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ABSTRACT

The mixing between the indigenous people of the Netherlands Indies


with the Europeans gave birth to a form of culture named Indies culture.
Indies culture was resulted from the process of continual interaction between
the indigenous people of the Netherlands Indies with the Europeans. One of
the factors resulting in such condition was the process of mixed marriages.
The issue of mixed marriages was frequently explored in the Eurasian
literature. One of Eurasian writers representing the concept is Ferdinand
Wiggers. Therefore, the researcher explored the literary works of Ferdinand
Wiggers in period of 1900 -1908. The period selection of 1900 1908 was
likely because in that period Ferdinand Wiggers has written many literary
works compared to the previous period in which was dominated by the
process of translation and adaptation. In addition, the determination of years
before 1908 was also for the limitation of this study, the literary works before
Balai Pustaka. The aim of the study was to identify the subject liminality
formation in the text of Ferdinand Wiggerss literary works during the period
of 1900-1908. After that, the researcher showed the concept of nationalism
in the text of Ferdinand Wiggerss literary works in the period based on the
subject liminality presented, as well as identifying the Indies nationalism
form of Ferdinand Wiggerss works of 1900-1908 by post-nation perspective.
In this research, the researcher took three (3) samples of the works to be
observed. The selection of these works was based on the work popularity
indicators (seen from the number of volumes published), the uniqueness of
influence and the form of another genre (drama text). These works were
Tjerita Nyai Isah (representation of the popular novel; published until five
volumes), Boekoe Peringatan: Mentjeritain dari halnja seorang Prampoean Islam Tjeng Kao
bernama Fatima (novel that allegedly gets the influence of Middle East
thoughts) and Lelakon Raden Beij Soerio Retno (drama text).
In the research on the subject liminality formation in Ferdinand
Wiggers's works of 1900 - 1908, to ease the analysis, the researcher tried to
describe sub-chapter in two components: the colonized (East) subject
liminality and the colonizers (West) subject liminality. In the study of the
nationalism in Ferdinanad Wiggers's works in period of 1900 - 1908, the
researcher divided sub-chapter into two parts: the past rhetoric and the
future rhetoric (an ambivalence) and synthesis between them, the
universality notion of concept (idea) and physical (material) in an
ambivalence.
In the context of Indies nationalism form in post-nation perspective, the
researcher considered that there were at least four representation issues:
love, humanity, brotherhood, and common prosperity. Finally, through this
awareness of post-nation presented, the author likely wanted to realize a

new society rules (in this context the national consciousness of the
Netherlands Indies) containing issues of inter-ethnic groups romance,
encouraging a spirit of humanity and brotherhood across ethnicity, which
created common prosperity based on a new spirit of nationalism.
Keywords: Ferdinand Wiggers, liminality, ambivalence and Nationalism.

The Liminality of Pre-Balai Pustaka Eurasian Literature:


Nationalism of Ferdinand Wiggers's Literary Works in Period of 1900
- 1908
-By: Arif Kurnia Rakhman-

1. Historical-Sociological Background:
Indies Society and Eurasian Literary

The mixing between the cultures of the indigenous people of the


Netherlands Indies to the Europeans gave birth to a form of culture named
Indies culture. According to Soekiman (2000: 8-9), the word Indies is
derived from Dutch word, Nederlandsch Indie, a name of the Dutch colony
across the ocean which was geographically in the islands colony called
Nederlandsch Oost Indie. One of factors causing the condition was the
process of mixed marriages, thus resulting in a culture absorption between
the two cultures.
Historically, Indies society which became known as the Eurasian, then
many of which would occupy high positions in the government (Baudet,
1984: 108). If there were prominent Indo-European groups in private sectors,
the press is one of the mainstays for social mobility. Some of them were Carl
Frederik Wainter (1799-1859), popularly known with Javanese studies, or HN
van der Tuuk (1824-1894) who pursued Kawi, Balinese and Batak languages
(Lombard, 2003: 223-224).
In the process, some of them developed their careers in the field of
journalism, not only in the press and essays, but also into the world of novels
and short stories. Their involvement contributed to the development of the
use of lingua-franca Malay. They gave "Indies" characters to the Malay

