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Engineering mechanics

Trusses(Method of joints)

Equilibrium

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Steps for solving
1- Find out all reactions.
For finding reactions
Put F X = 0 , FY

Mz

Steps for solving


= 0,

=0

( NOTE- its not always necessary to find


reactions in all questions)

2- Find out all angles.

1- Draw the free body diagrams of each of


the elements separately of the given
combination of objects.
2- The reaction at the contact point of two
objects is always normal to these
objects.

3- Go to that joint where minimum

3- Now resolve all forces in x and y


directions of each of the objects.

no. of unknown forces is there


and then find these forces.
4- With the help of forces obtained
in above step we can find all
forces in each members of truss.

4- Then putFor horizontal forces:


Left forces = right forces
For vertical :

5- Lastly
show
nature
of
forces(tensile or compressive) in
each member

SFD/BMD
Steps for solving
1- Find the reactions after
converting UDL & VDL into
point loads in the given problem.

2-

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(NOTE- UDL & VDL are converted


into point loads only for finding
reactions)

Now use the table given below


for SFD & BMD.

Downward forces = upward


forces

Type of
load

Between
point loads
OR for no
load
region

Uniformly
distribute
d load

Uniformly
varying
load

Shear
Force
Diagram

Horizonta
l line

Inclined
line

Bending
Moment
Diagram

Inclined
line

Twodegree
curve
(Parabola
)

Twodegree
curve
(Parabola
)
Threedegree
curve
(Cubicparabola)

SFD/BM
D

Table: Variation of Shear force and


bending moments

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Common Relationships

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Common Relationships

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Write down the basic formula for maximum bending
moment in some ideal cases.
S.N.

Berm together with


nature of load

Maximum
B.M.

Cantilever loaded with


one point load w at the
free end

WL

WL
Cantilever loaded with
It occurs at the
2
U.D.L. over the entire
fixed end
Where W =
length.
total value
of
U.D.L
(wl).

Beam loaded with one


point load at the mid-span

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Section when
maximum B.M.
occurs
It occurs at the
fixed end.

WL
4

Where W =
point load
placed at the
mid-span.

If occurs at the
mid-span.

WL
If occurs at the
Beam loaded with
8
mid-span
U.D.L. over the entire
length. (simply supported) where
W = total
value
of
U.D.L(wl)

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Torsion and bending moment


T G
= =
J L R

To prove that

*For a solid section of radius R or


diameter D,
J=

R 4 D4
=
2
32

*For a hollow tube of circular section and


of internal radius R1 and external
radiusR2

4
4
J = ( R 2 R1 )
2

P=T=

4
4
(D D1 )
32 2

T 2 N
60

Simple stress
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Stress

( )=

P
A

( )

Strain

()=

and strain

( )

l
l

Change in length
(l)=

PL
AE

Total change in length


(l)T =(l)1+(l)2 + .

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Both end fixed
P=

(l)1 +(l)1

(l)1=(l)2
o ne end one end free

P = reaction relation
(l)T ( l )C =gap

Pure bending of beam


M E
= =
I Y R

For circular section

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I S=moment of inertia=

(d )4
64

I H =moment of inertia=

4 4
( d d )
64 0 i
Y=

d
2

For rectangular section


3

I R=moment of inertia=

bd
12

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Y=

d
2

Section modulus
Z=

I
Y max

Steps

Points to be remembered

Draw free body

tension away from body

Settle geometry

reaction towards body


sphere/ cylinder contact with
the surface tangentially

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F X FY =0

If three forces keep body in then


they are concurrent.

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Rigid Body
A rigid body may be defined a body in which the relative positions of any two particles
do not change under the action of forces means the distance between two
points/particles remain same before and after applying external forces. As a result the
material properties of anybody that is assumed to be rigid will not have to be
considered while analyzing the forces acting on the body. In most cases the actual

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deformations occurring in the structures, machines, mechanisms etc. are relatively
small and therefore the rigid body assumption is suitable for analysis.

