You are on page 1of 22

Powder Technology 102 1999.

1536

Measurement techniques in fluidized beds


Joachim Werther
Technical Uniersity Hamburg-Harburg, D 21071 Hamburg, Germany
Received 26 November 1997; accepted 30 July 1998

Abstract
Quantities that need to be measured in gas fluidized-bed systems include solids volume concentrations, solids velocities and solids
mass flows, the vertical and horizontal distribution of solids inside the system, the lateral distribution of the fluidizing gas, temperatures
and gas concentrations. In the present paper an overview is given on available measuring techniques. In the first section techniques for
industrial routine measurements are discussed. These are mainly temperature and pressure drop measurements. Practical applications and
also the limitations of these techniques are outlined. In the second section more sophisticated techniques for local measurements inside
fluidized bed systems, which have already proven their suitability in large-scale industrial reactors, are dealt with. Examples include
suction probes for measurements of local solids mass flows, heat transfer probes for the detection of defluidized zones and solids flows
inside fluidized-bed reactors and capacitance probes for solids concentration and velocity measurements under high-temperature
conditions. The third section finally presents advanced techniques which are either still under development or which are particularly
intended for academic investigations of basic fluidization phenomena. Examples include sensor techniques, imaging and tomographic
methods. q 1999 Elsevier Science S.A. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Fluidized bed; Gassolid flow; Measurement technique

1. Introduction
The gassolid flow inside a fluidized bed is characterized by very distinct flow structures. In low-velocity fluidization nearly solids-free bubbles are observed which are
formed at the gas distributor and which are rapidly coalescing on their way through the bed Fig. 1a.. The
existence of bubbles leads to a bypass of reaction gas in
the case of solid-catalyzed reactions. In high-velocity fluidization, i.e., in circulating fluidized beds, a segregation
of the gassolid flow into a higher-concentrated disperse
phase of clusters or strands and a continuous lean phase is
observed Fig. 1b.. The strands are predominantly found in
the vicinity of the wall. It is obvious that these flow
structures are affecting heat and mass transfer characteristics of the fluidized bed as well as its performance as a
chemical reactor and measurement techniques for fluidized
beds will have to consider the presence of these flow
structures.
Quantities that need to be measured in fluidized beds
include local solids volume concentrations, solids velocities and solids mass flows, the vertical and horizontal

distributions of the solids inside the system, the lateral


distribution of the fluidizing gas and, of course, temperatures and gas concentrations. Such measurement techniques are needed in the industry for
- monitoring of plant performance
- process optimization
- analysis of plant problems
and furthermore, in academic research for
- analysis of gassolid contacting and of basic flow
phenomena in fluidized beds
In the present survey the available measurement techniques are accordingly grouped into three categories.
Catagory 1 includes techniques for routine measurements
which are currently used in the industry. These techniques
are proven, reliable and easy to handle. Category 2 comprises the more advanced and specialized measurement
techniques which have already proven their suitability in
large-scale industrial reactors but are still far from being
generally accepted. The application of these techniques
may require specially skilled personnel. Category 3, finally, contains some more sophisticated techniques which
are either still under development and have not yet been

0032-5910r99r$ - see front matter q 1999 Elsevier Science S.A. All rights reserved.
PII: S 0 0 3 2 - 5 9 1 0 9 8 . 0 0 2 0 2 - 2

16

J. Wertherr Powder Technology 102 (1999) 1536

Fig. 2. Determination of the expanded bed height in a bubbling fluidized


bed.
Fig. 1. Local flow structures in fluidized beds: bubble formation at low
fluidization velocities a. and formation of clusters or strands in highvelocity fluidization b..

tested under industrial conditions or which are particularly


intended for the investigation of basic flow phenomena in
academic research.
The present review is not intended to be exhaustive. For
example, techniques for measuring gas concentrations inside fluidized bed reactors are not discussed at all. For
further information the reader is referred to recent reviews
on measurement techniques including those for gas concentrations by Louge w1x with respect to circulating fluidized beds, by Nieuwland et al. w2x and Yates and Simons
w3x with respect to gassolid suspensions in general, and
by Soo et al. w4x concerning dilute flows. Further reviews
dealing with experimental techniques for fluidized bed
systems have been presented by Larachi and Chaouki w5x,
Werther et al. w6x, Turlier and Bernard w7x, Saxena et al.
w8,9x, Cheremisinoff w10x and Grace and Baeyens w11x.

2. Techniques for industrial routine measurements

ing the measured pressure profile. If a sufficient number of


pressure taps is provided and if the pressure bores are not
clogged which happens quite often. this measurement is
simple and reliable. It is standard for fluidized bed systems.
However, if this technique is applied to circulating
fluidized beds CFBs. the interpretation of the measurements becomes difficult. Fig. 3 shows a schematic drawing
of the cold model CFB test unit which is operated by the
authors group e.g., Schoenfelder et al. w12x.. Quartz sand
particles are fluidized in a 0.4 m diameter and 15 m high
riser, are entrained with the gas flow and are collected
mainly in the primary cyclone. Via a standpipe and a
siphon they are fed back to the riser. Pressure taps are
distributed over the whole facility such that a complete
picture of the pressure loop, an example of which is also
shown in Fig. 3, is obtained. Obviously, the pressure
gradient is far from being constant in the lower part of the
riser. Due to the high solids circulation ratea total mass
of 5 tons of solids is circulated per hour under the operating conditions of Fig. 3and due to the resulting acceleration of solids in the distributor region Eq. 1. is no longer
valid. It may, however, be applied in the upper dilute

Presently available for routine measurements in industrial fluidized bed reactors are pressure and temperature
measurements only.
2.1. Pressure measurements
In the fluidized bed the solid particles are held in a state
of suspension by the upward flowing gas. The pressure
drop D p of the gas is then roughly equal to the weight of
the solids minus their buoyancy per unit cross-sectional
area of the bed,
D p f rs y r f . c v gD h

1.

where c v is the average solids volume concentration in the


volume element A t D h of the bed. In the bubbling fluidized bed c v is nearly independent of height which leads
to the linear relationship p h. schematically shown in Fig.
2. A small number of pressure measurements along the
height h above the gas distributor may then be used to
determine the height H of the fluidized bed by extrapolat-

Fig. 3. Pressure measurements in a circulating fluidized bed system po


pressure at the outlet of the primary cyclone; riser 0.4 m diameter, quartz
sand d p s 298 mm, us 5 mrs, Gs s10 kg my2 sy1 ..

J. Wertherr Powder Technology 102 (1999) 1536

region of the riser i.e., for h ) 5 m in Fig. 3. as has been


demonstrated by a comparison of c v derived from pressure
drop measurements with the solids concentration obtained
from g-ray absorption w13x.
Under the operating conditions of Fig. 3 a fairly dense
bed is formed in the lower part of the primary cyclones
standpipe. If the solids were not flowing through the
siphon one would conclude from the measurements that
part of the siphon gas flowed upward through the standpipe and the remaining part flowed downward into the
riser. This conclusion must not, however, be valid under
the conditions of solids circulation. The downward flow of
solids influences the distribution of the siphon gas and
may even entrain gas from the cyclone down through the
siphon back into the riser w14x.
In the case of the CFB the main value of the pressure
measurements for the industrial user lies in the information
about the riser inventory m s,r which is approximately
obtained from the total pressure drop in the riser,
m s ,r f

pd y pc ,i . A t
g

2.

Furthermore, the continuous measurement of the pressure loop may provide a quick information about flow
instabilities or disturbances both in the cyclones and in the
siphon.
2.2. Temperature measurements
The temperature measurement provides the primary information about the status of the reaction inside the fluidized bed system.
It is well-known that the vigorous motion of the solid
particles inside a fluidized bed equalizes the temperatures.
The isothermal conditions inside a fluidized bed are often
claimed to be one of the most characteristic properties of
the fluidized bed reactor e.g., Kunii and Levenspiel w15x..
A single thermocouple should therefore be sufficient to
provide the information about the reactor temperature. As
shown in Fig. 4 this is not the case inside a circulating
fluidized bed combustor with cooled walls. Local temperatures are plotted here which were measured with shielded
thermocouples at different distances from the wall of the
Flensburg combustor w16x. The membrane walls in the
upper square section of the combustion chamber contain
steam-raising tubes. Since the CFB is characterized not
only by an outer circulation of solids but also by a strong
internal recirculation with solids predominantly flowing
down the wall, the downflowing stream of solids is obviously cooled down by the cold wall thus leading to the
formation of a temperature boundary layer with a thickness
of about 30 cm. If the true process temperature is to be
measured then the respective thermocouple should protrude at least 30 cm into the combustion chamber. A

17

Fig. 4. Horizontal temperature profiles close to the membrane wall in a


circulating fluidized bed combustor the combustion chamber is square in
its upper part and cylindrical in the bottom section, x is the distance from
the south wall, measurements by Werdermann and Werther w16x..

thermocouple which ends inside this boundary layer will


undoubtedly yield an erroneous information.
In large-scale industrial fluidized bed reactors it is
customary to use arrays of thermocouples which are distributed over the whole reactor volume. Significant deviations occurring in some part of the reactor volume may
then be indicative of a local problem. For example, if an
increasing temperature difference is observed inside a bubbling fluidized bed reactor this may be due to a decrease in
solids mixing which in turn may be a consequence of
unexpected agglomeration or clogging of bed particles.
However, such temperature measurements are indirect
measurements of fluidization characteristics and therefore
require a lot of insight into the respective process to yield
a correct interpretation. An example may illustrate this.
A fluidized bed combustor was operated by the authors
group in the years 1985 to 1990 e.g., Sinn w17x.. The
combustion chamber had a square cross-section of 0.5 = 0.5
m2 . The bed height was about 1 m. Coal was introduced
into the bed via a screw feeder at a height of 0.05 m above
the distributor. The bed temperature was registered by two
thermocouples which were located on the opposite side of
the combustor vessel at levels of 0.3 m and 0.7 m,
respectively, above the distributor. During normal operation the temperature readings of both thermocouples were
8508C " 58C. During one test run the lower thermocouple
began to drop while the other one showed no such change.
The operator concluded that agglomeration of the coal ash
had increased the mean bed particle size such that the
fluidization velocity was no longer sufficient to ensure
good solids mixing in the bed. He decided therefore to
increase the air flow rate and in order to keep the coal-to-air
ratio unchanged to increase the coal flow rate, too. However, he was not successful. Suddenly smoke appeared
from the insulation near the screw feeder and an emergency shut-down was necessary. What had happened?