language, to distinguish it from the High Malay. In literature context, their


works were known as the Eurasian literature. Watson (via Toer, 2003: 24)
said that some of the Eurasian literary characteristics were sensational and
diverse. These works generally tended to be realists, rooted in real events,
and political.
In political context, the issue of the indigenous of Netherlands Indies
participation was central. The phrase "the Indies for the Indies People" was
central to the development of Indies nationalism discourse. It reflected a long
conflict between the pure European groups which had come to stay in the
colony with the indigenous people. The presence of a representative
parliament, was expected to guarantee the citizenship rights of Indo-people
equally to the full-blooded Europeans (Cote, 2004: 61-100).

One of the Eurasian literature authors was Ferdinand Wiggers. He was


an author of the Netherlands Indies literature, Indo-Dutch descent. He was
born in 1862 and died on 20 September 1912 (Damono, 2006: 268). He was
believed as one of the founder of the Netherlands Indies nationalism
concept, based on his Indies race consciousness.
Therefore, in this study, the researcher tried to examine literary works
of Ferdinand Wiggers during 1900 -1908 period. The selection of the period,
mainly because in that period Ferdinand Wiggers has written many literary
works, compared to the previous ones mostly for the process of translation
and adaptation. In addition, the selection of years before 1908 was because
of the researcher's limitation study in this research, which were pre-Balai
Pustaka works. Balai Pustaka itself was founded on 14 September 1908 with
the initial name Commisie voor de Inlandssche School en Volkslectuur
(Reading People's Committee)
Furthermore, the researcher took three (3) samples of works to
observe. The selection of these works was based on indicators of the work's
popularity (seen from the number of volumes published), the uniqueness of
influence, until the uniqueness of other genre (drama). These works were
Tjerita Nyai Isah (representation of the popular novel; published in five
volumes), Boekoe Peringatan: Mentjeritain dari halnja seorang Prampoean Islam Tjeng Kao
bernama Fatima (novels allegedly got the influence of the Middle East thoughts)
and Lelakon Raden Beij Soerio Retno ( Drama Text).
2. The Formation of Identity liminality

In his study, Bhabha criticized the binary opposition model of colonial


relationships as proposed by Edward Said and Franz Fanon. Bhabha's
liminality concept avoided a confrontational binary opposition. On the
contrary, Bhabha offered a threshold space, called as the third space, thus
providing an important contribution to the understanding of cultural
differences (Bhabha, 2007: 34).
2.1 The Colonized Subject Liminality in Tjerita Nyai Isah
The researcher considered minimally there were eight figures as the
representation of the colonized society which could be explored, as well as
formulating the subject liminality which accordingly appeared, through
strategy of ambivalence and mimicry. The eight figures are: Mandor Andja
and his wife, Nyai Isah , Lassimin, Tjindrowati, Regent Raden Mas Adipati
Tjondro Boewono, Mak Miskin, Doela and Marsinem. Their descriptions were
as followed.
One of the figures that could be a reference was Lassimin. Lassimin
remained Javanese, considering that he was mothered by Isah. Javanese
culture became identical with him after changing his name Wimpie to
Lassimin. Even so, the physical nuance of the Dutch still persisted. That was
why, the researcher considered Lassimin as Indies figures purposely
emerged by the author.
As an Indies figure and raised within Javanese tradition, the aspects of
Java has always appeared in him, including an attitude of respecting for the
elders and humble mentality, as well as his awareness of himself as just a
God's creature. In the context of respect for parents, Lassimin showed it
when he met with some of patih (the duke) and priyayi (gentry). Moreover,
he bowed down like the way other Javanese bowed down to those who had
higher social structure. That situation could be analyzed from the following
text.
Patih dan laen-laen prijai poen dikasi kenal pada Lassimin dan sebagaimana adat, ia
poen membri hormat pada patih dengan sembah dan lakoenja di hadepan prijai-prijai
poen hormat (Wiggers, 1904:48).
Patih and other gentry are introduced to Lasimin and as customary, he
bowed down the duke and his behavior toward priyai was respectful
(Wiggers, 1904: 48).
However, on the other hand, Lassimin remained a western educated
person who thought rationally. It could be analyzed, when Isah told about her
strange dream. However, Lassimin gave responses rationally, that dream
was because his mother got satiate of meal before bed.

