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Engineering mechanics

Trusses(Method of joints)

Equilibrium

Engineering mechanics

Steps for solving

1- Find out all reactions.

For finding reactions

Put F X = 0 , FY

Mz

= 0,

=0

reactions in all questions)

the elements separately of the given

combination of objects.

2- The reaction at the contact point of two

objects is always normal to these

objects.

directions of each of the objects.

and then find these forces.

4- With the help of forces obtained

in above step we can find all

forces in each members of truss.

Left forces = right forces

For vertical :

5- Lastly

show

nature

of

forces(tensile or compressive) in

each member

SFD/BMD

Steps for solving

1- Find the reactions after

converting UDL & VDL into

point loads in the given problem.

2-

Page

into point loads only for finding

reactions)

for SFD & BMD.

forces

Type of

load

Between

point loads

OR for no

load

region

Uniformly

distribute

d load

Uniformly

varying

load

Shear

Force

Diagram

Horizonta

l line

Inclined

line

Bending

Moment

Diagram

Inclined

line

Twodegree

curve

(Parabola

)

Twodegree

curve

(Parabola

)

Threedegree

curve

(Cubicparabola)

SFD/BM

D

bending moments

Engineering mechanics

Common Relationships

Page

Common Relationships

Engineering mechanics

Write down the basic formula for maximum bending

moment in some ideal cases.

S.N.

nature of load

Maximum

B.M.

one point load w at the

free end

WL

WL

Cantilever loaded with

It occurs at the

2

U.D.L. over the entire

fixed end

Where W =

length.

total value

of

U.D.L

(wl).

point load at the mid-span

Page

Section when

maximum B.M.

occurs

It occurs at the

fixed end.

WL

4

Where W =

point load

placed at the

mid-span.

If occurs at the

mid-span.

WL

If occurs at the

Beam loaded with

8

mid-span

U.D.L. over the entire

length. (simply supported) where

W = total

value

of

U.D.L(wl)

Engineering mechanics

T G

= =

J L R

To prove that

diameter D,

J=

R 4 D4

=

2

32

of internal radius R1 and external

radiusR2

4

4

J = ( R 2 R1 )

2

P=T=

4

4

(D D1 )

32 2

T 2 N

60

Simple stress

Page

Stress

( )=

P

A

( )

Strain

()=

and strain

( )

l

l

Change in length

(l)=

PL

AE

(l)T =(l)1+(l)2 + .

Engineering mechanics

Both end fixed

P=

(l)1 +(l)1

(l)1=(l)2

o ne end one end free

P = reaction relation

(l)T ( l )C =gap

M E

= =

I Y R

Page

I S=moment of inertia=

(d )4

64

I H =moment of inertia=

4 4

( d d )

64 0 i

Y=

d

2

3

I R=moment of inertia=

bd

12

Engineering mechanics

Y=

d

2

Section modulus

Z=

I

Y max

Steps

Points to be remembered

Settle geometry

sphere/ cylinder contact with

the surface tangentially

Page

F X FY =0

they are concurrent.

Page

Engineering mechanics

Rigid Body

A rigid body may be defined a body in which the relative positions of any two particles

do not change under the action of forces means the distance between two

points/particles remain same before and after applying external forces. As a result the

material properties of anybody that is assumed to be rigid will not have to be

considered while analyzing the forces acting on the body. In most cases the actual

Engineering mechanics

deformations occurring in the structures, machines, mechanisms etc. are relatively

small and therefore the rigid body assumption is suitable for analysis.

Couple

Two equal and opposite forces (magnitudes equal, lines of action parallel and directions

opposite) separated by a fixed distance constitute a couple. The ability of a couple to

rotate a body is called its moment and the magnitude of this moment is called torque or

moment itself. Torque is calculated as product of magnitude of the force in the couple

and the distance separating the two forces. Torque of couple at point P: = F d ().

MOMENT OF A FORCE

Page

It is the capacity of a force to produce rotator motion. In other words moment of a force

is its rotating capacity.

Based on the direction of rotation produced moment of a force can be classified

Into

a) Clockwise moment

b) Anticlockwise moment / counter clockwise moment.

Engineering mechanics

Principle of transmissibility of forces

The state of rest of motion of a rigid body is unaltered if a force acting in the body is

replaced by another force of the same magnitude and direction but acting anywhere on

the body along the line of action of the replaced force.

For example the force F acting on a rigid body at point A. According to the principle of

transmissibility of forces, this force has the same effect on the body as a force F applied

at point B.

The following two points should be considered while using this principle.