18

J. Wertherr Powder Technology 102 (1999) 1536

After dismantling it was found that some large ash agglomerates had segregated from the bed and formed a
small fixed bed on the distributor which had partly blocked
the entry of the coal. Part of the inflowing coal was
therefore prevented from mixing into the fluidized bed but
burnt instead in the fixed bed of the agglomerates. Since
such a fixed bed has a much lower heat conductivity than a
fluidized bed its temperature rapidly rose which led first to
melting of the bed material and then to local melting of the
combustors steel wall. The two temperature measurements
were obviously not sufficient to fully recognize what had
happened. A densely spaced array of thermocouples might
have been helpful for an early detection of these problems.
As a conclusion from this section it may be stated that
the currently available measurement techniques for routine
measurements in fluidized bed reactors, namely pressure
and temperature measurements, are sufficient in most cases
for standard control purposes. In some cases, however,
where the operator would have liked to have more detailed
information about local fluidization characteristics inside
his reactor the limitations of these techniques have become
obvious. What is certainly needed is the development of
locally measuring methods which provide more insights
into the details of fluidized bed processes.

Fig. 6. Relationship between the Nusselt number for convective heat


transfer and the cross-sectional average solids volume concentration in
circulating fluidized beds of different sizes w16x.

Heat transfer probes are standard in the engineering


sciences. Fig. 5 shows as an example the commercially
available Total Heat Flux Meter w18x which measures the

total heat flux to its front area via two thermocouples


embedded in the detector body. This instrument was used
by Werdermann w19x to measure the total heat transfer
coefficient to the refractory-lined wall of the circulating
fluidized bed combustor located at Duisburg.
Some of Werdermanns experimental results are plotted
in Fig. 6 in the form of Nusselt numbers for the convective
component of heat transfer as a function of the cross-sectional average solids volume concentration c v obtained
from the axial pressure profile w16x. The Chalmers boiler
w20x is smaller than the Duisburg one. The Lehigh unit w21x
is a cold model with a cylindrical riser of 0.1 m diameter.
The plot indicates that an increase of the mean solids
volume concentration will always result in an increase of
the convective heat transfer coefficient. This has been
found by various authors e.g., Basu and Nag w22x. and is
understandable since an increased average solids concentration means also an increased presence of solids near the
heat transferring wall which will promote the convective
heat transfer. What is surprising, yet, is the influence of
scale: the larger the unit the better the convective heat
transfer is. Different explanations have been given for this
effect w16,22,23x. However, it is not the purpose of this
paper to go into the details of bed-to-wall heat transfer in
CFBs. The results are rather shown here to illustrate the
necessity of measurement in large-scale fluidized beds.
Academic investigations in small units have given much
insights into fluid mechanics and mechanisms of heat
transfer in fluidized beds. Still, to obtain design-relevant

Fig. 5. Total Heat Flux Meter w18x used in Werdermanns investigation of


bed-to-wall heat transfer in the Duisburg CFB combustor w19x.

Fig. 7. Heat transfer probe w24x.

3. Techniques for local measurements inside industrial


fluidized bed reactors
A lot of local measurement techniques have been suggested and applied to academic investigations of small-scale
fluidized beds. Louge w1x has recently given an extensive,
systematic overview on the various developments. Only
very few of these measurement techniques, however, have
been applied to large-scale industrial fluidized bed reactors. In the present section only those measurement techniques will be discussed which have at least undergone a
test in an industrial fluidized bed apparatus.
3.1. Heat transfer probes

J. Wertherr Powder Technology 102 (1999) 1536

Fig. 8. Axial profiles of local heat transfer coefficient inside an FBHE


Werdermann and Werther 1993b w24x..

data it is obviously necessary to measure directly what is


really going on in the large industrial installations.
The design and handling of heat transfer probes is
comparatively easy. When applied to industrial fluidized
bed reactors they may not only be used for obtaining
design data but they may also serve troubleshooting purposes.
In one plant it was found that an overall heat balance on
the FBHE yielded unexpectedly low values of the average
heat transfer coefficient. It was therefore decided to investigate the local flow characteristics inside this unit. Fig. 7
shows the design of the heat transfer probe which was
used by Werdermann and Werther w24x for the determination of bed height and solids flow pattern inside a Fluidized Bed Heat Exchanger FBHE. which its characteris-

19

tic of Lurgis design of CFB combustion systems e.g.,


Plass w25x.. It measures the radial heat flux and thus the
local coefficient of heat transfer between the tube and its
environment. By introducing the probe from the top of the
FBHE the local heat transfer coefficient could be measured
at different heights above the distributor. As is shown in
Fig. 8 the measured axial profile indicates a strong decrease of the heat transfer coefficient between 3.5 and 4.5
m above the distributor level which indicates the transition
between the dense bubbling bed with its excellent conditions for heat transfer and the freeboard zone with its low
solids concentration and low heat transfer coefficients. In
addition to the pressure drop measurement the heat transfer
measurement may thus be used for the detection of the bed
level.
Local heat transfer measurements inside a fluidized bed
may provide additional insights into solids flow patterns.
Fig. 9 shows polar heat transfer profiles which were
obtained by rotation of the probe tube. Since at a given
place within the fluidized bed the heat transfer will be
higher on that side of the probe tube which faces the
predominant ash flow the heat transfer probe may be used
to infer the directions of local solids flows. For example,
the measurement at port no. 11 indicates a strong horizontal flow of solids near the bed surface in the qx-direction
and at port no. 2 we see an intense flow of gassolid
suspension into the vertical upward direction. From a

Fig. 9. Polar heat transfer profiles measured in chamber 1 of the FBHE w24x.

20

J. Wertherr Powder Technology 102 (1999) 1536

number of measurements of this kind an overall picture of


the solids flow pattern inside a FBHE was obtained w24x.
3.2. Solids flow measurement
Heat transfer probes provide an indirect information
about the flow of solids inside the fluidized bed. A direct
measurement of local solids fluxes at least in the upper
dilute region of circulating fluidized beds is possible with
a very simple technique, namely the suction probe. The
design of such a probe and the corresponding experimental
set-up are shown in Fig. 10 w12x. The gassolid suspension
is sucked into the 4 mm diameter tube at a velocity which
is adjustable. The solids mass which is collected during a
predetermined sampling time Ts is simply divided by Ts
and by the cross-sectional area of the tube to obtain the
local solids flux per unit area. The probe may be rotated to
measure either the upward or the downward fluxes. In
order to be able to vary the suction velocity at the probe
tip without the risk of particle sedimentation in and clogging of the horizontal conveying line an internal recirculation of gas in the probe system is provided which allows
low gas velocities at the probe tip and sufficiently high
conveying velocities after the recycle air injection which is
located just 15 mm downstream of the suspension inlet.
Suction probes are well-known for sampling from dustladen gas streams, for example to measure dust concentrations in the off-gas ducts of coal-fired power stations. The
sampling procedures are standardized, the German guideline being VDI 2066 Blatt 1 w26x. As a necessary condition

for such a measurement these guidelines require isokinetic


sampling, i.e., the sampling velocity should be identical to
the local gas velocity. This condition cannot be fulfilled in
the circulating fluidized bed where only the superficial
average gas velocity is known. At a given location inside
the bed both the quantity and the direction of gas and
solids flows may fluctuate. At some instant the probe may
be immersed in an upflowing dilute suspension and a little
later the probe tip may encounter a downflowing dense
strand of particles. A suction probe can therefore be operated in the circulating fluidized bed in the non-isokinetic
suction mode only. However, measurements by a number
of authors e.g., Rhodes et al. w27,28x, Leckner et al. w29x,
Rhodes and Laussmann w30x, Kruse and Werther w31x. have
shown that the influence of the suction velocity on the
solids collection rate is fairly small. Fig. 11 gives an
example. Obviously, due to its relatively high concentration the gassolid flow in the circulating fluidized bed is
sufficiently stable against disturbances that even suction
velocities which are much higher than the local fluidizing
gas velocity do not lead to a significant increase in the
solids collection rate. What is even more convincing is the
finding that the integral of the local net flux local upward
flux minus local downward flux. over the beds cross-sectional area is in good agreement with measurements of the
externally recirculating solids mass flux Gs w31x. It has to
be admitted, however, that all these measurements were
made with quartz sand or coal ash as bed materials. When
working with fine and light catalyst particles Sauter diameter 50 mm, apparent density 1420 kgrm3 . Schoenfelder

Fig. 10. Suction probe for measurements under ambient conditions w12x.

J. Wertherr Powder Technology 102 (1999) 1536

Fig. 11. Influence of the suction velocity on the solids collection rate 700
mm wide cold model CFB, data taken 6 mm from the side wall, us 3.4
mrs, Gs s13 kg my2 sy1 , from Leckner et al. w29x..

et al. w12x found larger deviations between the integral net


flux and Gs .
The suction probe is a very simple instrument and it
may easily be designed for application under high temperature conditions in a fluidized bed combustor. As an example Fig. 12 shows the design of a water-cooled suction
probe used by Werdermann w19x. A major concern in the
practical application of such a probe was a failure of the
water-cooling. Since the probe extended up to 4 m into the
combustion chamber with its 8508C hot environment a
failure of the cooling would almost immediately cause the
heavy probe to bend down which would have made it
impossible to remove the probe again. A removal of the
probe from inside the combustor, however, would necessitate a shut-down of the whole power plant. An alarm was
therefore installed in the cooling water return line. Suction
probes were used for measurements in large-scale CFB

21

Fig. 13. Head of the impeller probe w33x.

combustors first by Couturier et al. w32x and Leckner et al.


w29x and later on by Werdermann w19x.
A completely different approach to the solids flux measurement was made by Greif and Muschelknautz w33x.
They developed an impeller probe the design of which is
shown in Fig. 13. It is based on the idea that the revolution
of the fan wheel is directly proportional to the particle
velocity if its bearing is nearly frictionless. An aerostatic
bearing is used for this purpose. The measurement of the
rotational speed is effected via a pressure measurement
and the local dust concentration is obtained with an additional suction probe. The impeller probe was successfully
applied to the measurement of vertical profiles of solids
velocities in the 5 m high duct between the CFB riser and
the primary cyclone at the Bayer Leverkusen power station
w34x.

Fig. 12. Suction probe used in the Duisburg CFB combustor by Werdermann w19x.

