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PRACTICE 1

USE OF THE OHMMETER, VOLTMETER


AND AMMETER IN MEASUREMENTS OF
D.C.
SUBJECT: CIRCUITS FUNDAMENTAL ANALYSIS
Students:
Ugalde Lpez Eduardo
Ziga Daz ngel

Teacher: Santilln Luna Ral

Team 8

Group 1CV1

OBJECTIVE

Students learn to use correctly measuring instruments such as the digital


voltmeter, digital ohmmeter and the digital ammeter.
Equipment

Material

1 Digital Multimeter

1 Breadborder

1 Variable Power Supply

1 Resistor of 1K to of watt

4 Tips banana-caiman

1 Resistor of 560 to of watt

2Tips caiman-caiman

1 Resistor of 680 to of watt


1 Resistor of 330 to of watt
Wires to connection

1.-THEORETICAL INTRODUCTION

These tools help us keep circuits and equipment in optimal performance based on
equations and comparisons with respect to the flow of electricity.
The parameters that distinguish the use of measuring instruments are:
-The intensity is measure by Ammeters.
-The tension is measure by voltmeters.
-The resistive capacity is measure by Ohmmeters.
The Multimeter is a measure instrument that combines all the functions of the three
above mentioned.
Electrical measurements are made using equipment specially designed depending
on the nature of the current; that is, if alternative, continuous or pulsating. The
instruments are classified by the parameters of voltage, voltage and current.
Thus, we can state measuring instruments such as
ammeter or current intensity unit. The voltmeter as
tension unit, the ohmmeter as resistance unit and
multimeter as multiple measurement units.

Figure 1. Digital Multimeter

Use of the Ammeter


-You need to connect in series with the circuit.
-It should be an approximated intensity to be measure because if is greater than
the scale of ammeter , it can damage. Therefore the intensity must be less than the
scale of the ammeter.

Figure 2. Example of how to connect the


ammeter to measure the intensity.

Use of the Voltmeter


-You need to connect in parallel with the circuit, taking into account the polarity if is
S.C.
-It should be an approximate measure voltage in order to use appropriate voltmeter

Figure 3. Example of how to connect

the ammeter to measure the voltage.

2.-PRACTICE DEVELOPMENT
2.1 Use of the Ohmmeter

Without energize the elements, measure the resistance value of each resistors and
complete the table 1.

Figure 4. How to connect the ohmmeter to


measure the resistance value.

Table 1. Resistive values measurement.


Resistance Digital ohmmeter measurement

Color code values

R1

984.9

1K

R2

555.0

560

R3

665.1

680

R4

324.0

330

2.2 Use of the Voltmeter

The figure 3 show how to measure the voltage of an element. With the power
supply off, build the circuit of the Figure 5. Once assembled turn circuit voltage
source and fill in Table 2.

Figure 5. Schematic diagram

Figure 6. How to measure the voltage in each


resistance and in both resistance.
Table 2. Voltage measuring.
Voltage source
E=1V
E=2V
E=3V
E=4V
E=5V
E=6V
E=7V
E=8V
E=9V
E=10V
E=11V
E=12V

Voltage in R1 y R2
.997
1.996
2.996
3.996
4.996
5.996
6.995
7.995
8.989
10.021
11.015
12.023

Digital Multimeter
Voltage in R1
.750
1.502
2.255
3.007
3.759
4.512
5.263
6.015
6.76
7.535
8.290
9.043

Voltage in R2
.246
.494
.742
.989
1.236
1.484
1.732
1.954
2.227
2.484
2.230
2.983

2.3 Use of the Ammeter

The Figure 2 show how to connect the ammeter for the measure of the intensity of
an element.
With the power supply off, build the circuit of the figure 7. Once armed the circuit
turn the voltage source and fill the table 3.

Figure 7. Schematic diagram

Figure 8. How to measure the intensity in each resistors and in both


resistors.
Table 3. Current measuring.
Voltage source
Current in R1 y R2
2.2 mA
2.54 mA
9.9 mA
13.2 mA
16.53 mA
19.53 mA
23.0 mA
26.0 mA
29.57 mA
32.8 mA
36.0 mA
39.4 mA

E=1V
E=2V
E=3V
E=4V
E=5V
E=6V
E=7V
E=8V
E=9V
E=10V
E=11V
E=12V

Digital Multimeter
Current in R1
1.49 mA
3.02 mA
5.2 mA
7.24 mA
9.16 mA
10.8 mA
12.77 mA
14.4 mA
16.3 mA
18.21 mA
19.95 mA
21.8 mA

Current in R2
2.8 mA
2.5 mA
4.5 mA
5.9 mA
7.41 mA
8.8 mA
10.4 mA
11.7 mA
13.3 mA
14.8 mA
16.2 mA
17.8 mA

3. Questions:

1. What is the characteristic of a series circuit?


Two of more elements are connected in series if they share only one node,
that means the elements have the same current.
2. Whats the characteristic of a parallel circuit?
Two or more elements are connected in parallel when they share their two
nodes, it means, they have the same tension.

3. Whats the main difference between an analog and a digital meter?


The analog meter is a pointer that moves in relation to the magnitude of the
variable measured; the digital meter has numbers in the display indicating
the magnitude of the variable measuring.
4. Why shouldnt an ammeter be connected in parallel?
Because it wont show anything, the ammeter may be damaged because
their resistance is very small and the current will be higher.
5. Why do we have to de-energize the circuit when we are measuring the
resistance in the electric circuit?
Because when its energized, there is a current, and this current could alter
the measure.

4. Conclusions.
-Ugalde

Lpez Eduardo: The objectives of the practice, which were met, were be

able to: 1) Properly use the digital ohmmeter. 2) Properly use the digital voltmeter.
3) Using digital ammeter properly. This capabilities were developed during the
practice, Section II.1 where the use of the ohmmeter is especified and with the
obtained data fill Table 1, the ability to use voltmeter was developed in the section
II.2 where we will measure with the voltmeter and the results fill table 2, and
section II.3 helps us with the ability to use the ammeter which will give us more
data to fill table 3.
-Ziga Daz ngel: Once finished the practice I can conclude that the multimeter
can help us to measure different types of values as are the voltage, the current and
the resistance of the elements, also that the values of the elements are
approximated that the real values but it doesnt affect in this practice.

APPENDIX A

The color code used in electronics to indicate the values of the electronic
components. Each color band represents a number and the order of the color band
will represent a number value. The first 2 color bands indicate a number. The 3rd
color band indicates the value to multiplier the first two numbers or, in other words,
the number of zeros to add. The fourth band indicates the tolerance of the resistor.

APPENDIX B

Breadborder: Is a board with holes that are electrically connected together


internally, usually following line patterns, which can be inserted electronic
components and wires for assembly and prototyping electronic circuits and similar
systems. It is made of two materials, insulatio n, usually a plastic, and a conductor
connecting together the various holes.