Min, akoe semalam mengimpi aneh sekali.


Impian apa?
Akoe ngimpi jang kita berdoea naik kapal pegi ke soetoe tempat jang akoe tida kenal.
Sampe pada tempat itoe bagus dan terang, maka tiba-tiba boelan itoe seperti bertjahaja
di atas kepalamoe, sampe akoe heran sekali.
Lassimin bermesem, katanja itoe iboe tentoe makan terlaloe kenjang tempo malem, maka
itoe iboe sampe mengimpi (Wiggers, 1904:27).
Min, I had a strange dream last night.
What dream was it?
I dreamt we both boarded a ship to go somewhere that I did not know.
The place was nice and bright, suddenly it was like a luminous moon
Above your head, thus I was amazed.
Lassimin smiled. He said you must be satiety of meal in the evening, therefore you
dreamt of such thing (Wiggers, 1904: 27).
The facts of this text were the evidences of a hybridity process, or the
formation of a third space within Lassimin through strategy of ambivalence
verification.
In the context of mimicry, the outfit style could be a reference. In very
occasion, Lassimin rarely wore Javanese-style outfit. He was accustomed to
the Dutch-style outfit. The situation could be analyzed from the following
text, when Lassimin was going to be awarded the title of "raden" () by
regent. Instead of wearing Javanese-style clothing, he rather wore Westernstyle outfit of a trouser and shoes.
Sebab dia ini berpakean tjelana poetih dengan sepatoe, ia tida bisa dodoek bersila
seperti jang laen maka ia berdiri sama djoerotoelis djoerotoelis jang ada berhadlir di
sitoe (Wiggers, 1904:342).
Because he wore white pants with shoes, he could not sit cross-legged like the others,
then he stood up with the clerks there (Wiggers, 1904: 342).
2.1 The Colonized Subject Liminality in Peringatan Di tjeritain dari Halnja
Saorang Prampowan Islam Tjeng Kao Bernama Fatima
The researcher found that at least there were two figures who
represented the establishment of subject liminality through a strategy of
ambivalence in Peringatan Di tjeritain dari Halnja
Saorang Prampowan Islam Tjeng Kao Bernama Fatima novel, which were Fatima and
Basalama.
One of the figures reflecting the liminality was Fatima. Fatima was a
daughter of Dasima and Haji Abdulrajak. It was told that when still a

teenager, Fatima was the most beautiful girl in her village. Many people
wanted to marry her, but Said Kramat. In her daily life, Fatima was a modern
woman. Her attitude was reflected in the activities of selling gold and
diamonds, following her father's footsteps. Her trade was considerably
success, because the trade trip could beyond the town.
Fatima itoe dari ketjil di roemah meliat bapanja djoewalan emas intan, iapoen djadi bisa
berdagang begitoe, teristimewa tempo dia djadi njonja Said Kramat, wah, dia dipertjaja
sekali oleh orang-orang aken toeloeng mendjoewalkan atau membelikan barang
(Wiggers, 1908:9).
Fatima saw his father selling gold and diamonds since her childhood, he became able to
trade stuff like that, especially when she became wife of Said Kramat, waw, she was
believed in by all the people who asked for help sell or buy goods (Wiggers, 1908: 9).

In this context it could be said that the subject liminality of Fatima


reflected the concept of European that think women could also participate in
the public sectors. However, in another context, the belief in mystical world
could not be separated. In the text, it was explained that Fatima also went to
a quack to wander what happened with her body, when she felt unwell.
Liwat sabarian dia beli obat masak, katanja awaknja koerang senang rasanja, lagi atinja
terbanting-banting takoet, maka pegilah ia karoemah doekoen Telur aken meliatin
kenapa atinja koerang enak seperti melajang sadja rasanja (Wiggers, 1904:14).
After buying kitchen herbs, she said he was not feeling well, and her heart felt
uncomfortable, so she went to the shaman Telur to see why her heart felt unhappy
(Wiggers, 1904: 14).