22

J. Wertherr Powder Technology 102 (1999) 1536

3.3. Solids olume concentration and particle size measurement in fluidized bed systems
A knowledge of the local solids volume concentration,
its vertical and horizontal distribution and its dependence
on operating conditions could provide an extremely useful
information for the operation and control of fluidized bed
reactors. A lot of measuring principles and instruments are
available for such measurements under ambient conditions
e.g., Louge w1x.. However, only very few alternatives are
known for measurements under the harsh conditions of
industrial high-temperature fluidized bed systems.
Capacitance measurement systems measure the local
dielectricity constant of the gassolid suspension which is
linked to the local volume fraction of solids e.g., Maxwell
w35x, Tinga et al. w36x.. Almstedt and Olsson w37,38x have
used the needle-type capacitance probe introduced for
applications at ambient temperature by Werther and
Molerus w39x. They measured bubble rise velocities in a
pilot-scale pressurized bubbling fluidized bed combustor
by cross correlating the signals obtained with a doublechannel probe. A similar probe was used by Almstedt and
Zakkay w40x to investigate the bubble dynamics in an
atmospheric bubbling fluidized bed combustor. Grace et al.
w41x and Hage et al. w42x experienced some difficulties
when they used similar probes for solids concentration
measurements in pilot-scale circulating fluidized bed combustors. In general, it is difficult to use conventional
capacitance measuring systems, which are basically determining the capacitance by balancing a bridge circuit, for
quantitative measurements of solids volume concentrations
since in most cases the capacitances of probe body and
cables will be larger than the sensor capacitance itself,
nearby electrically charged surfaces may produce stray
capacitances that interfere with the measurement, miniaturization of the probes leads to capacitance values near
the detection limit and finally, the electronics may exhibit
an instability w1x.
Acree Riley and Louge w43x were the first to eliminate
the problems of stray and cable capacitances by introducing the guard principle. Their basic circuitry is schematically shown in Fig. 14. An oscillator supplies the sensor
with a current of constant amplitude. A separate circuit
keeps the guard at the same voltage as the sensor. The
guard absorbs most distortions of the electric field caused

Fig. 14. The principle of the guarded capacitance probe w1x.

Fig. 15. Design of a water-cooled guarded capacitance probe w44x.

by external interferences and thus protects the sensor from


strong capacitances. In addition, since the sensor line is
connected to the amplifier circuits via a guarded coaxial
cable the cable capacitance does not participate in the
measurement w1x. By eliminating virtually all stray and
cable capacitances the sensitivity and the stability of the
guarded capacitance probe turns out to be drastically better
when compared with previous designs.
Fig. 15 shows the design of the water-cooled guarded
capacitance probe used by Hage and Werther w44x for
solids concentration measurements inside the Flensburg
CFB combustor. After a suitable calibration of the probe
with original bed material from the combustor and taking
account of the temperature distribution inside the combustor cf. Fig. 4. in the evaluation of the sensor signals it was
possible to obtain quantitative information about the horizontal distribution of the local solids volume fraction and
with a double-channel probe via the cross-correlation
method local solids velocities w44x.
Optical measurement systems deduce the solids volume
information from the reflection or emission of light.
Berkelmann and Renz w45x applied a Laser Doppler
Anemometry LDA. measurement system in the freeboard
section of a 4 MWth bubbling fluidized bed combustor at
temperatures of 8508C using a transparent window in the
combustor wall. They measured particle velocities and
sizes in the immediate vicinity of the wall. Since the
particle volume concentrations even in the freeboard of a
bubbling fluidized bed are so high that the laser beam will
be obstructed after a short distance, this measurement
system is not suitable to yield information about the
large-scale flow structures inside industrial-scale fluidized
bed combustors. In addition, this measurement system is
not well suited for the determination of the local solids
volume concentration. Addis et al. w46x developed another
measurement system based on the detection of light emission from glowing particles passing between a water-cooled
dark plate and a detecting silica rod. The measurement in
a fluidized bed of 0.3 m square cross-section and a height
of 1.5 m during coal combustion at 7008C provided the
possibility to detect the presence of bubbles and their
velocity. The extent of the obvious obstruction of the flow

J. Wertherr Powder Technology 102 (1999) 1536

system by the probe itself and a possibility to calibrate the


signals for the measurement of solids volume concentration was not investigated. An optical reflection type measurement system was used by Werther and Hage w47x. Its
operating principle was the illumination of particles by
laser light through a water-cooled quartz fiber and the
detection of the light reflection by the same fiber. The
amount of reflected light was related to the solids volume
concentration in the vicinity of the fiber tip. This system
provided stable signals in a bubbling fluidized bed at
temperatures up to 9008C under conditions of coal as well
as sewage sludge combustion. For calibration purposes, the
temperature-induced changes in the particle emissivity and
the superimposed background radiation were taken into
account by an appropriate signal evaluation. Problems
arose, when this system was introduced in a lean solid
suspension with considerable amounts of fine ashes. This
ambiance is typical for the upper dilute region inside a
circulating fluidized bed combustor. Here, a deposition of
extremely fine particles on the end face of the optical fiber
was observed which led to the formation of a thin ceramic
layer of extreme hardness and which caused the probe
finally to get blind after a couple of hours.
Although this is a general problem for the application of
optical sensors in fluidized bed reactors Johnsson et al.
w48x were more successful with their optical probe to
measure local solids volume concentrations in the 12
MWth CFB boiler at Chalmers University. This latter
probe uses two optical fibers, one for emitting the laser
light into the bed and the other to receive the light
reflected by the particles. Optical filtering and modulation
were sufficient to eliminate the effects from background
radiation. The solids volume concentrations which were
measured at a height of 5.6 m above the distributor level
were between 0.5 and 2.5% and thus slightly higher than
those measured in the Flensburg boiler.
Although not intended for an application immediately
inside the fluidized bed an optical instrument is worth to
be mentioned here which has recently been used to measure particle sizes in the off-gas after the primary cyclone

23

of a circulating fluidized bed combustor w49x. As is shown


in Fig. 16 the probe head is arranged at a reasonable
distance 40 mm. from the measuring volume, leaving
there the flow undisturbed. The possible distance is limited
only by the requirement of sufficient optical transparency.
The measuring volume VM is formed by the intersection of
a pair of optical beams f 1 mm diameter.. The first beam
illuminates the volume V M , the second one is the observation beam. A particle diameter d . passing through VM is
illuminated by beam I. A fraction of the scattered light
enters the observation beam and is guided to the photodetector. For a large d 4 l w . rough particle, as encountered
typically in fluidized beds, the scattered intensity is proportional to its aspect area p d 2r4 and the angular distribution
of the backscattered light is essentially isotropic if averaged over a sufficient number of speckles. The resulting
detector signal is

p
U s KA r

d 2 q j ,h .

3.

where A r is the diffuse reflectivity albedo. of the particle,


q j ,h . the local power density of the illuminating beam,
and K summarizes all other factors like window transmission or detector sensitivity. For an evaluation of the particle size from a measurement of U, the reflectivity A can
be determined, e.g., from an offline measurement, and K
by calibration with particles of known size. It remains a
major problem, however, that the power density q j ,h . is
not constant across the illuminating beam but generally
varies along both transverse coordinates j ,h . To overcome
this problem, a second pair of optical beams is employed,
similar to the first one but thinner 0.1 mm. and rotated by
908 against the first pair. Their volume of intersection V T
is adjusted to a position in the very center j s h s 0. of
the measuring volume VM . There, the power density is
known, and moreover EqrEj s EqrEh s 0. If the detector
of the second pair records a signal, the particle must be at
that center position, and an electronic pulse triggers the
reading of the signal U of the first pair.

Fig. 16. Trigger sensor for particle size measurement in dust laden gas streams w49x.

J. Wertherr Powder Technology 102 (1999) 1536

24

This principle has been realized in an uncooled sensor.


Its complete optical system was made exclusively of silica.
The sensor has been tested successfully over 4 weeks in
the 8508C hot off-gas duct after the primary cyclone of a
circulating fluidized bed combustor at Kassel, Germany.
Flushing the window continuously with air prevented the
deposition of dust or ceramic layers. Some test results
are depicted in Fig. 17. The particle sizing system has been
designed to measure particle diameters in the range between 15 and 200 mm, which accounts for 85% of the
solids mass flow. By monitoring the particle frequency,
changes in the operating behavior of the plant are directly
observed. For example, the increase of the particle frequency starting around 6 oclock is due to an increase of
the boiler load. Instruments like this one will be extremely
helpful for an on-line monitoring of fluidized bed plant
performance and for an early detection of malfunctions in
the system.
3.4. g-Ray transmission tomography
Although they did not name it tomography
Bartholomew and Casagrande w50x were the first to apply
this technique to fluidized bed systems in their investigation of the solids distribution by means of g-ray absorption. They used a cobalt-60 source and mounted it as
indicated in Fig. 18 successively at the lettered points C, E,
G and K on the outer insulation of the FCC fluid catalytic
cracking. riser under consideration which had an inner
diameter of 518 mm. The detectora GeigerMuller
tube

Fig. 18. Path layout for g-ray measurements and reconstructed suspension
density in a 518 mm ID riser w50x.

was installed at the numbered positions such that a path


layout with 18 different paths resulted. The operation of
the riser had to be held as steady as possible during the 18
h which were required for a series of measurements. The
density distribution was calculated analytically. The published result which is also shown in Fig. 18 reveals a
remarkably nonuniform distribution over the risers crosssection. The accumulation on the left-hand side is probably
due to the catalyst feeding device which is located roughly
3 m below the measurement plane on that same side. A
good, i.e., an even catalyst distribution is a key for the
selectivity of the cracking reactions and thus for the performance of the riser. The g-ray tomography offers a powerful tool for process optimization and Bartholomew and
Casagrande report that this technique had been used on
pilot plants and commercial units in bubbling and circulat-

Fig. 17. Particle frequencies and particle size distributions measured in a coal-fired circulating fluidized bed combustor w49x.

J. Wertherr Powder Technology 102 (1999) 1536

25

Fig. 20. Measuring principle of a single-fiber optical probe w53x.

