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Concord (K W. Bull).

Bunch compact, large shouldered. Berries large, round, black, thickly covered with a
beautiful blue bloom. Skin thin, often very thin. Flesh moderately juicy, sweet, rather
buttery. Pulp quite tender when fully ripe; sometimes quite acid at the center, with
considerable of the foxy flavour. Vine very hardy and vigorous. Leaves very thick and
enduring; dark green above, rusty beneath. Ripens from lOfch to 20th of September.
Among all the varieties that have been thoroughly tested, the Concord is, without doubt,
the most profit able for market. It 'will grow and produce abundant crops in situations and
upon soils where some of the better flavoured and more delicate varieties would utterly
Fail. Although its fruit cannot be called the best in quality, still it seems to suit the
masses; or at least they prefer abundance, if it is not quite so delicate, to a small supply
of something that is really superb. It is a really fine native grape, and has steadily grown
in favour ever since its introduction, and probably there are more vines of it being
planted at the present time than of any other variety. It is very hardy, of vigorous growth,
and very productive. Its beautiful appearance makes it one of the most attractive market
grapes, and for this purpose there is, perhaps, no variety that excels it.
The preceding paragraphs contain my description and opinion of this popular grape, as
published thirty years ago, and I cannot now see any good reason for making any
change; for the planting of the vines is still going on, although the few hundreds of
pounds which found their way to market in 1864 are now represented by almost, if not
quite, as many tons.

Supposed to have been brought from South Carolina to New York by Mrs. Isabella
Gibbs, early in the present century. It has probably been disseminated under more
names than any other native variety in cultivation. Bunch large, compact, shouldered.
Berries medium to large, slightly oval; skin thin, black, with light bloom; pulp tender and
sweet; excellent quality when perfectly and well ripened. Of late years the vine has been
subject to disease, and for this reason few are now planted, the Concord having almost
entirely superseded this old favourite.
Isabella (grape)
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Grape (Vitis)

Isabella grapes
Color of berry



Vitis x Labruscana

Also called

Over 50 including; Alexander, Fragola & Izabella




USA, India and Latin America.

Notable wines Fragolino and Uhudler

Isabella grapes must

The Isabella grape is a cultivar derived from the grape species Vitis labrusca or 'fox
grape' which is used for table, juice and wine production. [1][2]

1 Appearance and use
2 History

2.1 Modern history

3 Aliases

4 References

Appearance and use[edit]

The skin of Isabella when ripened is a dark purple, almost black with a tender greenyellow flesh. It has large well formed fruit clusters with thick bloom. [3] It is a slip skin
variety, meaning that the skin separates easily from the fruit. The grapes are used to
make wine, most notably Uhudler and Fragolino. The Isabella being of the genus Vitis x
Labruscana imparts a "foxiness" to the wine and because of this is thought to be
objectionable,[1] therefore it is not seen as a grape capable of making fine wines. For the
table the flavour is good though with the astringent tough skin and "foxy" aroma is
objectionable for some tastes.[3]
The deciduous vine is very easy to propagate. When the vine is bare of leaves in winter,
it is good to prune the vine back by about one-third. Save the branches that are 15cm
long and pencil-thick. Cut straight across at the proximal end (nearest the root), and
oblique at the distal end. Put a bundle of about 10 cuttings in potting mix, the flat ends
down, and keep reasonable moist throughout winter. They will sprout leaves and roots in
spring. Divide and plant out.
Isabella, although popularly classified as being of Vitis labrusca parentage, is almost
certainly a cross with an unknown Vitis vinifera, illustrated by the susceptibility to mildew
and black rot. It is thought that it resulted from random pollination when European Vitis
vinifera grapes were attempted to be established in America. [4] It was popularly thought
to have been discovered by a Mrs Isabella Gibbs of South Carolina in 1816,[1] however
there is conflicting information with other sources stating it was found in Virginia,
Delaware and Europe.[3] Isabella vines were heavily imported into Europe in the early
19th century and it is said that it is probably that the phylloxera was introduced into
Europe on the roots of Isabella Isabella having a resistance to the phylloxera.
Modern history[edit]
Isabella is no longer a commercially important grape as it produces poor wines due to its
labrusca inheritance and new plantings were banned in France after 1934, [1] however as
a high yielding grape capable of withstanding tropical and semi-tropical conditions, it has
been planted in Portugal, Bali, Japan, and various locations in the southern hemisphere
such as in Colombia and Brazil, where it is a leading grape variety,[1] in the U.S. it is
sparsely found in New York State.[2] It is grown due to its phylloxera resistance and its
cold hardiness.[2] It was also brought to former Soviet nations of Georgia, Azerbaijan and

Moldova from France through Odessa.[5] That's one of the reasons this variety is also
called Odessa among Georgians.[6] Russian poet Osip Mandelstam had described
Isabella as "fleshy and healthy like a cluster of night itself". [7] It is also found in the
eastern parts of the Black Sea Region in Turkey. Famously it is used for the production
of Pekmez and its leaves for preparing Sarma.
Isabella has over 50 aliases including: Albany Surprise, Alexander, Black Cape,
Borgoa, Champania, Constantia, Dorchester, Fragola, Framboisier, Isabelle, Izabella,
Odessa, Raisin De Cassis, Moschostaphylo, Kerkyraios,Tudum and Tzortzidika. [2][6]
^ Jump up to: a b c d e The Oxford Companion to Wine.
^ Jump up to: a b c d Isabella


^ Jump up to: a b c Winemaking Questions, Page 2:

Isabella Grapes


Jump up ^ The Super Gigantic Y2K Winegrape

Glossary: Isabella


Jump up ^ "ATLAS: IZABELLA". Retrieved 2011-02-15.


^ Jump up to: a b " . " [Georgian wine.

Grape varieties]. Retrieved 2011-02-15.


Jump up ^ Goldstein, Darra (1958). The Georgian feast: the vibrant culture
and savory food of the Republic of Georgia. United States: University of California
Press. p. 4. ISBN 0-520-21929-5. Retrieved 2011-02-15.