She was Chairman of the Lifesaving
and Watersafety Committee of the Palo Alto Chapter
of the Red Cross.
Sylvia P. Cain attended the following golf
tournaments: State Women's Championship, April 19-23,
California Golf Club, Northern California Open, April
26-30, Orinda Northern California Championship, May 1721, Intercollegiate, Men, Stanford in July, Northern
California Open, August 24,25 and 26., Western Amateur
Olympic Club (Women), Lakeside, San Francisco, Sept. 14
Marie Lantagne was co-adviser of the Women's
Athletic Association and adviser of basketball and volleyball intramurals. She was President of the San Francisco
Bay Counties Board of Women Officials and was re-elected
to that office for another year. She renewed her National
rating as a basketball official. She attended the semiannual meeting of the Bay County Section of CAHPER.
Miriam Lidster was faculty adviser to Hoedowners
and Orchesis. She arranged the workshops for Lloyd
Shaw and May Gadd. She belongs to the California
Association for Health and Physical Education,AAHPER,
Quota Club, service organization (Ways and Means Chairman), Palomanians, folk dance group, Docey-Do, square
dance group, and
did exhibitions with them at the
California State Fair, Regional Festival, Sacramento
and Monterey, Exhibition at San Francisco Museum of Art
at Spring Festival at Sunnyvale, Folk Dance Festival
at Stanford.
Phyllis Leveen had charge of intramural softball
spring quarter. She belongs to the Bay Counties Officials
Board and has local, state, and National rating. She
officiated for basketball intramurals at California,
Stanford and Mills. She attended the state conference
CAHPER at San Diego.
Marian Ruch was sponsor of the Women's Swimming
Club of Stanford University. She rene?/ed her Red Cross
First Aid Instructor's Certificate and Life Saving
and Water Safety Certificate.

280

Physical Education for Women

Dickie Shainwald received a National Officials


rating in basketball in addition to the National Tennis
Umpire's rating she holds. She also holds a Red Cross
Life Saving and Water Safety Instructor's Certificate.
Her article "The Development of a Co-Recreational Committee" was published in the January issue of the Journal
of Health and Physical Education. She attended and
participated in the semi-annual meeting of the Bay Counties
Section of CARPER at Stanford in February. She was initiated into the national education fraternity, Pi Lambda Theta,
Luell A. Weed was a member of the Tennis Umpires
Rating Committee of San Francisco Bay Counties Board of
Women' Officials. She also holds rating as National Judge.
She was coordinator for Disaster Relief Committee of the
Palo Alto Chapter of the Red Cross; member of the Bay
Federation Council of the California Ski Association; member
of the Intercollegiate Skiing Committee of the National Ski
Association; chairman of study committee for Western Society
of Physical Education for College Women on "Recreational
Needs". She attended the State Conference CARPER at San
Diego, March 20-23 and was chairman of the Resolutions Committee; the Southwest District Conference AAHPER at Salt
Lake City April 15-17 where she was a member of the Resolutions Committee, chairman of section for Health Education
Speakers and presented a paper on "Recreational Needs in
Physical Education for Women in the Southwest District."
She also attended the National Conference AAHPER at Kansas
City April 18-24; the National Association of Physical
Education for College women Workshop Conference at Estes
Park, Colorado, June 18-28, 194-7; the Santa Clara County
Recreation Institute, San Jose, Nov. 17-25, 194-7. She is
president of the Southwest District AAHPER. She attended
summer session at Teachers College Columbia University,
194-7 and took a few courses at Stanford the summer of 1948.
She is a member of Rules and Editorial Committee for the
Tennis Guide of the Individual Sports Committee of NSWA.
She published a book "Co-Recreational Skiing in Colleges
and Universities", Stanford University Press, Nov. 1,194-7.
She gave a talk iri July, 1947, on "The Ski Conditioning
Course at Stanford" as a guest speaker on WOR, Mutual
Broadcasting Company.

MAUD L. KNAPP
Director

School of Physical Sciences

281

The teaching staff consisted of Clarence. J. Overbeck (summer),


acting professor; Claudio Alvarez-Tostado, assistant professor; Paul
Edmund Stewart, acting instructor. An experimental survey course,
offered by Professor Overbeck for non-science majors at the upper
division level, was successful.
Professor Alvarez-Tostado, with Mr. Kent Dedrick, developed
a tetrode ionization gauge and initiated the construction of a permanent magnet mass spectrograph. With Mr. Kenneth Lincoln, he developed a multi-grid gas filled tube to be used as a non-magnetic
ion separator. With Mr. William Harlow he continued work on silicon
disulfide, developing a catalytic method of preparation and investigating its reactions with several organic compounds. In addition, he
investigated the preparation and properties of some of the inorganic
thiosilicates.
PHILIP A. LEIGHTON
Dean
CHEMISTRY

The teaching and research staff consisted of James William


McBain, John Pearce Mitchell, William Henry Sloan, Robert Eckles
Swain, professors emeriti; Frederick Otto Koenig, Philip Albert Leighton, Hubert Scott Loring, James Murray Luck, Carl Robert Noller,
Richard Andrew Ogg,Jr., George Sutton Parks, professors; James Hollingsworth Clemmer Smith, Herman Augustus Spoehr (Carnegie Institution of Washington) professors (by courtesy); Ernest Bright Wilson
Jr. (summer), visiting professor; William Andrew Bonner, Carl Gustav
Lindquist, Harry Stone Mosher, Douglas Arvid Skoog, assistant professors; Richard Hallenbeck Eastman, Harold S. Johnston, John Hise Wise,
instructors; Robert Sayre Cox Jr., Amos Clark Griffin, Joseph D.
leresi, acting instructors; Jane Collier Anderson, A. Clark Griffin,
Stuart W. Grinnell, Eric Hutchinson, William A. Perkins, Joseph D.
Teresi, William F. Thompson, Francis X. Webster, research associates.
In addition, thirty research assistants arid twenty-nine teaching assistants participated in the work of research and instruction during
the year.
The Bristol-Myers Company Postdoctorate Fellowship was held by
Eric Hutchinson, the Lever Brothers Company Postdoctorate Fellowship
by John William Sutton, the Associated Women of the American Farm
Bureau Federation Fellowship by Robert V, Lashbrook, the Dow Chemical
Company (Great Western Division) Fellowship by Howard A. Johnston, the
Du Pont Fellowship by Charles D. Heaton, the Shell Fellowship by John
B. Wilkes, the Swift and Company Fellowship by Rene D. Blatt and A.
Moreen Tihgey, and the Frederick P. Whitaker Fellowship by Donald M.
Balcom. The Edward Curtis Franklin Fellowship, David L. and Lavinia
E. Sloan Memorial Scholarship, John Maxson Stillman Scholarship and
the Henry Windt Junior Memorial Scholarship were not awarded this year.
Grants in support of research were received during the year
from the American Cancer Society, American Chicle Company, American
Medical Association, Associated Women of the American Farm Bure,au
Federation, Bristol-Myers and Company, Chemical Corps, Cutter Labora-

282

Chemistry

tories, Dow Chemical Company, E. I. Du Pont de Nemours and Company,


Lever Brothers, Eli Lilly and Company, National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis, Nutrition Foundation, Office of Naval Research, ParkeDavis and Company, Quaker Oats Company, Research Corporation, Rockefeller Foundation, the Shell Companies, owift and Company, and the
U. S. Public Health Service.
The department continued this year in its program of sponsorship
of summer research conferences. Under the title of "Conference on
Current Problems in Organic Chemical Research" sixteen of the outstanding younger organic chemists throughout the country, acting as speakers
and moderators, presented up-to-date surveys of their particular fields
of interest and activity. The papers and speakers addressing the Conference were as follows: "Isotopic Carbon in the Study of Reaction
Mechanisms," U. Calvin, Professor of Chemistry at the University of
California} "Some Aspects of Displacements and Rearrangements," S.
Winstein, Professor of Chemistry, the University of California at
Los Angeles; "Some Problems in Thiocarbonyl Chemistry,11 E. Campaigns,
Professor of Chemistry, Indiana University; "The Chemistry of Bicyclic
Nitrogen Compounds Containing a Bridge-head Nitrogen: Pyrrolizidines
and Quinolizidines," N. J. Leonard, Professor of Chemistry, University
of Illinois; "Chemical Effects of Steric Strain," H. C. Brown, Professor of Chemistry, Purdue University; "The Origin of Petroleum," T. S,
Oakwood, Professor of Chemistry, Pennsylvania State College; "The
Structure of Strychnine," R. B. Woodward, Professor of Chemistry,
Harvard University; "Current Problems in Carbohydrate Chemistry,"
Dr. Sidney M. Cantor, Director of Research, American Sugar Refining
Company. Moderators for these papers included Drs. Louis Kaplan,
Argonne National Laboratory; R. H. Baker, Northwestern University;
N. Kharasch and M. C. Kloetzel, University of Southern California;
N. Cromwell, University of Nebraska; H. Heymann, University of Oregon;
H. Rapoport, University of California, and J. F, Carson, Western
Regional Laboratory.
Emeritus Professor McBain continued with his supervision of two
Navy-sponsored projects at the Stanford Research Institute, and in the
completion of the direction of four doctorate investigations, in addition to collaboration with the Bristol-Myers Company Postdoctorate
Fellow, Dr. Eric Hutchinson, and the Lever Brothers Company Fellow,
Dr. John W. Sutton. Professor McBain presented papers at both the
fall, 19^7, and the spring, 19^8, meetings of the American Chemical
Society, and the Southwest Regional Meeting in December, 19U7; also
at the 22nd Annual Colloid Symposium at Massachusetts Institute of
Technology in June, 19^8, as well as invited lectures to several industries. In addition, he collaborated with Encyclopedia Britannica
Films, Inc., in the preparation of a movie depicting the soap-making
process and the chemical action of soap as a cleanser and detergent.
Emeritus Professor Swain returned in October from a trip abroad
where he attended the celebration of the Centenary of the founding of
the Chemical Society of London, and a Congress of the International
Union of Chemistry, in London. He had served as Vice-President of the
latter organization since the Rome meeting in 1938. He also visited a
number of the leading centers in Western Europe on a search for documentary and other material for a collection in the Hoover Library for
War, Revolution and Peace in which he is particularly interested. During the rest of this academic year he has made two trips down the west
coast of Mexico in an investigation of chemical industrial possibilities in that region; and has carried on field investigations, and a

Chemistry

283

study of possible remedial measures in connection with threatened injury to plant and animal life arising from emanations of fluorine compounds from aluminum plants in the Columbia River basin and around
Puget Sound, and from industrial operations in the brown phosphate
region of Southern Tennessee.
jProfessor Koenig, in collaboration ?dth Mr. Henry C. Wohlers,
completed a series of measurements, begun in 19i|6-li7> of the surface
tension of mercury in equilibrium with aqueous solutions of mercurous
perchlorate and perchloric acid, over a wide range of concentrations,
and at 2J> and 5fo C. These data, together with the analogous data on
mercurous nitrate and nitric acid obtained previously by Drs. Koenig
and Dolores Bandini, were subjected to thermodynamic interpretation
by means of Gibbs's adsorption theorem. In this interpretation use
was made of some of the results of the systematic theoretical investigation of the thermodynamics of surface tension, which Dr. Koenig
has been carrying out for a number of years, and in which, in the
present year, he enlisted the collaboration of Dr. Eric Hutchinson.
On this subject two papers were presented, by Drs. Hutchinson and
Koenig respectively, at the meeting of the American Association for
the Advancement of Science at Berkeley in June. In addition, Dr.
Koenig directed the construction, by Mr. Hayden W. Pitman, of an improved type of apparatus intended for the determination of electrocapillary curves at controlled temperatures. Finally, together with
Mr. Maurice Mathisen and Miss June O'Brien, Dr. Koenig continued the
electrometric study, begun in the preceding year, of the precise values
of the ratio of the concentration of mercuric ion to that of mercurous
ion, in aqueous solutions of mercury salts in equilibrium with mercury.
Professor Leighton continued with the direction of research under
contract with the Chemical Corps, U. S. Army, Collaborating with him
on these projects were Stuartffi.Grinnell, V'm. A. Perkins, Francis X.
Webster, Wm. H. Thompson, Carl F. Hansen, Chas. J. Hlad, Conrad F.
Schadt, Mrs. Virginia Brunish, Edward P. French, Bertram F. Bubb and
Frank Pool. Under a grant from the Research Corporation, John B.Mikes
studied the kinetics of the catalytic ionization of cyclohexane, and
Sigmund L. YJaleszczak investigated the absorption and Raman spectra of
solutions of the aluminum halides in cyclohexane.
Professor Loring continued his studies on poliomyelitis virus
purification and on the chemistry and metabolism of nucleic acids. The
former work was carried out in collaboration with Dr. Jane Collier
Anderson, Mrs. Nancy Lawrence and William D. Cooper. Special attention was given to the concentration and immunological properties of a
strain of virus multiplying in the egg embryo. Certain phases of the
virus research were carried out in collaboration with Professors E. W.
Schultz and Sidney Raffel of the Department of Bacteriology and Experimental Pathology. This work was aided by a grant received from the
Eli Lilly Company.
The nucleic acid research was carried out in collaboration with
the following graduate and undergraduate students: Syed Ashraf Ali,
Elizabeth Potts Anderson, Henry W. Bortner, Robert S. Cox Jr., James
L. Fairley Jr., Robert V. Lashbrook, James McT. Ploeser, Alberta Rheih,
Arthur P. Rinfret, Raymond E. Wilkerson, Medha Bhaskar Yodh and William
L. Byrne, Pauline Huntington, Victor D. Moor, and Charles E. Morris.
The general problem of 'the chemical specificity and composition of
nucleic acids from yeast, Neurospora, Penicillium, wheat germ, liver
and tobacco mosaic virus has been under investigation by means of

284

Chemistry

chemical, microbiological, spectroscopic and chromatographic methods.


