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1390

A H A R M O N I C D O M A I N COMPUTATIONAL PACKAGE FOR N O N L I N E A R PROBLEMS

A N D I T S A P P L I C A T I O N TO ELECTRIC A R C S
N . Rajakovit

E. Acha
A. Semlyen
University of Toronto

Abstract- Traditionally, frequency domain calculations have been

restricted to the linear elements of a power system while for the representation of nonlinear components, which are a significant source
of harmonics, time domain methods have been used. This paper
presents a methodology for the direct harmonic domain representation of static and dynamic nonlinear elements encountered in power
systems.
The essential contribution of the paper is the description of a
general purpose computational package which can be used by developers of programs for power system harmonic analysis. Some of
the basic routines of the package, written in Fortran 77, are given.
Examples of possible applications are models of transformers, of fluorescent lamps, studies of iron losses, ferroresonance and inrush currents. The dynamic modeling of arcs for electric furnaces is novel
and is presented in greater detail.
Keywords: Harmonics, Arc Furnace, Discharge Lamps, Iron Core,
Nonlinear Elements, Transformers.

derivative are evaluated in the harmonic domain using convolutions

. Alternatively, a numerical procedure based on interpolation, central difference formulae and on the use of F F T can be applied .
For the solution of the resulting equations a Newton type iterative
algorithm is employed.
The computational package has many potential applications. The
use of the programs is illustrated by modeling of iron cores and fluorescent lamps and, in more detail, by the representation of the dynamic arc characteristics in electric arc furnaces which are often responsible for significant distortion in power systems.

COMPUTATIONAL PROCEDURES
General Description of the Nonlinear Problem
The problems t o be examined are described in general by n nonlinear equations of the form

f(Y,k , 2 ,U ) = 0

(1)

INTRODUCTION
The number of power plant components capable of producing considerable harmonic distortion in the network has proliferated very
rapidly. This tendency is on the increase and, accordingly, there
is growing interest worldwide in the development of software which
allows accurate harmonic assessment for the individual plant components and also for the entire network.
Different approaches which deal with the problem more or less
accurately ,, have been published but, as work accumulates, it
is becoming clearer that harmonic domain modeling offers the most
reliable and versatile alternative towards a generalized harmonic solution of the power network.
The basic theory of harmonic domain modeling of nonlinear elements is already well established. The problem is nonlinear and the
harmonic balanced is reached by iteration using the Newton-Raphson
method in the harmonic domain . The procedure is started from an
undistorted sinusoidal state. The approach has proved t o be both fast
and reliable. Laminated iron cores can be examined in a very detailed
manner ,
and it is also possible t o quantify the harmonic response
of a network containing several magnetic nonlinearities . Many
more applications exists, for example, arc furnaces, arc discharge
lamps, saturated reactors and studies related t o (ferro)resonance phenomena or inrush currents 161. Another important application is the
initialization of the EMTP.
This paper describes a software package for direct harmonic domain computations involving nonlinear system components. The
computational procedure is the following: The nonlinear characteristic is approximated by a polynomial and then the polynomial and its

where all the variables are periodic. y is the state descriptor of

dimension n, I (a subset of y) is the vector of state variables of
dimension m ( m 5 n ) and U is a specified input vector.
In the case of both arc furnaces and fluorescent lamps the state
descriptor y contains the arc voltage and the arc radius, while the
state variable I is the arc radius. The input U is the current.
For simple iron cores the state descriptor y comprises fluxes, voltages and currents, while the state variables I are fluxes. The input
U can be either voltages or currents.
In the case of laminated iron cores  the state descriptor y involves electric and magnetic field intensities and magnetic flux densities, while the state variables 2 are magnetic flux densities only.
The input U can be either electric or magnetic field intensity a t the
surface of the lamination.

Nonlinear Characteristics

Figure 1 represents diagrammatically the computational procedures used in harmonic domain calculations. The cy and the p blocks
are alternative routes for computations involving nonlinearities. All
blocks are examined in more detail in the following subsections.
Polynomial Characteristics and Evaluation by Convolutions
Block crI represents the fitting of a nonlinear characteristic by a
polynomial. In the case of magnetization characteristics, it has been
found  that a polynomial with only three terms of the form
y =C1I

90

032-8 PWiD

A pa-er recormended and :inprove(!

