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A HARMONIC DOMAIN COMPUTATIONAL PACKAGE FOR NONLINEAR PROBLEMS
A N D ITS APPLICATION TO ELECTRIC ARCS

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1390

A N D I T S A P P L I C A T I O N TO ELECTRIC A R C S

N . Rajakovit

University of Belgrade

Belgrade, Yugoslavia

E. Acha

A. Semlyen

University of Toronto

Toronto, Ontario, Canada

restricted to the linear elements of a power system while for the representation of nonlinear components, which are a significant source

of harmonics, time domain methods have been used. This paper

presents a methodology for the direct harmonic domain representation of static and dynamic nonlinear elements encountered in power

systems.

The essential contribution of the paper is the description of a

general purpose computational package which can be used by developers of programs for power system harmonic analysis. Some of

the basic routines of the package, written in Fortran 77, are given.

Examples of possible applications are models of transformers, of fluorescent lamps, studies of iron losses, ferroresonance and inrush currents. The dynamic modeling of arcs for electric furnaces is novel

and is presented in greater detail.

Keywords: Harmonics, Arc Furnace, Discharge Lamps, Iron Core,

Nonlinear Elements, Transformers.

[4]. Alternatively, a numerical procedure based on interpolation, central difference formulae and on the use of F F T can be applied [5].

For the solution of the resulting equations a Newton type iterative

algorithm is employed.

The computational package has many potential applications. The

use of the programs is illustrated by modeling of iron cores and fluorescent lamps and, in more detail, by the representation of the dynamic arc characteristics in electric arc furnaces which are often responsible for significant distortion in power systems.

COMPUTATIONAL PROCEDURES

General Description of the Nonlinear Problem

The problems t o be examined are described in general by n nonlinear equations of the form

f(Y,k , 2 ,U ) = 0

(1)

INTRODUCTION

The number of power plant components capable of producing considerable harmonic distortion in the network has proliferated very

rapidly. This tendency is on the increase and, accordingly, there

is growing interest worldwide in the development of software which

allows accurate harmonic assessment for the individual plant components and also for the entire network.

Different approaches which deal with the problem more or less

accurately [1],[2], have been published but, as work accumulates, it

is becoming clearer that harmonic domain modeling offers the most

reliable and versatile alternative towards a generalized harmonic solution of the power network.

The basic theory of harmonic domain modeling of nonlinear elements is already well established. The problem is nonlinear and the

harmonic balanced is reached by iteration using the Newton-Raphson

method in the harmonic domain [3]. The procedure is started from an

undistorted sinusoidal state. The approach has proved t o be both fast

and reliable. Laminated iron cores can be examined in a very detailed

manner [4],

and it is also possible t o quantify the harmonic response

of a network containing several magnetic nonlinearities [5]. Many

more applications exists, for example, arc furnaces, arc discharge

lamps, saturated reactors and studies related t o (ferro)resonance phenomena or inrush currents 161. Another important application is the

initialization of the EMTP.

This paper describes a software package for direct harmonic domain computations involving nonlinear system components. The

computational procedure is the following: The nonlinear characteristic is approximated by a polynomial and then the polynomial and its

dimension n, I (a subset of y) is the vector of state variables of

dimension m ( m 5 n ) and U is a specified input vector.

In the case of both arc furnaces and fluorescent lamps the state

descriptor y contains the arc voltage and the arc radius, while the

state variable I is the arc radius. The input U is the current.

For simple iron cores the state descriptor y comprises fluxes, voltages and currents, while the state variables I are fluxes. The input

U can be either voltages or currents.

In the case of laminated iron cores [4] the state descriptor y involves electric and magnetic field intensities and magnetic flux densities, while the state variables 2 are magnetic flux densities only.

The input U can be either electric or magnetic field intensity a t the

surface of the lamination.