1. In engineering mechanics we deal with only rigid bodies. If deformation of the body

is to be considered in a problem. The law of transmissibility of forces will not hold

good.

2. By transmission of the force only the state of the body is unaltered, but not the

internal stresses which may develop in the body

Equilibrium Equations

Page

10

When an object is in equilibrium, the system of forces and moments acting on it satisfies two

conditions.

Engineering mechanics

When the system of forces and moments acting on an object in equilibrium is two dimensional, it

satisfies three scalar equilibrium equations.

SYSTEM OF FORCES

Page

11

Types:

1. Coplanar force system:

If the lines of action of forces forming the system lie in the same plane, then the system

is said to be coplanar.

2. Non-coplanar forces:

Engineering mechanics

If the lines of action of forces forming the system do not lie in the same plane then the

system is said to be non-coplanar.

Note: Our study is restricted to coplanar forces.

If the forces forming the system have common line of action then the system is said to

be collinear.

Page

12

If the line of action of forces forming the system pass through a common point (point of

concurrence) then the system is said to be concurrent.

Engineering mechanics

5. Non-concurrent force system:

If the lines of action of forces forming the system do not pass through a common point,

then the system is said to be non-concurrent.

It is a particular case of non-concurrent force system in which the line of action of

forces forming the system are parallel.

Page

13

Equilibrium principle states that when the entire arrangement is in equilibrium, every

element, every constituent of that arrangement is in equilibrium. Thus, to analyze any

equilibrium case, we first isolate each body from the whole arrangement and consider

equilibrium of each body separately. The diagram showing an isolated body with all the

forces acting on that body from external (i.e. forces received by that body and not

applied by it) is called as Free-Body-Diagram (FBD). Fig.2-A shows reactions at points

of contact between bodies A and B and Fig.2-B shows FBD of A

Engineering mechanics

NORMAL REACTION

It has been experienced that whenever a body, lying on a horizontal or an inclined

surface, is in Equilibrium, its weight acts vertically downwards through its centre of

gravity. The surface, in turn, exerts an upward reaction on the body. This reaction,

which is taken to act perpendicular to the plane, is called normal reaction and is,

generally, denoted by R. It will be interesting to know that the term normal reaction is

very important in the field of friction, as the force of friction is directly proportional to

it

PRINCIPLE OF MOMENT/

VARIGNONS THEOREM

Page

14

It is stated that the moment of a force about a point is equal to the sum of the moments

of the force components about the point. Or the moment produce by the resultant force

is equal to the moment produce by the force components.

Mathematically MFo = Mo

Moment produce by the force F about any point O = Moment produce due to force

components.

Let us consider a force F acting at a point A and this force create the moment about

point O which is r distance away from point A as shown in fig (a)

Engineering mechanics

M F =F x r

1

Now resolve the force into its components F1 and F2 in such a

Way that

F=F + F as shown in fig (b)

o

Mo=0

Mo=

Put

F=

F1

F1

xr

F2

F2

xr

F1

F2

Sol.: The assumptions made in finding out the forces in a frame are,

(1) The frame is a perfect frame.

(2) The frame carries load at the joints.

(3) All the members are pin-joint. It means members will have only axial force and there will be no

15

Page

(5) Each joint of the truss is in equilibrium, hence the whole frame or truss is also in equilibrium.

(6) The weight of the members of the truss is negligible.

(7) There is no deflection in the members on application of load.

(8) Stresses induced on application of force in the members is negligible.

Engineering mechanics

Ans: The principle of superposition states that The effect of a force on a body does not change and

remains same if we add or subtract any system which is in equilibrium.

In the fig 4 a, a force P is applied at point A in a beam, where as in the fig 4 b, force P is applied at

point A and a force system in equilibrium which is added at point B. Principle of super position says

that both will produce the same effect.

AND BENDING MOMENT

Fig. shows a beam carrying a uniformly distributed load of w per unit length. Consider the equilibrium of the portion

of the beam between sections 1-1and2-2. This portion is at a distance of x from left suppo1-t and is of length dx.

Page

16

Let

F = Shear force at the section 1-1,

F + dF = Shear force at the section 2-2,

M =Bending moment at the section 1-1,

M + dM = Bending moment at the section 2-2.

The forces and moments acting on the length 'dx' of the beam are:

The force F acting vertically up at the section 1-1

The force F + dF acting vertically downwards at the section 2-2.

The load w x dx acting downwards.

The moments M and (M + dM) acting at section 1-1 and section 2-2 respectively.

