cmos

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cmos

© All Rights Reserved

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Low Power

CMOS Design

Analysis

Low Power

C. Chen

Signals can be characterized by some quantities (e.g,

frequency) instead of full waveform.

This image cannot currently be display ed.

Same frequency (f )

--> Same power

dissipation (P=CV2f )

number of different signals into a single class.

Low Power

C. Chen

The static probability, p, of a digital signal is the ratio of

the time it spends in logic 1 to the total observation time.

Under temporal independence assumption, the probability

T that a transition occurs is:

T = 2 p(1 - p)

We need a propagation model for static probability in

order to derive the frequency of each node in a circuit for

power analysis.

Low Power

C. Chen

Find out static probability propagation of a two-input

OR gate.

The general formula for the propagation of static

probability through an arbitrary Boolean function y = f (x1 ,

x2 , , xn) is given by

P ( y ) P ( x i f xi ) P ( x i f x )

i

P ( x i ) P ( f xi ) P ( x i ) P ( f x )

i

where P ( x i ) 1 P ( x i )

Low Power

C. Chen

In addition to static probability (p), we add another

parameter to characterize a logic signal -- transition density

(D) which denotes the number of transitions per unit time.

p = 0.4 , D = 4 per sec.

1.0 sec

Low Power

C. Chen

The Boolean difference of y with respect to xi is

defined as

dy

f xi f x

i

dx i

Under zero-delay model and the uncorrelated

inputs assumption, the transition density of y is

given by

D( y)

i 1

Low Power

dy

P ( dx

) D ( xi )

C. Chen

Signal Entropy

For a discrete variable x which takes n different

values, its entropy is defined as

H ( x)

p

i 1

log 2

1

pi

If x is a random Boolean variable with probability

p of being logic 1, we have

H ( x) p log 2

Low Power

1

1

(1 p) log 2

p

1 p

C. Chen

Recall the dynamic power

Power

CV

i 1

2

dd

i f

F C i FA

i 1

nodes, and A is proportional to the circuit area.

The following relation has been observed:

A 2 n H (Y )

F

Low Power

2n

H (Y )

n

for l arg e n.

2

[ H ( X ) 2 H (Y )]

3(m n)

4. Probability power analysis

C. Chen

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