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MH1100/MTH112: Calculus I.

Problem list for Week #5.

This weeks topics:


Continuity. (Section 1.8 from Stewart.)
Properties of continuous functions. (Section 1.8 from Stewart.)
The Intermediate Value Theorem. (Section 1.8 from Stewart.)
The tutor will aim to discuss: 1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, and maybe 12 and 13.
Problems that I think might be more unusual or dicult than normal are
marked with a .

Problem 1: (#1.8.11 from [Stewart].)


Suppose that f and g are continuous functions such that g(2) = 6 and
limx2 [3f (x) + f (x)g(x)] = 36. Find f (2).
Problem 2: (Based on #1.8.15 from [Stewart].)
Use the denition of continuity and standard properties of limits to show
that
2x + 3
f (x) =
x2
is continuous at every point of its domain.
Problem 3:
Explain why the function
{
f (x) =

1
x1

if x = 1,

if x = 1.

is discontinuous at the point x = 1.

Problem 4: (#1.8.19 from [Stewart].)


Explain why the function

f (x) =

1 x2

if x < 1,

1
x

if x 1.

is discontinuous at the point x = 1.


Problem 5: (#1.8.20 from [Stewart].)
Explain why the function

f (x) =

x2 x
x2 1

if x = 1,

if x = 1.

is discontinuous at the point x = 1.


Problem 6: (Based on #1.8.22 from [Stewart].)
What value does a have to be so that the following function is continuous
at every point?
{ 2
2x 5x3
if x = 3
x3
f (x) =
a
if x = 3.

Problem 7: (#1.8.30 from [Stewart].)


Explain why some standard theorems about continuous functions imply that
the function
tan x
B(x) =
4 x2
is continuous at every point of its domain.
Problem 8: (#1.8.36 from [Stewart].)
Use continuity to evaluate the limit
lim sin(x + sin x).

Problem 9: (#1.8.46 from [Stewart].)


Find the values of a and b that make the following f (x) continuous at every
point.
x2 4
if x < 2,

x2
2
f (x) =
ax bx + 3
if 2 x < 3,

2x a + b
if x 3.

Problem 10: (#1.8.49 from [Stewart].)


Consider the function f (x) = x2 + 10 sin x. Prove that there exists a real
number c such that f (c) = 1000.
Problem 11: (#1.8.49 from [Stewart].)
Deduce using the intermediate value theorem that there exists a number

c (0, 1) where 3 c = 1 c.
Problem 12 : (#1.8.63 from [Stewart].)
Is the following function continuous at any point? Justify your answer.
{
if x is rational,
0
f (x) =
1
if x is irrational.
Hint: Your solution to this problem and the next will need the following
fact. In every open interval of the form (a, b), with a < b, there exists at
least one rational number and at least one irrational number. A proof of
this needs a deep understanding of the system of real numbers, R.
Problem 13 : (#1.8.64 from [Stewart].)
Is the following function continuous at any point? Justify your answer.
{
0
if x is rational,
f (x) =
x
if x is irrational.

Problem 14: (#1.8.65 from [Stewart].)


Does there exist a number exactly 1 greater than its cube?
Problem 15 : (#1.8.66 from [Stewart].)
Prove that for any pair a, b R of positive numbers, the following equation
has at least one solution in the interval (1, 1):
x3

a
b
+ 3
= 0.
2
+ 2x 1 x + x 2

Problem 16: (#1.8.68 from [Stewart].)


(a) Show that the absolute value function |x| is continuous at every point.
(b) Explain why if some function f (x) is continuous on some interval, then
so is the function |f (x)|.
(c) Does the converse to part (b) hold? If |f | is continuous, does it follow
that f is continuous?

Problem 17 : (You can pass a limit into a continuous function.)


Recall the following theorem from the lectures:
Consider two functions f and g, and real numbers a and L. Assume that
f (x) is continuous at the point L, and that limxa g(x) = L. Use the
denitions of limit and continuous to prove that
(
)
lim f (g(x)) = f lim g(x) .
xa

xa

Comment: I suggest you start by writing out explicitly what you know
already about the functions f (x) and g(x), and then writing out explicitly
what you are looking for. (Something like: Find a rule () such that...).
You main task is to nd a way to express the you need in terms of the
assumed information f and g .

Problem 18
Explain why the theorem you just proved in Problem 17 is equivalent to the
following statement: If f and g are functions and a is a real number such
that
g(x) is continuous at a, and
f (x) is continuous at g(a),
then the composition f g is continuous at x = a.
Comment: By equivalent I mean produce short arguments deducing each
of these two statements from the other.