Couple
Two equal and opposite forces (magnitudes equal, lines of action parallel and directions
opposite) separated by a fixed distance constitute a couple. The ability of a couple to
rotate a body is called its moment and the magnitude of this moment is called torque or
moment itself. Torque is calculated as product of magnitude of the force in the couple
and the distance separating the two forces. Torque of couple at point P: = F d ().

MOMENT OF A FORCE
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It is the capacity of a force to produce rotator motion. In other words moment of a force
is its rotating capacity.
Based on the direction of rotation produced moment of a force can be classified
Into
a) Clockwise moment
b) Anticlockwise moment / counter clockwise moment.

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Principle of transmissibility of forces
The state of rest of motion of a rigid body is unaltered if a force acting in the body is
replaced by another force of the same magnitude and direction but acting anywhere on
the body along the line of action of the replaced force.
For example the force F acting on a rigid body at point A. According to the principle of
transmissibility of forces, this force has the same effect on the body as a force F applied
at point B.

The following two points should be considered while using this principle.
1. In engineering mechanics we deal with only rigid bodies. If deformation of the body
is to be considered in a problem. The law of transmissibility of forces will not hold
good.
2. By transmission of the force only the state of the body is unaltered, but not the
internal stresses which may develop in the body

Equilibrium Equations
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10

When an object is in equilibrium, the system of forces and moments acting on it satisfies two
conditions.

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When the system of forces and moments acting on an object in equilibrium is two dimensional, it
satisfies three scalar equilibrium equations.

SYSTEM OF FORCES
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A group or set of forces is called system of forces.


Types:
1. Coplanar force system:
If the lines of action of forces forming the system lie in the same plane, then the system
is said to be coplanar.

2. Non-coplanar forces:

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If the lines of action of forces forming the system do not lie in the same plane then the
system is said to be non-coplanar.
Note: Our study is restricted to coplanar forces.

3. Collinear force system:


If the forces forming the system have common line of action then the system is said to
be collinear.

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Concurrent force system:


If the line of action of forces forming the system pass through a common point (point of
concurrence) then the system is said to be concurrent.

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5. Non-concurrent force system:
If the lines of action of forces forming the system do not pass through a common point,
then the system is said to be non-concurrent.

6. Parallel force system:


It is a particular case of non-concurrent force system in which the line of action of
forces forming the system are parallel.

Free body diagram (FBD)


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Equilibrium principle states that when the entire arrangement is in equilibrium, every
element, every constituent of that arrangement is in equilibrium. Thus, to analyze any
equilibrium case, we first isolate each body from the whole arrangement and consider
equilibrium of each body separately. The diagram showing an isolated body with all the
forces acting on that body from external (i.e. forces received by that body and not
applied by it) is called as Free-Body-Diagram (FBD). Fig.2-A shows reactions at points
of contact between bodies A and B and Fig.2-B shows FBD of A

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NORMAL REACTION
It has been experienced that whenever a body, lying on a horizontal or an inclined
surface, is in Equilibrium, its weight acts vertically downwards through its centre of
gravity. The surface, in turn, exerts an upward reaction on the body. This reaction,
which is taken to act perpendicular to the plane, is called normal reaction and is,
generally, denoted by R. It will be interesting to know that the term normal reaction is
very important in the field of friction, as the force of friction is directly proportional to
it

PRINCIPLE OF MOMENT/
VARIGNONS THEOREM
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14

It is stated that the moment of a force about a point is equal to the sum of the moments
of the force components about the point. Or the moment produce by the resultant force
is equal to the moment produce by the force components.
Mathematically MFo = Mo
Moment produce by the force F about any point O = Moment produce due to force
components.
Let us consider a force F acting at a point A and this force create the moment about
point O which is r distance away from point A as shown in fig (a)

The moment produce due to Force F is given by

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M F =F x r

1
Now resolve the force into its components F1 and F2 in such a
Way that
F=F + F as shown in fig (b)
o

The moment produce by these components about O is given by


Mo=0

Mo=moment produce due force F 1+ moment produce due force component F2


Mo=

Put

F=

F1
F1

xr

F2

F2

in the above formula

xr

F1

F2

What are the assumptions made in the analysis of a simple truss?