T r a n s y i s s i o r and 9 i s t r i b u t i o n Comiiitte-.
Pouer P n c i n e e r i n : S o c i e t y f o r 3rese i t a t i o n
!P%
199s L i n t e r e e t i r , -, A t 1 t n t , Geor - i a ,
Feoruarg
8, 1993. ,a.n.uscript s u b r l i t t e d
Ciecember l ? , 1 ~ ~ Vade
8 : available f o r nrintin;
iiovember 17, 1939.
L .

--

(2)

gives a satisfactory approximation. For example, in one concrete

case, the polynomial

H = 51.80250

+ 0.2181B + 0.1353B

(3)

0885-8977/90/0700-1390\$01.000 1990 IEEE

+ c p x p + cqx9

1391

Block CYZ gives the harmonic domain evaluation of a general polynomial of the form
n

P(X, y, Z, U ) =

(4)

b;xi'ykl&um'
i=O

The basic idea is that for a time domain multiplication, the equivalent procedure in the harmonic domain is a convolution. Time domain exponentiations are performed in the frequency domain by self
and mutual convolutions. The method is based on the repeated use
of the routines SCONV and MCONV which perform self and mutual
convolutions. Both routines are listed in Appendix 1. Also listed in
Appendix 1 is the routine EVPOL for the harmonic domain evaluation of equation (3) and its derivative.
Fig.2 Point by point derivation of magnetizing characteristic
nonlinear characteristic

I
numerical evaluation
of the nonlinear

FFTs are applied to the functions with respect t o time of both

the magnetizing current and its derivative with respect t o flux. The
latter corresponds t o harmonic admittances which are used as entries
for assembling the Jacobian matrix.

Algebraization of ODES

its harmonic content

r]
calculation of mismatch

71

, v ,
calculation of tint derivative

72

73

For harmonic domain calculations the differential equation (I),

which represents the dynamic behavior of a nonlinear element, must
be transformed into an algebraic equation. The derivative i in the
harmonic domain is obtained by multiplying each component zh of
the harmonic domain vector by j w h ,. Therefore, the algebraization of the linearized form of equation (1) is
FyAy

+ D ( j w h ) A x + F,Ax + U = 0

(5)

where Fz and Fy are Toeplitz matrices (i.e. having equal elements on

any of their diagonals; see Appendix 2) corresponding t o Jacobians of
partial derivatives with respect t o the elements of the harmonic domain vectors x and y , respectively, and D ( j w h ) is a diagonal matrix
with entries j w h .

Solution of Nonlinear Equations in Harmonic Domain

solution of the linearized

T h e y blocks of figure 1correspond t o a harmonic domain NewtonRaphson procedure. Block 71 represents the calculation of the misI
match function while block y2 represents the calculation of its first
derivative. T h e harmonic elements of the first derivative are used t o
build the Jacobian matrix which has a Toeplitz structure.
A simple procedure for assembling the Toeplitz matrix is presented in Appendix 2. We note that the dynamic part modifies the
Toeplitz structure t o a band-diagonal quasi-Toeplitz form.
Fig.1 General procedure for harmonic domain calculations
The general flow chart of figure 1 shows the case when the Jacobian matrix is updated a t each iterative step. This basic approach,
however, is not a true Newton-Raphson method due t o truncation
Non-Polynomial Characteristics and Evaluation by FFTs
of higher order harmonics and, therefore, exactly quadratic converBlock /3 of figure 1 corresponds t o a point by point representagence is not expected. The more pronounced the nonlinearity the
tion of a nonlinear function. The approach used in this case is a n
further away will be the convergence from quadratic .
alternative t o the analytical procedure of block a.
An alternative approach is t o keep the Jacobian constant after
In the case of application t o a magnetic circuit, the characteristic
the first or some later iterations. We have found that for weak nonlinis obtained as shown in figure 2. The derivative of the function
earities, as in the case of iron cores, this reduces the total execution
i = f(+) is obtained numerically.
time, while for strong nonlinearities, as in the case of laminations,
Once the operating voltage and its associated flux have been obthe execution time will generally be increased.
tained in the time domain, a period of the fundamental frequency
is subdivided in N = 2n time steps, such that the highest harmonic
To conclude, we make the following remarks:
will be sufficiently well sampled. In the case of magnetic nonlinearities, harmonic frequencies beyond the 15th are negligibly small
 and values of n equal to 9 or 10 have proved t o be appropriate [ 5 ] . The discretized flux is impressed, point by point, upon the
experimental magnetization characteristic and a corresponding magnetizing current is determined. Piecewise linear interpolation is used
in the process.
Provided that the magnetizing current is sufficiently smooth, its
derivative with respect t o the magnetizing flux can be obtained simply and accurately using a central difference formula.