This work was aided by a grant received from the Rockefeller Foundation and by the award of a National Institute of Health Junior Research Fellowship to Mr. Ploeser and the award of a post-graduate fellowship by the Associated Women of the American Farm Bureau Federation to Mr. Lashbrook.
Professor Loring received a special fellowship from the Rockefeller Foundation which allowed him the opportunity of travelling and
studying in England, Sweden, Denmark, Scotland, and Paris during the
period from March 15 to September 15 when he was on sabbatical leave.
During this time he also attended meetings of the following societies:
the American Society of Biological Chemists from March 15 to 18 at
Atlantic City, the International Congress for Genetics, Stockholm,
July 5 to July 10, the Biochemical Society, Glasgow July 29-31, and
the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington
D. C., Sept. 13-15. He also served as Associate Editor of the Annual
Review of Biochemistry.
The major project pursued under the direction of Professor Luck
consisted of a study of tissue protein changes in carcinogenesis. The
group participating in the investigation included Dr. Clark Griffin,
William Nye, Hyla Cook, Eleanore Frey, Sanford Bloom, Carol Moore, and
Lewis Cunningham. The induction of liver cancer was achieved in rats
by incorporating in the diet low concentrations of the azo dye, m1methyl-pj-dimethylaminoazobe'nzene. Control experiments were carried
out by the use of azobenzene as the dietary supplement. Liver protein
changes were determined in normal controls, in rats during the precancerous period, and in animals with hepatomas. Characteristic
changes were observed in liver globulin, and in liver desoxyribonucleoprotein. A parallel electrophoretic study on the sera revealed
striking changes in serum gamma globulin and albumin during the precancerous period. Work was also done on the purification of desoxyribonucleoprotein and on the application of paper sirip and starch
column chromatography to determine the products of hydrolysis. William Blessing contributed helpfully to the determination of the constituent amino acids by conductivity. Work on splenectomized rats
and the carcinogenetic process was also carried out as a result of
observations on profound enlargement of the spleen that follows upon
azo dye administration. A second project pertains to protein-anion
binding in which Dr. Joseph Teresi carried out studies on the binding
of anions by serum albumin, use now being made in his dialysis-equilibrium experiments of substances labelled with C^ as an effective
tracer element. This work is being extended to crystalline p-lactoglobulin. Other investigations completed during the year were: the
crystallization of phosphoglucomutase by Mr. Jagannathan, a comparative study of several hydroxy-substituted aromatic anions as stabilizing agents by Agnes S. Schmit, and a study of the hypoaminoacidemia
activity of various sympathomimatic amines by Robert Brunish. Work
still in progress is a solubility study of glycols as protein solvents
by Noreen Tingey Eldridge, the characterization of liver albumin by
Lafayette Noda, the stabilization of tobacco mosaic virus and other
proteins by organic cations, the solubilization of denatured protein
by sodium mandelate and other related salts by Rene Blatt, and the
preparation and metabolism of acetyl-1-tryptophane by Richard Koepke.
Papers on certain of these studio's were presented at the Atlantic
City meetings of the American Association for Cancer Research and the

Chemistry

285

American Society of Biological Chemists, at the New York Meeting of


the American Chemical Society by Dr. Teresi and at the Berkeley Meeting of the Pacific Intersectional Division, American Chemical Society,
by Miss Cook and Mr. Jagannathan. Professor Luck served as a member
of the Panel on Proteins of the Committee on Growth of the National
Research Council, on the Medical Fellowship Board of the National Research Council and on the Council and Editorial Committee of the American Society of Biological Chemists. He continued to serve during the
year on the editorial board of Nutrition Reviews and as editor of the
Annual Review of Biochemistry. He represented the National Academy of
Sciences at the Royal Society Conference on Scientific Information
held in London from June 21 to July 2.
The following research has been conducted under the supervision
of Professor Noller: a continuation of the investigation of the constitution of echinocystic acid with F. Alvesj the synthesis of a pyridine analog of papaverine with M. Azima; the synthesis of compounds
related to chelidonine with D. Balcomj the synthesis of piperidine
derivatives of possible analgesic value with V. Baliahj an investigation of the reputed antidiabetic principle of Scoparia dulcis with
M. Diamond; new dehydration products of the amyrins with P. Hearst;
the synthesis and optical properties of dendroasymmetric organic compounds with C. Heaton; the synthesis and properties of organo-phosphonyl halides with W. Jensen; the synthesis of a thiophene analog of
sulfanilamide with H. Lew; and the nature of Mumm's quinoline dicyanides with M. Seeley.
During the year Professor Noller served as a member of the Advisory Board of Organic Syntheses and of the graduate study panel of
the Committee on Professional Training of Chemists of the American
Chemical Society.
The major portion of the research program of Professor Ogg consisted of studies of electronic processes in liquid dielectric media,
supported by a contract with the Office of Naval Research. These
studies dealt largely with the properties of metal ammonia solutions,
being a continuation of the program begun two years ago. Collaborators on this program were Dr. John Wise (summer quarter), Mr. Robert
Fristrom and Mr. Donald Loeffler. As distinct from this program, further studies in the field of reaction kinetics were carried out. With
Mr. Ralph Weston the absorption spectrum of thermally decomposing
nitrogen pentoxide was investigated, resulting in the vitally important detection of the previously proposed NOa intermediate. With
Mr. James Ray, isotopic tracer studies of the kinetics of nitrous
oxide and hyponitrous acid were carried out. With Mr. Frederick
Leighton, there were performed experiments highly relevant to the
mechanism of chemical reaction of alkali metals and hydroxylic solvents, notably water and alcohols. Research colloquia were presented
by Professor Ogg at the California Institute of Technology, the University of California at Los Angeles, Harvard University, Cornell
University and the University of Rochester.
Professor Parks has continued his extensive studies dealing with
the thermodynamics of organic substances and during the past year has
focussed his attention particularly upon cyclic compounds containing
oxygen. With Mr. Leslie A. McClaine, the free energy difference between cyclohexanol and cyclohexanone has been accurately evaluated
from equilibrium measurements. With Mr. John R. Mosley and Mr. Peter
V. Peterson, very precise determinations of the heats of combustion of

286

Chemistry

cyclopentanol, cyclohexanol, furoic acid and maleic anhydride have


been made, and from these results the enthalpies of formation of the
four compounds have been computed. Heat capacity studies on furfuryl
alcohol and cyclopentanol have also been carried out by Mr. Robert R.
Gates and John R. Mosley, using the Nernst method and covering the
temperature range from 77 to 300 Kelvin. The ensuing specific heats
and fusion values have been utilized for obtaining the molal entropies
of the two compounds by the third law of thermodynamics. From these
and other data Professor Parks and his students are now preparing a
table of free energy values for representative cyclic compounds which
contain oxygen. As such substances are frequently involved in solutions with water as the other component, Mr. Arthur C. Wilbur has made
a quantitative phase study of three binary liquid systems: cyclohexanol-water; cyclohexanone-waterj and cyclopentanol-water.
For work in a field of mutual interest to Professors McBain and
Parks, Messrs. John W. Sutton and James Palmos have completed the development of an apparatus to determine the relative heat capacities,
and heats of fusion and transition for various organic substances at
temperatures between that of the room and 300 C.j and during the past
year this apparatus was employed in a study of the phase relations of
sodium stearate, a typical soap.
Assistant Professor Bonner was the recipient of a grant from the
Research Corporation, New York, which enabled him to purchase equipment
for continuation of his studies in the fields of carbohydrates, optical
rotatory phenomena, and reaction mechanisms. During the past year he
has initiated and completed one phase of a study of the rotatory dispersions of optically active compounds containing a chromophore in the
visible spectrum, has completed a study of the action of bromine on
acylated thioglycosides, has initiated a study of the mechanism of action of halide ions on acetohalosugars, and has completed a study on
the use of S-1-naphthylmethylthiuronium chloride for the characterization of organic acids.
With his students Dri Bonner has been engaged in the following
research act!vities; VJith R. W. Drisko, a study of the oxidation of
aryl thioglycosides and aryl glycosyl sulfones with periodic acidj
with J. M. Craig, a continuation of the study of the action of Grignard
reagents as methylated sugars and the reactions of glycosylaromatic
hydrocarbons; with E. M, Doss, the measurement of the dipole moment of
certain geometrical isomers; with P. E. Stewart, the completion of a
study of the polarographic reduction of nitroparaffinsj with Miss Ann
Robinson, a continuation of a study of the properties of selenium-containing glycosidesj with F. C. Fuller, a study of the stereochemical
configuration of 1,1-diaryl-l-desoxyalditolsj with S. Kahn, a study of
the preparation of glycosides containing chromophoric groups in the
visible spectrum; with W. Koehler, a completion of a study of the deacylation of acylated carbohydrates with potassium alkoxides; with A.
Oken, a study of the periodate oxidation of 1,1-diacyl-l-desoxyaldetolsj and with Miss Anne Mosher, completion of a structure proof of
"x-benzylphenanthrene."
Dr. Bonner was active in the organization of the "Conference on
Current Problems in Organic Chemical Research." He attended the 112th
meeting of the American Chemical Society in New York City and presented
an address before the Division of Sugar Chemistry at this meeting. During the past year he has served as councilor to the Northern California
Section of the American Chemical Society.

Chemistry

287

Assistant Professor Lindquist continued development of the chemical engineering laboratories and evolved plans for improved training
in this field. With Mr. E. S. Johnson and Mr. "William Sierichs, he
carried out studies of the flow of non-Newtonian liquids. A paper on
part of this work was presented at the first meeting of the Institute
of Heat 'Transfer and Fluid Mechanics at Los Angeles. With Mr. John S,
Youle studies of the basic laws of filtration were continued, and with
Mr. David Grimes research on heat transfer in a supersonic stream was
initiated. In collaboration with Professor John Vennard, Professor
Lindquist helped to organize a faculty seminar on fluid mechanics,
which held monthly meetings throughout the year.
Assistant Professor Mosher has continued his researches in the
field of organic nitrogen compounds with special emphasis on the derivatives of pyridine and related heterocyclic bases. A chapter on
the "Chemistry of the Pyridine Compounds" has been written for the collected volumes on heterocyclic compounds edited by Dr. Robert Elderfield of Columbia University. The first of these volumes is scheduled
for publication early in 19l;9.
Under a grant from Parke, Davis and Company, Dr. Mosher continued
his research, with the cooperation of Milton Frankel and Edward Ryskiewicz, on the synthesis of compounds of possible analgesic activity belonging to the tetrahydroquinoline and morpholine families. In addition, the research of the following students was supervised by Dr
Mosher: David Clark, the reaction of Grignard reagent with basicallysubstituted nitrilesj William Foley, the mechanism of the Grignard reduction reaction; Robert Graul, N-Y-aminopropylphthali/idde; Charles
Haber, the rearrangement of aliphatic pinacols; Gunter Jaffe, antimalar ials containing both the acridine and quinoline nucleus within
the same molecule; Mrs. Nydia Luthy, the reactions of alkali alkyl
amides with quinoline.
Assistant Professor Skoog initiated an investigation of the polarographic behavior of organic compounds solubilized in aqueous solutions with various soaps and detergents. This work was aided by a
grant from the Research Corporation.
He directed the research of the following students: Sister Maria
Budde and James R. White, on the oxidation of aliphatic alcohols with
solutions of tetravalent cerium; Barbara Hahn, on the oxidation of
various organic compounds with solutions of pentavalent vanadium; Jesse
F. Bingaman, on polarographic studies of selenium compounds; Matthew
Vuksinich and James S. Brown, on the development of a polarographic
method for the analysis of metals in metal naphthenates. During the
past year Professor Skoog served as chairman of the Physical, Inorganic
and Analytical Group of the California Section of the American Chemical
Society.
Instructor Eastman completed the work on thiophene-s-oxidee and
s-dioxides, undertaken with Robert M. Wagner. With Francis L. Detert
he continued work on the diazoniui* coupling of furanes, giving particular attention to furanes which hawno substituent in the a-position.
The course of the reaction in the case of furanes having free 8-positions has been elucidated.
Dr. Eastman continued to direct a research project on the constituents of peppermint oil, being sponsored by the American Chicle
Company through a contract with the Stanford Research Institute. As
an outgrowth of this work, the American Chicle Company has established
at Stanford for 19^8-1*9 a fellowship, to be known as the Adams Fellowship, for pure research in the field of the terpenes.

288

Mathematics

With H. A. Johnston, Dr. Eastman has undertaken an investigation


of bridge-head sulfonium compounds. Work with Don Gallup on the sulfonation of mesityl oxide has been completed.
Instructor Johnston, aided by H. Crosley and L. Slentz, initiated
research projects in the kinetics of fast gaseous reactions using special electronic equipment. Most kinetic systems being studied include
ozone and the oxides of nitrogen or their halogen analogues. This kinetic work is part of a more extensive program involving the rates,
equilibria, photochemistry, chemiluminescence, and spectroscopy of
substances in the earth's atmosphere. Dr. Johnston and B. Blessing
studied the absorption spectrum of eerie perchlorate in perchloric
acid solution. Again this is a part of a larger program which (l) will
investigate the nature, spectrum, and degree of hydrolysis of highly
charged ions in solution, and (2) seek information on the color of
solutions of ions in mixed oxidation.
Instructor Wise, with Donald E. Andersen, was engaged in reconditioning the grating spectrograph and the gas absorption cells. Dr.
Wise has received a grant from the Research Corporation for the purchase of an infrared spectrometer which will be used for investigations
on nitrogen and sulfur compounds.
At the close of the academic year, Dr. Richard H. Eastman was
promoted to the rank of Assistant Professor. Dr. Douglas A. Skoog,
formerly with the California Research Corporation, joined the staff
as Assistant Professor. Dr. Harold S. Johnston from the California
Institute of Technology and Dr. John W. Wise from Brown University
were appointed as instructors.
One hundred and eight graduate and ninety-three undergraduate
majors were registered in the department during the year. Fifteen
doctor's and fifteen master's degrees were awarded. Fifty papers on
research and other activities were published and fourteen official
reports on Government sponsored research contracts were submitted by
staff members during the year.
PHILIP ALBERT LEIGHTON
Executive Head

MATHEMATICS
The staff of the department consisted of Gabor Szegb -(Executive
Head, autumn, winter and spring quarters), George Polya (Acting Executive Head, summer quarter), Donald Clayton Spencer (winter, spring and
summer quarters), professors; Harold Davenport (University College,
London, England), Ainsley H. Diamond (Oklahoma Agricultural and Median
ical College) (spring quarter), Chester F. Luther (Willamette University) (summer quarter), I. J. Schoenberg (University of Pennsylvania)
(summer quarter), acting professors; M. Schiffer (University of Jerusa
lem)(February 1 to end of spring quarter), visiting professor; Harold
Maile Bacon, associate professor; Albert Hosmer Bowker, assistant professor of mathematical statistics; John G. Herriot, assistant professo
Rhoda Manning (University of Oregon, Corvallis), acting assistant professor; Louis H. Kanter (summer quarter), Mary Virginia Sunseri, Rober
Weinstock, instructors; Albert V.-Baez (autumn quarter), Arthur Grad,
Mary Thayer Huggins, acting instructors; Sarah T. Herriot, lecturer;

Mathematics

289

Michael I. Aissen, Kenneth Cooke, George E. Crane, Helen A. Jackson,


Anthony R. Lovaglia, Burnett C. Meyer, Nannie M. Nabors, Albert B. J.
Novikoff, Charles A. Stone, Joseph L. Ullman, teaching assistants;
Virginia S. Boles, secretary, librarian and student adviser in the
department.
The degree of Master of Science was conferred on six candidates
with theses as follows: Robert Louis Belzer, "Proof of an Integral
Identity in Conformal Mapping"j Kenneth David Cann Haley, "A Two Sample
Test for Student's Hypothesis Whose. Power is Independent of the Variance11; Ahmad Ali Kheiralla, "On Some Inequalities of Geometric Function
Theory"j Anthony Richard Lovaglia, "An Elementary Proofof an Area Inequality"; Elizabeth Peabody, "The Length-Area Principle in Conformal
Mapping"; Viola Woodward, "The Calculus of Residues and Its Application
to the Evaluation of Definite Integrals.11
The degree of Doctor of Philosophy was conferred on three candidates with dissertations as follows: Arthur Grad, "The Region of Values
of the Derivative of a Schlicht Function"; Louis Harold Kanter, "On the
Roots of Orthogonal Polynomials and the Related Christoffel Numbers";
Andrew Heuer Van Tuyl, "The Distribution of Electricity on Two Neighboring Charged Spheres in the Presence of an Outside Point Charge."
Professor Szegft presented a paper at the meeting of the American
Mathematical Society in Berkeley in April, "On the Virtual Mass of
Nearly Spherical Solids."
Professor Schiffer and Professor Szegtt presented a joint paper at
the meeting of the American Mathematical Society in Berkeley in April,
"Virtual Mass and Polarization."
Professor Polya continued as a member of the Stanford Committee
on Instruction in Statistics. This committee with Professor Bowker
was active in developing a program of instruction in statistics which
has led to the formation of a new Department of Statistics. Professor
Polya took part in various ways in the activities of the American
Mathematical Association: He was president of the Northern California
Section in 191*7> served on the committee for the William Lowell Putnam
Competition, took part as chairman in the symposium "How to Solve It"
in the September meeting in New Haven, and reported on this symposium
in the Berkeley meeting in January.
Professor Davenport on leave of absence from University College,
London, spent the academic year as a member of this department. While
here he gave various informal talks. At the April meeting of the American Mathematical Society in Berkeley he gave a paper "Indefinite Binary Quadratic Forms and Euclid's Algorithm in Real Quadratic Fields."
By invitation he gave the hour address at the meeting of the Mathematical Association of America in January in Berkeley, "The Geometry of
Numbers."
Professor Spencer gave a talk in November before the mathematics
group at Chicago University on "Variational Methods in Cdnformal Mapping."
Professor Bacon was a member of the following Stanford committees:
Executive Committee, Committee on Graduate Study, Student Health Fund
Committee, Stanford Athletic Council, Panel of Lower Division Advisers,
chairman of the Committee on Student Affairs. He continued to serve on
the Joint Committee on Mathematical Education, Northern and Southern
California Sections, Mathematical Association of America and during
1948 as vice-chairman of the Northern Section. At the meeting of this
section in January in Berkeley, he gave a talk on "A Matrix Arising in

