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CERAMIC AND MOSAIC TILES FOR FLOOR

PROJECT SUPERVISOR:
EXTERNAL EXAMINAR:

PROF.DR.AFZAL JAVED

CERAMIC AND MOSAIC TILES FOR FLOOR


Submitted To:

Dr. Muhammad Afzal Javed

Prepared By:

Khalid Yousaf
Inayat Sarwary
Faramarz
Sayed Ahmad

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Presentation flow
INTRODUCTION OF TILES
TYPES OF TILES

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF THE TILES


CERAMIC TILES
MOSAIC TILES
MANUFACTURING OF MOSAIC AND CERAMIC TILE

IMPORTANT TESTS REQUIRED ON TILES


SELECTION AND MAINTENANCE OF TILES

INTRODUCTION TO TILES
A tile is a manufactured piece of
hard-wearing material such as
ceramic, stone, metal, or even
glass, generally used for covering
roofs, floors, walls, showers, or
other objects such as tabletops

INTRODUCTION

Tiles are often used to form wall and floor coverings, and can range
from simple square tiles to complex mosaics. Tiles are most often
made of ceramic, typically glazed for internal uses and unglazed for
roofing, but other materials are also commonly used, such as glass,
cork, concrete and other composite materials, and stone

TYPES OF TILES
Quarry Tile
Glazed Porcelain Tiles
Metal Tiles
Vitrified Tiles
Digital Tiles
Stone Tiles
Ceramic Tiles
Mosaic Tiles

QUARRY TILES

made by the extrusion process from


natural clay or shales. Quarry tile is
manufactured from clay in a manner
similar to bricks Usually coming in 13
to 19 mm

PORCELAIN TILE

Porcelain tiles are ceramic tiles commonly


used to cover floors and walls, with a water
absorption rate of less than 0.5 percent.
They can either be glazed or unglazed.

VITRIFIED TILE

Is a ceramic tile with very low porosity. It


is an alternative to marble and granite
flooring. Vitrified tiles are often used
outdoors due to their water and frost
resistance.

Vitrified tile

METAL TILE
Choice of leading and designers from
around the world.

Metal tile

DIGITAL TILE

These tiles are created based on principles and


procedures similar to graphic art work and
offers photo-like high resolution impressions.
They give a unique look to the walls,
with unlimited designs possibilities, sharper
finishes and high resolution printing, digital
tiles is now becoming ceramic art for the walls.

STONE TILE
Stone Art Tiles represents a wide range of tiles
resembling stones ranging from traditional to
contemporary designs, varied patterns with
light to dark colors and matching the
specification of urban and small town house
holds. These tiles are cost effective and easy to
maintain as compared to natural stones

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF THE TILES

PROPERTIES

RESISTANCE TO ABRASION
FREEZE-RESISTANCE

THERMAL SHOCK RESISTANCE


BENDING STRENGTH AND BREAKING FORCE
CHEMICAL RESISTANCE

STAIN RESISTANCE
PROPERTIES RELATED TO SAFETY

RESISTANCE TO ABRASION

It specifies the resistance of the tile to mechanical damage


resulting from the impact of the abrasive factor

The greater the hardness of the tile is, the lower its
susceptibility to scratching, wear and tear during walking and
abrasion

It consists in the specification of the number of rotations of


the device that rubs the surface of the glazed tile after which
the permanent traces of abrasion become visible

FREEZE-RESISTANCE

The ceramic tiles, which are to be laid out at places exposed to the impact
of negative temperatures
THERMAL SHOCK RESISTANCE
The ceramic tiles which can be subjected to the local sudden temperature
change should have the declared thermal shock resistance confirmed by the
test according to PN-EN ISO 10545-9.

BENDING STRENGTH AND BREAKING FORCE


To put it simply, these parameters specify at which stress, the tile is
subject to breaking. It is a particularly important parameter in case of
the floor tiles
are subjected to significant mechanical loads, and abrasive tiles laid out
in places, where stresses caused by the movements of building walls can
occur.
the test method specified in PN-EN ISO 10545-9.
CHEMICAL RESISTANCE
Specifies the resistance of the tile to the impact of testing solutions:
daily use agents, salts for swimming pools as well as acids and alkalis
The tiles resistant to the chemical factors cannot be subject to changes
under the influence of these substances, e.g. a change in gloss or color.
The test method specified in PN-EN ISO 10545-13.