Nonlinear Characteristics

Figure 1 represents diagrammatically the computational procedures used in harmonic domain calculations. The cy and the p blocks

are alternative routes for computations involving nonlinearities. All

blocks are examined in more detail in the following subsections.

Polynomial Characteristics and Evaluation by Convolutions

Block crI represents the fitting of a nonlinear characteristic by a

polynomial. In the case of magnetization characteristics, it has been

found [4] that a polynomial with only three terms of the form

y =C1I

90

032-8 PWiD

T r a n s y i s s i o r and 9 i s t r i b u t i o n Comiiitte-.

Pouer P n c i n e e r i n : S o c i e t y f o r 3rese i t a t i o n

!P%

199s L i n t e r e e t i r , -, A t 1 t n t , Geor - i a ,

Feoruarg

8, 1993. ,a.n.uscript s u b r l i t t e d

Ciecember l ? , 1 ~ ~ Vade

8 : available f o r nrintin;

iiovember 17, 1939.

L .

--

(2)

case, the polynomial

H = 51.80250

+ 0.2181B + 0.1353B

(3)

+ c p x p + cqx9

1391

Block CYZ gives the harmonic domain evaluation of a general polynomial of the form

n

P(X, y, Z, U ) =

(4)

b;xi'ykl&um'

i=O

The basic idea is that for a time domain multiplication, the equivalent procedure in the harmonic domain is a convolution. Time domain exponentiations are performed in the frequency domain by self

and mutual convolutions. The method is based on the repeated use

of the routines SCONV and MCONV which perform self and mutual

convolutions. Both routines are listed in Appendix 1. Also listed in

Appendix 1 is the routine EVPOL for the harmonic domain evaluation of equation (3) and its derivative.

Fig.2 Point by point derivation of magnetizing characteristic

nonlinear characteristic

I

numerical evaluation

of the nonlinear

the magnetizing current and its derivative with respect t o flux. The

latter corresponds t o harmonic admittances which are used as entries

for assembling the Jacobian matrix.

Algebraization of ODES

r]

calculation of mismatch

71

, v ,

calculation of tint derivative

72

73

which represents the dynamic behavior of a nonlinear element, must

be transformed into an algebraic equation. The derivative i in the

harmonic domain is obtained by multiplying each component zh of

the harmonic domain vector by j w h [3],[4]. Therefore, the algebraization of the linearized form of equation (1) is

FyAy

+ D ( j w h ) A x + F,Ax + U = 0

(5)

any of their diagonals; see Appendix 2) corresponding t o Jacobians of

partial derivatives with respect t o the elements of the harmonic domain vectors x and y , respectively, and D ( j w h ) is a diagonal matrix

with entries j w h .

solution of the linearized

T h e y blocks of figure 1correspond t o a harmonic domain NewtonRaphson procedure. Block 71 represents the calculation of the misI

match function while block y2 represents the calculation of its first

derivative. T h e harmonic elements of the first derivative are used t o

build the Jacobian matrix which has a Toeplitz structure.

A simple procedure for assembling the Toeplitz matrix is presented in Appendix 2. We note that the dynamic part modifies the

Toeplitz structure t o a band-diagonal quasi-Toeplitz form.

Fig.1 General procedure for harmonic domain calculations

The general flow chart of figure 1 shows the case when the Jacobian matrix is updated a t each iterative step. This basic approach,

however, is not a true Newton-Raphson method due t o truncation

Non-Polynomial Characteristics and Evaluation by FFTs

of higher order harmonics and, therefore, exactly quadratic converBlock /3 of figure 1 corresponds t o a point by point representagence is not expected. The more pronounced the nonlinearity the

tion of a nonlinear function. The approach used in this case is a n

further away will be the convergence from quadratic .

alternative t o the analytical procedure of block a.