290

Mathematios

Correlation Theory." He participated as a member of the panel on


mathematics teaching at the Stanford Summer Education Conference in
July.
Professor Herriot presented a paper at the meeting of the American Mathematical Society in April in Pasadena, "Inequalities for the
Capacity of a Lens."
Professor Bowker, who joined our staff in the winter quarter 19li6h7) leaves our department at the end of this academic year to become a
member of the newly created Department of Statistics in the University.
In June he gave a paper "Sampling Inspection for Continuous Variables"
at the meeting in Berkeley of the Institute of Mathematical Statistics.
The department would like to report the publication during this
year of two books by the late Professor J. V. Uspensky (deceased January, 191*7). His text on Theory of Equations is being published this
summer by McGraw-Hill Publishing Company and will be ready for use this
autumn. His book on Probability published in 1937 was during 19U7
translated into Spanish and published by Editorial Nigar in Buenos A
Aires.
The third Stanford University Competitive Examination in Mathematics was given simultaneously at 53 California high schools on April
10, 19U8, 2 to 5 P.M. It was accessible to students of any high school
in the State and was taken by 206 senior students. Four problems were
proposed. A one-year scholarship of -j?5>00 was awarded by Stanford University for the best paper to Carl Lunding Holler, Citrus Union High
School, Azusa. Richard C. Hill, Harvard School, North Hollywood received "Honorable Mention."
The activities of the Mathematics Club were continued during the
four quarters of the year with meetings every two weeks. Talks were
given by faculty members and students.
The Mathematics Seminar conducted by the staff of the department
continued active through all four quarters. Outside speakers included
Dr. Arne Broman, Uppsala, Sweden, who spoke in August on "Behavior of
Certain Power Series on the Boundary of Convergence."
Visiting lecturers sponsored by the department included: (1) Professor Maurice Frechet from the Institut Henri Poincare, Paris, France
who gave two lectures in December as follows: "On-Measures of Correlation" and "From Numerical Distance to Abstract Distance"; (2) Professo:
A. Weinstein, Carnegie Institute of Taohnology, who gave a talk in
March; (3) Professor S. Lefschetz from the Institute for Advanced Stud;
at Princeton who spoke in March.
The department is pleased to announce the appointment of two new
members to its staff for the coming academic year, Professor Max Sniff
man coming from New York University and Assistant Professor Richard
Bellman coming from Princeton University.
In addition to the academic program of the department above the
three projects sponsored by the Office of Naval Research and located
at Stanford were continued during this year and various members of thi
department participated in these projects as follows:
(1) Professor Polya and Professor SzegB supervised the Mathematic
Project "Dependence of the Capacity of the Geometric Form of the Conductor." Professor Polya devoted part time during the autumn, winter
and summer quarters to the project and full time during the spring qua
ter. Professor Szego devoted part time to the project during the autumn, winter and spring quarters. At the beginning of the summer
quarter he left to devote the remainder of the academic year full time

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291

to the project in New York, Washington, London and Germany. They were
assisted in their researches during the year by Professor Herriot, who
made a study of the capacity and polarization of the lens.
(2) Professor Spencer spent the autumn quarter at Purdue University working with Professor A. C. Schaeffer on the project "Conformal
Mapping." After returning to Stanford a monograph was written with
Professor Scheeffer summarizing research done during the last three
years.
(3) Professor Bowker continued the research on sampling inspection by variables. During the year he gave a series of lectures on
the principles of sampling inspection in co-operation with the Faculty
of Industrial Engineering to inspection personnel in San Francisco.
GEORGE POLYA
Acting Executive Head

PHYSICS
The teaching and research staff consisted of Joseph Grant Brown,
Fernando Sanford, professors emeritij Felix Bloch, William Webster Hansen, Paul Harmon Kirkpatrick, David Locke Webster, professorsj Marcel
Schein, University of Chicago, visiting professor for the summer quarterj Leonard Isaac Schiff, Hans Heinrich Staub, associate professorsj
Myron Alton Jeppesen, Bowdoin College, visiting associate professor
for the spring quarter; Seville Chapman, Marvin Chodorow, Edward Leonard Ginzton, assistant professorsj Gordon Edward Becker, Boris Abbott
Jacobsohn, David Bowman Nicodemus, instructors. Professor Kirkpatrick
served as executive head of the department during the autumn, winter
and spring quarters and Professor Schiff as acting executive head during the summer quarter. Norris Edwin Bradbury, professor, continued
on leave of absence for the year as director of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory of the Atomic Energy Commission. There were ten research associates, thirty-four research assistants, nineteen teaching
assistants, and five laboratory assistants, resident during all or
most of the academic year. The death of Fernando Sanford, professor
emeritus, is regretfully reported.
Professor Bloch directed his research efforts during the year to
further investigation-of the magnetic moments of light nuclei by the
elegant and powerful method of nuclear induction discovered by him two
years ago. A report on this work and correlated research, carried out
by other investigators as well, has been prepared for the Eighth Solvay Congress to be held in Brussels during the latter part of September
and the beginning of October 19l|8. In collaboration with Professor
Staub and Dr. Nicodemus, Professor Bloch measured the magnetic moment
of the neutron to an accuracy of one part in twenty thousand. In collaboration with Messrs. M. E. Packard and E. C. Levinthal, he has applied the nuclear* induction method to obtain the relative moments of
the proton and deuteron to an accuracy of one part in one hundred and
fifty thousand. This extremely high precision makes possible a detailed comparison of the magnetic moment ratio with the ratio of the hyperfine structure separations measured at Columbia University and at the
Massachusetts Institute of Technology. It also shows that the magnetic
moments of the proton and neutron in the deuteron are not additive.

292

Physios

The deviation from additivity can be used to obtain information on


nuclear structure. In collaboration with Mr. D. Garber, Professor
Bloch extended the nuclear induction method to obtain maximum signalto-noise ratio, thus making possible the observation of details which
with the earlier techniques would have been lost in the random fluctuations. All of this work was supported through contracts with the Office of Naval Research. During the year Professor Bloch was elected
a member of the National Academy of Sciences.
Professor Hansen's principal research efforts were devoted to the
development of the linear electron accelerator. This included theoretical analyses of the properties of disk-loaded waveguides and of electron dynamics, and also the design and supervision of tests to investigate the performance of the accelerator and of the klystrons that power
the accelerator. He was assisted in some of this work by Messrs. E. L.
Chu and W. Proctor. Professor Hansen read invited papers on the subject at the West Coast Convention of the Institute of Radio Engineers
in September and at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology accelerator conference in June. During the year the billion-volt electron
accelerator project was approved by the Office of Naval Research and
began formal operation on June 30. Plans for the new linear accelerator building were approved by the University and construction was
started in August.
Professor Kirkpatrick, assisted by several students, but principally by Mr. Albert V. Baez, succeeded in developing a method for the
formation of real optical images by means of X-rays. This has often
in the past been pronounced impossible, and opens up the possibility
of high magnification and revolving power owing to the short wavelengths of X-rays. Professor Kirkpatrick also directed the research
of Miss C. Newton, who measured critical angles for X-ray total reflection from mixed metal surfaces; Mr. C. Durieux, who extended the
X-ray optical systems to the soft X-ray region by operating in a helium
atmosphere; Mr. A. Berman, who developed a new method for increasing
the output of X-ray tubes by a combination of mechanical movements and
a rotating magnetic field; Mr. A. Newell, who developed a geometrical
theory of image formation by grazing-incidence reflection; and Mr. D,
Bolinger, who developed a new and superior method for the measurement
of the absolute power of X-ray beams. Contributed papers were read by
Professor Kirkpatrick and Messrs. Baez and Newell at the Chicago meeting of the American Physical Society in December and at the Los Angeles
meeting of the American Phyical Society in January. During the past
year Professor Kirkpatrick served as president of the American Association of Physics Teachers and as chairman of this associations's committee on awards.
Much of Professor Webster's work for this year has been related
to the teaching of electricity. As a member of the committee appointed
by the American Association of Physics Teachers, he has collaborated in
an investigation of the factual contents and the perspectives of university courses and textbooks, which has shown possibilities for considerable improvement. The committee is now writing a report with recommendations on first-year courses, and it has on hand much of the
material for a proposed report on advanced courses. Professor Webster
has also served as a member of the Board of Editors of the REVIEW OF
MODERN PHYSICS. At the invitation of the Encyclopaedia Britannica he
has begun the writing of a new version of its comprehensive article,
"Electricity." This is being composed de novo, in line with the Britannica' s new policy of writing for non-specialists, though without

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293

sacrificing its traditional scholastic standards. Professor Webster


participated in research on guided missiles as a Technical Expert for
the Aberdeen Proving Ground, and on "smog" as a consultant for the
Stanford Research Institute. He attended the dedication of new research facilities at the U. S. Naval Ordnance Test Station and was in
the East for work with the American Association of Physics Teachers
and the Encyclopaedia Britannica.
Professor Schiff's research during the year was devoted mainly to
theoretical studies of atomic nuclei and of cosmic rays. A contributed
paper on the photo-effect of atomic nuclei of middle weight was presented by him at the Los Angeles meeting of the American Physical Society in January. At the Pasadena meeting of the American Physical Society in June he contributed a paper on the theoretical study of a possible model of nuclear forces in collaboration with Mr. G. Parzen, and
a paper on the capture of light negative cosmic ray mesons by atomic
nuclei. This latter paper helps establish the genetic relations between the heavy and light mesons observed in cosmic rays, and the mesons believed to exist within atomic nuclei. Subsequent studies have
been devoted to the mechanism for the production of soft cosmic ray
showers in nuclear processes high in the earth's atmosphere. Professor
Schiff presided at a session of the Sixth Underwater Ballistics Conference at Pasadena in November, sponsored by the Office of Naval Research, and read an invited paper on the shielding of very high energy
accelerators at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology accelerator
conference in June. In collaboration with Professor Hansen and with
the assistance of Mr. J. R. Rempel, he has conducted a special research
program for Watson Laboratory of the Army Air Forces on the scattering
of electromagnetic waves by metallic objects. During the year the
manuscript of his book on quantum mechanics was completed; it is now
in the course of publication.
Professor Staub, in addition to the abovementioned work in collaboration with Professor Bloch and Dr. Nicodemus on the neutron-proton
magnetic moment ratio, also supervised the work of Messrs. E. Rogers
and M. Nielsen on the development of an apparatus for the determination of the relative signs of the magnetic moments of neutron and proton. With Dr Nicodemus and Mr. Fleeman he extended previous measurements of polarization of neutrons by ferromagnetic substances.
In
collaboration with Professor Bloch and Mr. C. Jeffries, an apparatus
for the determination of nuclear magnetic moments in terms of the nuclear magneton was developed, which will provide a valuable standard
for future magnetic moment determinations. T/ith Mr. L. Rieser an investigation of proportional counters for the measurement of the soft
electron spectrum of hydrogen of mass 3 was started. Professor Staub
presented an invited paper on the neutron-proton magnetic moment work
at the Washington meeting of the American Physical Society in April.
Professor Chapman conducted research under contract with the Office of Naval Research on thundercloud electrification, with the assistance of about four graduate students. He also prepared three laboratory manuals for use in engineering physics courses at Stanford and
elsewhere. In this connection he developed a new method for teaching
the torsion pendulum experiment to students in elementary physics
laboratories.
Professor Ginzton was administrative head of the linear accelerator and microwave projects under contract with the Office of Naval Research, and was assisted by Professor Chodorow. They presented a paper

294

Physios

at the convention of the Institute of Radio Engineers with Mr. J. F.


Kane on a microwave impedance bridge. Also, Professor Ginzton, with
Messrs. W. Hewlett, J. H. Jasberg, and J. D. Noe, contributed a paper
to the convention of the Institute of Radio Engineers in New York on
distributed amplification in March. Professor Chodorow read a paper
at the Cornell University electron tube conference in June on highpowered klystrons. Working under Professor Hansen's supervision, Mr.
R. F. Post read contributed papers on waveguide fast counters and methods of measuring cavity impedance at the American Physical Society
meeting in Pasadena in June.
A large group of graduate students has been working in the microwave laboratory under the supervision of Professors Hansen, Ginzton and
Chodorow. Mr. K. Bol has been measuring the velocity of light under a
fellowship from the Academy of Time, donated by the Benrus Watch Company. Mr. IV. Abraham has been studying the electronic loading in klystron cavities; Mr. K. Brown, various components of the high-powered
klystron for the billion-volt accelerator; Messrs. D. A. Caswell and
N. C. Chang, the operation of the model linear electron accelerator;
and Mr. E. L. ChUvhas made a mathematical analysis of the expected
performance of the linear electron accelerator. Mr. V. Counter has
been studying miniature cavity resonators, on a contract with Watson
Laboratory of the Army Air Forces. Mr. A. Eldredge has been investigating the cathode emission and beam loading at high voltages in klystrons; Miss L. Fenichel, the theory of fields in microwave cavities;
Messrs. R. H. Helm and D. D. Reagan, field emission currents at microwave frequencies; Messrs. W. H. Horton and J. H. Jasberg, the highfrequency limits of distributed amplifiers; Mr. C. B. Jones, high-power
modulators for pulsed klystrons; Mr. J. F. Karie, the fluctuations and
transverse velocity of emitted electrons; Mr. G. Kent, the design of
pulse transformers and filament supplies of klystrons; Mr. P. D. Lacy,
the shot noise in electron beams at microwave frequencies; Mr. J. K.
Mann, the focusing of high-density electron beams; Messrs. T. G. Mihran
and H. J. Shaw, the traveling-wave type klystron amplifier; Mr. E. J.
Nalos, the shunt impedance of resonant cavities; Mr. R. B. Neal, the
construction and operation of the high-power klystron; Mr. I. Nielsen,
the design problems in the high-power klystron; Mr. P. A. Pearson, the
design of power supplies for the large accelerator; Mr. N. S. Shiren,
the design of cathodes for the accelerator; and Mr. A. B. Vane, the
design of microwave components for the laboratory. Mr. R. F. Post has
been studying the tube structure of the billion-volt electron accelerator, and Professor Simon Sonkin, on leave from the College of the City
of New York, has been working on the fabrication and assembly of highpower klystrons during the summer quarter. Professors Ginzton and
Chodorow each made two trips east in connection with their work on
microwave electronics and the linear accelerator.
Dr. Becker's research activities were devoted to the development
of the linear electron accelerator and to the extension of the first
model to an overall length of fourteen feet. The energy of its electrons was increased from one and one-half to six million volts. Work
was in progress to produce a greater current output and an improvement
in the energy spectrum.
Dr. Jacobsohn's principal research activity was with the nuclear
induction project of Professor Bloch. In this connection he and Mr. R,
K. Iffanganess were able to explain in detail the observed shapes of nuclear induction signals. He also studied the electrodynamic correction

Physios

295

to the spin magnetic moment of the electron and investigated the theory of an experiment to measure the anomalous spin magnetic moment of
free electrons in a magnetic field.
Dr. Nicodemus1 research has been mentioned above in connection
with the work of Professors Bloch and Staub on the measurement of the
ratio of the magnetic moments of neutrons and protons and of the polarization experiments on neutrons by ferromagnetic substances.
During the year nine bachelor's degrees and four master's degrees
were awarded to majors in physics. There were forty-nine graduate
students and twenty-two undergraduate students majoring in physics.
An aggregate number of approximately 281^0 students were enrolled in
undergraduate courses. Eighteen papers and abstracts and about thirty
reports were published by members of the Department. Support for department activities, was received from the Office of Naval Research,
Watson Laboratory of the Army Air Forces, the Research Corporation,
and the Sperry Gyroscope Company.
At the end of the year Associate Professors Schiff and Staub were
promoted to professorships and Assistant Professor Ginzton was promoted
to associate professor.
Visiting Associate Professor Jeppesen (Bowdoin College) was appointed visiting professor for the coining academic
year, and Simon Sonkin (College of the City of New York) was appointed
visiting associate professor. Walter Carlisle Barber (University of
California) and Martin Everett Packard (Stanford University) were appointed to instruetorships.
LEONARD I. SCHIFF
Acting Executive Head

