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MATH 221 COMPLETE COURSE

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Discussions
Week 1
Descriptive Statistics (graded)
If you were given a large data set such as the
sales over the last year of our top 1,000
customers, what might you be able to do with
this data? What might be the benefits of
describing the data?
Week 2
Regression (graded)
Suppose you are given data from a survey
showing the IQ of each person interviewed and
the IQ of his or her mother. That is all the

information that you have. Your boss has asked


you to put together a report showing the
relationship between these two variables. What
could you present and why?
Week 3
Statistics in the News (graded)
Keep your eyes and ears open as you read or
listen to the news this week. Find/discover an
example of statistics in the news to discuss the
following statement that represents one of the
objectives of statistics analysis: Statistics
helps us make decisions based on data
analysis. Briefly discuss how the news item or
article meets this objective. Cite your references.
Week 4
Discrete Probability Variables (graded)
What are examples of variables that follow a
binomial probability distribution? What are
examples of variables that follow a Poisson
distribution? When might you use a geometric
probability?
Week 5
Interpreting Normal Distributions (graded)
Assume that a population is normally distributed

with a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of


15. Would it be unusual for the mean of a sample
of 3 to be 115 or more? Why or why not?
Week 6
Confidence Interval Concepts (graded)
Consider the formula used for any confidence
interval and the elements included in that
formula. What happens to the confidence
interval if you (a) increase the confidence level,
(b) increase the sample size, or (c) increase the
margin of error? Only consider one of these
changes at a time. Explain your answer with
words and by referencing the formula.
Week 7
Rejection Region (graded)
How is the rejection region defined and how is
that related to the z-score and the p value? When
do you reject or fail to reject the null hypothesis?
Why do you think statisticians are asked to
complete hypothesis testing? Can you think of
examples in courts, in medicine, or in your area?
Statistics Lab Week 2
Name:_______________________

MATH221
Statistical Concepts:
Using Minitab
Graphics
Shapes of Distributions
Descriptive Statistics
Empirical Rule
DATA IN MINITAB
Minitab is a powerful, yet user-friendly, data
analysis software package. You can launch
Minitab by finding the icon and double clicking
on it. After a moment you will see two windows,
the Session Window in the top half of the screen
and the Worksheet or Data Window in the bottom
half.
Data have already been formatted and entered
into a Minitab worksheet. Go to the eCollege Doc
sharing site to download this data file. The
names of each variable from the survey are in
the first row of the Worksheet. This row has a
background color of gray to identify it as the
variable names. All other rows of the Minitab

Worksheet represent a certain students answers


to the survey questions. Therefore, the rows are
called observations and the columns are called
variables. Included with this lab, you will find a
code sheet that identifies the correspondence
between the variable names and the survey
questions.
Complete the questions after the Code Sheet
and paste the Graphs from Minitab in the grey
areas for question 1 through 3. Type your
answers to questions 4 through 11 where noted
in the grey areas. When asked for explanations,
please give thorough, multi-sentence or
paragraph length explanations. The completed
iLab Word Document with your responses to the
questions will be the ONE and only document
submitted to the dropbox. When saving and
submitting the document, you are required to
use the following format: Last Name_ First
Name_Week2iLab.
Code Sheet
Do NOT answer these questions. The Code
Sheet just lists the variables name and the
question used by the researchers on the survey
instrument that produced the data that are
included in the Minitab data file. This is just

information. The first question for the lab is after


the code sheet.
Variable Name
QUESTION
Drive Question 1 How long does it take you to
drive to the school on average (to the nearest
minute)?
State Question 2 What state/country were you
born?
Temp Question 3 What is the temperature
outside right now?
Rank Question 4 Rank all of the courses you
are currently taking. The class you look most
forward to taking will be ranked one, next two,
and so on. What is the rank assigned to this
class?
Height Question 5 What is your height to the
nearest inch?
Shoe Question 6 What is your shoe size?
Sleep Question 7 How many hours did you
sleep last night?
Gender Question 8 What is your gender?
Race Question 9 What is your race?
Car Question 10 What color of car do you
drive?
TV Question 11 How long (on average) do you
spend a day watching TV?

Money Question 12 How much money do you


have with you right now?
Coin Question 13 Flip a coin 10 times. How
many times did you get tails?
Die1 Question 14 Roll a six-sided die 10 times
and record the results.
Die2
Die3
Die4
Die5
Die6
Die7
Die8
Die9
Die10
Creating Graphs
1. Create a Pie Chart for the variable Car - Pull up
Graph > Pie Chart and click in the categories
variables box so that the list of variables will
show up on the left. Now double click on the
variable name 'Car" in the box at the left of the
window. Include a title by clicking on the
"Labels." button and typing it in the correct text
area (put your name in as the title). In this same
labels window, select the tab- Slice Labels and
click on all; Category name; Frequency; Percent;

Draw a line from label to slice and then click OK.