An alternative approach is t o keep the Jacobian constant after

In the case of application t o a magnetic circuit, the characteristic

the first or some later iterations. We have found that for weak nonlinis obtained as shown in figure 2. The derivative of the function

earities, as in the case of iron cores, this reduces the total execution

i = f(+) is obtained numerically.

time, while for strong nonlinearities, as in the case of laminations,

Once the operating voltage and its associated flux have been obthe execution time will generally be increased.

tained in the time domain, a period of the fundamental frequency

is subdivided in N = 2n time steps, such that the highest harmonic

To conclude, we make the following remarks:

will be sufficiently well sampled. In the case of magnetic nonlinearities, harmonic frequencies beyond the 15th are negligibly small

[2] and values of n equal to 9 or 10 have proved t o be appropriate [ 5 ] . The discretized flux is impressed, point by point, upon the

experimental magnetization characteristic and a corresponding magnetizing current is determined. Piecewise linear interpolation is used

in the process.

Provided that the magnetizing current is sufficiently smooth, its

derivative with respect t o the magnetizing flux can be obtained simply and accurately using a central difference formula.

---

the CPU time

The computer programs can also be used t o investigate even

harmonic problems resulting from asymmetrical excitation

0

1392

Illustrative Examples

Simple iron core models are adequate for the representation of the

magnetizing branch of transformers used for the analysis of power

system harmonics. However, if detailed studies of the core, such

as calculation of iron losses are envisaged, then laminated iron core

models have t o be used [4].

The state equations for an ideal nonlinear inductor are,

representing the dynamic behavior of electric arcs. This equation

also provides a dynamic model for arc discharge lamps. In order t o

obtain a model similar to what is already available in the literature

[7], the arc conductance g, rather than the arc radius T , is used as

state variable. Values of R = 2 and m = 0 are chosen in equation

(21) for this purpose, yielding

klr2

!KV

+ k z r -d T

i = f($)

(7)

D ( j w h ) A $ = AV

(8)

Ai = FA$

(9)

equivalent [3]

i = G N U i~

(10)

where

GN = FD-'(jwh)

j N = jold

= -ka 3 . 2

dt

dt

g=

T2

k3

the resultant differential equation becomes,

Simulated characteristics, using equation (16), corresponding to

a 30 W fluorescent lamp [8] are shown in figure 4.

(11)

- GNvO'~

T~

(12)

a generator is feeding a lossless 400 km transmission line via a lossless

reactor.

i \i

'\'

The magnetization characteristic of the reactor is

f($) = O.OOl$

+ 0.0743q3

(13)

The system voltages contain harmonics but the fluxes inside the

transformer will be very close t o sinusoidal. A I p.u. sinusoidal

flux is therefore substituted into the magnetization characteristic as

a first guess, yielding

I

-0.055725e32wt

+ 0.11245 - 0.055725e-32wt

in Appendix 2. This matrix is then premultiplied by the diagonal

matrix D-'(jwh) t o obtain the linearized model of equation (10).

Once the linearization of the magnetic nonlinearity has been completed, it is combined with the linear part of the system. After a few

iterations, the calculated voltage harmonics a t the sending and receiving line ends result, in p . ~ . ,

wi = 1.045598, 02 = -0.02080,

= 1.164296, V: = -0.07477,

= 0.000352

U:

and 2000 Hz

= 0,000454

1393

The characteristics of figure 4 are similar to the measured characteristics of reference [8] shown in figure 5 for the same frequencies.

The computations show that, according t o expectation, the loop becomes narrower as frequency increases. Discrepancies are due mainly

t o the fact that the measurements include also the effect of external

components.

inversely proportional t o T " , where m = 0...2, t o reflect the fact that

the arc may be hotter in the interior if it has a larger radius.

Substitution of equations (18), (19) and ( 2 0 ) into (17) gives the

differential equation of the arc:

For steady state, equation (21) yields

so that in equation ( 2 2 )

2000 Hz

These simulations validate the arc models in the form of differential equations.