296

School of Social Sciences

The Executive Committee of the School in 19U7-U8 was as follows:


Merrill K. Bennett (Dean), Food Research Institute; Chilton R. Bush,
Journalism; Philip W. Buck, Political Science; Bernard F. Haley, Economics; Ernest R. Hilgard, Psychology; Charles N. Reynolds, Sociology;
and Edgar E. Robinson, History.
Appointment as Acting Instructor for the year was held by Rene B.
Jackson. Irene A. MacCurdy served as Lecturer in the winter quarter.
Average total enrollment per quarter (autumn, winter, and spring)
of graduate and undergraduate students majoring in constituent departments of the School and in programs administered by it was 1,272 in
19li7-U8, an increase of about Hi percent from the preceding year.
Student majors in departmental and in School-administered programs
averaged I,0ii3 and 229 respectively, each category increasing by about
the same percentage as compared with 19U6-U7*
Summer quarter (191*8) total enrollment of 571 students was 21
percent larger than in 19U7
Average total enrollment per quarter (autumn, winter, and spring)
in programs administered by the School was distributed between the
four programs as followsr total, 229; General, 119; International
Relations, 91 (including 26 graduate students); Preprofessional Social
Service, 16; Teacher Training, 3. As compared with 19U6-U7, only a
moderate decline, from 131 to 119 majors, was registered in the General Program in spite of the more rigorous requirements inaugurated at
the beginning of 19h 7-1*8. Students majoring in the International Relations Program increased from 5h to 91, or by 70 percent. Professor
Viatkins (Political Science) served as chairman of the committee in
Charge of this rapidly expanding program. Continuing low enrollment
in the Program for Teachers of Social Studies (Secondary Schools) and
other considerations prompted the Faculty of the School, by action of
January 19U8, to discontinue that program beginning in 19l*84t9'
The degree of Bachelor of Arts was conferred upon 107 students
in School programs during the first three quarters of the year, and
the degree of Master of Arts upon 5 (in International Relations). One
student graduated with great distinction and 13 with distinction.
Curing the year appropriate interdepartmental committees of 1he
School devoted attention particularly to the function of student advising, to minor revision of 'requirements of the International Relations
Program, and to procedures and standards in foreign-language examinations of doctoral candidates. Additionally, the Committee on Graduate
Study under the chairmanship of Professor Stone (Psychology) distributed from the Spelman Fund $2,133.30 as grants-in-aid of social-science
research.
Courses of instruction under the auspices of the School were the
sequence ^ocial Science 101, 102, and 103, "Introduction to Social
Service," taught by Mrs. Jackson in each quarter except summer, with
enrollment of 10-12 students; and the course Social Science 120,
"i/larria^e and the Family," directed by Mrs. MacCurdy in the winter
quarter, with an enrollment of 1$6 students.
Activities of the several constituent departments and divisions
of the School are detailed in the following reports.
At the close of the year, the School of Social Sciences ceased to

Iconomios

237

function as an organization within the University, its several departments becoming members of the newly organized Facility of Humanities
and Sciences.
MERRILL K. BENNETT
Dean
ECONOMICS
The staff of the Department of Economics, teaching courses in
Economics during the year 19U7-U8, included Bernard Francis Haley,
Elmer Daniel Fagan, Eliot Jones, and Edward Stone Shaw, professorsj
Paul Herbert Norgren, acting professor; Tibor Scitovszky, associate
professor; Arthur Abraham Mandel and Lorie Tarshis, assistant professors; Kenneth A. Johnson, John Pagani, and Paul Byron Simpson, acting
assistant professors; Rendel Burdette Alldredge, William Herbert Hickman, Frank Edward Norton, Jr., acting instructors; John Grey Gurley,
William Alexander Hurst, acting instructors during the spring quarter.
James Edmond Collins, of the University of Santa Clara, served as
acting instructor during the winter quarter, and Isaac Bernard Goodman,
of the University of California, as acting instructor during the
spring quarter. Lloyd A. Metzler, of the University of Chicago, was
acting associate professor during the spring quarter, and offered a
seminar in International Finance. Seymour E. Harris, of Harvard University, was acting professor of Economics during the summer quarter,
offering courses in the field of International Trade. Melvin W. Reder,
of the Carnegie Institute of Technology, was appointed acting associate professor during the summer quarter, and conducted courses in
both Elementary Economics and Labor Economics. Paul A. Baran, of the
Federal Reserve Bank of New York, was appointed Lecturer during the
summer quarter, to teach a seminar on Soviet Economic Planning*
Members of- the staff of the Food Research Institute who were also
members of the Department of Economics are Merrill K. Bennett, Karl
Brandt, Joseph S. Davis, Vladimir P. Timoshenko, Vernon D. wickizer,
Kolbrook Working, and Helen Cherington Farnsworth.
As in each of the previous postwar years, there will be significant adjustments in the staff of the Department. Karl Franz Bode has
resigned his professorship, to remain with the United States Military
Government in Germany. Moses Abramovitz, formerly of the National
Bureau of Economic Research, is replacement for Professor Bode. Tibor
Scitovszky has been promoted from associate professor to professor,
and Lorie Tarshis has been advanced to an associate professorship.
Dwight E. Robinson, previously with the Department of Economics at New
York University, has been appointed acting assistant professor and
will instruct courses in Elementary Economics and Labor Economics.
John G. Gurley will serve as acting Instructor of Economics, instructing courses in Elementary Economics and in Monetary Theory and Problems. Franz Gehrels, William A. Hurst, and Lawrence L. Werboff will
be acting instructors, assuming responsibility for courses in Elementary Economics.
Bernard F. Haley has resigned as Executive Head of the Department. He assumed the headship first in 1931 and continued in the position until 19l|l. After an interval of wartime service with the
Office of Price Administration and the Department of State, he returned

Economics

298

to the headship in 19U5 Every member of the Department of Economics


is keenly aware of his debt to Professor Haley for extraordinarily
competent and thoughtful administration of departmental affairs.
Edward 3. Shaw has been appointed .acting Executive Head for 19U8-U9.
The burden of executive duties will be divided between the acting
Executive Head and two other members of the Department, Tibor ^citovszky and Lorie Tarshis, who will serve as Director of Graduate tudy
in Economics and Director of Undergraduate Study in Economics respectively.
In the Division of Sociology Richard Tracy LaPiere and Charles
Nathan Reynolds, professors, Paul tiallin, associate professor, and
Donald Goodspeed Reuter, assistant professor, were on active teaching
duty for the year. Mr. Carl M. Frisen was acting instructor during
the spring quarter. Louis Yirth, professor of Sociology at the University of Chicago, was acting professor of sociology for the summer
quarter. A more complete statement on the Division of Sociology is
presented on page 319.
Beginning with the academic year 19U8-k9 the Division of Sociology will be divorced from the Department of Economics. The Division
will merge into the Department of Sociology and Anthropology, under
the headship of Felix Maxwell Keesing. The Division was created on
the initiative of the Department of Economics in 1926-27, and has
steadily grown in staff and enrollment until it is clearly entitled to
an independent status.
The following students served as teaching assistants in the elementary courses in accountancy, economics and sociology: Roy Anderson,
Harold Buma, Melville Emerson, Francis Fleckner, Carl Frisen, Franz
Gehrels, John Gurley, Lafayette narter, William Hurst, Howard Jolly,
Robert Kutscher, LeRoy Larsen, Francis Mahon, Gerald Origlia, Don
Raun, Gordon Sitton, Donald Walker, Lawrence Werboff, Antonie VanSeventer. Eleven teaching assistantships were established in the autumn
quarter, seventeen in the winter quarter, 13 in the spring quarter,
and three in the summer quarter.
The enrollment in classes offered by the Department of Economics
during the year 19^7-^8 is analyzed in the table below.
Courses
Economics: Total
Major students
Graduate students
Sociology: Total
Major students
Graduate students

Autumn
150U
3h6
kk

Summer

587
128

3U
186
10

383
20

The sharp recovery in enrollment since wartime and the increase, even
in comparison with prewar figures, is apparent in the following figures for total enrollment in the Department of Economics.
Year
19U1-U2
19U2-143

Total Enrollment
JTffi
3,586
2,590
1,665

Year

19U5-U6
19U6-U7
19U7-U8

Total Enrollment
1,811
7^005
7,012

loonomios

299

The ratio of enrollment to instructing staff continues to be


high. There has been a slight reduction in 191*8, below the levels
immediately preceding, but the averages remain well above prewar figures. For the year 19i*7-i*8 enrollment per instructing member was 126
for the autumn quarter, 138 for the winter quarter, 119 for the spring
quarter, and 103 for the summer quarter. For the three regular quarters of the year the enrollment averaged 127 students per quarter for
each instructing member, compared with 11*5 in" 191*6-1*7 > 111* in 191*5-1*6,
69 in 19l*l*-l*5, and 78 in the prewar period year 191*0-1*1.
The shortage of teaching personnel is especially evident in the
graduate curriculum of the .Department. During the three regular quarters of 19U7-1*8 arrangements could be made for only twelve graduate
seminars. Since the course offerings of the Department are organized
into ei?ht fields of Economics, the graduate training available in
each field obviously is inadequate. The graduate student who devotes
three years to study for the Ph.D. degree is handicapped seriously by
the scarcity of instruction at the graduate level. The solution
clearly is appointment of new personnel to assume responsibility for
undergraduate instruction and to free senior members of the staff for
greater emphasis on graduate training.
The Bachelor of Arts degree was awarded to 216 students in economics, 25 in economics-accountancy, and to 5 students in sociology.
The Master of Arts degree was granted to 1* students in economics and
3 in sociology. Two students received the Ph.D. degree in economics.
The Department undertook a new venture during Winter quarter
191*7-1*8 in behalf primarily of students in other departments. Four
members of the staff, including Professors Haley, Scitovszky, Shaw,
and Tarshis gave one lecture apiece on current economic problems.
Professor Haley's subject was "The Marshall Plan". Professor Scitovszky analyzed "The Devaluation of the French Franc." Professor Shaw
discussed "American Monetary Policy." And Professor Tarshis talked
on "Fiscal Policy in the United States." The reception of these
.lectures justifies our continuing the project into 191*8-191*9.
Members of the Department attended meetings of various professional associations during 191*7-191*8. Professors Haley, Scitovszky,
and Tarshis were present at the annual meetings in Chicago during
December 191*7 of both the American Economic Association and the Econometric Society. Professor Haley was elected member of the Executive
Committee of the American Economic Association and was appointed
Chairman of the Association's Committee on Republications. Mr. Scitovszky read a paper before the Econometric Society on, "A New Approach
to the Theory of the Firm." Mr. Tarshis shared in the program of the
Association with a paper on, "An Exposition of Keynesian Economics."
Professor Haley attended a meeting of the executive Committee of the
Association at Princeton University in April 19l*8.
Professors Jones and Mandel attended the annual meetings during
December of the Pacific Coast Economic Association.
The meetings
were held at the University of Washington, in Seattle. Mr. Jones presided at the session on Transportation Problems and Mr. Mandel presented a paper on, "The Economic Outlook of Europe as a result of World
War II." Mr. Mandel was present also at the meetings of the Economic
History Association, held in September at Yale University. Professor
Norgren attended a variety of conferences, including the Conference on
the Teaching of Labor Economics at American University in Vnashington,
D.C., during September, as well as the Conference on Labor

300

Economics

Organization in Foreign Countries at Berkeley in March 19U8. He was


present, too, at the Seventh Annual Stanford Business Conference and
at the annual meeting of the Vvest Coast Subcommittee on Labor Market
Research, sponsored by the Social Science Research Council and held
at Stanford during August 15 U8.
Professor Haley spoke as consultant for the Department of State
before the Regional Conference of the League of Women Voters in Los
Angeles in October 19h7. His subject was, "Reconstruction of the
World Economy." He discussed the same subject before the Palo Alto
chapter of the League in November. Also in November he addressed the
Junior Foreign Trade Association of Los Angeles on "Trade Barriers and
International Negotiations." In October Mr. Mandel lectured at Wayne
University, at Detroit, on "After All, What is Capitalism?" In May
191*8 he spoke before the Vtorld Affairs Council, San Francisco, ~on,
"The Economic Basis of Soviet Power," and in July 19^8 he participated
in the California Council Table, which broadcast a discussion on, "Is
Europe's Fate Really Important to the United States?"
Members of the Department participated in various other extraacademic activities. Professor Haley continued his association with
the Department of State as a consultant in Economics and served as
consulting editor for the W.H. Freeman Company. Professor Jones was
Chairman of the Committee on Cooperation with Educational Institutions
of the Pacific Coast Transportation Advisory Board. Mr. Fagan was
again member of the Conference on Research on Fiscal Policy of the
National Bureau of Economic Research. Mr. Shaw participated in the
research program of the RAND Corporation and in editorial advisory
work for Richard D. Irwin, Inc.
Various research projects were completed by members of the Department during the year. Professor Haley contributed a chapter to the
volume sponsored by the American Economic .association on A Survey of
Contemporary Economics. His chapter is entitled, "Value and Distribution," and was published August 25, 19U8. Mr. Scitovszky's paper before the Econometric Society has appeared in brief in Econometrica,
Vol. XVI, No. 2, April 191*8, pp. 1U-15 under the title, "A New
Approach to the Theory of the Firm." Mr. Shaw published a review of
Frank L. Kidner's volume on California Business Cycles. The review
appears in The Review of Economics and Statistics, Vol. XXX, No. 2,
May 19U8, pp. 114.3-11*5 In connection with his The Elements of Economics, Mr. Tarshis has published a Manual for Students and a Manual
for Instructors. The publisher is Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston.
Mr. Tarshis1 paper, "An Exposition of Keynesian Economics," was published in the American Economic Review, Vol. XXXVIII, No. 2, May 19U8,
pp. 261-273. Mr. Mandel prepared an article, "The New Europe," for
The Pacific Spectator, Vol. II, No. 3, July 19U8, pp. *338-3U8. His
paper on, "The Change in the Economic Outlook of Europe as a Result of
Vorld War II," appears in the Proceedings, Twenty-Second Annual Conference of the Pacific Coast Economic Association, 19U7> PP UU-U7*
Professor Norgren completed a study on, "The Unions that Link the
United States and Canada.11 It will be published, in bulletin form, by
the Division of Industrial Relations, Graduate School of Business,
Stanford University.
A considerable volume of research is nearing completion. Mr.
Scitovszky is finishing his volume on the theory of production and
competition, for publication in the year ahead. Mr. Shaw's volume on
monetary theory and policy will be in the hands of the publisher before