Fig. 19. Suspension density map in a 0.94 m ID industrial FCC riser


obtained by g-ray transmission tomography w52x.

ing fluidized beds with diameters ranging from 150 mm to


as large as 12 m. Because the measurement is non-invasive
it may be performed on existing industrial units without
large preparation work.
The results of such investigations are normally kept
secret by the companies since they are considered to be
essential parts of their know-how. Recent exceptions of
this rule are investigations published by Bernard et al.
w51,52x. They report investigations of the solids distribution inside FCC risers with internal diameters of 0.7 m and
0.94 m, respectively. One of their results depicted in Fig.
19, reveals a remarkable similarity with the solids distribution shown in the previous figure, although modern methods of image reconstruction provide a more detailed picture with much higher resolution.

r measurement techniques in aca4. New developmentsr


demic research
This final chapter deals with measurement techniques
which have either not yet reached the stage of testing in
the rough environment of an industrial fluidized bed apparatus or which are particularly intended as research instruments for the elucidation of gassolid contacting and of
basic flow phenomena in fluidized beds.

the measuring volume, scattered at the particles, reflected,


received and conducted back by the same fiber, diverted at
the beam splitter and finally transformed and amplified to
the output voltage U t .. For the measurement of solids
volume concentrations in the fluidized bed optical fiber
probes have to be calibrated which is made difficult by the
fact that it is practically impossible to realize homogeneous gassolid suspensions over a sufficiently wide range
of solids concentrations. Hartge et al. w54x determined the
shape of the calibration curve by immersing the probe into
water-fluidized beds of preselected concentrations and fixed
the calibration by dipping the probe into a gassolid fixed
bed of known solids volume concentration. Lischer and
Louge w55x argued that this might provide a misleading
calibration for gas suspensions and suggested a calibration
via a comparison with a capacitance probe. If a traverse
across the whole fluidized bed can be measured, then for
calibration purposes the integral of the measured signal
over the beds cross-sectional area may be compared with
the average solids volume concentration obtained from a
pressure drop measurement w13,56,57x.
Another difficulty with the optical fiber probe shown in
Fig. 20 is that the penetration of light into the suspension
and thus the extent of the measurement volume depends on
the solid volume concentration. Fig. 21 shows results of
model calculations by Rensner and Werther w53x. The
extensions a50 and a95 respectively, are the depths of the
measuring volumes measured from the front of the probe
tip, from which 50 and 95% of the signal intensity originate for a given volume concentration c v and with a fixed
particle diameter d. We see that the 95% measurement

4.1. Probe techniques


Fiber optical probes are quite popular in fluidization
research because their design is fairly simple, they yield
high signal-to-noise ratios and, if properly designed, they
create a minimum disturbance to the flow. Louge w1x gives
an extensive overview on the literature. As an example
Fig. 20 shows the operating principle of the probe used in
the authors group e.g., Rensner and Werther w53x.. The
light emitted by a laser diode is focused into a fiber with a
small core diameter, transported to a fiber-optical beam
splitter, enters the sensor fiber, is guided by that fiber to

Fig. 21. Depth of measurement volume for a single-fiber optical probe


fiber diameter 0.6 mm, quartz spheres ds 0.15 m in air, from Rensner
and Werther w53x..

26

J. Wertherr Powder Technology 102 (1999) 1536

Fig. 22. Optical probe with limited measurement volume w59x.

volume extends from 0.6 to 4 mm into the suspension for


solids volume concentrations between 60 and 1%. Reh and
Li w58x partly avoid this concentration-dependent variation
of the measurement volume by using a converging arrangement of separate emission and detection fibers. Tanner w59x improved this design by using a small lens to
achieve a limitation of the measurement volume Fig. 22..
This latter probe is the basis of a measurement system
which is presently marketed for various applications in the
process industries w60x.
Fluidized-bed systems are characterized by solids volume concentrations which are generally too high to permit
a visual observation of processes inside the bed through
windows from the outside. This has in the past prevented
the application of measurement techniques like Laser
Doppler Anemometry LDA. for investigations inside fluidized beds. However, the situation has changed with the
advent of fiber-optical LDA systems. Guiding the laser
light through optical fibers to a probe head permits the
latter to be installed inside the fluidized bed. Fig. 23 shows
such an LDA probe w61x where the measurement volume is
established at the cross-point of two laser beams 19 mm in
front of the 22 mm diameter probe. This distance is
believed to be large enough for the disturbances due to the
presence of the probe to be negligible. With this probe
local velocities of the solid particles were measured inside
a 400 mm diameter circulating fluidized bed. In Fig. 24 a
horizontal profile of local average solids velocities measured by LDA is compared with measurements of mean
velocities obtained by cross-correlating the signals of a
two-channel fiber-optical probe. The agreement between
the two different measurement techniques is fairly good
and leads to the conclusion that the gassolid two-phase

Fig. 23. LDA probe holder with DANTEC FibreFlow probe dimensions
in mm, w61x..

Fig. 24. A comparison of local mean velocities measured by LDA with


those obtained by cross-correlation of fiber-optical probe signals riser 0.4
m diameter, us 4 mrs, hs6 m w61x.

flow in the upper dilute zone of a circulating fluidized bed


is so stable that it is not significantly disturbed by the
presence of the fiber optical probes. This conclusion is in
accordance with previous findings with respect to the use
of the suction probes cf. Section 3.2. and provides another
justification for using probes in fluidized bed systems.
Particle size measurement is performed in standard
laboratory instruments by laser diffraction from dilute
samples in forward scattering geometry. The application of
this principle inside fluidized beds with higher solids
content, however, is not advisable since the optical elements required in forward scattering geometry on both
sides of the measuring volume tend to be bulky and would
disturb the particle flow. In backscattering geometry, however, a one-sided optical system may be used. The probe
head may be arranged at a reasonable distance from the
measuring volume, leaving the flow undisturbed. The possible distance is limited only by the requirement of sufficient optical transparency. Phase Doppler Anemometers
PDA. are operating in this mode. Their application, however, is restricted to spherical, smooth particles. For rough,
irregularly shaped particles normally encountered in fluidized beds there exists generally no simple diffraction
pattern e.g., rings.. Rather a seemingly random speckle
pattern results which bears no discernible relationship to
diffraction rings. Nevertheless, Ulrich and Hamann w49x
have recently shown that it is possible by an auto-correlation procedure to extract representative values of particle
diameter from the speckle pattern. These values are independent of the reflectivity of the particle and also of the
beam profile, provided the beam diameter is large i.e.,
much larger than the particle diameter.. The idea of the
measurement is shown in Fig. 25. It shows schematically
the angular distribution of light scattered back by a single
rough particle diameter d .. The rings of scattered light
which would be produced by a smooth particle break up
into a speckle pattern. The information about the particle
diameter d is encoded in the mean angular spacing d s
of the speckles, d s f l w rd where l w denotes the wavelength. Consequently, the particle size determination involves the evaluation of the autocorrelation function of the
angular intensity distribution of the scattered light. First

J. Wertherr Powder Technology 102 (1999) 1536

Fig. 25. Backscattering of coherent light by a single, rough particle w49x.

tests of such a speckle sensor in the rough environment


of a circulating fluidized bed combustor were promising. If
the future development is successful, a sensor would be
available which would be of great value for monitoring
and control of fluidized bed processes with changing particle sizes, e.g., agglomeration and polymerization processes.
4.2. Non-inasie measurement techniques
Basically, non-invasive measurement techniques which
determine properties of the gassolid flow inside the fluidized bed by means of an instrument located outside are
highly desirable since the measurement does not interfere
with the flow. In the development of such methods, however, it has to be taken into account that industrial applications of fluidized beds are typically very large reactors. For
example, the combustion chambers of fluidized-bed boilers
have cross-sectional areas of between 25 and 100 m2 and
heights between 20 and 40 m. Fluidized bed reactors in the
chemical industry commonly have diameters between 3
and 5 m with heights ranging from 5 to 15 m, the FCC
riser with its diameter of about 1 m being rather an
exception. These are dimensions which are a big challenge
for non-invasive measurement techniques. It is not surprising therefore that the application of such techniques is
presently restricted to academic investigations of fluidized
beds with diameters between 5 and 50 cm, the only
exception being the tomography of FCC risers discussed in
Section 3.4.
In recent years, significant progress has been made in
the development of tomographic methods e.g., Beck et al.
w62x, Holoboff et al. w63x and Kantzas and Kalogerakis
w64x. used the X-ray Computer Assisted Tomography
CAT. in their investigation of the fluidization properties
of different polyethylene powders in a 10 cm diameter
column. Their CAT scanner, a commercially available
instrument for medical use, permitted a resolution of 400
mm by 400 mm in the cross-section, the thickness of each
imaged slice of the column being 3 mm. The time required
for a single scan was 3 s. Processing of the data required
another 40 s. The image revealed the existence of characteristic macroscopic heterogeneities in the voidage distri-

27

bution which varied with the properties of the fluidized


particles. In a similar way Simons et al. w65x used g-ray
CAT to obtain quantitative information on local time-averaged voidage distributions within fluidized beds which
were fitted with different gas distributors. They were able
to visualize the shape and the extension of the gas jets
issuing from the distributor holes.
An alternative development is the capacitance tomography which reconstructs the two-dimensional distribution of
the effective dielectric constant from capacitance measurements between pairs of electrodes. Fig. 26 gives a
schematic representation of the capacitance flow imaging
system developed by Huang et al. w6668x at the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology
UMIST.. It consists of an eight-electrode capacitance
sensor, a data collection system and an image reconstruction computer. The sensor is made by mounting eight
metal plates on the outer surface of the insulating pipe
section. The data collection system measures the capacitances between any two of the eight electrodes in all
possible combinations. The measured capacitance values,
the amplitude of which depends on the dielectric distribution in the tube, are fed into the computer and a cross-sectional image of the component distribution is reconstructed
by using a linear backprojection algorithm. Very recently,
the UMIST group developed a new back-projection algorithm which permitted Wang et al. w69x to investigate
bubble formation and distribution in the immediate vicinity
of the distributor at a frame rate of 210 Hz.
The measurement system developed at the US Department of Energys Morgantown Energy Technology Center
w70x involves four rings of 32 electrodes of 25 mm height
which are arranged on the circumference of a 150 mm ID
cyclindrical fluidized bed Fig. 27.. Guard electrodes extending 150 mm above and below the sensor arrangement
are intended to minimize the effects of stray capacitances.
This instrument has successfully been used for the observation of bubble coalescence processes in a fluidized bed
w71x. During these measurements the fluidized bed was
imaged at rates from 60 to 100 frames per second.

Fig. 26. Capacitance flow imaging system Huang et al. 1989 w66x..

28

J. Wertherr Powder Technology 102 (1999) 1536

Fig. 27. Capacitance sensor arrangement used by Halow et al. w70x.

