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Form 1

Science

Notes

CHAPTER 2 CELL AS A UNIT OF LIFE


2.1 Cells
1. A cell is the basic unit of living things which can function on their own.
2. Cells are able to perform basic life processes such as respiration, division,
specialization, excretion and growth.
3. Cells of living things exist in many sizes and shapes.
4. Most of these cells are microscopic (minute) and cannot be seen with the naked eye.
Microscopes
1. Microscopes are used to magnify images of minute objects.
2. Figure 1 shows the main structures of a microscope.

Figure 1

3. Listed below are the functions of the main structures of a microscope.


Parts

Function

1. Eyepiece

To magnify the image formed by the objective lens.

2. Objective lens

To produce a magnified image of the object.

3. Adjustment knobs

To obtain a sharp image of the object.

4. Stage

To place the microscopic slide.

5. Clips

To hold the microscopic slide in position.

6. Diaphragm

To control the amount of light that enters the objective


lens.

7. Mirror and
Condenser

To reflect and direct light onto the object.

8. Lens tube

To keep the distance between the objective lens and the


eyepiece fixed.

9. Base

To keep the microscope stable.

10. Limb

To support the lens tube.


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CHAPTER 2 Cell As A Unit Of Life

Form 1

Science

Notes

4. The following shows how a specimen is mounted on a microscopic slide.


a. Obtain the specimen and placed it on the centre of the microscopic slide.
i. To obtain cheek (animal) cells, scrap the inside of the cheek with a toothpick
ii. To obtain onion (plant) cells, cut a small piece of the succulent layer of an
onion.
b. A drop of water is dripped on the specimen. (Figure 2a)
c. A cover slip is slowly placed on the specimen with the fingers and a long pin.
(Figure 2b)
d. A drop of dye, e.g. iodine solution or methylene blue, is added so that the
specimen can be seen clearly. (Figure 2c)
e. A piece of filter paper is used to absorb excess water around the cover clip.
(Figure 2c)

Figure 2a

Figure 2b

Figure 2c

2.2 General structures of a cell


1. Most cells are made up of the following:
a. a nucleus
b. cytoplasm
c. cell membrane
Note: The protoplasm is made up of the nucleus and the cytoplasm.
2. Comparison between animal cells and plant cells.
a. Similarities
Both animals cells and plant cells have
nucleus
cytoplasm
cell membrane

Cytoplasm

Vacuole

Nucleus

Cell wall

Cell
membrane

Chloroplast

Animal cell

Plant cell
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CHAPTER 2 Cell As A Unit Of Life

Form 1

Science

Notes

Differences
Animal Cells
Animal cells are small and have
irregular shape.
Animal cells do not have cell wall.
1. Without the cell wall, animal cells
do not have a regular shape.

Cells of some lower animal cells have


vacuole.
Animal cells do not have chloroplasts.
4. Animal cells cannot produce their
own food because they could not
undergo photosynthesis.

Plant Cells
Plant cells are large and have regular
shape.
Plant cells have cell wall.
2. The cell wall is made up of
cellulose. The cell wall protects
the cell and gives it a regular
shape.
Plant cells have big vacuole.
3. The vacuole is a space with cell
sap and stores food.
Plant cells have chloroplasts.
5. Chloroplasts have chlorophyll
which absorbs sunlight to produce
food during photosynthesis.

3. The functions of cell structures


Cell Structure
a. Nucleus
b. Cytoplasm
c. Cell membrane
d. Cell wall
e. Vacuole

f.

Chloroplast

Function
Controls all activities of the cell and has genetic material
(chromosomes).
Acts as a medium for chemical or metabolic processes to
occur. Contains water, mineral salts and food substances.
Controls the movement of substances in and out of the cell.
It is a thin, semi-permeable layer.
Maintains the regular shape of a plant cell and protects the
plant cell.
Plant cells: Store food, dissolve minerals and waste products.
Keeps the shape of the plant cell by storing water.
Animal cells: Stores food that is being digested and waste
products. Vacuoles in animal cells are very much smaller
than vacuoles in plant cells.
Undergoes photosynthesis by converting sunlight to simple
sugars. Chloroplasts contain chlorophyll which is green in
colour.

CHAPTER 2 Cell As A Unit Of Life

Form 1

Science

Notes

2.2 Unicellular organism and multicellular organism


Organisms and microorganisms
1. Organisms are living things.
2. Microorganisms are very small (microscopic) living things that cannot be seen by
the naked eye.
3. Organisms can be divided into
a. Unicellular organisms
b. Multicellular organisms
Unicellular organisms
1. Unicellular organisms are organisms that are made up of only one cell. Unicellular
organisms are microorganisms.
2. Unicellular plants include pleurococcus, euglena, clamydomonas and yeast.

Euglena
Chlamydomonas
Pleurococcus
Yeast
3. Unicellular animals include protozoa, amoeba, paramecium and plasmodium.