---

Sparsity can be used in some applications in order t o reduce

the CPU time
The computer programs can also be used t o investigate even
harmonic problems resulting from asymmetrical excitation
0

The computer programs can also handle hysteresis effect

1392

Illustrative Examples

Modeling of Iron Cores

Simple iron core models are adequate for the representation of the
magnetizing branch of transformers used for the analysis of power
system harmonics. However, if detailed studies of the core, such
as calculation of iron losses are envisaged, then laminated iron core
models have t o be used .
The state equations for an ideal nonlinear inductor are,

The next section contains the derivation of a differential equation

representing the dynamic behavior of electric arcs. This equation
also provides a dynamic model for arc discharge lamps. In order t o
obtain a model similar to what is already available in the literature
, the arc conductance g, rather than the arc radius T , is used as
state variable. Values of R = 2 and m = 0 are chosen in equation
(21) for this purpose, yielding
klr2

!KV

+ k z r -d T

i = f(\$)

(7)

and the linearization of these equations gives, in the harmonic domain,

D ( j w h ) A \$ = AV

(8)

Ai = FA\$

(9)

These equations can he combined into the harmonic domain Norton

equivalent 
i = G N U i~
(10)

where

GN = FD-'(jwh)
j N = jold

= -ka 3 . 2

dt

dt

g=

T2

k3
the resultant differential equation becomes,

where a = 2/k2k3 and b = 2kl/k2

Simulated characteristics, using equation (16), corresponding to
a 30 W fluorescent lamp  are shown in figure 4.

(11)

- GNvO'~

T~

(12)

As an example, consider the single phase circuit of figure 3, where

a generator is feeding a lossless 400 km transmission line via a lossless

reactor.

i \i

'\'

Fig.3 Test system

The magnetization characteristic of the reactor is

f(\$) = O.OOl\$

+ 0.0743q3

(13)

The system voltages contain harmonics but the fluxes inside the
transformer will be very close t o sinusoidal. A I p.u. sinusoidal
flux is therefore substituted into the magnetization characteristic as
a first guess, yielding

I

The harmonic coefficients of the magnetic admittances

-0.055725e32wt

+ 0.11245 - 0.055725e-32wt

are used for assembling the Jacobian (Toeplitz) matrix as shown

in Appendix 2. This matrix is then premultiplied by the diagonal
matrix D-'(jwh) t o obtain the linearized model of equation (10).
Once the linearization of the magnetic nonlinearity has been completed, it is combined with the linear part of the system. After a few
iterations, the calculated voltage harmonics a t the sending and receiving line ends result, in p . ~ . ,

wi = 1.045598, 02 = -0.02080,
= 1.164296, V: = -0.07477,

= 0.000352
U:

Fig.4 Computed characteristics of a fluorescent lamp a t 60, 360;

and 2000 Hz

= 0,000454

1393

The characteristics of figure 4 are similar to the measured characteristics of reference  shown in figure 5 for the same frequencies.
The computations show that, according t o expectation, the loop becomes narrower as frequency increases. Discrepancies are due mainly
t o the fact that the measurements include also the effect of external
components.