2.3 The Colonized Subject liminality in Lelakon Raden Beij Soerio


Retno
The researcher found three figures that represented the formation of
subject liminality through ambivalence and mimicry strategy in Drama Text
of Lelakon Raden Beij Soerio Retno, which were Beij Raden Raden Ongko and
Iboe.
One of the figures representing the formation was Raden Beij. Raden
Beij was a collector. In this context he could be regarded as a tax collector. In
the context of colonial life, he was assigned to collect taxes, especially to
para lurah (the headmen). Because of his job, Raden Beij got a gold star from
the colonial government.

COLLECTEUR
Inget isteri, pekerdja-ankoe, pangkatkoe, aia itoelah pangkat kapertjaija-an. lihatlah ini
bintang di dadakoe tida tergantoeng di sitoe dengan pertjoema, tida gampang poela
soempahkoe jang akoe pikoel, djangan bikin sampe akoe mendapet maloe, sampe orag
bole bilang jang akoe melanggar kepertjaija-an goesti djoendjoengankoe. Kendati satoe
cent kowe ambil dari kas kejtil, ia sebab angkau mentjuri barang... ... barang yang akoe
misti perlindoengi dengan djiwakoe. Selama-lamanja akoe pertjaijakan kontji-kontji peti
besi semoewa padamoe O! Isteri, djanganlah angkau dapet penggoda. (Wiggers via
Dewi, 1996:109)
COLLECTOR
Remember my wife, my job, my position, were the credibility power.
Look at this star on my chest, it does not stick on with no use, my vow
that I bear is not easy too, do not make me embarrassed, until one can
say if I violate my master's trust. Although a single penny you took
from petty cash, by the way you steal it ... ... the stuff I must protect
with my soul. I always entrust the keys of the strongroom to you, Oh
my wife. You do not get tempted (Wiggers via Dewi, 1996: 109)
However, an ambivalence arose. He wanted evidently to break his own
dedication, when he saw his wife and son were going to steal the tax money.
For him, his credibility was not a serious matter. In order to protect his wife
and children who had been stealing the tax money in the box.
Kaloe begitoe angkau terlebi saijang anak dari kahormatan bintangkoe ini jang akoe
djoendjoengken kamoelia-annja seperti soewatoe adzimat? Tetapi djangan anakmoe
djadi maling, sebab kaloe dia jang ambil itoe oewang dari peti gouvernement maka
maling namanja dan dia nanti terhoekoem. Akoelah jang nanti ambil, biar akoelah jang
tanggoeng kesalahan ini. (Wiggers via Dewi, 1996:131).
Raden Beij toetoep peti besinja jang di kontji berdjalan ia kadalem kamar. Isteri Raden
Beij tida apa membikin, seperti orang kena kesima, dia orang tida dengar satoe apa dari
katanja Raden Beij taoe-taoe kadengaran di dalem pestol berboenji. Kagetnja kadoewadoewa boekan alang kepalang teristimewa poela koetika Kartani dateng bersngal-sengal
dengan ramboet teroere kasi taoe dengan sesambatan jang romo soedah tida ada lagi,
romo soedah boenoeh diri (Wiggers via Dewi, 1996:131).
If so, you love your child more than the honor of this star that I cherish its glory as a
talisman? But your child should not be a thief, because if he took money from the
government's strongroom, it would br a thievery and he will be punished. I'm the one who
later put him out, I'll assume this mistake. (Wiggers via Dewi, 1996: 131).
Raden Beij closed steel box that is locked and he entered the room. Raden Beij's wife did
not do anything, being stunned, he did not hear one single word of Raden Beij, suddenly
it was heard the sound of a gun inside. Both were shocked, especially when Kartani came

wheezily with her hair flew down and told that dad was passed away, he had committed
suicide. (Wiggers via Dewi, 1996: 131).

This context indicated that the subject liminality was presented, the
process of loyalty to the colonial government, was ambivalent before his
family. It meant that the colonial government to be number two, after his
family. In fact, in this context Raden Beij was willing to exchange his life to
defend the honor of his wife and son.