The portion of the beam of length dx is in equilibrium. Hence resolving the forces acting on this part

vertically, we get

Fw . dx( F+ dF)=0

OR

dF /dx=w

dF=w . dx

Engineering mechanics

The above equation shows that the rate of change of shear force is equal to the rate of loading.

Taking the moments of the forces and couples about the section 2-2, we get

M w . dx . dx /2+ F . dx=M + dM

OR

w ( d . x )2

+ F . dx=dM

2

Neglecting the higher powers of small quantities, we get

F . dx=dM

OR

F=

dM

dx

OR

dM

=F

dx

The above equation shows that the rate of change of bending moment is equal to the shear force at the section.

FRICTION

two contacting surfaces, the magnitude of limiting friction bears a constant ratio to

normal reaction between the two this ratio is called as co-efficient of friction. It is

defined

by

the

F

N

17

relationship

Page

Where

F Represents frictional resistance

N Represents normal reaction.

Note: Depending upon the nature of the surface of contact i.e. dry surface & wet

surface, the frictional resistance developed at such surface can be called dry friction &

Engineering mechanics

wet friction (fluid friction) respectively. In our discussion on friction all the surface we

consider will be dry sough surfaces.

ANGLE OF FRICTION

Consider a body weighing W placed on a horizontal plane. Let P be an applied force required

to just move the body such that, frictional resistance reaches limiting friction value. Let R be

resultant of F & N.

Let

be

the

angle

made

by

the

resultant

with

the

As P increases, F also increases and correspondingly increases. However, F cannot increase

18

beyond the limiting friction value and as such can attain a maximum value only.

max=

Let

Where represents angle of limiting friction

Page

F

N

But

F

=

N

=tan

Therefore

i.e. co-efficient of friction is equal to the tangent of the angle of limiting friction.

ANGLE OF REPOSE:

Engineering mechanics

Consider a body weighing w placed on a rough inclined plane, which makes an angle with

the horizontal. When value is small, the body is in equilibrium or rest without sliding. If is

gradually increased, a stage reaches when the body tends to slide down the plane. The

maximum inclination of the plane with the horizontal, on which a body free from external

forces can rest without sliding is called angle of repose.

Let us draw the free body diagram of the body before it slide.

F x=0

N cos ( 90 )F cos =0

N sin=F cos

tan =

F

N

But

F

=

N

=tan

19

tan =tan

Page

Consider a body weighting W resting on a rough horizontal surface. Let P be a force required

to just move the body such that frictional resistance reaches limiting value.

Let R be the resultant of F & N making an angel with the direction of N. If the direction of P

is changed the direction of F changes and accordingly R also changes its direction. If P is

Engineering mechanics

rotated through 360o, R also rotates through 360o and generates an imaginary cone called cone

of friction.

Note: In this discussion, all the surface that bee consider are rough surfaces, such that, when

the body tends to move frictional resistance opposing the motion comes into picture

tangentially at the surface of contact in all the examples, the body considered is at the verge

of moving such that frictional resistance reaches limiting value. We can consider the body to

be at rest or in equilibrium & we can still apply conditions of equilibrium on the body to

calculate unknown force.

20

Page

friction):

The laws of coulomb friction which are based on experimental evidences are

listed as under:

1. The magnitude of the limiting (maximum) static frictional force depends upon

the nature of the surfaces in contact and on their roughness (or smoothness). It

does not depend upon the size or area of the surfaces.

Engineering mechanics

2. The force of friction is tangential (parallel) to the surfaces in contact and its

direction is opposite to the direction in which the body would start moving.

3. For the given surfaces, the limiting frictional force f s is directly proportional

to the normal reaction R:

FR

F= R

F /R=

T1

21

T2

= tension on slack side

= angle of lap of the belt over the pulley

= Coefficient of friction between the belt and the pulley

Consider a short length of belt subtending an angle at the center of the pulley

Let R= normal (radial) reaction between the element length of belt and the pulley

T = Tension on slack side of the element

T = increase in tension on tight side than that on slack side

T + T = Tension on tight side of the element

Tensions T and ( T + T = ) act in directions perpendicular to the radii drawn at the

ends of the element. The friction force R will act tangentially to the pulley rim

resisting the slipping of the elementary belt on the pulley.

Page

Let

Engineering mechanics

R+T cos

( T + T ) cos =0

2

2

As is small,

cos

1

2

R+T T T =0

OR

T =R

.. (i)

RT sin

( T + T ) sin =0

2

2

As is small,

2

2

T

T

=0

2

2

2

22

RT

sin

Page

R=T . (ii)

From (i)

and (ii),

T =T

T

=

T

OR

T1

dT

T = d

T

0

2

Engineering mechanics

log e

T1

T2

T 1

=e

T2

OR

It is to be noted that the above relation is valid only when the belt is on the point of

slipping on the pulleys.