At present, tomographic imaging is primarily used to


visualize the solids or voidage distribution inside the fluidized bed. For many applications it would be interesting
to have a more detailed information on solids flow and
large-scale circulation patterns. Particularly for gassolid
reactions it is important to know about the residence time
of a particle in different regions of the fluidized bed.
Questions of this kind can be answered with the help of
particle tracking methods where a radioactive particle is
detected and tracked by several detectors which are located
outside the fluidized bed. For this purpose, Seville et al.
w72x used the Positron Emission Tomography which is well
established in the field of medicine for the purpose of
diagnostic imaging using radiolabelled metabolic fluids. In
Positron Emission Particle tracking, however, the source is
a single tracer particle. When a radionuclide emits a
positron, the positron has an initial energy of up to about 1
MeV but it attains thermal equilibrium quickly due to
inelastic electron scattering and annihilates with an electron. The annihilation leads to the production of two
collinear g-rays, whose detection in large- area positionsensitive detectors enables the line on which the positron
emitter lies to be determined. If only a single positronemitting particle is known to be present, detection of a few
such g-ray pairs allows to locate it by triangulation in
three dimensions.
Seville et al. investigated the particle movement in a
150 mm diameter bed of 900 mm sand. A single 2 mm
diameter 18 F silica tracer with an initial activity of 10 7 Bq
was introduced into the bed. The particle was observed to
undergo many short movements in no particularly favored
direction in the distributor region until picked up by a gas
bubble. Then it was transported to the bed surface, usually
in several rapid near-vertical movements. Typically, a
particle became detached from its carrier bubble several

times on it way up. Once at the surface, the particle made


short movements in different directions until it reached a
downflowing region, typically close to the wall. It was
clearly seen that most of its time the particle spent either in
the region close to the distributor or near the bed surface.
Observations of this kind are likely to lead, together
with the axial profiles of gas concentrations, to improved
models for gassolid reactions in fluidized-bed systems.
With this intention in mind, Weinell et al. w73,74x investigated solids velocities and residence times in the cold
model of a CFB combustor by tracking radioactive tracer
particles with 8 detectors distributed along the riser height.
The accuracy of detection of the particle location and the
speed of data processing largely depends on the quality of
the software. Larachi et al. w75x developed improved inverse reconstruction algorithms. They used a particle tracking system consisting of 8 NaJTl. scintillation detectors
mounted around the 100 mm diameter column to follow
the movement of a g-ray emitting tracer made of 46 Sc
radionuclide with a diameter and a density similar to that
of the glass beads used as bed particles in a three-phase
fluidized-bed system w76x.
4.3. Imaging techniques and image analysis
The simplest way to obtain images of the gassolid
flow in a fluidized bed obviously is to take photos or
videos through the transparent wall of a fluidized bed
column. Although observations in the vicinity of the wall
cannot be representative of the gassolid flow in the
interior of the bed, investigations of this kind can be very
helpful for an understanding of wall-related processes, e.g.,
of the heat transfer between bed and wall. The particle
image velocimetry w7779x which is based on a double-or
multiple-exposure photography allows the reconstruction

J. Wertherr Powder Technology 102 (1999) 1536

of the track of specially marked tracer particles. For example, in the multicolor stroboscopic photography used by
Zheng et al. w78x successive red, blue and yellow images of
white tracer particles in a fluidized bed of black particles
provide particle velocities and directions of motion in the
region adjacent to the wall. Wirth and Seiter w80x used
phosphorescent tracer particles which were glowing for
several seconds after activation with a triggered flashlight.
The velocity of the activated particles was calculated by
observing the glowing spots with a highly sensitive video
camera and evaluating visually picture-by-picture. Furthermore, the residence time of particles or particle packets at
the wall was determined which is an important information
on the mechanism of bed-to-wall heat transfer.
A video or photographic observation of the interior of
the fluidized bed requires the use of intrusive probes.
Burschka w81x used the phosphorescent particle technique
in combination with a special mirror probe for his investigation of particle flow around a vertical heat exchanger
tube in a bubbling fluidized bed. Takeuchi and Hirama w82x
coupled a high-speed video camera to a borescope to
observe details of the gassolid flow in the centre of a
circulating fluidized bed riser. Similar devices were used
by Li et al. w83x and Hartholt et al. w84x. The former
authors probe is shown in Fig. 28. It consists of a set of
lenses and a fiber-optic flashlight-transmitter, inserted radially into the bed. Hatano et al. w8588x used different types
of image scopes in combination with a highspeed video
camera with frame rates up to 3000 frames per second for
the observation of the motion of 400 mm diameter glass
beads in a CFB riser. They observed particles and strands
rising and falling with different velocity ranges and studied
the mechanisms of cluster formation and interparticle collisions. A similar video system combined with a computeraided image preprocessing system was used by Zou et al.
w89x for the quantitative characterization of cluster shapes
and sizes.
With optical probes of this kind a microscopic view of
local phenomena inside fluidized beds may be obtained. If,
on the other hand a broad overview on the fluidized bed as
a whole is desired, then X-ray imaging will be a powerful
tool. Fig. 29 illustrates the method w90x. A pulsed 50 Hz.
high energy beam 50 to 180 kV. is produced from a
rotating anode. This beam passes through a shuttering

Fig. 28. Optic fiber micrograph probe w83x.

29

Fig. 29. X-ray imaging principle Gamblin et al. 1993 w90x..

device that is synchronized with a video camera also


operating at 50 Hz. During each 1r50th second period, the
shuttering device allows one X-ray pulse, controllable in
duration from 1 to 10 ms, through the fluidized bed. X-ray
absorption depends on the amount of material along the
path. The resulting image produced on the image intensifier is photographed using the video camera and recorded
onto video tape. The short X-ray pulse time freezes the
motion within the bed, providing an instant-in-time representation of the internal structure of the rapidly changing
system. Gamblin et al. w90x successfully used this method
for the optimization of air distribution to an FCC regenerator. They X-rayed a cold model with a bed cross-section of
0.75 = 0.3 m2 . The X-ray images revealed strong interactions between gas jets issuing from neighboring gas nozzles, which were quite unexpected on the basis of literature
predictions of the jet length.
Early work on X-ray imaging of fluidized beds pioneered by Rowe et al. e.g., Rowe w91x. was focused on the
phenomena of bubble formation in gas fluidized beds. The
sizes, shapes and velocities of single bubbles were subject
of extensive studies. More recently Durand et al. w92x used
this measurement technique for the optimization of bubbling in the polyethylene fluidized bed process. They took
X-ray images of a cold model of 420 mm inner diameter at
pressures up to 32 bar. The view field of the X-ray image
extended from the distributor level to a height of 1 m. This
permitted a detailed observation of the formation of bubbles at the distributor nozzles as well as the distribution of
bubble gas in the lateral direction. In the process of
polyethylene polymerization the role of the bubbles is
mainly to keep the bed of solid particles agitated. An
intense solids mixing is needed because the polyethylene

Fig. 30. Flow visualization by laser sheet w94x.

30

J. Wertherr Powder Technology 102 (1999) 1536

Fig. 31. Internal imaging set-up used by Kuroki and Horio w97x.

powder gets sticky under polymerization conditions. Obviously, the X-ray imaging technique has been helpful in
finding a proper design of the gas distributor and also in
finding optimum operating conditions for different classes
of polyethylene powders.
However, X-ray imaging has also its natural limitations.
The main disadvantage of this method is that the picture is
necessarily a silhouette and bubbles behind or partially
behind another cannot be distinguished unambiguously,
although modern methods of digital image processing may
help considerably. X-ray imaging is therefore limited to
beds of a few tens of centimeters thick and to low fluidization velocities, i.e., low volume concentrations of bubbles
in the bed.
In recent years, the laser light sheet has turned out to be
an elegant means for the visualization of flow phenomena
in single-phase flows and gasliquid flows since it provides a well-defined observation area inside the flow.
Huber and Sommerfeld w93x have applied this technique to
dilute-phase conveying. They were able to observe the
cross-sectional particle concentration distribution in a pipe
with an inner diameter of 80 mm. Horio and Kuroki w94x

were the first to use the laser sheet in the field of fluidization. They used the arrangement shown in Fig. 30 to
generate a laser sheet inside a 200 mm ID transparent
column. The area of visualization was roughly 200 mm =
200 mm. To see flow patterns in vertical and horizontal
planes simultaneously three laser sheets intersecting at
right angles were applied in additional experiments. Similar experiments were performed by Tadrist and van den
Moortel w95x in a fluidized bed with 200 = 200 mm2
square cross-section. In order to get access to the three-dimensional shape and movement of particle clusters in the
circulating fluidized bed Horio et al. w96x developed a laser
sheet tracking method where a vertical laser sheet was
scanned across a horizontal plane by means of a mirror
which was moved mechanically back and forth. The laser
sheet was observed from outside with a high-speed video
camera. Unfortunately, the applicability of this external
imaging is restricted to extremely low solids volume
concentrations in the fluidized bed. In Horio and Kurokis
experiments the cross-sectional average solids volume concentration was 0.04% only. In order to permit the penetration of the light, the solids circulation rate had to be kept
below 0.6 kg my2 sy1 in Horio and Kurokis experiments
and 0.25 kg my2 sy1 in Tadrist and van den Moortels
tests. This is far below the circulation rates of 10 to 20 kg
my2 sy1 observed in industrial circulating fluidized bed
combustors.
Since the main resistance to the penetration of the light
is due to the presence of the dense wall zone in the
circulating fluidized bed Kuroki and Horio w97x used a
hood with a transparent plastic cover to guide the laser
sheet into the riser Fig. 31.. For realistic values of the
solids volume concentration the laser image of the particles was found to be detectable only in the region very
close to the sheet. Accordingly, a small TV camera with an

Fig. 32. Endoscopic light sheet generation and observation w98x.