Food Research Institute

301

the year is out. Mr. Norgren is in the final phases of a manuscript


analyzing the Labor-Management Relations Act of 19U7 (Taft-Kartley
Act). Mr. Mandel is continuing his study on planned economies in
Eastern Europe. The study of Poland is complete and Mr. Mandel has
turned to the analysis of postwar Czechoslovakia.
There is a notable scarcity of text books in Economics that are
abreast of professional work in the subject. A partial solution has
been found by the Department. Professors Scitovszky and Tarshis have
assembled material from profess! onal and governmental publications for
use in Economics 110 on Price and Income. The Stanford Press is compiling the material in text form. Also, chapters from Professor
Scitovszky's manuscript on the theory of production and competition
are being prepared for use in mimeograph form by students in Economics
101 and 102.
EDWARD STONE SHAW
.Acting Executive Head
FOOD RESEARCH INSTITUTE
The active staff consisted of Merrill K. Bennett, executive director and professor of economic geography; Joseph S. Davis, director
and professor of economic research? Karl Brandt, economist and professor of agricultural economics (on leave from April); Vladimir P. Timoshenko, economist and professor of commodity economics; Vernon D.
Wickizer, economist and professor; Holbrook Working, economist and
professor of prices and statistics; Helen C. Farnsworth, economist and
associate professor; Bogdan I. Dodoff (on leave from July), Mirko
Lamer, and E. Louise Peffer, acting associate economists; William 0.
Jones, assistant economist; Rosamond H. Peirce, associate statistician;
P. Stanley King, cartographer and editorial assistant; Dorothea Oberlitner (from April 19) and Bonnie B. Sanders (from October 13, on
leave from June 10), statistical assistants; Dorothy Adams, Jean P.
Bue (to July 31), and Kathryn W. Krogh, secretaries; Miriam Christenson (from June 16) and Catharine J. Cramer (from October 1), secretarial assistants; Dorothy D.Wildermuth, library assistant; Bessie
Manuel, executive assistant; and Alice McCutchan, office assistant.
Additionally, Naum Jasny of Washington, D.C., was appointed consultant, effective April 1, under a four-year grant of $25,000 received from the Rockefeller Foundation in support of a study of Soviet
Economic Power: Its Development and Potential. Dr. Bronislaw E.
Matecki, also of Washington, D.C-., was appointed consultant's associate, effective May 17.
Alonzo E. Taylor, director emeritus, contributed to the work of
the Institute by counsel and suggestions.
Mr. Brandt was on sabbatical leave from April, with headquarters
in Switzerland; his travel in Germany involved lectures at German
universities. Mr. Dodoff was on leave from July to organize a Bulgarian department in the Army Language School located at the Presidio of
Monterey.
Research output published or in press during 19U7-U8 totaled 23
items. Two in the series of War-Peace Pamphlets were published: in
December, Grain Saving for United States Export (No. 10), by Mrs.
Farnsworth, and in January,'fl/haling and Whale Oil during and after

302

lood fiesearoh Institute

World War II (No. 11), by Mr. Brandt. In addition, Mr. Brandt's Is_
There Still a Chance for Germany? America's Responsibility was published in May as No. 30 of the Henry Regnery Company's Human events
Pamphlets. In press as the year closed were Mr. Jasny's important
volume, The Socialized Agriculture of the USSR; Plans and Performance,
edited by Mr. Davis and Mr. King, and Carl Alsberg, Scientist at Large,
of which Mr. Davis was editor. Under Mr. Bennett's direction, Economic Stabilization through International Commodity Stockpiling, A
faeport on Benjamin Graham's Proposal, was completed.The manuscript
is now being circulated to authorities in the field in this country
and abroad for criticism and appraisal. Miss Peffer's book, The
Closing of the Public Domain, is being revised for early publication.
Mr. Dodoff completed, for limited circulation, a report entitled
Transformation of the Economic Structure of Bulgaria during the Last
Three Years, 19UU-U7* Journal articles and book reviews by staff members are listed in "Publications of the Faculty." Special mention
may be made here of Mr. Working's extended article, "Theory of the
Inverse Carrying Charge in Futures Markets," and of Mr. Jones' "Impact
of the War on United States Flour Consumption."
During the year, all arrangements were completed for authorship
of the volumes which will constitute an International History of Food
and Agriculture in World War II. A tentative decision was reached to
eliminate one volume earlier contemplated, concerning the food imports
of European neutrals. Sir Robert Hutchings, formerly Secretary of the
Food Department, Government of India, accepted an invitation to write
the study, Food and Agriculture in India, 1939-k7 The volume, Food
and Agriculture in France during World War II, will be undertaken
by a
group of scholars headed by Michel Ce'pede,'Chef du Service d 1 Etudes et
de Documentation, Ministere de 1'Agriculture, and including Messrs.
Michel Auge'-Laribe, Jean-Baptiste Chombart de Lauwe, M. Houillier, and
Ge'rard Weill. Professors George . Britnell and Vernon C. Fowke of
the University of Saskatchewan will write the study, Food and Agriculture in Canada during World War II.
Of the seven volumes in the series to be written at the Institute,
those nearing completion as. the year closed were Mr. Wickizer's
Coffee, Tea, and Cocoa in World War II, and Mr. Lamer's The Commercial
fertilizers in World War II.Substantial progress was made on Sugar
in World War II (Timoshenko), Wheat in World Yfcr II (Farnsworth), and
Latin-American Agricultural Developments, 1939-k7 (Peffer). Work had
begun upon Livestock and Feedstuffs in World War II (Bennett) and The
Fats and Oilseeds in World War II (Brandt).Mr. Dodoff contributes
'to the work on the last-named volume. Substantial progress was reported on the following volumes under preparation elsewhere: Wartime
Management of Food and Agriculture in the United States (Rowe, Washington, D.C.); Food Relief in World War IT: Plans and Performance
(Cassels and Allen, Washington, D.C.); Wartime Management of Food and
Agriculture in the United Kingdom (Hammond, London); German Management
of Food and Agriculture in World"War II (Schiller, Ahlgrimm, von der
Decken, Hftfner, and Hanau, under the editorship of Brandt, Germany);
Japanese Management of Food and Agriculture in World War II (Johnston,
faosada, and Kusumi, Tokyo); and Food and Agriculture in France during
World War II (Cepede, Auge-Larib^, Chombart de Lauwe, Houillier, and
Weill, Paris). Late in the year Mr. Sullara reported from Rome the iniation of work on the volume, Food and Agriculture in Italy, I394t7
Other research in progress within the Institute included studies

Food Research Institute

303

of population and food supply (Bennett); the prospects for the


European Recovery Program and the potential contribution of the western zones of Germany to it, the world's potato economy,and problems of
relief and reconstruction in Western Europe (Brandt)j consumption economics, food prices, inflation, the world food crisis, and problems of
agricultural policy (Davis)j the world grain position (Farnsworth)j
American agricultural policy, and the production, consumption, and
distribution of manioc (Jones)j meanings of the term "public domain,11
statistics of public-domain disposition, 19UO-U6, and public-land
sales controversy, 19U6-U8 (Peffer); Soviet agricultural economy, and
Soviet national economy in general (Timoshenko); and interrelations of
theory and statistical research in economics, accuracy of market expectations, time series and analysis of variance, and sampling inspection (Working).
The program of instruction involved seven formal courses: two in
the autumn quarter (Brandt, Davis)j three in the winter quarter
(Brandt, Timoshenko, Wickizer); and two in the spring quarter (Bennett,
assisted by Jones, Farnsworth). Additionally, Messrs. Bennett, Davis,
and Jones, and Miss Peffer, each directed the work of advanced students. Mr. Bennett continued as Dean of the School of Social Sciences,
terminating his duties after three years at the end of the academic
year; and Mr. Brandt continued as examiner in German for doctoral
candidates in the Graduate School of Business and the School of Social
Sciences. Mrs. Farnsworth and Mr. Jones continued as Lower Division
Advisers, and Messrs. Jones, Wickizer, and Working, and Mrs. Farnsworth,
acted as Advisers in the School of Social Sciences.
In addition to foreign travel mentioned above, travel and service
on committees outside the state was as follows: Mr. Bennett in
February-March visited Chicago, New York, and Washington, D.C., to
arrange for cooperation on the International History of Food and Agriculture and on other Institute business. Mr. Brandt read a report at
the Annual Meeting of the American Farm Economic Association in Green
Lake, Wisconsin, in September. In November, he was a member of a
panel at the National Conference on the Study of World Areas called by
the Social Science Research Council in New York; and in February he
gave two addresses in Seattle for the University of Washington: one
to the Dinner Symposium on florid Affairs under the auspices of the
Bureau of International Relations and the Department of Adult Education and the other to a student assembly under the auspices of the
Department of Adult Education. Mr. Davis attended two meetings of the
Board of Directors of the Social Science Research .Council, in September at Williamsburg and in New York in April. In September, he also
attended the International Statistical Conferences as a United States
delegate to the Inter American Statistical Institute in Washington,
D.C., where he discussed papers on the forthcoming 1950 World Census
of Agriculture. In December-January, he assisted the staff of the
Joint Committee on the Economic Report in Washington, D.C., and in
February attended a meeting of the Agricultural Board of the National
Research Council, also in Washington, D.C. In addition, he served on
the Executive Committee and the Committee to Nominate Foreign Honorary
Members of the American Economic Association, and as a member of the
Committee on Fellows of the American Statistical Association. Mr.
Jones attended the Annual Conference of the Pacific Coast Economic
Association in Seattle in December, In April, Mr. Wickizer visited
New York, Washington, D.C., and New Orleans in connection with his work

304

History

on coffee, tea, and cocoa. Mr. Working attended a meeting in New York
of the Uhiversities-National Bureau Committee in November-December.
In April he attended the meetings of the Nominating Committee of the
American Economic Association in Princeton and the Nominating Committee
of the American Statistical Association in New York, with various conferences en route in Chicago, Buffalo, and New York. He was elected a
Fellow of the Econometric Society and an Honorary Member of the American Society for Quality Control and served on their Program Committees.
Addresses by staff members to organizations within the state
numbered about 29, in response to requests from Bakersfield, Berkeley,
Davis, Oakland, Reedley, Sacramento, San Francisco, San Jose, San
Mateo, and Palo Alto and the University. Examples are Mr. Bennett's
"Japan in August 19^7" (Tuesday Evening Series, Stanford University,
October); Mr. Brandt's "American Foreign Policy toward Western Europe" (San Jose Forum, under auspices of San Jose Adult Center and
World Affairs Council of Northern California, San Jose, February) and
"Food for Peace" (California League of Women Voters, San Francisco and
Sacramento, both in November); Mrs. Farnsworth's "Europe's Food Shortages Are America's Problem" (meeting under auspices of World Affairs
Council of Northern California, Oakland, October); and Mr. Working's
"Interrelations of Theory and Statistical Research in Economics"
(Institute of Mathematical Statistics Regional Western Meeting, Berkeley, December)*
MERRILL K. BENNETT
Executive Director
HISTORY
Not since the report for the year ending August 31, 19^1, has it
been possible to say that- the full program of work in the Department
has been offered. In the report of last year, it was pointed out that
we were rapidly reaching the point where the courses in an undergraduate program of liberal study and the program of graduate study in
History were being offered as outlined in the report seven years earlier. During the past year, we have reached that point and have gone
on and increased our offerings. This has been fortunate for the enrolments in majors and in classes have greatly increased; and, although additions to the faculty have been made, there are vacancies
yet to be filled and important areas of history yet to be covered.
The faculty for the year has included the following: Edgar
Eugene Robinson, Executive Head, Thomas Andrew Bailey, Carl Fremont
Brand, Claude A. Buss, David Harris, Ralph Haswell Lutz, Professors;
William Carroll Bark, George Harmon Knoles, Anatole G. Mazour, Charles
Donald O'Malley, Rixford Kinney Snyder, Associate Professors; John J.
Johnson, Dayton Phillips, Wayne S. Vucinich, Arthur Edward white,
Assistant Professors; Arthur Wright, Acting Assistant Professor;
Katherlne Archibald, Yiilbur *v. Jacobs, Adolph Meisen, James Stone,
Dorothy Louise Thompson, Instructors; Robert Henry Billigmeier, Alexander DeConde, Marshall Bill, Mlliam Henry Klaustenaeyer, Samson B.
Knoll, Raymond Muse, Armin Rappaport, William Reed Steckel, Acting
Instructors. Professor Hajo of Yale joined the faculty for the summer
quarter, as did Doctor Peter K. Christoff who, during the past year,

History

305

had held a Slavic fellowship in the Hoover Library. Professors


Robinson, Bailey, Bark, Snyder, Knoles, Johnson, and bright, together
with instructors Meisen and Stone, constituted the resident summer
faculty. The following served as assistants at some time during the
year: Edward Howard Brooks, Basil L. Borough, I^wrence Merritt .Connell, Robert . Coonrod, David G. Copping, Stuart G. Cross, Philip R.
Hughes, William Henry Klaustermeyer, Samson B. Knoll, David Charles
Munford, Priscilla Thornburg Pomeroy,. Holland C.Rogers, Frederick
Dolph Schneider, James M. Wood, James Braden Zischke. At the close of
the winter quarter, Mrs. Jean Reid was succeeded as assistant secretary
by Miss Mary MacDonald. Mrs. McKee continued to serve as secretary of
the Department throughout the year. Professor Brand served as Acting
Executive Head during the spring quarter.
Cory scholarships in History were held by MiSP Minnie 3. Cureton
and Miss Elisabeth G. Bennett. Mr. Frank iValker held a Weter award
and Miss Marjorie Swett a Weter scholarshipboth of these pursuing
work under the Independent Study plan. The Colonial Dames award was
won by Miss Virginia Luree Miller for an essay on "Religion and
Science in Colonial America." The California Historical Society award
was granted Mrs. Mary Frances Westcott Gray.
Early in the autumn quarter, Phi Alpha Theta, National Honorary
Fraternity (Historians) established a Stanford chapter which has been
very active in promoting the interests of graduate students throughout
the year.
The course in the History of Western Civilization, offered during
the four quarters, was directed by Professor Mlliam C. Bark as Chairman of a Department committee, consisting of Professors Bark (Chairman), Knoles, Mazour, O'Malley, Phillips, Snyder, Vucinich, and hite.
The distribution of students was as follows:
History 10
History 11
History 12

,Autumn
1C?5
91

Winter

Spring

116U
1^3

1190

Summer
1?U

The lectures were given by Katherine Archibald, Thomas A. Bailey,


Thomas S. Barclay, Mlliam C. Bark, Robert H. Billif^neier, Carl F.
Brand, Marshall Dill, Jr., Vdlbur R. Jacobs, John J. Johnson, Theodore
J. Kreps, Anatole G. Mazour, Adolph Meisen, Robert M. Minto, Charles
D. O'Malley, Lionel Pearson, Armin Rappaport, C. Easton Rothwell,
Rixford K. Snyder, William R. Steckel, and James H. Stone.
Independent Study was continued in the course and enthusiastically
regarded by students and faculty. It is to be hoped that such work may
be continued in the sophomore courses in History.
Two students in the Upper Division, majors in the Department, completed their Independent Study programs. Both passed comprehensive
examinations, these examinations conducted by committees of the Department. Both were graduated with great distinction.
The enrolments in classes in History for the year were as follows:

306

History
Autumn
Introductory Lecture Courses:
100. Foundations of European
Civilization, 300-1300 32
101. Renaissance, Reformation, and Counter-Reformation, 1300-1600
103. Europe in the 19th
Century
136
10U. Europe since 1901
108. England
139
109. British umpire
112. Modern Russia
95
113. China
2?
111*. Far i^st, 1600-1900
115. Diplomatic History of
the Far East
116. Japan
117. Latin America: Colonial Period
66
118. Latin America since
1810
120. American history to
1789
113
121. American history
1789-1890
122. American History since
1890
123. American Social History
81
127. History of Canada
1*9
Advanced. Lecture Courses:
130. American Diplomatic
History
132. Westward Movement
137. The 16th Century: Science, Technology, and
Society
lla. 13th Century
1U2. French Revolution and
Napoleonic Era
iWi. Modern Italy
Hi5. Near East
11
Iii7. Europe since 1939
5U
1U9. Germany 1862-1920
155. Colonial Mind
158. English Constitutional
History
160. Great Britain since
1760
162. Religious nistory of
U.S. since 1890
166. Intellectual History of
the u.S. in the 19th
Century

Winter

Spring

Summer
22

50
230
226
111
^8
32
5U
26

77

82

h2

192

86
167

259
72
12
31
23
35
60
19
52
57

19
32

History

307

Autumn
Advanced Lectures Courses
(continued):
16? American Cultural and
Intellectual History
173. History of Mexico
17k. History of Brazil
181. l?th Century Russia
182. Russia since 1917
186. The Balkans and the
Near East since 1800
187. Islamic World
190. Diplomatic History of
the Far East
192. Intellectual %story
of the Far East
Historical Literature:
201. Historical Literature
202. Interpretations of
History
Directed. Reading Courses:
20U. Directed Reading
Medieval History
206. Directed Reading
Modern Europe
211i. Directed ReadingEngland and British
Empire
216. Directed ReadingUnited States
218. Directed ReadingLatin America
220. Directed ReadingFar
East
Introductory Seminar Courses:
22?. Medieval History
230. Modern European History
231. Modern European History
232. Early Modern Europe
233. Balkan History
23U. Russian History
236. British History
237. Materials for British
Empire History
2U1. American Social and
Intellectual History
2li3. Colonial History
2UU. Latin America
Senior Seminar Courses:
253. Medieval History
255. Balkans and Near East
256. Modern Europe
257. Modern Europe
258. Russia
259. Europe