Sol.: The assumptions made in finding out the forces in a frame are,
(1) The frame is a perfect frame.
(2) The frame carries load at the joints.
(3) All the members are pin-joint. It means members will have only axial force and there will be no

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moment due to pin, because at a pin moment becomes zero.


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(4) Load is applied at joints only.


(5) Each joint of the truss is in equilibrium, hence the whole frame or truss is also in equilibrium.
(6) The weight of the members of the truss is negligible.
(7) There is no deflection in the members on application of load.
(8) Stresses induced on application of force in the members is negligible.

Explain the principle of Superposition.

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Ans: The principle of superposition states that The effect of a force on a body does not change and
remains same if we add or subtract any system which is in equilibrium.

In the fig 4 a, a force P is applied at point A in a beam, where as in the fig 4 b, force P is applied at
point A and a force system in equilibrium which is added at point B. Principle of super position says
that both will produce the same effect.

RELATIONS BETWEEN LOAD, SHEAR FORCE


AND BENDING MOMENT
Fig. shows a beam carrying a uniformly distributed load of w per unit length. Consider the equilibrium of the portion
of the beam between sections 1-1and2-2. This portion is at a distance of x from left suppo1-t and is of length dx.

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Let
F = Shear force at the section 1-1,
F + dF = Shear force at the section 2-2,
M =Bending moment at the section 1-1,
M + dM = Bending moment at the section 2-2.
The forces and moments acting on the length 'dx' of the beam are:
The force F acting vertically up at the section 1-1
The force F + dF acting vertically downwards at the section 2-2.
The load w x dx acting downwards.
The moments M and (M + dM) acting at section 1-1 and section 2-2 respectively.
The portion of the beam of length dx is in equilibrium. Hence resolving the forces acting on this part
vertically, we get
Fw . dx( F+ dF)=0
OR
dF /dx=w

dF=w . dx

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The above equation shows that the rate of change of shear force is equal to the rate of loading.
Taking the moments of the forces and couples about the section 2-2, we get
M w . dx . dx /2+ F . dx=M + dM
OR
w ( d . x )2
+ F . dx=dM
2
Neglecting the higher powers of small quantities, we get
F . dx=dM
OR
F=

dM
dx

OR

dM
=F
dx

The above equation shows that the rate of change of bending moment is equal to the shear force at the section.

FRICTION

CO-EFFICIENT OF FRICTION: It has been experimentally proved that between


two contacting surfaces, the magnitude of limiting friction bears a constant ratio to
normal reaction between the two this ratio is called as co-efficient of friction. It is
defined

by

the
F
N

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relationship

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Where

Represents co-efficient of friction


F Represents frictional resistance
N Represents normal reaction.
Note: Depending upon the nature of the surface of contact i.e. dry surface & wet
surface, the frictional resistance developed at such surface can be called dry friction &

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wet friction (fluid friction) respectively. In our discussion on friction all the surface we
consider will be dry sough surfaces.

ANGLE OF FRICTION
Consider a body weighing W placed on a horizontal plane. Let P be an applied force required
to just move the body such that, frictional resistance reaches limiting friction value. Let R be
resultant of F & N.

Let

be

the

angle

made

by

the

resultant

with

the

direction of N. such an angle is called the Angle of friction


As P increases, F also increases and correspondingly increases. However, F cannot increase

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beyond the limiting friction value and as such can attain a maximum value only.
max=
Let
Where represents angle of limiting friction
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tan max =tan =

F
N

Where represents angle of limiting friction

But

F
=
N

=tan
Therefore
i.e. co-efficient of friction is equal to the tangent of the angle of limiting friction.

ANGLE OF REPOSE:

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Consider a body weighing w placed on a rough inclined plane, which makes an angle with
the horizontal. When value is small, the body is in equilibrium or rest without sliding. If is
gradually increased, a stage reaches when the body tends to slide down the plane. The
maximum inclination of the plane with the horizontal, on which a body free from external
forces can rest without sliding is called angle of repose.

Let max= Where = angle of repose .


Let us draw the free body diagram of the body before it slide.

Applying conditions of equilibrium.