Amoeba
Paramecium
Plasmodium
4. In unicellular organisms, all life processes are carried out in the cell itself.
Multicellular organisms
1. Multicellular organisms are organisms that are made up of more than one cell.
2. Multicellular plants include mosses, algae, ferns and most of the flowering plants.
3. Multicellular animals include mammals, amphibians, reptiles, birds and fish.
4. Multicellular organisms have different cells. These cells perform their own
specialized functions.
5. Examples of multicellular microorganisms include spirogyra (plant) and hydra
(animal).

Hydra (animal)

Spirogyra (plant)
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CHAPTER 2 Cell As A Unit Of Life

Form 1

Science

Notes

2.3 Organisation of cells in the human body


Types of human cells and their functions
1 Man is a multicellular organism made up of millions of different types of cells.
2 Each cell is of different size, shape, and structure to enable it to perform a particular
function.
3 Cells perform specialized functions. Each type of cell performs only one specific
function. This characteristic is known as specialisation of cell.
4 The different types of cells and their functions are shown in the table below.
1
Made up of many fine and long muscle fibers and
surrounded by elastic membrane.
Acts to control movements of bones and organs of
body.
2

Dimpled disc-shaped with no nucleus.


For transporting oxygen from lungs to all cells in
the body.

These cells have a nucleus.


They can change their shape.
They kill or engulf microorganisms such as bacteria
which enter the blood-stream.
Divided into cell body, axon, and dendrite,
Acts to send nerve impulses.

7 Reproductive cells
(a)

(b)

Found in the outer layer of skin.


Controls exchange of substances among parts of the
body and also between the body and the
environment.
Found in bones.
Functions in the support system of the body.

Has a head, body, and tail.


Acts as the male gamete in the male reproductive
system.

This is the largest cell in a woman's body.


It does not move on its own.
It will develop into a baby if it is united with a
sperm.

CHAPTER 2 Cell As A Unit Of Life

Form 1

Science

Notes

Human tissues
1. A group of cells with the same shape and structure and perform the same function are
called tissues.
2. There are four basic types of tissues in the human body:
epithelial tissue, connective tissue, muscle tissue and nerve tissue.
Type of tissue
1. Epithelial tissue

Function and descriptions


a. Acts to protect tissues beneath it.
b. Made up of epithelial cells arranged in layers.
c. Epithelial tissues are found in the wall of the small
intestine, stomach wall, gall bladder, and the wall of the
large intestine.

2. Connective
tissue

a. Connective tissue joins a tissue to another tissue, a tissue


to an organ or an organ to another organ.
b. Connective tissue protects and supports the organ and the
body.
c. Bones, fat tissues, cartilages, tendons and blood tissues are
connective tissue.

3. Muscle tissue

a. Muscle tissue enables the body to move when the muscle


tissue contracts or relaxes.
b. Muscle tissue is found most in the body.
c. It is divided into smooth muscle, skeletal muscle and
cardiac muscle.
d. Muscle tissue comprises fibres made up of muscle cells.
e. This tissue is found in hollow organs such as the stomach,
the small intestine, the heart, the urinary bladder and the
blood veins.
a. Nerve tissue is sensitive to stimuli such as pain, heat, cold,
touch and pressure.
b. Nerve tissue coordinate activities of the body by sending
and receiving electrochemical impulses.
c. Nerve tissues are formed from nerve cells.
d. It is present in large quantities in the spinal cord and the
brain.

4. Nerve tissue

Organ
1. A group of different tissues carrying out a particular life process is called an organ.
2. The skin is an organ formed from epithelial tissues, connective tissues, muscle tissues
and nerve tissues. Examples of other human organs include the lungs, the stomach,
the kidney, the brain and the heart.

CHAPTER 2 Cell As A Unit Of Life

Form 1

Science

Notes

System
1. A system is made up of several organs.
2. These organs work together to carry out a specific or particular function.
3. The diagrams below show the main systems of the body.

CHAPTER 2 Cell As A Unit Of Life

Form 1

Science

Notes

4. The table below shows the functions of the main systems of the human body.
a. Skeletal system

To support the weight of the body and protect soft


organs

b. Muscular system

To help the body to move

d. Blood circulatory
System

To digest food so that it can be absorbed easily and


used by the body
To carry oxygen and food to all parts of the body and
waste substances to the kidney

e. Respiratory system

To enable gas exchanges to take place

f. Nervous system

To help the body respond to changes inside and


outside the body

g. Urinary system

To remove toxic substances (urea) from the body

h. Reproductive system
(Male and female)

To produce reproductive cells

c. Digestive system

i. Lymphatic system
j. Endocrine system

To defend the body against diseases with the help of


lymphocytes
To produce hormones to control the bodys activities
and development

Organisms
1. An organism is made up several systems.
2. The different systems in the body function and co-ordinate their activities so that the
body can function as a whole organism.
3. The flow chart below shows the cell organisation of the human body.
Simple
Cell

Complex
Tissue

Organ

System

Organism

Cell Organisation In The Human Body

Human beings as complex organisms


1. The human body is complex.
2. Each cell in the human body cannot carry out all life processes such as respiration,
digestion and excretion.
3. Each type of cell in the human body performs one particular function. The division
of labour ensures the smooth and efficient functioning of the human body.

CHAPTER 2 Cell As A Unit Of Life