?J=-

iq

with

Differential Equation of the Electric Arc

We start by developing a general dynamic arc model in the form

of a differential equation, based on the principle of conservation of

energy. The approach is fundamentally different from those methods

where the electric arc is represented by some empirical relation ([11][15]), e.g., a current-voltage characteristic. In the dynamic model

such relations are implicit for steady state conditions but are not

predefined and will result different for different conditions, depending on both frequency and current magnitude. The power balance

equation for the arc is

Pl

P2 = P3

(17)

where

as a function of n indicates the following:

If n = 0, q = 1, i.e.

characteristic.

t o the external environment,

p2 represents the power which increases the internal energy in the arc and which therefore affects its radius, and

p3 represents the total power developed in the arc and

converted into heat.

If n = 2, v

constant

the conditions of cooling and only little on the variation of the arc

resistivity with temperature.

The differential equation (21) is linearized in the harmonic domain t o give the vector mismatch equation

(18)

While, in fact, it is also a function of the arc temperature, this dependence is assumed t o be less significant and is therefore ignored,

in order t o keep the model simple. Thus, only the arc radius T appears as a state variable. If the environment around the arc is hot

the cooling of the arc may not depend on its radius a t all, so that in

this case n = 0. If this is not the case and the arc is long, then the

cooling area is mainly its lateral surface, so that n = 1. If the arc

is short, then the cooling is proportional t o its cross-section a t the

electrodes, so that n = 2.

The term p2 is proportional t o the derivative of the energy inside

the arc which is proportional t o T ~ ,

Finally,

tr - i

i,

of the arc radius T only. Thus

p i = klTn

= k / i corresponding to a hyperbolic

hyperbolic characteristic.

pl

2)

f ( ~=

) k1Tm+n+2 + k 2 ~ ~{ j+w h~} r. - k3i2 = 0

(26)

f'(T)

= (m+n+2)klr"+"+'

+kzT"f3.{jwh}l+(m+3)k2Tm'z.{jwh}T

(27)

will serve for assembling the Jacobian matrix.

Concerning the above equations, we note that care must be exercised regarding the commutative properties of the convolutions involved. Specifically, in equation ( 2 6 ) the operator { j w h } acts on its

immediate argument only. The Jacobian matrix is obtained by replacing each vector in equation (27) by a Toeplitz matrix and the operator { j w h } by the diagonal matrix with entries j w h . The harmonic

vector 1 contains only a d.c. component and therefore it becomes a

unity matrix.

A routine, similar t o EVPOL, is used to evaluate equations (26)

and (27) in harmonic domain. Appendix 2 gives information on the

software related t o Toeplitz matrices.

Computational Results

Dynamic Characterk t ics

(a)

>

ki

(17). A full period of the variation of p l , p z , and p3 is shown in

figure 9.

roc -

[91.

The two characteristics compare well with each other: they follow the same basic pattern. The measured arc characteristic has a

deterministic and a stochastic part, with the latter becoming less and

less significant as the process of meltdown progresses. In this paper

only the deterministic part is modeled.

The arc voltage, expressed in time domain, is shown in figure

7. The square form of the arc voltage is typical for wave shapes

associated with electric arcs. The variation of the arc radius for a

full cycle is shown in figure 8.

mo-

a.c. arc. The characteristic of figure 6(a) has been obtained by harmonic domain techniques, with sinusoidal current excitation, and the

characteristic of figure 6( b) corresponds t o an actual measurement

>

'Cu1-i.crit ,kA

- 100-200I

-m

-50

50

loo

(a) Simulated characteristic (b) Measured characteristic

0

T i m e . sec

Timc,

Time,sec:

000

L J04

GOO8

0012

0016

Timc., scc

Fig.8 Variation of the arc radius with time for one period

20

1395

Static Characteristics

Conditions of cooling (parameter n ) impose bigger changes on

the shape of static arc characteristics than the variation of the arc

resistivity with temperature (parameter m ) . Figure 10 shows static

characteristics corresponding to different values of n (0, 1, 2) with m

being kept equal t o 1.