In this expression, the resistivity of the arc column is assumed t o be

inversely proportional t o T " , where m = 0...2, t o reflect the fact that
the arc may be hotter in the interior if it has a larger radius.
Substitution of equations (18), (19) and ( 2 0 ) into (17) gives the
differential equation of the arc:

Static Electric Arc Model

For steady state, equation (21) yields

so that in equation ( 2 2 )

Fig.5 Measured characteristics of a fluorescent lamp at 60, 360, and

2000 Hz
These simulations validate the arc models in the form of differential equations.

?J=-

iq

with

APPLICATION TO ARC FURNACE MODELING

Differential Equation of the Electric Arc
We start by developing a general dynamic arc model in the form
of a differential equation, based on the principle of conservation of
energy. The approach is fundamentally different from those methods
where the electric arc is represented by some empirical relation (), e.g., a current-voltage characteristic. In the dynamic model
such relations are implicit for steady state conditions but are not
predefined and will result different for different conditions, depending on both frequency and current magnitude. The power balance
equation for the arc is
Pl
P2 = P3
(17)
where

The values of q do not vary significantly with m . Their variation

as a function of n indicates the following:
If n = 0, q = 1, i.e.
characteristic.

represents the power transmitted in the form of heat

t o the external environment,
p2 represents the power which increases the internal energy in the arc and which therefore affects its radius, and
p3 represents the total power developed in the arc and
converted into heat.

If n = 2, v

constant

As we have seen, the static arc characteristic depends mainly on

the conditions of cooling and only little on the variation of the arc
resistivity with temperature.

Harmonic Domain Equations of the Electric Arc

The differential equation (21) is linearized in the harmonic domain t o give the vector mismatch equation

(18)

While, in fact, it is also a function of the arc temperature, this dependence is assumed t o be less significant and is therefore ignored,
in order t o keep the model simple. Thus, only the arc radius T appears as a state variable. If the environment around the arc is hot
the cooling of the arc may not depend on its radius a t all, so that in
this case n = 0. If this is not the case and the arc is long, then the
cooling area is mainly its lateral surface, so that n = 1. If the arc
is short, then the cooling is proportional t o its cross-section a t the
electrodes, so that n = 2.
The term p2 is proportional t o the derivative of the energy inside
the arc which is proportional t o T ~ ,

Finally,

tr - i

i,

In equation (17) it is assumed that the cooling effect is a function

of the arc radius T only. Thus
p i = klTn

= k / i corresponding to a hyperbolic

i.e. v = k / & corresponding t o a square-rootIf n = 1, q

hyperbolic characteristic.

pl

2)

f ( ~=
) k1Tm+n+2 + k 2 ~ ~{ j+w h~} r. - k3i2 = 0

(26)

Its derivative, also a vector,

f'(T)

= (m+n+2)klr"+"+'

+kzT"f3.{jwh}l+(m+3)k2Tm'z.{jwh}T

(27)
will serve for assembling the Jacobian matrix.
Concerning the above equations, we note that care must be exercised regarding the commutative properties of the convolutions involved. Specifically, in equation ( 2 6 ) the operator { j w h } acts on its
immediate argument only. The Jacobian matrix is obtained by replacing each vector in equation (27) by a Toeplitz matrix and the operator { j w h } by the diagonal matrix with entries j w h . The harmonic
vector 1 contains only a d.c. component and therefore it becomes a
unity matrix.
A routine, similar t o EVPOL, is used to evaluate equations (26)
and (27) in harmonic domain. Appendix 2 gives information on the
software related t o Toeplitz matrices.

Computational Results
Dynamic Characterk t ics

(a)

>

ki

The results of simulation must satisfy the power balance equation

(17). A full period of the variation of p l , p z , and p3 is shown in
figure 9.

roc -

[91.
The two characteristics compare well with each other: they follow the same basic pattern. The measured arc characteristic has a
deterministic and a stochastic part, with the latter becoming less and
less significant as the process of meltdown progresses. In this paper
only the deterministic part is modeled.
The arc voltage, expressed in time domain, is shown in figure
7. The square form of the arc voltage is typical for wave shapes
associated with electric arcs. The variation of the arc radius for a
full cycle is shown in figure 8.

mo-

Figure 6 shows dynamic w - i characteristics of a 250 V, 70 kA

a.c. arc. The characteristic of figure 6(a) has been obtained by harmonic domain techniques, with sinusoidal current excitation, and the
characteristic of figure 6( b) corresponds t o an actual measurement

>

'Cu1-i.crit ,kA

- 100-200I

-m

-50

50

loo

Pig.6 w - i characteristic of a 250 V, 70 kA a.c. arc

(a) Simulated characteristic (b) Measured characteristic
0

T i m e . sec

Timc,

Time,sec:

Fig.9 One period of the variation of p l , p z r and p3

000

L J04

GOO8

0012

0016

Timc., scc
Fig.8 Variation of the arc radius with time for one period

20

1395

Static Characteristics
Conditions of cooling (parameter n ) impose bigger changes on
the shape of static arc characteristics than the variation of the arc
resistivity with temperature (parameter m ) . Figure 10 shows static
characteristics corresponding to different values of n (0, 1, 2) with m
being kept equal t o 1.