Page

23

A uniform solid sphere has a radius R and mass M. calculates its moment of inertia about any axis through its centre.

Note: If you are lost at any point, please visit the beginners lesson or comment below.

First, we set up the problem.

1.

Engineering mechanics

2.

1

2

MR

I =

2

Hence, for this problem,

1 2

dI = r dm

2

Now, we have to find dm,

dm=dV

Finding dV ,

dV = r 2 dx

Substitute dV

into dm,

dm= r 2 dx

Substitute dm into dI ,

1

dI = r 4 dx

2

x,r

Page

24

using Pythagoras theorem,

2

r =R x

Substituting,

1

dI = ( R2 x 2)2 dx

2

Hence,

Engineering mechanics

R

1

I = (R 2 x2 )2 dx

2 R

After expanding out and integrating, youll get

1

16 5

I =

R

2

15

Now, we have to find what the density of the sphere is:

=

M

V

M

4

R3

3

2

I= M R2

5

And, were done!

Page

25

A hollow cylinder has an inner radius R1, mass M, outer radius R2 and length L.

Calculate/derive its moment of inertia about its central axis.

Guide:

The cylinder is cut into infinitesimally thin rings centered at the middle. The thickness of each ring is dr , with

length L.

Engineering mechanics

We write our moment of inertia equation:

2

I=r dm

Now, we have to find dm, (which is just density multiplied by the volume occupied by one ring)

dm=dV

Weve introduced dV

dV =dA L

The dA is just the area of the top of the ring, which is the area of the big (radius: r + dr) ring minus that of the

smaller (radius: r) ring. We have:

2

dA= (r + dr) r

Note: (dr )2 is equal to 0. An infinitesimally small number multiplied by another infinitesimally small number =

0.

A=2 rdr

is by differentiating.

26

A= r 2

Page

Differentiating wrt r,

dA=2 rdr

Substituting dA

into dV ,

dV =2 rLdr

dm=2 rLdr

Engineering mechanics

Finally, we have an expression for dm. We substitute that into the dI

equation,

dI =2 r 3 Ldr

Now, we can integrate to find the moment of inertia, (Note: I did not substitute in the expression for density because

it is quite messy and it is not needed in the integration process since the density is not dependent on r)

R2

I =2 L r 3 dr

R1

Im sure you are able to do this integration by yourself. Now, we can find the expression for density.

Recall:

=

M

V

Hence,

=

M

(R R21 )L

2

2

1

I = M ( R 22 R 21)

2

Special Cases:

Thin cylindrical shell: (R1=R2=R)

I =M R2

Disk or solid cylinder: (R1=0)

Page

27

1

I= M R2

2

Solid Cone

a) About its vertical axis Let us consider a solid cone having mass M , base radius R and height

3M

h . The mass per unit volume of the cone is given as, =

R2h

Engineering mechanics

the cone. Let us consider a small circular disc of radius r at a distance x from the vertex. Let

the disc have a thickness dx . Hence, volume of the disc is,

2

r dx

R

xR

According to the geometry of the figure we have, tan = h r= h

Hence, mass of the disc is given by,

3M

r 2 dx

2

R h

28

3 M r2

dx

2

R h

Page

Hence, moment of inertia of the disc about the vertical axis perpendicular to its

plane is given as,

1 3 M r2

dx r 2

2 R2h

3M 4

r dx

2 R2 h

Engineering mechanics

3 M R2 4

x dx

2h 5

Hence, the moment of inertia of the solid cone about its vertical axis is given by,

h

I =

0

I =

0

3MR 4

x dx

5

2h

2

I=

5 h

3MR x

2

5 0

2h

5

3M R h

3

= MR2

5

5

10

2h

torsional

formulas?

Sol.: The torsion equation is based on the following assumptions:

Page

29

2. The shaft circular in section remains circular after loading.

3. A plane section of shaft normal to its axis before loading remains plane after the torques

have been applied.

4. The twist along the length of shaft is uniform throughout.

5. The distance between any two normal cross-sections remains the same after the application

of torque.

6. Maximum shear stress induced in the shaft due to application of torque does not exceed its

elastic limit value.

Generally

two

types

of

stresses

are

induced

in

1.

Torsional

(Shear)

stresses

due

to

transmission

2. Bending stresses due to weight of pulley, gear etc. mounted on shaft.

a

of

shaft.

torque.