J. Wertherr Powder Technology 102 (1999) 1536

Fig. 33. Influence of solids volume concentration c v and distance a ca


between laser sheet and observation endoscope on the ratio of received
light power Qca to the power Q l of light emitted by the laser w98x.

outer diameter of 17 mm was also introduced into the


fluidized bed. In front of the camera conical hood with a
transparent cover plate was installed, the distance between
the cover plate and the laser sheet being only 5 mm. The
view area was 47 = 35 mm2 . The authors successfully
visualized clusters under realistic operating conditions of a
circulating fluidized bed and measured characteristic cluster sizes and shapes.
In the present authors group attempts have been made
to reduce the obvious obstruction to the flow caused by
Kuroki and Horios internal imaging set-up. As it is
schematically shown in Fig. 32 w98x an endoscope is used
to guide the laser light into the fluidized bed. At the end of

31

this endoscope a cylindrical lens is generating the laser


sheet which is observed by a second endoscope. The image
is recorded by a high-speed video camera. Model calculations were performed in order to estimate the necessary
power of the laser light source. In a simple approach
similar to the one used by Rensner and Werther w53x the
suspension is treated as a regular array of homogeneous
spheres with uniform sizes and optical properties. The
model consists of basically three parts. In the first part the
geometry of the laser light sheet is modeled including the
light power distribution from its origin at the outlet of the
cylindrical lens to the area which is observed by the
camera. The second part includes the description of scattering within the observation area towards the direction of the
camera and the third part finally models the attenuation of
light due to the presence of solid particles on its way from
the illuminated observation area to the observation endoscope. Some characteristic results of the model calculations area shown in Fig. 33. The ratio of the light power
Qca received by the camera to the power of light emitted
by the laser Q l is plotted here as a function of the solids
volume concentration c v and the distance a ca between the
laser sheet and the observation endoscope. Although it is
desirable from the standpoint of minimizing the disturbance to the flow to keep the distance between the laser
sheet and the observation endoscope as large as possible
the calculations reveal that at a distance of 10 mm the
received relative power of light is less then 0.1% for the
range of solids volume concentrations which are of interest
in the upper dilute zone of circulating fluidized beds. As a
consequence, a fairly high power is required for a suitable
laser lighting. In the video images shown in Fig. 34 which

Fig. 34. Image sequence taken in the core of the circulating fluidized bed riser quartz sand particles, d p s 180 mm, u s 3 mrs, Gs s 11.6 kgrm2 s,
h s 6.4 m, 0.5 ms time step between two pictures, window size 28.5 = 11.5 mm2 , w98x.

32

J. Wertherr Powder Technology 102 (1999) 1536

Fig. 35. Two-dimensional flow patterns observed at the transparent wall of a 0.4 m ID circulating fluidized bed and corresponding velocity field u s 3
mrs, Gs s 14 kgrm2 s, h s 5.65 m, window size 10 = 12 cm2 , w99x.

were taken by a high-speed video camera a 10 W diode


laser was therefore used. The sequence was taken in the
core zone of a 400 mm ID 15 m high circulating fluidized
bed at a height of 6.4 m above the distributor. The light
sheet had an opening angle of 908 and a thickness of 1
mm. Both the light sheet generating endoscope and the
observation endoscopes had outer diameters of 10 mm.
The distance aca between the light sheet and the observation endoscope was 12 mm. The bright spots in the images
are individual particles and particle aggregates, respectively. A cluster is clearly seen to rise at an average
velocity of about 5 mrs, the superficial cross-sectional
average. fluidizing gas velocity being 3 mrs. It may be
expected that from measurements of this kind further
insights will be obtained into the mechanism of cluster
formation and dissolution which are the decisive features
of this type of gassolid flow.
A general problem still is the evaluation of video
images taken on fluidized bed systems. Due to the
widespread application of imaging methods standard routines are meanwhile available for image preprocessing,
e.g., shading correction and enhancement of contrasts w99x
and for digital image analysis, e.g., for image segmentation
on basis of grayscale threshold levels and for segmentation
of partly overlapping elements e.g., Zou et al. w89x..
Burkhardt and Bredebusch w99x have suggested methods
for the calculation of 2D velocity fields. As an example
Fig. 35 depicts the instantaneous velocity field at the wall

of the transparent fluidized-bed riser obtained by a gradient-based method from the digital analysis of two successive images.
However, these are only first steps of a flow structure
analysis by means of digital image analysis. Still lacking
are more sophisticated methods for the automatic unambiguous determination of cluster sizes and shapes and their
spatial distributors from video images where the clusters
are often partly visible only due to the presence of other
clusters either in between the light sheet endoscope and the
observation area or between the light sheet and the observation endoscope.

5. Conclusions
The gassolid fluidized bed is a multiphase flow system
which is characterized by high solids volume concentrations andas far as industrial applications are concerned
by large dimensions. The resulting optical opaqueness
reduces the number of available measurement methods
considerably.
In general, industrial fluidized beds represent a harsh
environment for measurement techniques. It is not only the
temperature and the chemically aggressive atmosphere
which have to be considered but also the mechanical stress
due to the vigorous motion of the bed particles and an
erosive attack due to sandblasting effects make it difficult

J. Wertherr Powder Technology 102 (1999) 1536

to find suitable probe designs which are sufficiently stable


over a long time of operation. It is not surprising therefore
that state-of-the-art measuring techniques in industrial fluidized bed reactors are limited to temperature and pressure
measurements. Such measurements may be sufficient under normal operating conditions. However, it is clear that
they are indirect measures of fluidization characteristics
only.
In recent years first attempts have been made to develop
measurement techniques for local solids flux, solids volume concentration and solid particle size inside industrial
fluidized bed reactors. First tests were promising. Research
workers should be encouraged to develop further measurement techniques for industrial applications since the introduction of such techniques could help to improve the
performance, safety and reliability of operation of largescale fluidized beds. On the other hand designers and
operators of fluidized bed reactors should be encouraged to
make use of such developments.
In the field of research various sophisticated probe
techniques are now available for the investigation of local
flow characteristics inside the fluidized bed. A promising
field for further development are non-invasive measurement methods, e.g., tomographic and particle-tracking
techniques. Imaging techniques suffer from the opaqueness
which makes it difficult to visually observe details of the
flow inside the bed. Endoscopic laser sheet generation
combined with endoscopic high-speed video might be a
solution although there is still a need of suitable methods
for digital image analysis.

6. Nomenclature
At
a50 , a95

a ca
cv
cv
d
Dp
dp
g
Gs
H
h
m s,r
Nu conv
p

cross-sectional area of the riser, m2


depths of measuring volumes from
which 50 and 95%, respectively, of the
intensity of the fiber-optical probes
signal originate, m
distance between the light sheet and
the observation endoscope, m
solids volume concentration,
cross-sectional average solids volume
concentration,
particle diameter, m
pressure drop, Pa
Sauter diameter, m
gravity constant, m sy2
externally recirculating solids mass
flux, kg my2 sy1
bed height, m
height above gas distributor, m
riser inventory, kg
Nusselt number for convective heat
transfer,
pressure, Pa

pc,i
pd
Qca
Q l
r
Ts
U
u

VM
VT
x
y
Greek symbols
a
a conv

q
l
lw
rf
rs

33

pressure at the cyclone inlet, Pa


pressure immediately above the gas
distributor, Pa
of received light power, W
power of light emitted by the laser, W
radial distance from axis, m
sampling time, s
voltage, V
superficial gas velocity, m sy1
solids velocity, m sy1
measurement volume of trigger sensor
Fig. 16., m3
trigger volume of trigger sensor Fig.
16., m3
distance from south wall of the Flensburg combustor Fig. 4., m
distance from west wall Fig. 4., m
heat transfer coefficient, W my2 Ky1
coefficient of convective heat transfer,
W my2 Ky1
Temperature, K
heat conductivity, W my1 Ky1
wavelength, m
fluid density, kg my3
solids density, kg my3

Acknowledgements
The authors work is supported within the framework of
the collaborative research center Sonderforschungsbereich
238In-situ Measuring Techniques and Dynamic Modeling for Multiphase Flow Systems by Deutsche
Forschungsgemeinschaft DFG..

References
w1x M. Louge, Experimental techniques, in: J. Grace, T. Knowlton, A.A.
Avidan Eds.., Circulating Fluidized Beds, Chap. 9, Chapman &
Hall, London, 1996.
w2x J.J. Nieuwland, R. Meijer, J.A.M. Kuipers, W.P.M. van Swaaij,
Measurements of solids concentration and axial solids velocity in
gassolid two-phase flows, Powder Technol. 87 1996. 127139.
w3x J.G. Yates, S.J. R Simons, Experimental methods in fluidization
research, Int. J. Multiphase Flow 20 1994. 297330, Suppl.
w4x S.L. Soo, M.C. Slaughter, J.G. Plumpe, Instrumentation for flow
properties of gassolid suspensions and recent advances, Part. Sci.
Tech. 12 1994. 112.
w5x F. Larachi, Chaouki, Application des Techniques Non-Intrusives a` la
Characterisation
Hydrodynamique des Reacteurs
Polyphasiques,

Actes de la Premiere
Maghrebine
de Genie
` Conference

des Procedes,

Marrakech, Morocco, 1994, 2346.
w6x J. Werther, E.-U. Hartge, D. Rensner, Measurement techniques for
gassolid fluidized-bed reactors, Int. Chem. Eng. 33 1993. 1827.
w7x P. Turlier, J.R. Bernard, Techniques detude
in situ des lits fluidises

industriels, Entropie 170 1992. 2428.

34

J. Wertherr Powder Technology 102 (1999) 1536

w8x S.C. Saxena, R.Z. Qian, D.C. Liu, Recent chinese heat transfer
research on bubbling and circulating fluidized beds, Energy 17
1992. 12151232.
w9x S.C. Saxena, K.K. Srivastava, R. Vadivel, Experimental techniques
for the measurement of radiative and total heat transfer in gas
fluidized beds: a review, Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science 2
1989. 350364.
w10x N.P. Cheremisinoff, Review of experimental methods for studying
the hydrodynamics of gassolid fluidized beds, Ind. Eng. Chem.
Process Des. Dev. 25 1986. 329351.
w11x J.R. Grace, J. Baeyens, Instrumentation and experimental techniques, in: D. Geldart Ed.., Gas Fluidization Technology, Wiley,
New York, 1986, pp. 415462.
w12x H. Schoenfelder, M. Kruse, J. Werther, Two dimensional model for
circulating fluidized-bed reactors, AIChE Journal 40 1996. 1875
1888.
w13x E.-U. Hartge, Y. Li, J. Werther, Analysis of the local structure of the
two-phase flow in a fast fluidized bed, in: P. Basu Ed.., Circulating
Fluidized Bed Technology, Pergamon, Toronto, 1986, pp. 153160.
w14x T. Knowlton, Solids transfer in fluidized systems, in: D. Geldart
Ed.., Gas Fluidization Technology, Chap. 12, Wiley, Chichester,
1986.
w15x D. Kunii, O. Levenspiel, Fluidization Engineering, 2nd edn., Butterworth-Heinemann, Stoneham, 1991.
w16x C.C. Werdermann, J. Werther, Heat transfer in large-scale circulating fluidized bed combustors of different sizes, in: A.A. Avidan
Ed.., Circulating Fludized Bed Technology IV, Proc. 4th Int. Conf.
Circulating Fluidized Beds, SomersetrPa., USA, 1993, pp. 428435.
w17x H. Sinn, Modellierung der Wirbelschicht fur
einen kohlegefeuerten
Schiffs-Dampferzeuger, Fortschr.-Ber. VDI Reihe 6 Nr. 207, VDI
Verlag, Dusseldorf,
1987.