Click OK again to create graph. Click on the
graph and use Ctrl+C to copy and come back
here, click below this question and use Ctrl+V to
paste it in this Word document.
2. Create a histogram for the variable Height
Pull up Graph > Histograms and choose
Simple. Then set the graph variable to
height. Include a title by clicking on the
Labels button and typing it in the correct
text area (put your name in as the title) and click
OK. Copy and paste the graph here.
3. Create a stem and leaf chart for the variable
Money Pull up Graph > Stem-and Leaf and set
Variables: to Money. Enter 10 for theIncrement:
and click OK.
The leaves of the stem-leaf plot will be the ones
digits of the values in the Money variable.
Note: the first column of the stem-leaf plot that
you create is the count. The row with the count
in parentheses includes the median. The counts
below the median cumulate from the bottom of
the plot.
Copy and paste the graph here.
CALCULATING DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS

4. Calculate descriptive statistics for the variable


Height by Gender Pull up Stat > Basic
Statistics > Display Descriptive Statisticsand set
Variables: to Height. Check By variable: and
enter Gender into this text box. Click OK. Type
the mean and the standard deviation for both
males and females in the space below this
question.
Mean Standard deviation
Females
Males
Select File > Save Worksheet As to save the
data set. You must either keep a copy of this
data or download it again off the web site for
future labs.
Short Answer Writing Assignment
All answers should be complete sentences.
5. What is the most common color of car for
students who participated in this survey?
Explain how you arrived at your answer.
What is seen in the histogram created for the
heights of students in this class (include the
shape)? Explain your answer.

What is seen in the stem and leaf plot for the


money variable (include the shape)? Explain
your answer.
Compare the mean for the heights of males and
the mean for the heights of females in these
data. Compare the values and explain what can
be concluded based on the numbers.
Compare the standard deviation for the heights
of males and the standard deviation for the
heights of females in the class. Compare the
values and explain what can be concluded based
on the numbers.
Using the empirical rule, 95% of female heights
should be between what two values? Either
show work or explain how your answer was
calculated.
Using the empirical rule, 68% of male heights
should be between what two values? Either
show work or explain how your answer was
calculated.
Statistics Lab Week 4
Name:_______________________
MATH221
Statistical Concepts:

Probability
Binomial Probability Distribution
CALCULATING BINOMIAL PROBABILITIES
Open a new MINITAB worksheet.
We are interested in a binomial experiment
with 10 trials. First, we will make the probability
of a success . Use MINITAB to calculate the
probabilities for this distribution. In column C1
enter the word success as the variable name (in
the shaded cell above row 1. Now in that same
column, enter the numbers zero through ten to
represent all possibilities for the number of
successes. These numbers will end up in rows 1
through 11 in that first column. In column C2
enter the words one fourth as the variable
name. Pull up Calc > Probability Distributions >
Binomial and select the radio button that
corresponds to Probability. Enter 10 for the
Number of trials: and enter 0.25 for the Event
probability:. For the Input column: select
success and for the Optional storage: select
one fourth. Click the button OKand the
probabilities will be displayed in the Worksheet.
Now we will change the probability of a
success to . In column C3 enter the words one

half as the variable name. Use similar steps to


that given above in order to calculate the
probabilities for this column. The only difference
is in Event probability: use 0.5.
Finally, we will change the probability of a
success to . In column C4 enter the words
three fourths as the variable name. Again, use
similar steps to that given above in order to
calculate the probabilities for this column. The
only difference is in Event probability: use 0.75.
Plotting the Binomial Probabilities
1. Create plots for the three binomial
distributions above. Select Graph > Scatter Plot
and Simple then for graph 1 set Y equal to one
fourth and X to success by clicking on the
variable name and using the select button
below the list of variables. Do this two more
times and for graph 2 set Y equal to one half
and X to success, and for graph 3 set Y equal to
three fourths and X to success. Paste those
three scatter plots below.
Calculating Descriptive Statistics
Open the class survey results that were
entered into the MINITAB worksheet.

2. Calculate descriptive statistics for the variable


where students flipped a coin 10 times. Pull up
Stat > Basic Statistics > Display Descriptive
Statistics and set Variables: to the coin. The
output will show up in your Session Window.
Type the mean and the standard deviation here.
Mean:
Standard deviation:
Short Answer Writing Assignment Both the
calculated binomial probabilities and the
descriptive statistics from the class database
will be used to answer the following questions.
3. List the probability value for each possibility
in the binomial experiment that was calculated in
MINITAB with the probability of a success being
. (Complete sentence not necessary)
P(x=0) P(x=6)
P(x=1) P(x=7)
P(x=2) P(x=8)
P(x=3) P(x=9)
P(x=4) P(x=10)
P(x=5)
4. Give the probability for the following based on
the MINITAB calculations with the probability of

a success being . (Complete sentence not


necessary)
P(x?1) P(x<0) P(x>1) P(x?4)
P(4 Row Statistics and select the radio-button
corresponding to Mean. For Input variables:
enter all 10 rows of the die data. Go to the Store
result in: and select the mean column. Click OK
and the mean for each observation will show up
in the Worksheet.
? We also want to calculate the median for the 10
rolls of the die. Label the next column in the
Worksheet with the word median. Repeat the
above steps but select the radio-button that
corresponds to Median and in the Store results
in: text area, place the median column.
Calculating Descriptive Statistics
? Calculate descriptive statistics for the mean
and median columns that where created above.
Pull up Stat > Basic Statistics > Display
Descriptive Statistics and set Variables: to mean
and median. The output will show up in your
Session Window. Print this information.
Calculating Confidence Intervals for one Variable

? Open the class survey results that were


entered into the MINITAB worksheet.
? We are interested in calculating a 95%
confidence interval for the hours of sleep a
student gets. Pull up Stat > Basic Statistics > 1Sample t and set Samples in columns: to Sleep.
Click the OK button and the results will appear in
your Session Window.
? We are also interested in the same analysis
with a 99% confidence interval. Use the same
steps except select the Options button and
change the Confidence level: to 99.
MATH 221 FINAL EXAM