Mnter

Spring

Summer

$2
19
k6
72
169
20
16
1$
22
1
17
7

10

lU

1
12
11

12

11
9

9
7
6
7

12
11
h
11
10
9

I*
3

306

History
Autumn
Senior Seminar Courses
(continued):
260. British History
261. British Commonwealth
263. U.S. History
1C
26k. American Diplomacy
260. American Colonial
History
266. American Social
Thought
269. Latin America
270. Far Jiast
2?1. Far East
2
Senior Research and Graduate
Courses:
278. Medieval History
281. Modern Europe
288. American History
1
300. Historiography
16
301. American Historiography
302. American Historical
Writing
3Ui. Recent German History
316. Graduate SeminarModern Europe
7
318. Graduate Seminar
Russia
320. Advanced British History
330. Graduate SeminarU.S.
Hi story
8
3li2. Graduate SeminarFar
East: International
Relations
3i|6. Graduate SeminarFar
East
36$. Graduate Research
Modern Europe
3
36$. Graduate Seminar
History of the Peace
Conference
370. Graduate research
English and British
Empire
1
376. Graduate SeminarAmerican Diplomacy
378. Graduate ResearchAmerican History
9
380. Graduate Seminar
Latin America
385. Graduate ResearchFar East
386. Graduate ResearchFar
East
h

Mnter

Spring

Summer

8
It
5
k
5
9
6

1
1
3

9
18
h

1
3
13
5

k
k

2
8

11

10

1
1

3
2

2
U

History

309

The undergraduate majors in History for the year were as follows:


Juniors
Seniors

Autumn
33
1*6

Winter
U6
U8

Spring
1|6
53

Summer
17
22

50
30

hi
U2

Graduate majors were distributed as follows:


M.A. Candidates
Ph.D. Candidates

k7
32

k6
26

There were 19 students offering History as a minor for the doctor-

ate.
Oral examinations for the doctorate were taken in the course of
the year by David Edwards Allen, Jr., Mary Chapman, Minnie E. Cureton,
Alexander DeConde, Charles Delzell, and Mitchell Kerr. Completion of
dissertations for the doctorate is reported for George Meldrum and
Raymond Muse.
At Commencement time the A.B. degree with a major in History was
awarded to 60 students. The master's degree was awarded to the following: Dean Alexander Arnold, "Background of Russian-American Occupation
of Korea"j Gordon Charles Atkins, "American Press Opinion and the
Peace Aims of Woodrow Wilson"; Stephen Matthew Bailey, "The Role of
the Third Party in the Presidential election of I81i8"; John Louis
Beatty, "The Imperium of Napoleon I"; Earl Edwin Carr, "Education in
Colonial Maryland"; Robert Wingate Coonrod, "Lenin's Revolutionary
Program of 1917"; David Gordon Copping, "Polish-German Relations,
1930-31|"; Stuart Green Cross, "The Bonus Army in Washington, May 27August 1, 1932"; Francis John Ebert, "Anglo-French Boundary Dispute
in Colonial New ^ork from 1713 to 1763"; Frank Michael Fahey, "The
Legislative Background of the California Constitutional Convention of
1878-1879"; William Elton Franklin, Jr., "The Governorship of Peter
Hardeman Burnett, First Governor of the State of California"; William
John Freitas, "History of the Brazilian Naval Academy, 1808-19U8";
William Vilbert Heisler, "The Republican Party in California, 18981902"; Charles Albert Jellison, Jr., "The Great Red Scare, 1919-1920";
William Henry Klaustermeyer, "The Development of the Lutheran Church
in Saxony, 1517-15U2"; Viola May Knoche, "The Gubernatorial Nomination
of Hiram W. Johnson, 1910"; Arthur Leroy Littleworth, "Anglophobia in
Congress, 1939-19U6"; Lloyd Cecil linear, "William Randolph Hearst and
Foreign Affairs, 191ii-1920"; Edward Stewart Moffat, "Samuel Johnson,
first President of Kings College"; Lyman William Priest, "The French
Intervention in South Russia, 1918-1919"; Andrew Joseph Rosaschi,
"Italian Intervention in Spain, 193U-1939."
At Commencement the following were awarded Doctor of Philosophy
Degrees with a major in History: Leo Mark Hamilton, "The English
Christian and the Problem of .ar, 191i;-19l8"; Richard Hutton Jones,
"The Constitutional Policy of Richard II"; Henry Forbes McCreery II,
"German pinion of the United States During the 1916 Submarine Crisis";
Pearle Elizabeth Quinn, "The National Socialist Attack on the Foreign
Policies of the German Republic, 1919-1933"; Alfred Owen Ulph, "The
^states General and the Catholic League, 1576-1593"; John Albert White,
"Siberian Intervention: The Allied Phase."
The heavy registration of graduate students in History and the
acceptance of an increasing number as candidates for the degree of

510

History

Doctor of Philosophy has emphasized the burden of work in some special


fields. This is notably true in American history. But in all fields,
particularly highly specialized fields, the individual instruction of
graduate students has grown at an alarming rate.
The publication of books by members of the faculty during the year
includes the following: The Man in the Street, by Thomas A. Bailey,
Pioneer Telegraphy in Chile, 1852-1876, by John J. Johnson, Andreas
Vesalius Bruxellensis, by Charles D. O'Malley, and Scholarship and
Cataclysm, by Edgar . Robinson. Mention should be made also of important articles, including "The War in the Pacific: A Survey of Its
literature," by George fl. Knoles, "Bulgaria5 Consolidation of the
Fatherland Front," by Wayne S. Vucinish, "Petrarch's Ethical Ideals,"
by Dayton Phillips, "Curtains of the Past," by Anatole G. Mazour.
Professor Mazour has in press his forthcoming book A History of Russia.
Professor O'Malley has in press two publications in which he develops^
his studies of Andreas Vesalius. Professors Knoles and Snyder are completing a hook of Headings in the History of Western Civilization. A
full list of publications of the past year, including addresses and
book reviews, appears in "Publications of the ^acuity."
Members of the Department have been active in the meetings of
historians. Professor Lutz has continued to serve as a member of the
Executive Committee of the American Historical Association, and attended the December (19ij7) meeting in New York City. Professor Mazour
read a paper at this meeting. At the Mississippi Valley Historical
Association meeting held in April, 19U8, Professors Knoles and white
participated, as did Instructor Jacobs. AH members of the Department
attended the meetings of the Pacific Coast Branch of the American
Historical Association, held at Berkeley in January, 19li8. Doctor
Thompson read a paper on "The Czechs between Paris and Moscow, 1867."
Professor Harris presided at a session on "Historiography." Professor
Brand has been elected Vice-President of the Branch for the year, 191*8.
Professors Bailey, Buss, Harris, and Johnson participated in the
meetings of the Brookings seminar held at Stanford University in June.
Professors serving on committees outside of the University include
the following: Professor Lutz as a member of the editorial board of
the.Journal of Central European Affairs; Professor Knoles as a member
of the Board of Editors of the Pacific Historical Review, tir. Lutz
has continued as a Director of the Belgian Educational Foundation. Mr,
Robinson continued to serve as a member of the Board of Governors of
the Commonwealth Club of California, and as a member of the Research
Committee and of the Literature Jury.
Major public addresses here and elsewhere include the following:
In the Tuesday evening series at Stanford, Professors Bailey, BUSS, and
Harris each gave lectures. Professor Johnson addressed the Educational
Association of Alameda County on "Education in Latin America." Professor Vucinich spoke on "The Troubled Balkans" in a University of California series in Berkeley and on "Tito and the Balkans" before the Commonwealth Club in San Francisco. He participated, as did Professor Mazour,
in the University of Chicago Roundtable (on the radio), on "Tito-Stalin
Feud." Professor Brand participated in a radio broadcast on "Can
Labour Government Save Britain?" and spoke before the World Affairs
Council of Northern California, as did Professor Buss and Professor
Vucinich and T. Marshall i>ill.. Mr. Dill gave sixteen addresses on
European affairs, including participation in 'World Affairs Conference
at Asilomar, and two radio broadcasts on KNBC and KSFO. Professors

History

311

Bailey, Vucinich, and Buss addressed the Stanford Alumni Conferences.


Within the University the members have been active in committee
work, as will be noted elsewhere in the President's Report. It should
be noted that Professor Lutz served throughout the year as Dean of
Graduate Study, and both he and Professor Robinson continued as members
of the Board of Councilors of the Hoover Library. Professor Snyder was
in charge of the Tuesday evening series during the summer quarter.
Professor Johnson has been a member of the University Committee on
Who's INho in Latin Americaj Professor Wright has been advisor on the
Chinese Collections in the Stanford Library, and Professor Knoles has
been a member of the American Civilization committee in the School of
Humanities.
Plans for research actively being carried on by members of the
faculty in History include the following: Mr. Knoles on "British
Criticism of American Civilization, 1919-1939," Mr. O'Malley on several
projects in the history of medicine, and Mr. Lutz on two projects outlined in previous reports. Dr. Wilbur Jacobs, who was awarded the
prize in American History (19U7-k8) for his study, "Presents to Indians
along the Ohio and Northwest Frontiers, 17U8-1763," by a committee of
the Pacific Coast Branch of the American Historical Association, was
visiting lecturer in American history at Indiana University in the summer quarter.
Summer quarter appointments elsewhere included Mr. Vucinich at the
University of California at Berkeley, Mr. Phillips at Indiana University, Mr. Lutz at the University of Southern California, and Mr. Mazour
at the University of Chicago. Mr. Bailey lectured at the National War
College during the autumn quarter, as did Mr. Buss. At the close of
the spring quarter, Mr. Buss began a six-months leave during which he
will carry out -research in the *ar tast, particularly in Japan. Mr.
Harris was called into active service by the State Department in July,
but will resume his teaching in September*
There have been important acquisitions to the Borel Fund, notably
the gift of Mr. Francis V.Keesling of fourteen files, containing manuscript materials on the following: Building the Golden date Bridge,
Committee on Reorganization of the State Government, and the San Francisco Charter.
The Institute of American History has continued its program of research and publication. It provided seventeen scholarships in American
history for the use of high-school teachers in the summer quarter. The
Institute sponsored the Sixth Conference in American History, held at
Stanford on August 6 and 7
The program of addresses and round-table
discussions brought out approximately one hundred participants from the
faculties of high schools, junior colleges, and colleges of the state.
Miss Lisette Fast continued as Executive Secretary of the Institute.
In February it was announced by the Board of Trustees that a new
chair in History was to be established, made possible by a $125,000
gift from the May T. Morrison Trust Estate, matched by an equal sum
contributed by friends of the University. It is to be known as the
Edgar E. Robinson Professorship in United States History. As yet no
appointment has been made.
A great honor came to the Department, as well as to the University
and to *rofessor Lutz, when he was elected President of the Association
of American University Professors.
It is with regret that I report the resignation of Doctor Dayton
Phillips who in September joins the staff of Vanderbilt University as

312

Institute for Journalistic Studies

Associate Professor of History. No replacement has been made as yet.


At the opening of the new year, Doctor Thomas Carlyle Smith will
join the staff as Acting Assistant Professor and will offer courses in
Japanese history. Doctor Eleanor ^. Goltz of Cornell University will
join the faculty as a member of the staff of instructors in Western
Civilization.
EDGAR E. ROBINSON
Executive Head
INSTITUTE FOR JOURNAL3STCSTUDIES
The staff of the Institute for Journalistic Studies consisted of
Chilton Ft. Bush, professorj Douglas ft. Miller and George S. Turribull
(summer), acting professors; Fred L.Kildow (summer), acting associate
professorj Thomas M. Newell, instructor} Robert C. Connell (winter,
spring), lidward J. Demson (spring), Raymond D. Lawrence (spring):, John
H. Thompson (spring), and Robert Campbell Watson (winter), lecturers.
Class enrollment, exclusive of practice, research, and thesis
courses, was 6?5
The master of arts degree was awarded to nineteen
candidates and the bachelor of arts degree was conferred on forty-one
candidatesthe largest number ever to receive degrees. Enrolled as
majors were 105 undergraduates and forty graduates not including seventeen graduate students enrolled for credit for the summer quarter Workshop for Journalism Advisers. This enrollment represented an increase
of 158 per cent over the prewar five-year average.
The Institute sponsored the twenty-fourth annual convention of the
Central California Scholastic Press Association and the tenth annual
Editors' Conference of the California Newspaper Publishers Association,
During the summer quarter the Institute presented a V.orkshop for
Journalism Advisers which had an enrollment of forty-seven from seven
states and the Canal Zone. Professor Fred L. Kildow, of the Universitj
of Minnesota, and director of the National Scholastic Press Associatior
directed the Workshop.
Mr. Bush conducted his fourth series of readership studies in
western states which was begun in 19U5} conducted readership studies
for the Portland Oregonian, 3an Rafael Independent, and Santa Paula
Chronicle} and a city planning public opinion study for the Turlock
Journal and Chamber of Commerce.
Mr. Bush served on the Executive Committee of the School of Socia]
Science, was chairman of.a special committee on publications, and a
member of a special committee on the summer quarter. He addressed the
California Press Association in December.
The Institute received from the estate of Miles W. Kresge, Jr. foj
research fund, $103.17} from Mr. and Mrs. Frank J. Taylor in support oj
the library, $200} from Mr. and Mrs. Manfred Lteyberg and others,$2,880
for the Melville Jacoby Fellowship Fund} and from twenty-two miscellaneous donors, $217, making a total of cash gifts of $3,702.17.
I5r. Weigle, who was on leave at the University of Minnesota, resigned during the year to become dean of the School of Journalism at
the University of Oregon} he will be on the Stanford faculty in autumn
quarter as a visiting professor. George S. Turribull, who retired as
dean of the School of Journalism at the University of Oregon, was appointed visiting professor in place of Mr. Newell who will be at

Political Soienoe

313

Columbia University. Robert D. Murphy, of Syracuse University, was


appointed acting assistant professor for spring quarter. Mr. Bush
will be on sabbatical leave in autumn quarter.
CHILTON R. BUSH
Director
POLITICAL SCIENCE
The staff for the year consisted of Thomas S.Barclay, Philip W.
Buck, Charles Fairman, and Graham Stuart, professors; Robert S. Rankin,
visiting professor for the autumn quarter, Hugh McD. Clokie, visiting
professor for the winter quarter, and Schuyler C. Wallace, visiting
professor for the summer quarter; Robert H. Connery, associate professor; Arnaud B. Leavelle, and James T. Watkins, IV, assistant professors; Harold J. Berman, acting assistant professor of law, who
offered one course in political science in the winter and spring quarters; Dwight Waldo, visiting assistant professor; Joseph W. Rupley,
lecturer in the vinter quarter, and Donald A. Rutledge, lecturer in
the spring quarter; J. Malcolm Smith, instructor; Alan Baldwin, Mrs.
Frances G. Bale, James R. Frolik, Harold Grambs, Lawrence R. Grannis,
John K. Knaus, Joseph J. Lipper, Marion V. Littlefield, Jerry Magner,
Thomas B. Oberlitner, William H. Rehnquist, S. Grover Rich, George
F. Robertson, Ernest H. Sorotskin, Thomas . Summers, Lawrence D.
Weiler, assistants in instruction. Miss Florence T. Stevens served as
secretary, and Mrs. Frances G. Dale as assistant secretary. During
the spring and summer quarters, Clyde A.P.E. Browne served as librarian*
In the autumn quarter there were 1098 registrants in political
science courses, in the winter quarter 1019, in the spring quarter 922,
and in the summer quarter 262. The total for the year was 3301, almost exactly the same as for the preceding year. The numbers of students declaring a major in political science were as follows:
autumn quarter 159, consisting of 110
k9
winter quarter I8ii, consisting of 135
k9
spring quarter 202, consisting of 150
52
summer quarter 77, consisting of U5
32

undergraduate and
graduate students
undergraduate and
graduate students
undergraduate and
graduate students
undergraduate and
graduate students