w18x Land Instruments International, Operating Instructions for the LAND


Total Heat Flux Meter, Dronfield, Sheffield, 1989.
w19x C.C. Werdermann, Feststoffbewegung und Warmeubertragung
in

zirkulierenden Wirbelschichten von Kohlekraftwerken, Dissertation,
Technical University Hamburg-Harburg, 1992.
w20x B. Leckner, B.-A. Andersson, Characteristic features of heat transfer
in circulating fluidized bed boilers, Powder Technol. 70 1992.
303314.
w21x B. Hirschberg, Einflu der Lange
der Austauschflache
auf die

Warmeubertragung
in einer zirkulierenden Wirbelschicht, Diploma

Thesis, University Karlsruhe, 1992.
w22x P. Basuand, P.K. Nag, Heat transfer to walls of a circulating
fluidized-bed furnace, Chem. Eng. Sci. 51 1996. 126.
w23x F. Johnsson, W. Zhang, B. Leckner, Characteristics of the formation
of particle wall-layers in CFB boilers, in: A. Serizawa, T. Fukano, J.
Bataille Eds.., Proc. 2nd Int. Conf. on Multiphase Flow, Kyoto,
Japan, FB1-25-FB1-32, 1995.
w24x C.C. Werdermann, J. Werther, Solids flow pattern and heat transfer
in an industrial-scale fluidized-bed heat exchanger, in: L.N. Rubow
Ed.., Proc. 12th Int. Conf. Fluidized Bed Combustion, ASME, New
York, 1993, pp. 985990.
w25x L. Plass, Wirbelschichttechnik fur
vergasung, verbrennung, trocknung und gasreinigung und ihre anwendungen in kraftwerken, VGB
Kraftwerkstechnik 71 1991. 184191.
w26x VDI-Richtlinie 2066 Blatt 1, Staubmessungen in stromenden
Gasen,

gravimetrische Bestimmung der Staubbeladung, Beuth Verlag,


Berlin, 1975.
w27x M.J. Rhodes, P. Laussmann, F. Villain, D. Geldart, Measurement of
radial and axial flux variations in the riser of a circulating fluidized
bed, in: P. Basu, J.F. Large Eds.., Circulating Fluidized Bed
Technology II, Pergamon, Oxford, 1988, pp. 155164.
w28x M.J. Rhodes, Modelling the flow structure of upward-flowing gas
solids suspensions, Powder Technol. 60 1990. 2738.
w29x B. Leckner, M.R. Golriz, W. Zhang, B.-A. Andersson, F. Johnsson,
Boundary layersfirst measurements in the 12 MW CFB research
plant at Chalmers University, in: E.J. Anthony Ed.., Proc. 11th Int.

w30x
w31x

w32x

w33x

w34x

w35x
w36x

w37x

w38x

w39x

w40x

w41x

w42x

w43x

w44x

w45x
w46x

w47x

w48x

Conf. Fluidized Bed Combustion, ASME, New York, 1991, pp.


771776.
M.J. Rhodes, P. Laussmann, A simple non-isokinetic sampling
probe for dense suspensions, Powder Technol. 70 1992. 141151.
M. Kruse, J. Werther, 2D gas and solids flow prediction in circulating fluidized beds based on suction probe and pressure profile
measurements, Chem. Eng. Proc. 34 1995. 185203.
M. Couturier, B. Doucette, D. Stevens, S. Poolpol, V. Razbin,
Temperature, gas concentration and solid mass flux profiles within a
large circulating fluidized bed combustor, in: E.J. Anthony Ed..,
Proc. 11th Int. Conf. Fluidized Bed Combustion, ASME, New York,
1991, pp. 107114.
V. Greif, E. Muschelknautz, A new impeller probe for measurement
of velocity at high temperatures and dust loadings, in: A.A. Avidan
Ed.., Circulating Fluidized Bed Technology IV, Proc. 4th Int. Conf.
Circulating Fluidized Beds, SomersetrPa., USA, 1993, pp. 532539.
E. Muschelknautz, V. Greif, Fundamentals and practical aspects of
cyclones, in: A.A. Avidan Ed.., Circulating Fluidized Bed Technology IV, Proc. 4th Int. Conf. Circulating Fluidized Beds,
SomersetrPa., USA, 1993, pp. 2027.
J.C. Maxwell, Electricity and Magnetism, Clarendon, Oxford, 1892.
W.R. Tinga, W.A.G. Voss, D.F. Blossey, Generalized approach to
multiphase dielectric mixture theory, J. Appl. Phys. 44 1973.
38973902.
A.E. Almstedt, E. Olsson, Measurements of bubble behavior in a
pressurized fluidized bed burning coal, using capacitance probes,
Proc. 7th Int. Conf. Fluidized Bed Combustion, Philadelphia, PA,
1982, pp. 8998.
A.E. Almstedt, E. Olsson, Measurements of bubble behavior in a
pressurized fluidized bed burning coal, using capacitance probesPart
II, Proc. 8th Int. Conf. Fluidized Bed Combustion, Houston, TX,
1985, pp. 865877.
J. Werther, O. Molerus, The local structure of gas fluidized beds: I.
A statistically based measuring system, Int. J. Multiphase Flow 1
1973. 103122.
A.E. Almstedt, V. Zakkay, An investigation of fluidized bed
scaling-capacitance probe measurements in a pressurized fluidized
bed combustor and a cold model, Chem. Eng. Sci. 45 1990.
10711078.
J.R. Grace, J. Zhao, R. Wu, R. Senior, R. Legros, C.M.H. Brereton,
J.C. Lim, Proc. Workshop on Material Issues in Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustors, EPRIrUSA, 10, 1990, pp. 121.
B. Hage, J. Werther, K. Narukawa, S. Mori, Capacitance probe
measurement technique for local particle volume concentration in
circulating fluidized bed combustors, J. Chem. Eng. Jpn. 29 1996.
594602.
C. Acree Riley, M.Y. Louge, Quantitative capacitive measurements
of voidage in dense gassolid flows, Particulate Science Tech. 7
1989. 5159.
B. Hage, J. Werther, The Guarded Capacitance ProbeA Tool for
the Measurement of Solids Flow Patterns in Laboratory and Industrial Fluidized Bed Combustors, Powder Technol, 1997, accepted for
publication.
K.G. Berkelmann, U. Renz, Gas and solid flow in the freeboard of a
fluidized bed combustor, Powder Technol. 68 1991. 271280.
E.J. Addis, W. Bagshaw, B.A. Napier, An experimental study of
bubble formation in coal-fired fluidized bed combustors, in: E.J.
Anthony Ed.., Proc. 11th Int. Conf. Fluidized Bed Combustion,
ASME, New York, 1991, pp. 763774.
J. Werther, B. Hage, A fiber-optical sensor for high-temperature
application in fluidized bed combustion, in: J.F. Large Ed.., Fluidization VIII, 8th Int. Engineering Foundation Conf. on Fluidization, preprints, Tours, France, 1995, pp. 689696.
F. Johnsson, W. Zhang, H. Johnsson, B. Leckner, Optical and
momentum probe measurements in a CFB furnace, in: M. Kwauk, J.
Li Eds.., 5th Int. Conf. Circulating Fluidized Beds, Beijing, China,
1996, MI 7 1-6.

J. Wertherr Powder Technology 102 (1999) 1536


w49x R. Ulrich, O. Hamann, Fiber-optic particle sensor operating at
Eds.., In-Situ
elevated temperatures, in: J. Werther, H. Markl

Measuring Techniques and Dynamic Modeling for Multiphase Flow


Systems, SFB 238 Progress Report 19941996, Verlag des SFB
238, Hamburg, 1996, pp. 1535.
w50x R.N. Bartholomew, R.M. Casagrande, Measuring solids concentration in fluidized systems by gamma-ray absorption, Ind. Eng. Chem.
49 1957. 428431.
w51x M. Azzi, P. Turlier, J.R. Bernard, L. Garnero, Mapping solid
concentration in a circulating fluidized bed using gammametry,
Powder Technol. 67 1991. 2736.
w52x M.P. Martin, P. Turlier, J.R. Bernard, G. Wild, Gas and solid
behavior in cracking circulating fluidized beds, Powder Technol. 70
1992. 249258.
w53x D. Rensner, J. Werther, Estimation of the effective measuring
volume of single-fibre reflection probes for solid volume concentration measurements, Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 10 1993. 4855.
w54x E.-U. Hartge, D. Rensner, J. Werther, Solids concentration and
velocity pattern in circulating fluidized beds, in: P. Basu, J.F. Large
Eds.., Circulating Fluidized Bed Technology II, Pergamon, Oxford,
1988, pp. 165180.
w55x D.J. Lischer, M.Y. Louge, Optical fiber measurements of particle
concentration in dense suspensions: calibration and simulation, Applied Optics 31 1992. 51065113.
w56x Y. Tung, J. Li, M. Kwauk, Radial voidage profiles in a fast fluidized
bed, in: M. Kwauk, D. Kunii Eds.., Fluidization 88 Science and
Technology, Science Press, Beijing, China, 1988, pp. 287295.
w57x W. Zhang, Y. Tung, F. Johnsson, Radial voidage profiles in fast
fluidized beds of different diameters, Chem. Eng. Sci. 46 1991.
30453052.
w58x L. Reh, J. Li, Measurement of voidage in fluidized beds by optical
probes, in: P. Basu, et al. Eds.., Circulating Fluidized Bed Technology III, Pergamon, New York, 1991, pp. 163170.
w59x H. Tanner, Lokale Stromungsmechanik
in hochexpandierten

zirkulierenden GasrFeststoff-Wirbelschichten, Dissertation, ETH


Zurich,
1994.

w60x MSE Meili, Information brochure, Zurich,


1996.