\ \\

 H. BO and K. Mazumi, Analysis of Operating Circuits for Discharge Lamps by the Simulation Method, Transactions of the
nluminating Engineering Society, vO1.5, No.2, January 1976, pp.
92-98.
[SI J.H. Campbell, H.E. Schultz, and D.D. Kershaw, Characteristics and Applications of High-Frequency Fluorescent Lighting,
Transactions of the Illuminating Engineering Society, V01.48,
February 1953, pp. 95-103.

m=l

(61 N. Rajakovid and A. Semlyen, Investigation of the Inrush Phenomenon: A Quasi-Stationary Approach in the Harmonic Do.
main, IEEE Paper KO. 89 WM 082-9-PWRD, presented a t the
1989 IEEE/PES Winter Power Meeting.

 G . Schonfelder. Elektrische Lichtbogenofen und ihr Einsatz in

der Eisenschaffenden Industrie, Elektrowarme International,
No.5, Oktober 1983, pp. B214-B221.

[ l o ] W.H. Press, B.P. Flannery, S.A. Teukolsky, and W.T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes, Cambridge University Press, 1986.
[ll] R. Dugan, Simulation of Arc Furnace Power Systems, Proceedings of the IAS 1977 Annual Meeting, pp. 209-214.

Cur I c , n t . kA

 P. Herrick, Mathematical Models for High Intensity Discharge

Lamps, IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, Vol.IA16, No.5, September/October 1980. pp. 648-654,

CONCLUSIONS

A general package for harmonic domain computations has been

described. It consists of a set of routines which can be used by
developers of programs for power system harmonic applications. The
most basic routines have been listed.
The package has two ways of representing nonlinear characteristics: fitting of the characteristic by a polynomial, for which special
harmonic domain processing via convolutions has been developed, or
direct application of a Fast Fourier Transform.
A model in the form of a differential equation has been derived for
the electric arc. It is based on simple energy balance considerations
and therefore it is expected t o be generally valid. The computational
results compare well with existing measurements. The arc model can
be used for discharge lamps or for arc furnaces.

 E.L. Laskowski and J.F. Donoghue, A Model of a Mercury

Arc Lamps Terminal V-I Behaviour, IEEE Transactions on
Industry Applications, Vol.IA-17, No.4, July/August 1981, pp.
419-426.
 W.M. Grady and G.T. Heydt, Prediction of Power System Harmonics due t o Gaseous Discharge Lighting, IEEE Transactions
on Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol. PAS-104, No.3, March
1985, pp. 554-562.
 Y. Sandberg, The Arc Furnace as a Load on the Network,
ASEA J., V01.49, N0.4, 1976, pp. 75-87.
APPENDICES
1. S u b r o u t i n e s for R e p e a t e d Convolutions

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Financial support from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada is gratefully acknowledged. The last author
wishes t o express his appreciation t o the Faculty of Electrical Engineering of the University of Belgrade for the support of his study
leave at the University of Toronto.

The subroutines listed below are completely general except for

EVPOL which is specific for polynomials corresponding to equations
(2) and (3) used for the representation of a magnetization characteristic. This subroutine is listed for the purpose of illustration. It can
easily be modified to suit different problems.

REFERENCES
A.A. Mahmoud and R.D. Shultz, A Method for Analyzing Harmonic Distribution in AC Power Systems, IEEE Transactions
on Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol. PAS-101, No.6, June
1982, pp. 1815.1823.
H.W. Dommel, A. Yan, and S.Wei, Harmonics from Transformer Saturation, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol.
PWRD-1, No.2, April 1986, pp. 209-214.