F x=0

N cos ( 90 )F cos =0
N sin=F cos
tan =

F
N

tan max =tan

But

F
=
N

=tan

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tan =tan

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i.e. angle of repose is equal to angle of limiting friction


Consider a body weighting W resting on a rough horizontal surface. Let P be a force required
to just move the body such that frictional resistance reaches limiting value.
Let R be the resultant of F & N making an angel with the direction of N. If the direction of P
is changed the direction of F changes and accordingly R also changes its direction. If P is

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rotated through 360o, R also rotates through 360o and generates an imaginary cone called cone
of friction.

Note: In this discussion, all the surface that bee consider are rough surfaces, such that, when
the body tends to move frictional resistance opposing the motion comes into picture
tangentially at the surface of contact in all the examples, the body considered is at the verge
of moving such that frictional resistance reaches limiting value. We can consider the body to
be at rest or in equilibrium & we can still apply conditions of equilibrium on the body to
calculate unknown force.

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Laws of Limiting friction (Laws of Coulomb


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friction):
The laws of coulomb friction which are based on experimental evidences are
listed as under:
1. The magnitude of the limiting (maximum) static frictional force depends upon
the nature of the surfaces in contact and on their roughness (or smoothness). It
does not depend upon the size or area of the surfaces.

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2. The force of friction is tangential (parallel) to the surfaces in contact and its
direction is opposite to the direction in which the body would start moving.
3. For the given surfaces, the limiting frictional force f s is directly proportional
to the normal reaction R:
FR

F= R

F /R=

RATIO OF FRICTION TENSIONS


T1

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= tension on tight side


T2
= tension on slack side
= angle of lap of the belt over the pulley
= Coefficient of friction between the belt and the pulley
Consider a short length of belt subtending an angle at the center of the pulley
Let R= normal (radial) reaction between the element length of belt and the pulley
T = Tension on slack side of the element
T = increase in tension on tight side than that on slack side
T + T = Tension on tight side of the element
Tensions T and ( T + T = ) act in directions perpendicular to the radii drawn at the
ends of the element. The friction force R will act tangentially to the pulley rim
resisting the slipping of the elementary belt on the pulley.
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Let

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Resolving the forces in the tangential direction,


R+T cos

( T + T ) cos =0
2
2

As is small,

cos

1
2

R+T T T =0

OR

T =R

.. (i)

Resolving the forces in the radial direction,


RT sin

( T + T ) sin =0
2
2

As is small,

2
2

T
T
=0
2
2
2

22

RT

sin

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Neglecting product of two small quantities,


R=T . (ii)
From (i)

and (ii),

T =T

T
=
T

OR

Integrating between proper limits,


T1

dT
T = d
T
0
2

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log e

T1
T2

T 1
=e
T2

OR

It is to be noted that the above relation is valid only when the belt is on the point of
slipping on the pulleys.

Derivation of moment of inertia of a uniform solid sphere

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A uniform solid sphere has a radius R and mass M. calculates its moment of inertia about any axis through its centre.

Note: If you are lost at any point, please visit the beginners lesson or comment below.
First, we set up the problem.
1.

Slice up the solid sphere into infinitesimally thin solid cylinders

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2.

Sum from the left to the right

Recall the moment of inertia for a solid cylinder:


1
2
MR
I =
2
Hence, for this problem,
1 2
dI = r dm
2
Now, we have to find dm,
dm=dV
Finding dV ,
dV = r 2 dx
Substitute dV

into dm,

dm= r 2 dx
Substitute dm into dI ,
1
dI = r 4 dx
2
x,r

and R makes a triangle above. Hence,

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Now, we have to force x into the equation. Notice that


using Pythagoras theorem,
2

r =R x

Substituting,
1
dI = ( R2 x 2)2 dx
2
Hence,

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R

1
I = (R 2 x2 )2 dx
2 R
After expanding out and integrating, youll get
1
16 5
I =
R
2
15
Now, we have to find what the density of the sphere is:
=

M
V
M
4
R3
3

Substituting, we will have:


2
I= M R2
5
And, were done!

Derivation of the moment of inertia of a hollow/solid cylinder

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25

A hollow cylinder has an inner radius R1, mass M, outer radius R2 and length L.
Calculate/derive its moment of inertia about its central axis.