2.4 The Colonizers (West) Subject Liminality


From those three objects of the material presented, it seemed that the
dominant exploration for the colonizers' subject was presented in Nyai Isah
novel. To facilitate the exploration, it would be explained the details of the
subject: Tuan Jones, Verkerk, Adele, Lady Wiers, Nyonya Abrams, and Poppie.
One of the figures that could be a reference was Poppie. The most obvious
thing of Poppie's liminality was her outfit hybridity. It was told, Poppie was
recorded twice wearing Kebaya (Javanese traditional cloth), when she was
trying to seduce Verkerk to be her husband, and when she was going to walk
around to the traditional market with her friend named Saripa. For the
second case, her willingness to wear Kebaya was because Poppie had rarely
interacted with the Dutch ladies. She interacted more often with Javanese
ladies.

Peke kebaja aloes kaloe pagi, soepaja orang bisa dapet liat kita poenja koetang jang
diborduur dan koetangnja poen misti begitoe, potongannja dan nprduurnja sampe lelaki
kaloe memandang kita misti merasa hatinja ketarik oleh matanja...(Wiggers, 1904:395).
Poppie yang tadinja biasa berapakajan Blanda, ia itoe pake japon kaloe berpesiar,
sekarang ini sebab tida bergaoelan lagi dengan njonja njonja ia soedah tida maoe lagi
pake pakejan Blanda, ia pake kaen kebaja sadja, dan lama kelamaan sebab kebajadari
kaen poeti itoe membosenin orang jang pake, sedang di liatnja kebajanja Saripa bagoes
bagoes berwarna warna roepanja (Wiggers, 1904:692).
Wear silky kebaya in the morning, so that people could see our embroidered bra and it
should be like that, the embroidery pattern will make men interested in when looking at
it... (Wiggers, 1904: 395).
Poppie who had been accustomed to the Dutch outfit wore japon when traveling, now
that she did not associate with the ladies she did not wear the Dutch outfit anymore, she

wore kebaya, and then because white kebaya made bored the people who wear , she was
looking at Saripa's kebaya which was colorful and nice too (Wiggers, 1904: 692).
3. The Nationalism in Ferdinand Wiggers's Literary Works of 19001908
Nation ambivalence was inherent in an interplay situation between the
two powers which he called as pedagogical performative. The pedagogical
was related to the existence of society apriory as an object of the study, with
narratives accumulated for all the times in the society's tradition. The
perfornative referred to the spoken provision, characterized by efforts
repeatedly to change very common details of daily life to be the symbols of
national culture.
In this context, Bhabha opposed to nation historicism that continued to
dominate West critical thoughts (Bhabha, 2007: 142). For this reason,
nationalism was not (only) an observable matter (physical), and (only) an
imagination (Idea). It was not also limited to the historical context of the
past, when historians fixated on the origin of nations, without being
associated with political and modernity issues (Bhabha, 2007: 203).

3.1 The Past and Future Rhetoric: An ambivalence


To ease the discussion, the researcher would firstly sub-divide this section
into two parts, the past rhetoric (an ambivalence) and the future rhetoric
(an ambivalence). Their description was as followed.
3.1.1 The Past Rhetoric: An ambivalence
The concept of this analysis was more likely to move back to the past in
understanding nationalism. In this concept, the researcher identified that the
rhetoric of this tradition was based on the cultural essentialism. In the
context of this study, there were three major issues: mysticism, feudal
society and Javanese custom.
One of the examples of the past rhetoric was a feudal society. Feudal
society is a society in certain strata based on a social structure agreed. In the
Javanese society, priyayi (gentry) class was positioned as the highest grade.
Priyayi class usually occupied the territory of bureaucracy. This class would
intensively do direct interaction with the colonial society.
In this study, the researcher found several aspects of feudalism
contained in the novel Tjerita Nyai Isah, through two main figures, namely
Tjindrowati. Her attitude which always respected for her parents' choice or
willingness, showed her identity as Javanese, as well as a priyayi. Such

conditions could be analyzed, when Tjindrowati prostrated before her


parents, was associated with the issue of matchmaking.