\ \\

[7] H. BO and K. Mazumi, Analysis of Operating Circuits for Discharge Lamps by the Simulation Method, Transactions of the

nluminating Engineering Society, vO1.5, No.2, January 1976, pp.

92-98.

[SI J.H. Campbell, H.E. Schultz, and D.D. Kershaw, Characteristics and Applications of High-Frequency Fluorescent Lighting,

Transactions of the Illuminating Engineering Society, V01.48,

February 1953, pp. 95-103.

m=l

(61 N. Rajakovid and A. Semlyen, Investigation of the Inrush Phenomenon: A Quasi-Stationary Approach in the Harmonic Do.

main, IEEE Paper KO. 89 WM 082-9-PWRD, presented a t the

1989 IEEE/PES Winter Power Meeting.

der Eisenschaffenden Industrie, Elektrowarme International,

No.5, Oktober 1983, pp. B214-B221.

[ l o ] W.H. Press, B.P. Flannery, S.A. Teukolsky, and W.T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes, Cambridge University Press, 1986.

[ll] R. Dugan, Simulation of Arc Furnace Power Systems, Proceedings of the IAS 1977 Annual Meeting, pp. 209-214.

Cur I c , n t . kA

Lamps, IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, Vol.IA16, No.5, September/October 1980. pp. 648-654,

CONCLUSIONS

described. It consists of a set of routines which can be used by

developers of programs for power system harmonic applications. The

most basic routines have been listed.

The package has two ways of representing nonlinear characteristics: fitting of the characteristic by a polynomial, for which special

harmonic domain processing via convolutions has been developed, or

direct application of a Fast Fourier Transform.

A model in the form of a differential equation has been derived for

the electric arc. It is based on simple energy balance considerations

and therefore it is expected t o be generally valid. The computational

results compare well with existing measurements. The arc model can

be used for discharge lamps or for arc furnaces.

Arc Lamps Terminal V-I Behaviour, IEEE Transactions on

Industry Applications, Vol.IA-17, No.4, July/August 1981, pp.

419-426.

[14] W.M. Grady and G.T. Heydt, Prediction of Power System Harmonics due t o Gaseous Discharge Lighting, IEEE Transactions

on Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol. PAS-104, No.3, March

1985, pp. 554-562.

[15] Y. Sandberg, The Arc Furnace as a Load on the Network,

ASEA J., V01.49, N0.4, 1976, pp. 75-87.

APPENDICES

1. S u b r o u t i n e s for R e p e a t e d Convolutions

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Financial support from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada is gratefully acknowledged. The last author

wishes t o express his appreciation t o the Faculty of Electrical Engineering of the University of Belgrade for the support of his study

leave at the University of Toronto.

EVPOL which is specific for polynomials corresponding to equations

(2) and (3) used for the representation of a magnetization characteristic. This subroutine is listed for the purpose of illustration. It can

easily be modified to suit different problems.

REFERENCES

A.A. Mahmoud and R.D. Shultz, A Method for Analyzing Harmonic Distribution in AC Power Systems, IEEE Transactions

on Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol. PAS-101, No.6, June

1982, pp. 1815.1823.

H.W. Dommel, A. Yan, and S.Wei, Harmonics from Transformer Saturation, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol.

PWRD-1, No.2, April 1986, pp. 209-214.

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

A. Semlyen, E. Acha, and J. Arrillaga, Newton-Type Algorithms for the Harmonic Analysis of Nonlinear Power Circuits

in Periodical Steady State with Special Reference t o Magnetic

Nonlinearities, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol.

PWRD-3, No.3, July 1988, pp. 1090-1098.

A. Semlyen and N.RajakoviC, Harmonic Domain Modeling of

Laminated Iron Core, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery,

Vo1.4, No.1, January 1989, pp. 382-390.