Guide:
The cylinder is cut into infinitesimally thin rings centered at the middle. The thickness of each ring is dr , with
length L.

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We write our moment of inertia equation:
2

I=r dm
Now, we have to find dm, (which is just density multiplied by the volume occupied by one ring)
dm=dV
Weve introduced dV

in the above equation, so, we have to find out what dV is:

dV =dA L

The dA is just the area of the top of the ring, which is the area of the big (radius: r + dr) ring minus that of the
smaller (radius: r) ring. We have:
2

dA= (r + dr) r

dA= (r 2 +2 rdr+(dr )2) r 2


Note: (dr )2 is equal to 0. An infinitesimally small number multiplied by another infinitesimally small number =
0.
A=2 rdr

Note: Another way of obtaining dA

is by differentiating.

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A= r 2

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Differentiating wrt r,
dA=2 rdr
Substituting dA

into dV ,

dV =2 rLdr

Using the above equation, substitute into dm,


dm=2 rLdr

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Finally, we have an expression for dm. We substitute that into the dI

equation,

dI =2 r 3 Ldr
Now, we can integrate to find the moment of inertia, (Note: I did not substitute in the expression for density because
it is quite messy and it is not needed in the integration process since the density is not dependent on r)
R2

I =2 L r 3 dr
R1

Im sure you are able to do this integration by yourself. Now, we can find the expression for density.
Recall:
=

M
V

Hence,
=

M
(R R21 )L
2
2

Substituting this back into the integrated solution, we have:


1
I = M ( R 22 R 21)
2
Special Cases:
Thin cylindrical shell: (R1=R2=R)
I =M R2
Disk or solid cylinder: (R1=0)

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27

1
I= M R2
2

Solid Cone
a) About its vertical axis Let us consider a solid cone having mass M , base radius R and height
3M
h . The mass per unit volume of the cone is given as, =
R2h

.let be the semi vertical angle of

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the cone. Let us consider a small circular disc of radius r at a distance x from the vertex. Let
the disc have a thickness dx . Hence, volume of the disc is,
2

r dx

R
xR
According to the geometry of the figure we have, tan = h r= h
Hence, mass of the disc is given by,

3M
r 2 dx
2
R h

28

3 M r2
dx
2
R h

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Hence, moment of inertia of the disc about the vertical axis perpendicular to its
plane is given as,

1 3 M r2
dx r 2
2 R2h

3M 4
r dx
2 R2 h

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3 M R2 4
x dx
2h 5

Hence, the moment of inertia of the solid cone about its vertical axis is given by,
h

I =
0

I =
0

3MR 4
x dx
5
2h
2

I=

5 h

3MR x

2
5 0
2h
5

3M R h
3
= MR2
5
5
10
2h

What are the assumption made in deriving the


torsional
formulas?
Sol.: The torsion equation is based on the following assumptions:

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29

1. The material of the shaft is uniform throughout.


2. The shaft circular in section remains circular after loading.
3. A plane section of shaft normal to its axis before loading remains plane after the torques
have been applied.
4. The twist along the length of shaft is uniform throughout.
5. The distance between any two normal cross-sections remains the same after the application
of torque.
6. Maximum shear stress induced in the shaft due to application of torque does not exceed its
elastic limit value.

What is meant by pure Torsion?


Generally
two
types
of
stresses
are
induced
in
1.
Torsional
(Shear)
stresses
due
to
transmission
2. Bending stresses due to weight of pulley, gear etc. mounted on shaft.

a
of

shaft.
torque.

A circular shaft is said to be in a state of pure torsion when it is subjected to torque only,
without being acted upon by any bending moment or axial force.

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What is simple bending or pure bending of beam? (Dec01, 04, 05 (C.O.))
If portion of a beam is subjected to constant bending moment only and no shear force acts on
that portion as shown in the Fig. that portion of the beam is said to be under simple bending
or pure bending.

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A simply supported beam loaded symmetrically as shown in the figure, will be subjected to a
constant bending moment over the length BC and on this length shear force is nil. So the
portion BC is said to be under simple bending.