C
C
C
C
C
C
C

A. Semlyen, E. Acha, and J. Arrillaga, Newton-Type Algorithms for the Harmonic Analysis of Nonlinear Power Circuits
in Periodical Steady State with Special Reference t o Magnetic
Nonlinearities, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol.
PWRD-3, No.3, July 1988, pp. 1090-1098.
A. Semlyen and N.RajakoviC, Harmonic Domain Modeling of
Laminated Iron Core, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery,
Vo1.4, No.1, January 1989, pp. 382-390.
E. Acha, Modelling of Power System Transformers in the Complex Conjugate Harmonic Space, Ph.D. Thesis, University of
Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand, 1988.

--

SUBROUTINE E V P O L ( H , N , A , B , C , P , F , X , ~ I , X ~ , X ~ ~ , X ~ ~ , X ~ O , X ~ ~ )
COMPLEX16 X(-N:N),X~(-N:N),X~(.N:N),X~~(-N:N)
COMPLEX*16 Xl7(-N:N),XZO(-N:N),XZl(.N:N)
COMPLEX*16 F(-Z*H:Z*H),P(H)
INTEGER H
A, B, C are polynomial coefficients
F is first derivative evaluated in harmonic domain
P is polynomial evaluated in harmonic domain
H is number of harmonics including the dc component
X, X1, X4, X16, X17, X20, XZ1 are auxiliary arrays
N, LM, L M l are dimensioning parameters
S t a r t convolutions
CALL SCONV(N,Xl,H,X,LM)
CALL SCONV(N,X,LM,X4,LMl)
CALL SCONV(N,X4,LM,X,LMl)
CALL SCONV(N,X,LM,XlS,LMl)
CALL MCONV(N,LM,LM,X4,XIG,LMl
,XZO)
CALL MCONV(N,H,LM,Xl,X16,LMl,X17)
CALL MCONV(N,H,LM,Xl,XZO,LMl,X21)
Evaluate polynomial
DO k 1 , H

P(I)=A*X1(I)+B*X17(I)+C*XZl(I)
END D O
C

Evaluate first derivative

DO I=O,LM
F(I)=17.O*B*X16(I)+21.ox2O(I)
END DO
F(O)=F(O)+A
RETURN
END

13%

C
C
C
C

C
C
C
C

SUBROUTINE SCONV(N,X,IM,XX,LM)
COMPLEX'16 X(-N:N),XX(-NN)
X is the input array
XX is the output m a y
N, IM, LM are dimensioning parameters
LM=B*IM
Clear output array
D O L=O,LM
XX(L)=DCMPLX(O.O,O.O)
END D O
Fill-in nenative Dart
DO I=I,IM
X(-I)=DCONJG(X(I))
END DO
Actual convolution
DO L=O,LM
DO I=-IMJM
KzL-1
IF(K.GT.IM) T H E N
X(K)=DCMPLX(O.O,O.O)
ELSE
XX(L)=XX(L)+X(I)*X(K)
E N D IF
E N D DO
E N D DO
RETURN
END

C
C

END

For cases when the Jacobian is a pure Toeplitz matrix, an efficient

solution algorithm which does not require the Toeplitz matrix to be
formed explicitly is given in reference [lo].

SUBROUTINE MCONV(N,Il,I2,Xl,XZ,LM,X)
COMPLEX*16 X1(-NN),XZ(-N:N),X(-N:N)
X1 and X2 are input arrays
X is the output array
N, 11, 12, LM are dimensioning parameters
LM=Il+I2
Clear output array
D O L=O,LM
X(L)=DCMPLX(O.O,O.O)
END DO
Fill-in negative
Dart
.
DO I=1,11
XI(-I)=DCONJG(Xl(I))
END DO
D O I=l,IZ
XZ(-I)=DCONJG(XB(I))
E N D DO
Actual convolution
DO L=O,LM
DO I=1,12
K=L-I
IF(K.GT.12) T H E N
Xl(K)=DCMPLX(O.O,O.O)
XZ( K)=DCMPLX(O.O,O.O)
ELSE
X(L)=X(L)+Xl(I)*XZ(K)
END I F
E N D DO
END DO
RETURN
END

2. S u b r o u t i n e for Assembling a Toeplitz M a t r i x

In static applications the Jacobian is a pure Toeplitz matrix, i.e.
of the form

SUBROUTINE ASSEMBLE(N,F,T)
COhlPLEX'lG T(Z'N,2*N),F(-B'N:2*X)
F is a n array of harmonic coefficients
T is a Toeplitz matrix
N is a dimensioning parameter
DO J = l , N
K=O
DO I = l , N
IF(1.GE.J) T H E N
T(I,J)=F(K)
K=K+l
ELSE
T(I,J)=DCONJG(T(J,I))
END I F
E N D DO
E N D DO
RETURN