w61x J. Werther, B. Hage, C. Rudnick, A comparison of laser doppler and


single-fibre reflection probes for the measurement of the velocity of
solids in a gassolid circulating fluidized bed, Chem. Eng. Proc. 35
1996. 381391.
w62x M.S. Beck, E. Campogrande, M. Morris, R.A. Williams, R.C.
Waterfall Eds.., Tomographic Techniques for Process Design and
Operation, Computational Mechanics Publications, Southampton,
UK, 1993.
w63x J. Holoboff, A. Kantzas, N. Kalogerakis, Utilization of computer
assisted tomography in the determination of the spatial variability of
voidage in a gassolid fluidized bed, in: J.F. Large Ed.., Fluidization VIII, 8th Int. Engineering Foundation Conference on Fluidization, preprints, Tours, France, 1995, pp. 295302.
w64x A. Kantzas, N. Kalogerakis, Monitoring the fluidization characteristics of polyolefin resins using X-ray computer assisted tomography
scanning, Chem. Eng. Sci. 51 1996. 19791990.
w65x S.J.R. Simons, J.P.K. Seville, R. Clift, W.B. Gilboy, M.E.
Hosseini-Ashrafi, Application of g-ray tomography to gas fluidized
and spouted beds, in: M.S. Beck, E. Campogrande, M. Morris, R.A.
Williams, R.C. Waterfall Eds.., Tomographic Techniques for Process Design and Operation, Computational Mechanics Publications,
Southampton UK, 1993, pp. 227238.
w66x S.M. Huang, A.B. Plaskowski, C.G. Xie, M.S. Beck, Tomographic
imaging of two-component flow using capacitance sensors, J. Phys.
E.: Sci. Instrum. 22 1989. 173177.
w67x S.M. Huang, C.G. Xie, R. Thorn, D. Snowden, M.S. Beck, Design
of sensor electronics for electrical capacitance tomography, IEE
Proceedings 6 139 1992. 8388.
w68x C.G. Xie, S.M. Huang, B.S. Hoyle, R. Thorn, C. Lenn, D. Snowden,
M.S. Beck, Electrical capacitance tomography for flow imaging:

w69x

w70x

w71x
w72x

w73x

w74x

w75x

w76x

w77x

w78x

w79x

w80x

w81x

w82x

w83x

w84x

w85x

w86x

35

system model for development of image reconstruction algorithms


and design of primary sensors, IEE Proceedings 6 139 1992.
8998.
S. Wang, T. Dyakowski, C.G. Xie, R.A. Williams, M.S. Beck,
Tomographic imaging of phase distribution and spatial correlation of
the fluidization dynamics in a fluidized bed, Part. Part Syst. Charact.
13 1996. 333338.
J.S. Halow, G.E. Fasching, P. Nicoletti, J.L. Spenik, Observations of
a fluidized bed using capacitance imaging, Chem. Eng Sci. 48
1993. 643659.
J.S. Halow, P. Nicoletti, Observation of fluidized bed coalescence
using capacitance imaging, Powder Technol. 69 1992. 255277.
J.P.K. Seville, S.J.R. Simons, C.J. Broadbent, T.W. Martin, D.J.
Parker, T.D. Beynon, Particle velocities in gas-fluidized beds, in:
J.F. Large Ed.., Fluidization VIII, 8th Int. Engineering Foundation
Conf. on Fluidization, preprints, Tours, France, 1995, pp. 319326.
C.E. Weinell, K. Dam-Johansen, J.E. Johnsson, Single particle
velocities and residence times in circulating fluidized beds, in: A.A.
Avidan Ed.., Circulating Fluidized Bed Technology IV, Proc. 4th
Int. Conf. Circulating Fluidized Beds, SomersetrPa., USA, 1993,
pp. 571576.
C.E. Weinell, K. Dam-Johansen, J.E. Johnsson, Local up- and
downward particle velocities in circulating fluidized beds, in: J.F.
Large Ed.., Fluidization VIII, 8th Int. Engineering Foundation
Conf. on Fluidization, preprints, Tours, France, 1995, pp. 7380.
F. Larachi, G. Kennedy, J. Chaouki, A g-ray detection system for
3-D particle tracking in multiphase reactors, Nuclear Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 338 1994. 568576.
F. Larachi, M. Cassanello, J. Chaouki, C. Guy, Flow structure of the
solids in a 3-D gasliquidsolid fluidized bed, AIChE Journal 42
1996. 24392452.
R.C. Chen, L.S. Fan, Particle image velocimetry for characterizing
the flow structure in three-dimensional gasliquidsolid fluidized
beds, Chem. Eng. Sci. 47 1992. 36153622.
Z. Zheng, J. Zhu, J.R. Grace, C.J. Lim, C.H.M. Brereton, Particle
motion in circulating and revolving fluidized beds via microcomputer-controlled colour-stroboscopic photography, in: O.E. Potter,
D.J. Nicklin Eds.., Fluidization VII, Proc. 7th Int. Engineering
Foundation Conf. Fluidization, Engineering Foundation, New York,
1992, pp. 781789.
S.J.L. Rix, D.H. Glass, C.A. Greated, Preliminary studies of elutriation from gas-fluidized beds using particle image velocimetry, Chem.
Eng. Sci. 51 1996. 34793489.
K.E. Wirth, M. Seiter, Solids concentration and solids velocity in the
wall region of circulating fluidized beds, in: E.J. Anthony Ed..,
Proc. 11th Int. Conf. Fluidized Bed Combustion, ASME, New York,
1991, pp. 311315.
A.-C. Burschka, Wandnahe Partikelbewegung und Warmeubergang

in Gas-Feststoffwirbelschichten, Dr.-Ing. thesis, University Erlangen-Nurnberg,
1993.

H. Takeuchi, T. Hirama, Flow visualization in the riser of a circulating fluidized bed, in: P. Basu, M. Horio, M. Hasatani Eds..,
Circulating Fluidized Bed Technology III, Pergamon, Oxford, 1991,
pp. 177182.
H. Li, Y. Xia, Y. Tung, M. Kwauk, Micro-visualization of two-phase
structure in a fast fluidized bed, in: P. Basu, M. Horio, M. Hasatani
Eds.., Circulating Fluidized Bed Technology III, Pergamon, Oxford, 1991, pp. 183188.
G.P. Hartholt, A.C. Hoffmann, L.P.B.M. Janssen, Visual observation of individual particles in fluidized beds, First Int. Particle
Technology Forum, preprints, Denver, USA, 1994, pp. 415420.
H. Hatano, N. Kido, H. Takeuchi, Microscope visualization of solid
particles in circulating fluidized beds, Powder Technol. 78 1994.
115119.
H. Hatano, S. Matsuda, H. Takeuchi, A.T. Pyatenko, K. Tsuchiya,
Local behaviour of swarmed and dispersed particles in a circulating
fluidized bed riser, in: A. Serizawa, T. Fukano, T. Bataille Eds..,

36

w87x

w88x

w89x
w90x

w91x

w92x

w93x

w94x

J. Wertherr Powder Technology 102 (1999) 1536


Proc. 2nd Int. Conf. Multiphase Flow, Kyoto, Japan, 1995, P7r2730.
H. Takeuchi, A.T. Pyatenko, H. Hatano, Flow behavior of particles
in the riser of a circulating fluidized bed, Circulating Fluidized Bed
Technology V, preprints, Beijing, 1996, DGS 24 1-6.
S. Matsuda, H. Hatano, H. Takeuchi, A. Pyatenko, K. Tsuchiya,
Motion of individual solid particles in a circulating fluidized bed,
Circulating Fluidized Bed Technology V, Beijing, preprints, 1996,
DGS 12 1-6.
B. Zou, H. Li, Y. Xia, X. Ma, Cluster structure in a circulating
fluidized bed, Powder Technol. 78 1994. 173178.
B. Gamblin, D. Newton, C. Grant, X-ray characterization of the gas
flow patterns from FCC regenerator air ring nozzles, in: A.A.
Avidan Ed.., Circulating Fluidized Bed Technology IV, Proc. 4th
Int. Conf. Circulating Fluidized Beds, SomersetrPa., USA, 1993,
pp. 494499.
P.N. Rowe, Experimental properties of bubbles, in: J.F. Davidson,
D. Harrison Eds.., Fluidization, Academic Press, London, 1971, pp.
121191.
D. Durand, R. Llinas, D. Newton, Optimization of the bubbling in a
polyethylene fluid bed process through modelling of experimental
test rig data, in: J.F. Large Ed.., Fluidization VIII, 8th Int. Engineering Foundation Conf. on Fluidization, preprints, Tours, France,
1995, pp. 923935.
N. Huber, M. Sommerfeld, Characterization of the cross-sectional
particle concentration distribution in pneumatic conveying systems,
Powder Technol. 79 1994. 191210.
M. Horio, H. Kuroki, Three-dimensional flow visualization of di-

w95x

w96x

w97x

w98x

w99x

lutely dispersed solids in bubbling and circulating fluidized beds,


Chem. Eng. Sci. 49 1994. 24132421.
L. Tadrist, T. van den Moortel, Experimental analysis of the twophase flow structures in a circulating fluidized bed by image processing, Circulating Fluidized Bed Technology V, preprints, Beijing,
1996, DGS 24 1-6.
M. Horio, M. Tsukada, M. Ito, M. Ogasawara, Y. Murayama, H.
Kamiya, Three-dimensional visualization of gassolid suspension
flow in circulating fluidized beds, First Int. Particle Technology
Forum, preprints, Denver, USA, 1994, pp. 428433.
H. Kuroki, M. Horio, The flow structure of a three-dimensional
circulating fluidized bed observed by the laser sheet technique, in:
A.A. Avidan Ed.., Circulating Fluidized Bed Technology IV, Proc.
4th Int. Conf. Circulating Fluidized Beds, SomersetrPa., USA,
1993, pp. 7784.
J. Werther, C. Rudnick, Modeling the fluid mechanics of a circulating fluidized bed based on a local flow structure analysis, in: J.
Werther, H. Markl
Eds.., In-Situ Measuring Techniques and Dynamic Modeling for Multiphase Flow Systems, SFB 238 Progress
Report 19941996, Verlag des SFB 238, Hamburg, 1996, pp.
475515.
H. Burkhardt, A. Bredebusch, Application of digital image processing methods for the analysis of local structures in fluidized bed
processes, in: J. Werther, H. Markl
Eds.., In-Situ Measuring Techniques and Dynamic Modeling for Multiphase Flow Systems, SFB
238 Progress Report 19941996, Verlag des SFB 238, Hamburg,
1996, pp. 199216.