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Write down the different assumptions in


simple
theory
of
bending.
The following assumptions are made in the theory of simple bending:
1. The material of the beam is homogeneous (i.e.; uniform in density, strength etc.) and
isotropic (i.e.; possesses same elastic property in all directions.).
2. The cross section of the beam remains plane even after bending.
3. The beam in initially straight and unstressed.
4. The stresses in the beam are within the elastic limit of its material.

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5. The value of Youngs modulus of the material of the beam in tension is the same as
that in compression.
6. Every layer of the beam material is free to expand or contract longitudinally and
laterally.
7. The radius of curvature of the beam is very large compared to the cross section
dimensions of the beam.
8. The resultant force perpendicular to any cross section of the beam is zero.

Normal stress

N /

( )=P / A

m2

1 Pascal (Pa)=1 N /m2


3

1 KPa=1 0 N /m

1 MPa=1 06 N /m2

1 103 N /mm2

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31

1GPa=1 09 N /m 2

1 N /mm 2

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Engineering mechanics

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Engineering mechanics

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Methods of Truss Analysis:

To analyze a truss means finding the forces in


various members. There are two methods to find the forces in members:

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34

Graphical Method
Analytical Method
The analytical method is further classified into two methods:
1.Method of Joints
2. Method of Sections
Method of joints: The following procedure is used for analysis of
trusses.
1. Check that truss is a perfect truss (m = 2j 3).
2. Consider the free body diagram of entire truss and compute the support reactions using the
equations of equilibrium ( = 0, = 0, = 0). Determination of support
reaction may not be necessary in case of cantilever type of truss.
3. Assume and mark directions of the axial forces in the members away
from the joint on the diagram.
4. Consider equilibrium of each joint independently and calculate magnitude of axial forces
in members. Conditions of equilibrium are = 0, = 0. Hence at a time only two
unknown forces can be determined. Therefore start from a joint at which not more than 2
unknown forces appear.
5. If the magnitude of the force comes out to be negative, the nature of
force in that member is compressive and if it is positive than nature
of force in that member is tensile.
6. If the force is pushing the joint, it is compressive and if it is pulling
the joint, it is of tensile nature

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Define a beam. What are the


different types of beams and
different
types
of
loading?
Sol.: A beam may be defined as a structural element which has one
dimension
(length)
considerable
larger
compared
to
the
other
two
direction i.e. breadth and depth and is supported at a few points. It is
usually loaded in vertical direction. Due to applied loads reactions
develop at supports. The system of forces consisting of applied loads and
reaction keep the beam in equilibrium.

Supports

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35

to draw the free-body diagram of an object, isolate it from its supports


and show the reactions, the forces and moments that the supports may
exert.

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Engineering mechanics

Types of Beam
There are mainly three types of beam:
1. Simply supported beam
2. Over hang beam
3. Cantilever beam
1. Simply Supported Beam: The beam on which the both ends are
simply
supported, either by point load or hinged or roller support.

2. OverHanging Beam: The beam on which one end or both ends are
overhang
(or free to air.) are called overhanging beam.

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36

3. Cantilever Beam: If a beam is fixed at one end and is free at the other end,
it is
called cantilever beam, in cantilever beam at fixed end, there are three support
reaction a horizontal reaction (RH), a vertical reaction (RV), and moment (M).

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Engineering mechanics

Types of Loading
Mainly three types of load acting on any beam;
1. Concentrated load
2. Uniformly distributed load
3. Uniformly varying load
1. Concentrated load (or point load): If a load is acting on a beam over a
very
small length. It is called point load.

2. Uniformly Distributed Load: For finding reaction, this load may be


assumed
as total load acting at the center of gravity of the loading (Middle point).

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37

3. Uniformly Varying Load: In the diagram load varying from Point A


to point C. Its intensity is zero at A and 900N/M at C. Here total load is
represented by area of triangle and the centroid of the triangle represents
the center of gravity.

N /

( )=P / A

Normal stress

m2

1 Pascal(Pa)=1 N /m
1 KPa=1 03 N /m 2
6

1 MPa=1 0 N /m

1 N /mm

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Engineering mechanics
9

1 10 N /mm

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38

1GPa=1 0 N /m

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