E. Acha, Modelling of Power System Transformers in the Complex Conjugate Harmonic Space, Ph.D. Thesis, University of

Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand, 1988.

--

SUBROUTINE E V P O L ( H , N , A , B , C , P , F , X , ~ I , X ~ , X ~ ~ , X ~ ~ , X ~ O , X ~ ~ )

COMPLEX16 X(-N:N),X~(-N:N),X~(.N:N),X~~(-N:N)

COMPLEX*16 Xl7(-N:N),XZO(-N:N),XZl(.N:N)

COMPLEX*16 F(-Z*H:Z*H),P(H)

INTEGER H

A, B, C are polynomial coefficients

F is first derivative evaluated in harmonic domain

P is polynomial evaluated in harmonic domain

H is number of harmonics including the dc component

X, X1, X4, X16, X17, X20, XZ1 are auxiliary arrays

N, LM, L M l are dimensioning parameters

S t a r t convolutions

CALL SCONV(N,Xl,H,X,LM)

CALL SCONV(N,X,LM,X4,LMl)

CALL SCONV(N,X4,LM,X,LMl)

CALL SCONV(N,X,LM,XlS,LMl)

CALL MCONV(N,LM,LM,X4,XIG,LMl

,XZO)

CALL MCONV(N,H,LM,Xl,X16,LMl,X17)

CALL MCONV(N,H,LM,Xl,XZO,LMl,X21)

Evaluate polynomial

DO k 1 , H

P(I)=A*X1(I)+B*X17(I)+C*XZl(I)

END D O

C

DO I=O,LM

F(I)=17.O*B*X16(I)+21.ox2O(I)

END DO

F(O)=F(O)+A

RETURN

END

13%

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

SUBROUTINE SCONV(N,X,IM,XX,LM)

COMPLEX'16 X(-N:N),XX(-NN)

X is the input array

XX is the output m a y

N, IM, LM are dimensioning parameters

LM=B*IM

Clear output array

D O L=O,LM

XX(L)=DCMPLX(O.O,O.O)

END D O

Fill-in nenative Dart

DO I=I,IM

X(-I)=DCONJG(X(I))

END DO

Actual convolution

DO L=O,LM

DO I=-IMJM

KzL-1

IF(K.GT.IM) T H E N

X(K)=DCMPLX(O.O,O.O)

ELSE

XX(L)=XX(L)+X(I)*X(K)

E N D IF

E N D DO

E N D DO

RETURN

END

C

C

END

solution algorithm which does not require the Toeplitz matrix to be

formed explicitly is given in reference [lo].

SUBROUTINE MCONV(N,Il,I2,Xl,XZ,LM,X)

COMPLEX*16 X1(-NN),XZ(-N:N),X(-N:N)

X1 and X2 are input arrays

X is the output array

N, 11, 12, LM are dimensioning parameters

LM=Il+I2

Clear output array

D O L=O,LM

X(L)=DCMPLX(O.O,O.O)

END DO

Fill-in negative

Dart

.

DO I=1,11

XI(-I)=DCONJG(Xl(I))

END DO

D O I=l,IZ

XZ(-I)=DCONJG(XB(I))

E N D DO

Actual convolution

DO L=O,LM

DO I=1,12

K=L-I

IF(K.GT.12) T H E N

Xl(K)=DCMPLX(O.O,O.O)

XZ( K)=DCMPLX(O.O,O.O)

ELSE

X(L)=X(L)+Xl(I)*XZ(K)

END I F

E N D DO

END DO

RETURN

END

In static applications the Jacobian is a pure Toeplitz matrix, i.e.

of the form

SUBROUTINE ASSEMBLE(N,F,T)

COhlPLEX'lG T(Z'N,2*N),F(-B'N:2*X)

F is a n array of harmonic coefficients

T is a Toeplitz matrix

N is a dimensioning parameter

DO J = l , N

K=O

DO I = l , N

IF(1.GE.J) T H E N

T(I,J)=F(K)