CO

c-1

c-g

c-g

c-4

c-5

C]

CO

c-1

c-2

c-3

c-4

cz

c1

CO

c-1

c-2

c-3

c3

c2

c1

CO

c-1

c-2

c4

c3

c2

c1

CO

c-1

c5

c4

c3

c2

c1

CO

and in dynamic applications the Toeplitz structure provides the basic

pattern for assembling the Jacobian. A simple procedure for building
a Toeplitz matrix is given below.

E n r i q u e A c h a was born in Uruapin, Mbxico. He graduated from

the University of Michoacin in 1979 and completed an M.Sc. power
system course at the National University of Mkxico in 1980. He ob
tained a postgraduate diploma from the University of Manchester
Institute of Science and Technology and has recently received the
Ph.D. degree from the University of Canterbury, New Zealand. In
1988 he was a postdoctoral fellow a t the University of Toronto. His
main research interest is the Dynamic and Steady State Analysis of
Nonlinear Power Systems.
A d a m Semlyen (F'87) was born and educated in Rumania where
he obtained a Dipl. Ing. degree and his PH.D. He started his engineering career in 1949 with an electric power utility and held academic positions a t the Polytechnic Institute of Timisoara, Rumania.
In 1969 he joined the University of Toronto where he is a professor
in the Department of Electrical Engineering. His research interests
include the Steady State and Dynamic Analysis of Power Systems,
Electromagnetic Transients, and Power System Optimization.
Nikola RajakoviC was born in Yugoslavia in 1952. He graduated
from the University of Belgrade where he also received his hl.Sc. and
Ph.D. degrees. In 1987 and 1989 he was a postdoctoral fellow and
research associate a t the University of Toronto. He is now an assistant professor in Power Systems at the University of Belgrade. He
has published over twenty papers and one text book. and has worked
in numerous power system projects. His present research interest is
in Harmonic hIodeling and Optimization of Power Systems.

1397

DISCUSSION
(Powertech Labs Inc., B.C. Hydro)
T h e authors are to be congratulated for presenting a n interesting and
comprehensive approach for t h e harmonic analysis of nonlinear
components whose characteristics can b e modeled as polynomial
functions. T h e authors have further extended t h e approach t o t h e
nonlinear components expressed as differential equations, and used
t h e method t o analyze t h e harmonics from electric arcs. An nonlinear component is modeled in the paper as a coupled harmonic
Norton matrix in t h e neighborhood of a base waveform. This is a
very interesting concept and may have other applications.

Wenyuan X u

E. Acha, A. Semlyen, and N. Rajakovic: We would like to thank the

discusser for his interest in our paper and for his questions which are of
significance in the harmonic modeling of nonlinear passive elements.
Let i and v be the harmonic vectors (consisting of the complex phasors of the harmonics) of the current and voltage for a nonlinear element.
Then i=f(v) represents the relevant set of nonlinear equations and
Ai = JAv or

i =io

+Jv

its linearized form. In these equations, the Jacobian matrix J represents

the harmonic Norton matrix, while iN=io-Jvo is the harmonic Norton

current

A common practice among power engineers is t o model the

nonlinear components as known harmonic current sources, with
t h e assumption of limited voltage harmonic distortion. There are,
however, no clear answers on the adequacy of such a model and
t h e possible errors associated with t h e model. It seems that these
errors are related t o t h e off-diagonal elements in t h e harmonic
matrix. I wonder, therefore, whether the matrix can b e applied t o
models,
guidelines a b o u t the use of current
provide
assuming limited harmonics in t h e bus voltages? T h e authors

It results thus that a constant harmonic current source io is an

appropriate representation for a non-trivid (in this Context: not cornpletely independent of v) nonlinear element only if Av is small or if io is
iteratively updated in the course of the computations. As suggested by
the discusser, if v or AV has negligible harmonic content and J is close to
diagonal. then the k n i c part of i will remain practically constant as
the voltage varies. so that a h m o n i c current source representation ofthe