PROPERTIES RELATED TO SAFETY

Mainly resistance to slipping, particularly


important in the case of tiles intended for
floors having contact with water, where
there is hazard of slipping, both in
residential and public utility premises

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MANUFACTURING OF CERAMIC
AND MOSAIC TILES

Background
The production of tile dates back to ancient times and peoples, including
the Egyptians, the Babylonians, and the Assyrians. For instance, the Step
Pyramid for the Pharaoh Djoser, built in ancient Egypt around 2600 B.C
contained colorful glazed tile.
Later, tile was manufactured in virtually every major European country
and in the United States. By the beginning of the twentieth century, tile
was manufactured on an industrial scale.

Background
Europe, Latin America, and the Far East are the largest producers of tile,
with Italy the leader at 16.6 million ft.2/day as of 1989. Following Italy
(at 24.6 percent of the world market) are Spain (12.6 percent), Brazil and
Germany (both at 11.2 percent), and the United States (4.5 percent).

SELECTION OF RAW MATERIALS


The raw materials used to form tile consist of
clay minerals mined from the earth's crust,
natural minerals such as feldspar that are used
to lower the firing temperature, and
chemical additives required for the shaping
process

The minerals are often refined or beneficiated


near the mine before shipment to the ceramic
plant

clay

Batching
For many ceramic products, including tile, the body composition is
determined by the amount and type of raw materials.
The raw materials also determine the color of the tile body, which can
be red or white in color, depending on the amount of iron-containing
raw materials used.
Therefore, it is important to mix the right amounts together to achieve
the desired properties

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Mixing and grinding


Once the ingredients are weighed, they are added together into a shell
mixer, ribbon mixer, or intensive mixer. A shell mixer consists of two
cylinders joined into a V, which rotates to tumble and mix the
material.
Sometimes it is necessary to add water to improve the mixing of a
multiple-ingredient batch as well as to achieve fine grinding This
process is called wet milling and is often performed using a ball mill
The resulting water-filled mixture is called a slurry or slip

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Spray drying
If wet milling is first used, the excess water is usually removed via
spray drying. This involves pumping the slurry to an atomizer
consisting of a rapidly rotating disk or nozzle
. Droplets of the slip are dried as they are heated by a rising hot air
column, forming small, free flowing granules that result in a powder
suitable for forming.

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Forming
Most tile is formed by dry pressing. In this method, the free flowing
powdercontaining organic binder or a low percentage of moisture
flows from a hopper into the forming die.
The material is compressed in a steel cavity by steel plungers and is
then ejected by the bottom plunger. Automated presses are used with
operating pressures as high as 2,500 tons.

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Auto hydraulic tile press machinery

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Drying

Ceramic tile usually must be dried (at high relative humidity)


after forming, especially if a wet method is used.
Drying, which can take several days, removes the water at a
slow enough rate to prevent shrinkage cracks
Continuous or tunnel driers are used that are heated using gas
or oil, infrared lamps, or microwave energy. Infrared drying is
better suited for thin tile, whereas microwave drying works
better for thicker tile

Glazing

The glaze coating is comprised of liquid colored glass and is


applied and baked to the surface of the bisque under very
high temperatures.
The liquid glass coating is what creates the texture, design
and color of a glazed tile and protects the body of the tile
from staining. The colors in the glaze come from various
minerals, such as zinc, mercury, copper, gold, silver, etc.

Firing

After glazing, the tile must be heated


intensely to strengthen it and give it
the desired porosity.

Process flow

CERAMIC STANDARD TESTS

IMPORTANT TEST
BREAKING STRENGTH CERAMIC TILE, ASTM C648-04

FRICTION
WATER ABSORPTION
SCRATCH HARDNESS

CHEMICAL RESISTANCE, ASTM C650-04


ABRASION RESISTANCE, ASTM C1027-99
INDUSTRY STANDARDS

BREAKING STRENGTH CERAMIC TILE


ASTM C648-04

Ceramic tiles used on floors and walls


must be able to withstand the
expected load bearing capacity of
various installations
A force is applied to an unsupported
portion of the tile specimen until
breakage occurs. The ultimate
breaking strength is then recorded in
pounds
Final selection of the tile should be
based upon the breaking strength
and the appropriate installation
method

MOR Testing Machine

FRICTION
is the force that resists the
sliding motion of one surface
against another
There are two types of friction:
static (SCOF) and dynamic
(DCOF)
SCOF is the ratio of forces
necessary to start two surfaces
sliding. This is what the former
ASTM C1028 static test
measured
. DCOF is the ratio of forces
necessary to keep two surfaces
sliding.