K=K+l

ELSE

T(I,J)=DCONJG(T(J,I))

END I F

E N D DO

E N D DO

RETURN

CO

c-1

c-g

c-g

c-4

c-5

C]

CO

c-1

c-2

c-3

c-4

cz

c1

CO

c-1

c-2

c-3

c3

c2

c1

CO

c-1

c-2

c4

c3

c2

c1

CO

c-1

c5

c4

c3

c2

c1

CO

pattern for assembling the Jacobian. A simple procedure for building

a Toeplitz matrix is given below.

the University of Michoacin in 1979 and completed an M.Sc. power

system course at the National University of Mkxico in 1980. He ob

tained a postgraduate diploma from the University of Manchester

Institute of Science and Technology and has recently received the

Ph.D. degree from the University of Canterbury, New Zealand. In

1988 he was a postdoctoral fellow a t the University of Toronto. His

main research interest is the Dynamic and Steady State Analysis of

Nonlinear Power Systems.

A d a m Semlyen (F'87) was born and educated in Rumania where

he obtained a Dipl. Ing. degree and his PH.D. He started his engineering career in 1949 with an electric power utility and held academic positions a t the Polytechnic Institute of Timisoara, Rumania.

In 1969 he joined the University of Toronto where he is a professor

in the Department of Electrical Engineering. His research interests

include the Steady State and Dynamic Analysis of Power Systems,

Electromagnetic Transients, and Power System Optimization.

Nikola RajakoviC was born in Yugoslavia in 1952. He graduated

from the University of Belgrade where he also received his hl.Sc. and

Ph.D. degrees. In 1987 and 1989 he was a postdoctoral fellow and

research associate a t the University of Toronto. He is now an assistant professor in Power Systems at the University of Belgrade. He

has published over twenty papers and one text book. and has worked

in numerous power system projects. His present research interest is

in Harmonic hIodeling and Optimization of Power Systems.

1397

DISCUSSION

(Powertech Labs Inc., B.C. Hydro)

T h e authors are to be congratulated for presenting a n interesting and

comprehensive approach for t h e harmonic analysis of nonlinear

components whose characteristics can b e modeled as polynomial

functions. T h e authors have further extended t h e approach t o t h e

nonlinear components expressed as differential equations, and used

t h e method t o analyze t h e harmonics from electric arcs. An nonlinear component is modeled in the paper as a coupled harmonic

Norton matrix in t h e neighborhood of a base waveform. This is a

very interesting concept and may have other applications.

Wenyuan X u

discusser for his interest in our paper and for his questions which are of

significance in the harmonic modeling of nonlinear passive elements.

Let i and v be the harmonic vectors (consisting of the complex phasors of the harmonics) of the current and voltage for a nonlinear element.

Then i=f(v) represents the relevant set of nonlinear equations and

Ai = JAv or

i =io

+Jv

the harmonic Norton matrix, while iN=io-Jvo is the harmonic Norton

current

nonlinear components as known harmonic current sources, with

t h e assumption of limited voltage harmonic distortion. There are,

however, no clear answers on the adequacy of such a model and

t h e possible errors associated with t h e model. It seems that these

errors are related t o t h e off-diagonal elements in t h e harmonic

matrix. I wonder, therefore, whether the matrix can b e applied t o

models,

guidelines a b o u t the use of current

provide

assuming limited harmonics in t h e bus voltages? T h e authors

comments would be appreciated.

appropriate representation for a non-trivid (in this Context: not cornpletely independent of v) nonlinear element only if Av is small or if io is

iteratively updated in the course of the computations. As suggested by

the discusser, if v or AV has negligible harmonic content and J is close to

diagonal. then the k n i c part of i will remain practically constant as

the voltage varies. so that a h m o n i c current source representation ofthe

nonlinear element may be adequate.

Manuscript r e c e i v e d A p r i l 9 , 1990.

_-

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