Disitoelah Tjindrowatilantas berloetoet pelok kaki ajahandanja seraja katanja dengan


tangisnja jang teramat sedih.
...Ja romo, Ati minta ampoen seriboe ampoen, jang Ati soeda pilih satoe orang djadi
ketjintaannja dengan tida di ketahoei romo (Wiggers, 1904:427).
There, Tjindrawati then knelt down to hug his father's feet while sobbing so sad.
Father. Ati begged your mercy, because ati has fallen in love with someone without
your notice. (Wiggers, 1904: 427).
However, the critical thought of Tjindrowati appeared, when she should deal
with priyayi life. This showed her mentality and attitude actually more
"European", than "Javanese".
Sebab dalem bebrapa hal fikirannja dan atinja Tjindrowati soedah berlaenan sekali dari
pada fikiran dan atinja orang Djawa. Tentoe anak itoe aken merasa dirinja tjilaka sanget
djika ia misti kawin terpaksa (Wiggers, 1904:179).
Because in some cases, Tjindrowati's thought and feeling were totally different from the
minds and hearts of Javanese. Of course she felt herself very unlucky if she must marry
because of being forced (Wiggers, 1904: 179).
3.1.2 The Future Rhetoric: an ambivalence
As its mentioned previously that the future rhetoric was a vision for the future that
assumed the importance of independence from colonial control in order to achieve an
autonomous identity to strengthen the indigenous support for nationalism. In the writers view,
there were at least five components that became the basis appearance of the future rhetoric,:
education, gender emancipation, health care, professionalism, and welfare. To facilitate the
exploration, the following will be outlined details of sub-chapter.
One example was education. Education became an important point in the future to
explain the future rhetoric. In the context of Tjerita Nyai Isah, the representation of education
could be analyzed from Lassimin. In the medical field, Lassimin provided extraordinary
evidence. The ability could eliminate disease outbreaks that had plagued the Masinten district.
Boedewin penja rasa, doktor Djawa itoe soeda tida berbeda dari pada doekoen-doekoen
di kampoeng, tetapi tempo dia bermoela kali liat itoe doktor di pesta dalem societeit
lantas pengrasaan atinja djadi robah, dan sekarang ini sesoedahnja dia liat bagaimana itor

dokter Djawa bekerja, baroelah dia pertjaja betoel jang satoe doktor Djawa sekarang
djaman sekarang tida ada bedanja lagi dari doktor doktor Blanda, malahan terlebi baik
lagi doktor Djawa (Wiggers, 1904:329).
Bodewin had a feeling, a that Javanese doctor was already no longer different from the
shamans in the village, but when she first saw him at a party in Societeit her feelings
changed, and now after he saw the Javanese doctor work, she really believed that
Javanese doctors now were not different with the Dutch doctors, even the Javanese were
better (Wiggers, 1904: 329).
However, although Lasimin already had western education, the aspects of Java always appeared
in him, including respect for the elder people, even he bowed down himself like other Javanese
who bowed down to people who had a higher social structure.
Patih dan laen-laen prijai poen dikasi kenal pada Lassimin dan sebagaimana adat, ia
poen membri hormat pada patih dengan sembah dan lakoenja di hadepan prijai-prijai
poen hormat (Wuggers, 1904:48).
Patih and other priyayi were introduced to Lasimin and as customary,
he bowed down the duke and his behavior toward priyai was respectful
too (Wiggers, 1904: 48).