A circular shaft is said to be in a state of pure torsion when it is subjected to torque only,

without being acted upon by any bending moment or axial force.

Engineering mechanics

What is simple bending or pure bending of beam? (Dec01, 04, 05 (C.O.))

If portion of a beam is subjected to constant bending moment only and no shear force acts on

that portion as shown in the Fig. that portion of the beam is said to be under simple bending

or pure bending.

30

A simply supported beam loaded symmetrically as shown in the figure, will be subjected to a

constant bending moment over the length BC and on this length shear force is nil. So the

portion BC is said to be under simple bending.

Page

simple

theory

of

bending.

The following assumptions are made in the theory of simple bending:

1. The material of the beam is homogeneous (i.e.; uniform in density, strength etc.) and

isotropic (i.e.; possesses same elastic property in all directions.).

2. The cross section of the beam remains plane even after bending.

3. The beam in initially straight and unstressed.

4. The stresses in the beam are within the elastic limit of its material.

Engineering mechanics

5. The value of Youngs modulus of the material of the beam in tension is the same as

that in compression.

6. Every layer of the beam material is free to expand or contract longitudinally and

laterally.

7. The radius of curvature of the beam is very large compared to the cross section

dimensions of the beam.

8. The resultant force perpendicular to any cross section of the beam is zero.

Normal stress

N /

( )=P / A

m2

3

1 KPa=1 0 N /m

1 MPa=1 06 N /m2

1 103 N /mm2

Page

31

1GPa=1 09 N /m 2

1 N /mm 2

Page

32

Engineering mechanics

Page

33

Engineering mechanics

Engineering mechanics

Methods of Truss Analysis:

various members. There are two methods to find the forces in members:

Page

34

Graphical Method

Analytical Method

The analytical method is further classified into two methods:

1.Method of Joints

2. Method of Sections

Method of joints: The following procedure is used for analysis of

trusses.

1. Check that truss is a perfect truss (m = 2j 3).

2. Consider the free body diagram of entire truss and compute the support reactions using the

equations of equilibrium ( = 0, = 0, = 0). Determination of support

reaction may not be necessary in case of cantilever type of truss.

3. Assume and mark directions of the axial forces in the members away

from the joint on the diagram.

4. Consider equilibrium of each joint independently and calculate magnitude of axial forces

in members. Conditions of equilibrium are = 0, = 0. Hence at a time only two

unknown forces can be determined. Therefore start from a joint at which not more than 2

unknown forces appear.

5. If the magnitude of the force comes out to be negative, the nature of

force in that member is compressive and if it is positive than nature

of force in that member is tensile.

6. If the force is pushing the joint, it is compressive and if it is pulling

the joint, it is of tensile nature

Engineering mechanics

different types of beams and

different

types

of

loading?

Sol.: A beam may be defined as a structural element which has one

dimension

(length)

considerable

larger

compared

to

the

other

two

direction i.e. breadth and depth and is supported at a few points. It is

usually loaded in vertical direction. Due to applied loads reactions

develop at supports. The system of forces consisting of applied loads and

reaction keep the beam in equilibrium.

Supports

Page

35

and show the reactions, the forces and moments that the supports may

exert.

Engineering mechanics

Types of Beam

There are mainly three types of beam:

1. Simply supported beam

2. Over hang beam

3. Cantilever beam

1. Simply Supported Beam: The beam on which the both ends are

simply

supported, either by point load or hinged or roller support.

2. OverHanging Beam: The beam on which one end or both ends are

overhang

(or free to air.) are called overhanging beam.

Page

36

3. Cantilever Beam: If a beam is fixed at one end and is free at the other end,

it is

called cantilever beam, in cantilever beam at fixed end, there are three support

reaction a horizontal reaction (RH), a vertical reaction (RV), and moment (M).

Engineering mechanics

Types of Loading

Mainly three types of load acting on any beam;

1. Concentrated load

2. Uniformly distributed load

3. Uniformly varying load

1. Concentrated load (or point load): If a load is acting on a beam over a

very

small length. It is called point load.

assumed

as total load acting at the center of gravity of the loading (Middle point).

Page

37

to point C. Its intensity is zero at A and 900N/M at C. Here total load is

represented by area of triangle and the centroid of the triangle represents

the center of gravity.

N /

( )=P / A

Normal stress

m2

1 Pascal(Pa)=1 N /m

1 KPa=1 03 N /m 2

6

1 MPa=1 0 N /m

1 N /mm

Engineering mechanics

9

1 10 N /mm

Page

38

1GPa=1 0 N /m

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