MOR TESTING MACHINE

WATER ABSORPTION:
Is measured using ASTM C373-88. Individual tiles are
weighed, saturated with water, then weighed again
The percent difference between the two conditions is
referred to as the water absorption value.

Tiles are classified according to water absorption percentages as


follows:
Impervious
Vitreous
Semi-Vitreous
Non-Vitreous

Tiles exhibiting 0.5% or less.


Tiles exhibiting more than 0.5%but not more than 3.0%.
Tiles exhibiting more than 3.0% but not more than 7.0%.
Tiles exhibiting more than 7.0%.

SCRATCH HARDNESS (MOH'S SCALE RATINGS)


The relative hardness of glazed tile is an important issue
that should be addressed when selecting a tile
The test is performed by scratching the surface of the tile
with different minerals and subjectively assigning a
"MOH's Scale Hardness" number to the glaze

MOHS RATINGS
the softest mineral used is talc ("1" rating), the hardest is a diamond ("10"
rating). Other minerals of varying hardness provide Moh's Scale Hardness
values of 5 to 7 are suitable for most residential floor applications. A value of
7 or greater is normally recommended for commercial applications.

CHEMICAL RESISTANCE, ASTM C650-04


Chemical resistance is measured using ASTM C650-04
A tile sample is placed in continuous contact with a
variety of chemicals for 24 hours, rinsing the surface
and then examining the surface for visible variation.

WHICH IS BEST !!!


SELECTION AND MAINTENANCE OF CERAMIC TILES

What are the key factors to consider when specifying


/ buying ceramic tiles as a flooring option?
When specifying tiles, it is imperative to consider
the area of use (floor or wall)
condition of use (wet or dry, traffic condition,
exposure to hygrothermic stress: weather, sun, big
temperature change, prolonged contact with water,
etc.).
For floor that is often exposed to water, for
instance the bathroom, and in contact with stain
and chemicals (e.g. bathroom and laboratories
involving chemicals), the tiles should be stain and
chemical resistant.

For floor tiles subjected to high amount of traffic


such as public areas in shopping centers,
restaurants, meeting halls, hospitals, offices and
factories the tiles chosen must be hard, high in
mechanical strength, show high resistant to abrasion
and slip as well as resistant to stain and chemical
attack
For public areas, heavy duty tiles such as porcelain
tiles are preferred to glazed tiles because they are
more compact and possess higher mechanical
strength.

CERAMIC IMPORTANT FEATURES

SAFETY
HYGIENE
EASE OF CLEANING
COST

SIZE
COLOUR
AESTHETIC
GOOD INSULATOR

SAFTY

HYGIENE

fire-proof materials compared


to other flooring materials
They will not give off any toxic
gas or fume during a fire.
do not tend to accumulate
electrostatic charge

will not retain liquids or


absorb fumes, odors or
smoke
The surface of tiles is
resistant to biological
agents such as bacteria
or microbes

EASE OF CLEANING

COST

Ceramic tiles do not retain dust


or residue as these particles will
not adhere to their surface.
Ceramic tiles are so easy to clean
and maintain

It is obvious that cost is one of


the important factors in selecting
tiles

AESTHETIC
Depending on a tile's design,
shape and surface texture, it
can produce a large variety
of effects

simple,
elegant,
cool,
warm, modern, classic

MAINTENANCE
precautions have to be taken

PRECAUTIONS HAVE TO BE TAKEN

CLEANING PRODUCTS
CLEANING METHODS
ABRASIVE DIRT
IMPACT

CLEANING PRODUCTS
Use appropriate cleaning products, such as
standard commercial tile care products for
cleaning.
Avoid using acid based detergents that are
very harsh and corrosive
. Cleaning agents containing hydrofluoric or
fluoric compounds should be avoided

CLEANING METHODS
When cleaning, try to avoid the use of highly
abrasive materials like scouring pads or metal
pads
Clean all spills immediately. The longer the spills stand,
the greater the possibility of staining to the tile
surface.
ABRASIVE DIRT
Sweep away any grit or sand from the tiled
surface as they can scratch the glaze

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IMPACT
Do not drag heavy objects such as furniture
or crates across the tiled floor

Every effort should be made to prevent


heavy objects from dropping onto the tiles.

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We are so pleased you could join us on our special day.

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