During the autumn, winter and spring quarters U students were granted
the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, 1U were granted the degree of
Master of Arts, and 81 the degree of Bachelor of Arts. Of the latter
2 received the degree with Great Distinction, 2 with Distinction, and
3 were elected to Phi Beta Kappa Society.
Mr. Buck served as Acting Executive Head for the autumn, winter
and spring quarters and Mr. Connery and Mr. Stuart both served in this
capacity during the summer quarter.
i8r. Barclay was visiting professor of political science at the
University of Illinois during the first semester of 19U7-h8, offering
undergraduate and graduate courses in the fields of Politics and

314

Political Science

Legislation, respectively. He participated there in several meetings,


forums, and radio programs held to discuss public or academic questions. In December he attended the annual meetings of the American
Political Science Association in Washington, where he participated in
the sessions of two committees of which he was a member, those on
Elections and on Research in Political Parties. He was engaged in research work in the field of municipal home rule charters in February
and in March. He contributed reviews to the American Political
Science Review, the American Historical Review, and the United States
Quarterly, was selected as an editor of the American Political ScieTice
Review, and was reappointed for 19U8 to the Committee on Research in
Political Parties. He was in residence at Stanford during the spring
quarter and continued to serve as a member of the Committee on the
Lower Division and as secretary of the Stanford chapter of Phi Beta
Kappa. He participated in the Stanford Alumni Conference on May 15.
He was reelected to membership on the Santa Clara County Democratic Central Committee and was an alternate delegate to the Democratic
National Convention at Philadelphia in July. He spent some months during the summer of 19U8 writing the second in a series of three monographs in the field of municipal government and in working in manuscript collections in the library of Congress,
He was the official delegate of the Academy of Political Science
at the meeting of the ASIL Regional Conference on UNESCO May 13-15 in
San Francisco.
Mr. Buck taught during the autumn, winter, and spring quarters,
during which time he served as Acting Executive Head of the Department.
Re was a member of the University Committee on International Studies,
of the Executive Committee of the School of Social Sciences, and chairman and institutional representative on the Rhodes Scholarships. He
participated as a member of a round table at the meeting of the American Political Science Association, Washington, D.C., December 28-30,
19U7.
He made various addresses and public appearances: adult education forums at San Jose and Los Gatos; two assembly addresses at the
San Jose State Collegej and various civic groups in Palo Alto and the
Bay area, including presiding at a candidates' meeting in Palo Alto in
May, 19U8.
He was a member of the Federal-College Committees in San Francisco, with Professor Robert H. Connery, on training programs for the public service, and he served as a delegate of the American Association of
Rhodes Scholars to the Regional Conference of UNESCO in San Francisco,
May 13-15, 19l*8.
Mr. Buck left in June for England, where he will spend his sabbatical year while revising his book, written with John Masland, The Governments of Foreign Powers.
Mr. Connery was on duty during the autumn, winter, and summer
quarters, acting as Executive Head during the latter quarter.
He served as consultant to the Under Secretary of the Wavyj as
consultant, commission on the Organization of the Executive Departments
(Hoover Commission).
Mr. Connery contributed an article entitled "A Laboratory Method
for Teaching Public Administration,11 to the American Political Science
Review in February, 19U8.
The Department regrets to lose Mr. Connery to the University of
Illinois, where he has accepted a professorship in the Department of

Political Science

315

Political Science.
Mr. Fairraan was in residence during the autumn, winter, and
spring quarters. At Stanford he was a member of the Committee on Graduate Study and chairman of the Graduation Committee.
He served as third vice president of the American Political
Science Association, 19U7 and as a member of the Association's Committees on Research and on Judicial Administration, attending the annual meeting. He also served as a member of the executive council,
American Society of International Law, 19U5-U8, and on the committee on
nominations. He represented the ASIL at the Regional Conference on
UNESCO, San Francisco, May 13-35, 191*8. He represented the American
Political Science Association at the organization meeting of the Western Political Science Association at Salt Lake City, November 29, 19li7>
and was a member of the board of editors of the new Western Political
Quarterly.
His publications during the academic year included: American
Constitutional Decisions, New York, Henry Holt and Company, I9ktt} "An
Experiment in Graduate Instruction," 33 AADP Bulletin, 6UO-li7, winter,
19ii7; "Some Observations on Military Occupation," 32 Minnesota Law
Review, March 191*8j "The Estate of Political Science," 1 Western Political Quarterly, 1-15, March 19U8.
His book reviews were as follower United Nations War Crimes Commission; Law Reports of Trial of War Criminals, 35 California Law
Review, Ufl-U* 19k7j C.P. Curtis, lions Under the Throne, and W.
McCune, The Nine Young Men, 35 California Law Law Review, 608-11, 19U7.
Mr. Faiman spent the summer in Washington as a member of the
Armed Services Committee of the Commission on the Organization of the
Executive Branch of the Government.
Mr. Leavelle was on duty during the autumn, winter, and spring
quarters. He was quite active in public relations and participated in
lectures and discussions at the San Jose Adult Center in November and
in February. He was chairman and participant in the "Symposium on
Civil Rights and the President's Committee Report" at the Northern
California Regional Conference of the Political Science Association,
held at Stanford on March 13, 191*8. He participated at the Alumni Conference in Los Angeles on March 7> 19U8, speaking on "The Soviet Impact
on American Democracy." He also participated in a symposium at the
Alumni Conference at Stanford on May 15, 19U8, when his topic was
"19U8t The iear of Decision."
Mr. Stuart was on duty for the autumn, winter, and summer quarters. He spent the spring quarter in Washington, D.C., working in the
Department of State to complete a history of the Department of State
which will be published early in 19ii9
During the year Mr. Stuart participated in the Conference of
World Affairs at Riverside, giving an address and leading a round
table; and in the Stanford Alumni Conferences at Portland and Seattle.
He gave several addresses in Palo Alto, Seattle, and Salinas. He delivered the commencement address at Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, when he was awarded an honorary LL.D. degree,
He attended the meeting of the American Society of International
Law in Washington, served as a member of the Committee on Publications
of the .Department of State, and was made a member of the Committee on
Nominations for the coming year.
At Stanford he continued as editor of the Stanford Books in World
Politics, and wrote the annual article on Latin America and the United

316

Psychology

States for the American Year flook. He took part in the BrookLngs Institute on American Foreign Policy, held at Stanford in June,19U8.
Mr. Watkins taught during the autumn, winter, and spring quarters,
when he served as chairman of the International Relations Program of
the,School of Social Sciences and as a Lower Division and International
Relations Program adviser. In the autumn quarter he also lectured in
the School of Humanities.
He served on the President's Committee on International Studies,
on the Hoover Library Committee on Japanese Collection, and was chairman of the committee for selecting Stanford students for United
Nations interneships. He was an adviser for the Institute of International Relations and the International Relations Club.
He attended the Institute of World Affairs in Riverside, the
World Affairs Council Pilot on Japanese Peace Settlement meetings, the
Hoover Library Seminar with Professor E.H. Carr, the regional meeting
of UNESCO in San Francisco, and the Religious Emphasis Week meetings
at Stanford.
During the year %. Watkins addressed the Menlo Rotary Club, the
Institute of World Affairs group in Riverside, the Los Gatos Adult
Forum, the San Francisco League of Women Voters, the Women's Civic
Conference at the University of Southern California, a group of the
First Congregational Church in San Jose, and the Commonwealth Club in
San Francisco.
He gave a short course at the University of Washington during the
summer.
The meeting of the Political Scientists of Northern California
convened at Stanford on March 13, 19U8 with 63 persons in attendance.
At that time the Northern' California Political Science Association was
established and plans were made for annual meetings, as well as for
working toward a federal organization of all regional political
science associations in the West. As participants in the program, Professors Connery and Leavelle led symposiums.
GRAHAM STUART
Acting Executive Head
PSTCHOLOGY
The faculty consisted of Ernest Ropiequet Hilgard, Paul Randolph
Farnsworth, Maud Merrill James, John liarshall Stajnaker, Calvin Perry
Stone, and Edward Kellogg Strong, Jr., professors; Lois Meek Stolz,
Arthur Weaver Melton (summer quarter), acting professors; Quinn
McNeraar, associate professor; John Metts Willits, associate professor
of business psychology (Graduate School of Business) and associate
professor of psychology; Henry Bonner McDaniel, associate professor of
education and psychology; Tamara Dembo, Jacob I. Kounin (simmer quarter), acting associate professors; Howard Francis Hunt, Donald Wayne
Taylor, assistant professors; Katherine Preston Bradway, acting assistand professor; Vee. Jane Alvarez-Tostado, instructor; James F. Day
(summer quarter), Sylvan Julian Kaplan (summer quarter), Frances G.
Orr, acting instructors.
The number of students registered in psychology courses was 1332
in autumn quarter, 12^6 in winter quarter, 8U3 in spring quarter, and
56? in simmer quarter. During the autumn quarter there were 93

Psychology

317

undergraduate majors and 81j graduate majors; in the winter quarter 10?
undergraduate, ?6 graduate; in the spring 101? undergraduate and 81
graduate; in the summer 38 undergraduate and l\2 graduate majors.
At the annual commencement in June 19U8, the Bachelor's degree
was awarded to 50 students who had majored in psychology. Thirteen
students received their Master's degree and six received the Ph.D.
degree.
The facilities of the department were considerably improved during
the year through the opening of the new laboratories in the basement of
Cubberley Hall. Laboratory space on the third floor of the PhysicsPsychology Building is retained.
A grant to the department from the United States Public Health
Service permitted strengthening the training program in clinical psychology in three directions: the Psychological Clinic at the university
was given additional professional staff and a receptionist-secretary,
the psychological services at Stanford Hospital were increased through
the addition of Dr. Bradway, and a psychological assistant was provided
for the newly organized Stanford Village Nursery School. Two fellowships were provided for graduate students' in study. Along with the
training possibilities under the Veterans Administration Training Program, the resources for both training and research are greatly enhanced.
Emeritus professor Terman and research associate Oden completed
during the autumn quarter a report of twenty-five years' follow-up of
a large group of gifted subjects who were first tested in childhood and
whose careers have been under observation since that time. Published
by the Stanford Press under the title "The Gifted Child Grows Up"
(Vol. IV, Genetic Studies of Genius), the report has attracted wide
attention in this and other countries.. The authors are continuing
their follow-up of the grpup and, in collaboration with research associate Olga McNemar, are completing the manuscript of a book on the
marital adjustments of gifted subjects.
Mr. Hilgard continued his investigations in the experimental study
of learning. He served during the year as President-Elect of the American Psychological Association, and was elected to membership in the
National Academy of Sciences. His book on Theories of Learning appeared early in 19ii8.
Mr. Farnsworth's researches continued as usual in the psychology
of music, particularly in the area of music interests. Studies concerning musical eminence were reported on before the Pacific Coast Division of the American Society for Aesthetics at Hollywood in May. During a part of February Mr. Farnsworth served as a member of a Public
Health team visiting three universities in the Pacific Northwest to
inspect their facilities for graduate teaching in clinical psychology.
During the spring and summer Messrs. La Piere and Farnsworth engaged in
the writing of the third edition of their Social Psychology which will
go to press in the autumn.
During the academic year Mr. Farnsworth continued to serve on a
number of university committees: the Advisory Board, the Graduate
Study Committee, the Lower Division Committee, and the Committee for
Teacher Education. He took part in the deliberations of a local group
which met fortnightly under the auspices of the Viking Fund to consider
the general topic of "character." Mr. Farnsworth again served as president of the Esthetics Division of the American Psychological Association aiid as a member of the Executive Committee of Section I of the
American Association for the Advancement of Science. He continued to

318

Psychology

serve on the editorial boards of the Journal of Aesthetics and the


Journal of Musicology.
Mrs. James1 research activities on problems of clinical methodology have continued to center around the children's clinic. A new projective technique for the assessment of child personality by means of
responses to cartoons has been developed and is in process of standardization. The further development of the children's clinic has occupied
a major portion of her time. Plans for working out a project for
evaluating the results of therapy are being developd. Mrs. James
attended the meeting of the Viiestern Psychological Association and of
the American Psychological Association during the year.
Mr. Stalnaker, in addition to offering a seminar in the department, served as chairman of the Committee on Public Exercises. He was
appointed a member of the committee on the Selection and Training of
Scientific Personnel of the National Research Council, concerned primarily with the Atomic Energy Awards. He was also the representative
of the university on the College Entrance Examination Board and served
on the Committee of Tests and Measurements of the Educational Testing
Service.
The research activity of Mr. Stone centered in the effects of
electro-convulsive shocks on innate and learned behavior of rats and
mice and on the effects of glutamic acid deficiency on learning ability of rats. Aside from the usual committee work and advisory functions on graduate studies within the department, he served again as
chairman of the Graduate Study Committee of the School of Social
Sciences. His editorship of the Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology was continued and a newly created editorship of the
Annual Review of~Psycholog.y which will be published by Annual Reviews,
Inc., Stanford University was undertaken. He attended meetings of the
Western and the Eastern Psychological Associations and presented a
paper at the annual meetings of the National Academy. In January he
gave a luncheon talk before the local chapter of Sigma Xi. He served
as a substitute on the Graduate Study Committee and as acting chairman
of the Department of Psychology during the suraaer quarter.
Mr. Strong's report appears in the Graduate School of Business.
Mrs. Stolz, in addition to offering new course work on the observation of children, acted as consultant to both staff and parents at
the Stanford Village Nursery School.
Mr. McNemar spent ten days in March at Tulane University where he
gave an intensive course in the analysis of variance and met with the
graduate seminar in psychology. During the summer of 191*8 he taught at
the University of California (Berkeley). He has been appointed as a
consultant to the Veterans Administration, with assignment to the research work in clinical psychology. Because of demand, the Psychological Bulletin has reprinted the issue containing Mr. McNemar's 19U6
appraisal of attitude-opinion methodology.
A paper by Mr. Willits, entitled "'Fire Prevention1 in the Personnel Field," was published last fall in the Proceedings of the 71st
Annual Meeting of the Fire Underwriters' Association of the Pacific.
Mr. Willits continued to serve as a Research Associate of the Psychological Corporation's Marketing and Social Research Division. Curing
the academic year he directed the research in this area for six of the
Corporation's field surveys. In that connection he trained ten Stanford students in the work of field interviewers. These students were
majors in four different departments of the university, and the

Sociology

319

majority of them were graduate students.