3.1.3 The Rhetorical Synthesis of the Past and Future


From the understanding of the two rhetoric synthesis, the past and future, the researchers
saw a synthesis space between both, namely: the idea of national consciousness and the idea of
social welfare.
In the context of the idea of national consciousness, it could be analyzed from a process
of hybridity. In the context of the idea of social welfare, the patterns such as the health care
(doctor or shaman), the awareness of modern education, to the efforts to increase citizens food
productivity, became an important synthesis of the dialectic that occurred between the rhetoric of
tradition and development.
3.2 The Ideas of Unity and Universality: An Ambivalence

To further elaborate the concept of the study, researchers would distinguish the idea of
unity and universality in the form of ideas and materials. The idea more put forward the forms of
unity discourse, while the material was more physical, so it was easily digested.
3.2.1 The Concept of Universality (Idea): An Ambivalence
In this context, researchers saw at least two points which became an important event to
explain the formation of the universality of the level of ideas, namely the indigenization of
"Arab" and Identity of Indies.
The example of this concept was the identity of Indies. It explained the identity of the
Indies in the works of Ferdinanad Wiggers, period 1900-1908, then the view would not be
separated from a figure, Lassimin. At first, Lassimin had a name as Wampie, but when there was
separation between Isah and Verkerk, then Isah soon changed her name to Lassimin. This context
clearly directed to the perception that initially, Lassimin would be oriented as European descent,
but by considering there were conditions that did not allow, eventually she was oriented as
Javanese descent.
The rational perspective (representation from the west) was able to deliver Lasimin as a
credible and professional doctor, simultaneously, make her a regent who was considered able to
improve the welfare of her citizens.
Boedewin penja rasa, doktor Djawa itor soeda tida berbeda dari pada doekoen-doekoen
di kampoeng, tetapi tempo dia bermoela kali liat itoe doktor di pesta dalem societeit
lantas pengrasaan atinja djadi robah, dan sekarang ini sesoedahnja dia liat bagaimana
itor dokter Djawa bekerja, baroelah dia pertjaja betoel jang satoe doktor Djawa
sekarang djaman sekarang tida ada bedanja lagi dari doktor doktor Blanda, malahan
terlebi baik lagi doktor Djawa (Wiggers, 1904:329).
Bodewin had a feeling, a that Javanese doctor was already no longer different from the
shamans in the village, but when she first saw him at a party in Societeit her feelings
changed, and now after he saw the Javanese doctor work, she really believed that
Javanese doctors now were not different with the Dutch doctors, even the Javanese were
better (Wiggers, 1904: 329).

However, in another context, it appeared ambivalent in herself. Lasimin did not leave her
tradition as the Java community that always respected and bowed to the older people, or having a
higher position.

Patih dan laen-laen prijai poen dikasi kenal pada Lassimin dan sebagaimana adat, ia
poen membri hormat pada patih dengan sembah dan lakoenja di hadepan prijai-prijai
poen hormat (Wiggers, 1904:48).
Patih and other priyayi were introduced to Lasimin and as customary,
he bowed down the duke and his behavior toward priyai was respectful
too (Wiggers, 1904: 48).

3.2.2 The Physical Universality (Materials): An Ambivalence


In this context, researchers saw there were at least three issues that could be a
representation of the idea of universality substantively, though later ambivalent, namely;
euphoria of dressing, actions of speaking and granting the award emblem
The euphoria of dressing could be a reference. The meaning of the dressing euphoria was
overlapping, or the appearance of ambivalence in wearing dress based on the aspect of race. It
means, the Javanese descent would definitely wears Java clothing, while the Europeans certainly
wore European dress. However, in the context of daily life both appeared ambivalent.
Poppie was an example of the relevant subject. Poppie was a European descent. She was
raised based on the European traditions. At first, European dress was the daily dress which she
wore. However, by her development. Poppie who was abandoned by her mother (Nyonya
Abrams) to Europe because her father passed away (Tuan Abrams), associated with many
Javanese ladies, so wearing kebaya was a new tradition she did.
Poppie yang tadinja biasa berapakajan Blanda, ia itoe pake japon kaloe berpesiar,
sekarang ini sebab tida bergaoelan lagi dengan njonja njonja ia soedah tida maoe lagi
pake pakejan Blanda, ia pake kaen kebaja sadja, dan lama kelamaan sebab kebajadari
kaen poeti itoe membosenin orang jang pake, sedang di liatnja kebajanja Saripa bagoes
bagoes berwarna warna roepanja (Wiggers, 1904:692).
Poppie who had been accustomed to the Dutch outfit wore japon when traveling, now
that she did not associate with the ladies she did not wear the Dutch outfit anymore, she
wore kebaya, and then because white kebaya made bored the people who wear , she was
looking at Saripa's kebaya which was colorful and nice too (Wiggers, 1904: 692).