Miss Dembo completed the write-up on the research activities on
her investigation of psychological factors associated with physical
disability. She left Stanford to undertake duties at the New School
for Social Research in New York City.
In connection with responsibility for formulating and administering the Veterans Administration Training Program in clinical psychology* Mr. Hunt has continued to serve as a consultant to the Veterans
Administration. Mr. Hunt attended the 19^7 meeting of the American
Psychological Association where he read a paper on the Diagnostic
Utility of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory and served
as a member of a discussion panel on psychotherapy. During the past
year he completed research on the effect of deception on Minnesota
Multiphasic Personality Inventory scores, reported at the 19^8 meeting
of the Western Psychological Association. At that meeting he also
served as a member of a discussion panel on the teaching of psychotherapy. iAiring August of 19U8, Mr. Hunt served on the staff of the University of Michigan research project on the selection of clinical
psychologists. Mr. Hunt was elected to fellowship in the Clinical Division of the American Psychological Association and has served on the
program committee of that association for the year 19U7-U8. He leaves
his work at Stanford to become an associate professor at the University
of Chicago,
Mr. Taylor presented a paper at the meetings of the American
Psychological Association in Detroit in September 19U? During the
fall quarter, he supervised the moving of the experimental laboratory
to the newly-constructed quarters in the basement of Cubberley Hall.
He was appointed as the Associate Editor of the Annual Review of Psychology. At the request of the National Research Council Committee on
Selection and Training of Scientific Personnel, he began preparation
of a review of the literature concerned with the validity of the procedures used in selection of men both for training and for employment
as scientists*
Mrs. Bradway extended the psychological services at Stanford University Hospitals, under a grant from the United States Public Health
Service. Psychological examining of patients was increased both on the
wards and in the out-patient services. Research has been undertaken on
vocabulary responses of patients with a variety of disturbances, and on
indicators of anxiety in some of the standard tests.
ERNEST R. HILGARD
Executive Head
SOCIOLOGY
The staff of the Division of Sociology on active duty in all or
part of 19U7-U8 included Richard Tracy LaPiere and Charles Nathan
Reynolds, professors; Paul Wallin, associate professor; Donald Goodspeed Reuter, assistant professor; Carl Martin Frisen, acting instructor. Louis Wirth, professor of sociology at the University of Chicago,
was acting professor for the summer quarter. Professor WLrth conducted
courses in The Urban Community and the Sociology of Knowledge*
The Division enrolled in its classes 1,370 students as compared
with 1,291 in 19U6-U7, 1,002 in 19U5-U6, 682 in 19^*45 and 630 ia

320

Sociology

i. In the prewar year 19UO-U1 the Division enrolled ir; its


classes 977 students
For the year 19k7-ii8 enrollment per instructing member was 96 for
the autumn quarter, 127 for the winter quarter, 93 for the spring
quarter, and 93 for the summer quarter. For the three regular quarters of the year the enrollment averaged 103 students per quarter for
each instructing member, compared with 102 for 19U6-U7, li;2 for 19ii5-h6,
99 for 19kk-k5 and 91 in the prewar year 19iiO-Ul.
The enrollment of major students was as follows: autumn quarter,
graduates 7, undergraduates 20j winter quarter, graduates 8, undergraduates 13 j spring quarter, graduates 13, undergraduates 16; summer
quarter, graduates 8, undergraduates 10. The Bachelor of Arts degree
was awarded to 5 students majoring in Sociology, the Master of Arts
degree to 3 students.
Several members of the Division of Sociology attended professional
meetings during the academic year. Professor LaPiere attended the
meetings of the American Sociological Society in New York City, December 27-30, 19U7 He is a member of the Executive Committee, and participated in a panel on "Recent Developments in Social Psychology."
Professor LaPiere also attended the meetings of the Pacific Sociological Society in Santa Barbara, April 30 and May 1, 19U8. He is President of the society, and his presidential address on "Sociology in the
Perspective of a Quarter-Century," is to be published in the Proceedings. Professor Reynolds attended the regional meeting of the Institute of Mathematical Statistics in Berkeley on December 23, 19U7- Mr.
Wallin attended two meetings of the Pacific Coast Committee on Community Research, Social Science Research Council in Berkeley. These meetings were held in March and June of 19U8. Mr. Reuter attended the
meetings of the Pacific Sociological Society in Santa Barbara, April
30 and May 1, 19U8.
Professor LaPiere has continued his work as consulting editor for
the McGraw-Hill Publications in Sociology.
Professor LaPiere published the following reviews: Chao, Buwei
Yang, Autobiography of a Chinese Woman, 19^7 and Pruitt, Ida, A Daughter. of Han, 19li5 for the Pacific Historical Review, 16: U63-U6U, November 19h7) Lang, Olga, Chinese Family and Society, 19U6, for The Far
Eastern (^tiarterly, 18: 186-188, December 19ii7j Bowerman, Walter Q. ,
Studies in Genius, 19^7 > American Sociological Review, 13: 112-113,
February 19U8; Sherif, M.and Cantril, H. , The Psychology of Ego-Involvements, 19U7, American Sociological Review, 13: 231-232, April 19li8j
Paul, R.7/. , California Gold: The Beginning of Mining in the Far Y/est,
19U7, American Journal of Sociology, 53: 305-306, January 19ii8j Katz,
S. ,Freudt On War, Sex, and Neurosis, 19li7j, Hollitscher, W. , Sigmund
Freud: An Introduction, 19^7 j and Roheim, G., Psychoanalysis and the
Social Sciences, 19^7: American Sociological Review, 13: 3ii6-3i48,June
19U8. The first and last of the above articles were joint reviews.
Professor LaPiere has prepared prospecti of two research projects
on the European Resistance Movement. Relevant materials in the Hoover
Library have been examined. In collaboration with Dr. Paul Farnsworth
of the Department of Psychology Professor LaPiere has revised the 2nd
edition of Soc ial Psychology . The 3rd edition will be published by
McGraw-Hill Book Company in the spring of I9k9* Professor Reynolds has
initiated a study of the growth of population in the San Francisco Bay
Area. Mr. Wallin has prepared a paper on "An Appraisal of Methodological Aspects of the Kinsey Report, " which will be published in the

Sociology

321

Proceedings of the Pacific Sociological Society, he has also completed


and submitted for publication, a paper en "iJependence on Volunteer Subjects as a oource of Sampling Bias." In collaboration with Professor
ii.ft. Burgess of the University of Chicago, "T. Wallin will complete a
volume on, "Engagement and Marriage." This volume will be published
by Harcourt-f-race Company. Vr. 7/allin has initiated three research
projects. They are: "Comparison of Neighboring Activities in a Suburban and Urban Area," "Comparison of iuctent of Participation in Vol.untary Associations in a Suburban and Urban Area," and "A Socialpsycholoprical Investigation of the Experience of Parenthood." Mr.
Reuter expects to complete his doctoral dissertation for the University
of Chicago on "Etiological Factors in Catatonic Schizophrenia."
In 19i8-li9 the Division of Sociology will be merged into the
Department of Sociology and Anthropology, under the executive headship
of Felix Maxwel] Keesing. A general revision has been made ir. the
course curriculum which v.111 insure both more extensive and more intensive training for major students of undergraduate and graduate
standing alike.
BERNARD FRANCIS-HALEY
Executive Head

COMMITTEE REPORTS

The Faculty Committee on Foreign Students was.composed of


Professors Virgil Anderson (Chairman), Shau Wing Chan, Paul Hanna,
Raymond Harrinan, Herbert Merrit, and Juan Rael', Dean Lavrence Kimpton,
and Registrar Donald Winbigler. The committee considers that a number
of worthwhile achievements resulted from its year's activities, among
which can be mentioned briefly the following:
The Committee's recommendation that a part-time counsellor connected with the office of Dean of Students be appointed to handle
affairs dealing with the counselling and advising of the foreign
students was acted upon favorably by the Administration. He will
begin his duties with the autumn quarter of 194.8. The plan is to have
the Faculty Committee become an advisory and policy-making body, to
whom the special counsellor will be responsible. His duties will be
to carry out those policies and to do the work that can't very well
be done merely on an extra-curricular basis. We believe that this
move will greatly strengthen our foreign student program.
The past year saw the beginning of our screening and testing
program for the foreign student. This program, coupled with the more
careful screening being given these students by the Admissions
Committee before they are accepted, has resulted in a much higher
type of student, at least in terms of his facility in the use of
English. This should shortly be reflected in a better academic
record being made by the foreign students. While undoubtedly certain
refinements in our techniques will be suggested to us as we proceed,
we feel that our basic scheme of admissions and testing is sound.
Considerable progress has been made during the past year in
establishing a helpful spirit and working plan of cooperation between
the Faculty Committee and the student groups on the campus interested
in the welfare of the foreign student, especially the Institute of
International Relations. This group, under the guidance of your
Committee, has undertaken two projects during the year that promise
to make the stay of the foreign student on the Stanford Campus more
enjoyable and profitable. The first of these is a general get-acquainted social gathering to be held during orientation week prior
to the opening of the autumn quarter. The second consists of a series
of educational and orientation trips to factories, public buildings,
and other places of interest in the vicinity. The first of these
trips was arranged during the spring quarter when 32 foreign students
were transported to San Jose and were taken on a tour of the Amino
Division plant of the International Mineral and Chemical Corporation.
During this summer quarter some 25 foreign students m&de the trip,
under arrangements by the Faculty Committee and the Institute of
International Relations, through the Big Basin Redwoods to Santa Cruz
and Rio Del Mar. More of such trips are being planned for the coming
year.
Submitted by
Virgil A. Anderson
Chairman, FFS Committee

322

323
Members for 19li7-W3 were: Alf E. Brandin, Paul J. Hanzlik,
Marion R. Kirkwood, George S. Parks (Chairman), and Frederick .
Terman.
During the year the Committee held two formal meetings and, in
addition, a considerable amount of business was transacted by conferences and correspondence between the Chairman and available committee members. In this way consideration was given to, and recommendations were made on, three patent proposals, which had been submitted by members of the Stanford faculty.
At one of these meetings (October 21, 19U7) Dr Joseph W. Barker
presented an explanation of the character and work of the Research
Corporation, and showed how it could function in serving the interests
of educational and research institutions in their patent problems,
Subsequently during the year, the Committee recommended that these
services of the Research Corporation might be advantageously tried
out by Stanford University in connection with two of the patent
proposals.
GEORGE S, PARKS:
Chairman

324

Public Exercises
PUBLrC EXERCISES

The Committee on Public Exercises during the 1947-48 academic


year was composed of Messrs. William H. Cowley, William L. Crosten,
Hubert C. Heffixer, Paul H. Kirkpatrick, George ?. Sensabaugh,
Hugh H. Skilling, Rixford K. Snyder, F. Cowles Strickland, Samuel
D. Thurman, Jr., and John M. Stalnaker (chairman). All members
of the Committee were on active duty during Autumn, Winter and
Spring Quarters. Messrs* Crosten, Heffner, Kirkpatrick, Sensabaugh
and SkiVJing were absent during the Summer Quarter. Mrs. Marylou
Patton Brune completed her first year as Secretary to the Committee.
Committee activities were carried on during the four quarters
of the year with the assistance of the following subcommittees,
which were appointed at various times during the year to carry out
specific projectsi Tuesday Evening Series Program Committee:
Messrs. Hubert C. Heffner (chairman), William H. Cowley, William
L. Crosten, Rixford K. Snyder (acting chairman during Summer
Quarter); Pounders' Day Committee: Messrs. William L. Crosten
(chairman), F. Cowles Strickland, R. M. llinto. Visiting Chaplain;
Revival Film Series Committee: Messrs. Alexander Nicholas Vardac
(chairman), George F. Sensabaugh, Ray Faulkner; Acting Revival
Film Series Committee during Summer Quarter: Messrs. Rixford E.
Snyder (chairman), Samuel D. Thurman, Jr.; Raymond Fred West
Memorial Lectures Committee: Samuel D. Thurman Jr. (chairman);
Conanence:nent Committee: Messrs. George F. Sensabaugh (chairman),
Samuel D. Thurman, Jr. (assistant chairman), Rixford K. Snyder,
F. Cowles Strickland, Frederic 0. Glover, Thomas P. Carpenter,
Paul E. Holden, Paul Kirkpatrick, Skipwith W. Athey, William Loren
Crosten; Baccalaureate Committee: R. M. Minto, Visiting Chaplain
(chairman), Messrs. William L. Crosten, F. .Cowles Strickland;
Commencement and Baccalaureate Speakers Committee: Messrs William
H. Cowley (chairman), Hubert C. Heffner, Paul H. Kirkpatrick.
During the four quarters of the year, 40 issues of the Weekly
Stanford University Calendar were published. The number of calendars printed per issue was increased beginning Winter Quarter to
1,375. Distribution of the Weekly Calendar was as follows: 825 to
campus offices and departments; 80 to campus living groups and all
campus bulletin boards; 350 to subscribers; 100 to complimentary
subscriptions; 20 to the Committee on Public Exercises for office
use.
The Committee, in behalf of the University, entertained at
informal dinners in the Union Dining Hall a total of 18 speakers
and artists, who appeared on the Tuesday Evening Series programs
during the year. On October 13, Charles Raphael, a visiting Britis'
economist, was entertained by the Committee at a discussion tea
in the Lower Lounge of the Women's Clubhouse. Other guests of the
University, who appeared under the auspices of the Committee on
Public Exercises, but who were entertained by persons outside of
the Committee, included! Earnest A. Hooton, who presented the
Raymond Fred West Memorial Lecture Series in the Auditorium,
Memorial Hall, on the general subject, "Determinants of Human
Conduct," February 10, 11, 12; Banning Friis, who presented a

Public Exercises

325

special "ecture in Cubberley Auditorium, Education Building, on


"General Problems of the Scandinavian Democracies," July 28.
Again this year, the tremendous increase in activities of all
types at Stanford resulted in a greater need than ever for more
space cci campus for meetings, lectures, dramatic productions,
concerts, conferences and ASSU functions. Both Cubberley and
Memorial "3all Auditoriums were scheduled by the Committee almost
constantly after 4:15 p.m. In many oases, organizations and groups
were forced to give up plans for activities because of inadequate
space. The need for a convocation hall with a seating capacity of
600 or more has b.ecome increasingly apparent over the past two years.
TUESDAY EYEING SERIES
The Tuesday Evening Series for the four quarters comprised 33
programs, 14 of which were presented by members of the faculty, one
by a former faculty member, two by the Music Division and three in
conjunction with other organizations of the University. Approximately 21,845 persons attended these programs over the year (an
average o? 661 persons per program). The following programs were
presented:
October 7. Lecture, "Contemporary Music in the Netherlands,"
Sem Dresden (472).*
October 14. Lecture, "Japan in August, 1947,* Merrill K. Bennett
(502).
October 21. Lecture, "The European Crises," Jan Ciechanowski (532).
October 23. Lecture, "The Military Use of Atomic Power," Norrie E.
Bradbury (803).
November 4. Lecture, "Bikini and the Biological Aspects of Atomic
Development," Douglas M. Whitaker (615).
November 11. Panel Discussion, "The Social and Political Implications of Atomic Development," Harold E. Fisher (chairman),
C. Easton Rothwell, William Greulich, L. I. Schiff, John Parks
Davis (515).
November 18. Illustrated Lecture, "How to Evaluate Chinese Art,"
Millard B. Rogers (410).
November 25. Panel Discussion, "Soviet-American Competition in
World Reconstruction," Philip W. Buck (chairman), Shau Wing
Chan, Roberto B. Sangiorgi, Richard Hare (389).
December 2. Program of Music, Stanford University Orchestra and
Stanford University Chorus (953).
January 13. Documentary Film, "Fighting Lady" (1,375).
January 20. Joint Spanish Dance and Harp Recital, La Mariquita and
Marjorie Chauvel (1,567).
January 27. Lecture, "Contemporary American Literature," John B.
Lovell, Jr. (311).
February 3. Lecture, "Britain's Struggle for Survival," Edward
Shaokleton (418).
February 17. Lecture, "Problems of Peace with Germany," David
Harris (329).
February 23. Lecture, "Jet Propulsion," William F. Durand (427).
March 2. Program of Music, Stanford University Orchestra, Stanford
University Chorus, Stanford University Choir, Memorial Church
(663).
*Attendance is indicated by figures in parenthesis

326

Public Exercises

April 6. Song Recital and Informal Lecture, "The Songs of Modesto


Moussorgsky," Joel Carter, baritone, Herbert B. Nanney,
accompanist (513)
April 13. Lecture, "The Atomic Bomb and the Civilian Control of
Atomic Energy," Lawrence A* Kimpton (304),
April 20. Illustrated Lecture, "The Garden and the Hone," Albert
Wilson (603).
April 27. Lecture, "The Recent Revolution in United States Foreign
Policy," Thomas A. Bailey (838).
May 4. Lecture, "The Greek Dilemma," Hazel D Hansen (411)
May 11. Lecture, "American Policies in the Far East," Claude A*
Buss (527).
May 18. Lecture, "Our Foreign Policy: Its Latin-American Implications," Carl B. Spaeth (322).
May 25. Lecture, "Voyages to the Moon," Marjorie H. Nioolson (402).
June 22. Lecture, "Modern Poetry in a Modern World," Stephen
Spender (465).
June 29.