Otherwise, ambivalence practices also occurred within Tjindrawati. Tjindrawati which was
Javanese descent, was not raised by the Javanese tradition, but rather the European tradition.
Thus, her way of dressing also would use the Dutch manner.
Wah roepannja Tjindbewati soenggoe tjantik sekali, sampe Kandjrot Regent dan Raden
Ajoe poen heran, bertameng girang meliat anak itoe, anak jang toenggal bah gitoe
bagoes berpakean Olanda (Wiggers, 1904:14).
Wow, apparently Tjindrawati was really beautiful, that made Andjrot Regent and Raden
Ajoe unnerved, very happy to see the girl, a girl and she was good at dressing up ala
Olanda (Wiggers, 1904: 14).
1. The existence of Indies Nationalism in Ferdinand Wiggerss Literature in period of
1900 to 1908: Perspectives of Post-Nation
As mentioned earlier, Gandhi (2001: 164) proposed a guide in postcolonial towards extra
solidarity or post-national solidarity which considered such concepts as "diaspora" and
"hybridity" which appeared to characterize the mixed or global culture to achieve mutual
transformation between the colonizer and the colonized. Therefore, in this study, researchers
looked at four issues which were representations of the ideas of post-nation, namely: love,
humanity, brotherhood and common prosperity.
One of them was love. The love in this context meant romance relationship of men and
women, even though they came from different races, different religions and nations. In the works
of Ferdinand Wiggers, the period of 1900 - 1908, the condition could be traced from Verkerk and
Isahs romance that characterized the identity of the smelting limit between East and West.
At first, the love story between Verkerk and Isah was virtually impossible fused. They
were not only separated by races and nationalities, but also a matter of religion. Even worse, both
Isahs parents strongly disagreed.
Toewanku fikirin sadja. Pertama toewan berlaenan bangsa sama saja poenja anak, djadi
kaloe saja serahken saja poenja anak kepada toewan, tentoe noewat goendik, sebab
toewan tidak nanti kawin padanja; kedoewa perkara toewan poenja igama berlainan,
tidak bole sekali saja serahkan saja poenja anak pada toewan (Wiggers, 1904:46).
You my lord should think. First, your race was different to my daughter, so if I leave my
child to you, of course noewat goendik, because you would not marry her. Secondly, your

religion was different to ours, then we would not leave her to you at all (Wiggers, 1904:
46).
However, gradually, the awareness of Isahs parents appeared. The awareness about the meaning
of love outlined by God. Simultaneously, the awareness as human beings who actually lived by
destiny. In addition, the awareness of Isahs future goodness, especially with a person whom Isah
did not love. Thus, Isahs parents were trying to break the tradition that had been limited, by
agreeing Isahs relationship with Verkerk.
Maka berkatalah poela inoenya :
Kita soedah liat tingkahmoe dan tjintamoe bagi toen Verkerk dan bahwa kita keliwat
saijang pada kita poenja anak jang sebidji mata maka itoe bapa sama akoe soedah
remboekan dan soeda perkenanken aken oeroengin sadja poetosan perkata-an sama loerah
Soember Pelem, biarlah kita trima takdir Allah jang soedah toelesken dalam kitab nacib
bahoewa angkau berdjodo dengan toewan Verkerk.
Si Isah jang tadinja ampir tida koewat doedoek sama sekali mendjadi segar, ia toeroen
dari tempat tidoerdja, ia pelok tjium kaki ajandanja dengan tangisnja... (Wiggers,
1904:111).
Then her mother said:
We have seen your attitude and love to Mr. Verkerk and we did love our daughter that
was only her, then your father and I have already discussed and permitted to ignore the
words of the headman Soember Pelem, let us admit God's destiny which had been written
in the book of fate that you were destined with Mr. Verkerk. Isah who was not able sit
down by herself, now she was looked fresh, he raised from the bed, she hugged and
kissed his father's feet with tears ... (Wiggers, 1904: 111).

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