A brief history of typefaces

The invention of printing
Movable type was invented by Johannes Gutenberg in ffteenth-century
Germany. His typography took cues from the dark, dense handwriting of the
period, called “blackletter.”
The traditional storage of
fonts in two cases, one
for majuscules and one
for minuscules, yielded
the terms “uppercase”
and “lowercase” still used
today.
Working in Venice in
the late ffteenth century,
Nicolas Jenson created
letters that combined
gothic calligraphic
traditions with the new
Italian taste for humanist
handwriting, which were
based on classical models.
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2obert Slimbach styled
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after Nicolas Jenson's roman types
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2obert Slimbach styled
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after Nicolas Jenson's roman types
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created in hfteenth-century Italy.
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The Venetian publisher
Aldus Manutius distributed
inexpensive, small-format
books in the late ffteenth and
early sixteenth centuries to a
broad, international public.
His books used italic types, a
cursive form that economized
printing by allowing more
words to ft on a page. This
page combines italic text with
roman capitals.
Integrated uppercase and lowercase typefaces.
The quick brown fox ran over
the lazy dog 2 or 3 times.
ITC Garamond, 1976
The quick brown fox ran over the
lazy dog 2 or 3 (2 or 3) times.
Adobe Garamond, 1986

The quick brown fox ran over the
lazy dog 2 or 3 (2 or 3) times.
Garamond Premier Regular, 2005
Garamond typefaces, based on the Renaissance designs of Claude Garamond, sixteenth century
lazy d
lazy d
lazy d
Enlightenment
and abstraction
The painter and designer
Geofroy Tory believed that the
proportions of the alphabet
should refect the ideal human
form. He wrote, “the cross-
stroke covers the man’s organ
of generation, to signify that
Modesty and Chastity are re-
quired, before all else, in those
who seek acquaintance with
well-shaped letters.”
Whereas humanist designers such as Geofroy Tory
were inspired by the human body, this ideal letter-
form was created along quasi-scientifc lines. These
engravings by Louis Simonneau is from an alphabet
commissioned by Louis XIV in 1693. The engravings
were the basis of a royal typeface (romain du roi)
designed by Philippe Grandjean.
The types of the eighteenth-century English printer William
Caslon are characterized by crisp, upright characters that recall
the fuid strokes of the fexible steel pen and the pointed quill.
In the late eighteenth century, the English printer John
Baskerville created type with such contrast between thick
and thin elements that his contemporaries are said to
have accused him of “blinding all the Readers of the
Nation; for the strokes of [his] letters, being too thin and
narrow, hurt the Eye.”
Page printed by
John Baskerville
Working in the media of engraving and the fexible
steel pen, eighteenth-centurywriting masters such as
George Bickham created lavishly curved scripts as well
fnely detailed roman capitals rendered in high con-
trast. Such alphabets infuenced the typeface designs
of Baskerville, Didot, and Bodoni.
The French printer Firmin
Didot took Baskerville’s
initiatives to an extreme
level by creating type with
a wholly vertical axis and
razor-thin serifs.
These roman and italic
letters were printed by
Giambattista Bodoni.
They exhibit extreme
contrast between thick
and thin elements.
These roman and italic letters were printed by
Giambattista Bodoni in 1788.
Monster fonts
The rise of advertising in
the nineteenth century
stimulated demand for
large-scale letters that
could command attention
in urban space. In this
lithographic trading card
from 1878, a man is shown
posting a bill in fagrant
disregard for the law.
Fat Face is an infated,
hyper-bold type style
developed in the early
nineteenth century. It is
Bodoni on steroids.
Extra Condensed typefaces, frst seen in nineteenth-century advertisements, were designed to ft tall letters
in narrow spaces. Such letters were made from wood rather than metal, because lead is too soft to hold up
under the pressure of printing large-scale letters.
Egyptian, or slab typefaces, introduced around
1806, transformed the serif from a refned
detail to a load-bearing slab.
The type historian Rob Roy
Kelly created this chart to
illustrate how the square
serif was manipulated
to create ornamental
variations.
This 1875 American
advertising poster uses a
dozen different fonts to
maximize the scale of let-
ters in the space allotted.
Although the typefaces are
richly varied, the centered
layout is static and con-
ventional.
This Dada poster uses
a variety of typefaces
as well as advertising
“cuts” (stock illustrations
available in the printer’s
shop). The layout is
innovative and dynamic,
fghting against the grid
of letterpress. Iliazd, 1923.
Reform and revolution
Edward Johnston created
this chart of the essen-
tial characters of Roman
inscriptions in 1906 as
part of his quest to revive
the search for an essential
standard alphabet. He
was reacting against the
monstrosities of nine-
teenth-century commercial
advertising.
Golden type was created by the English design reformer
William Morris in 1890. He sought to recapture the dark and
solemn density of Nicolas Jenson’s pages. Morris was a design
reformer who was critical of industrial production and saw
ugliness in nineteenth-century commercial printing.
Compare William Morris’s
Golden to its Renaissance
source, the typefaces of
Nicolas Jenson.
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2obert Slimbach styled
Ac:!.
Jenson
after Nicolas Jenson's roman types
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created in hfteenth-century Italy.
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Compare to Adobe Jenson,
used today.
This logo for the Dutch avant-garde journal De Stijl
was designed by Vilmos Huszar in 1917. The letters
consist of pixel-like blocks.
Theo van Doesburg, founder of the De Stijl movement
in the Netherlands, created this alphabet using only
perpendicular elements in 1919.
Herbert Bayer designed universal, consisting of only
lowercase letters constructed with circles and straight
lines, at the Bauhaus in 1925
Designed by Paul Renner in
Germany, 1927, Futura is a
practical and subtle font that
remains widely used today.
The Dutch designer Wim
Crouwel published his
designs for a “new alphabet,”
consisting of no diagonals or
curves, in 1967.
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The French designer Philippe Apeloig created
these contemporary variations on reduced,
geometric typefaces.
Type as narrative
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loi Enigio in tho oaily ¡ooo`s ly naniµulating
tho voctois ol two oxisting lonts: a tiaditional soiil
lont and tho Poµ classic VAC kcunded. Makola
lalollod his woik º¡oo% digital."
Back to work
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Fred Smeijer`s 2VBESBBU offers a crisp interpretation
of tvpographic tradition.
It looks back to the sixteenth centurv from a
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Quadraat
Quadraat
Note the vertical italic; this is seen a lot in
contemorary European typeface design
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Toxt lion Ellon Luµton, Mccnunicu| Bridcs. Wcncn und
Mucnincs jrcn !cnc tc Ojhcc (Now Yoik: Piincoton
Aichitoctuial Pioss and Cooµoi-Howitt, National Dosign
Musoun.j Wiitton in Scala, ¡oo¡.
Bold
Italic
Iewel {Pearl)
Regular
Iewel {Crystal)
Iewel {Diamond)
Iewel {Sapphire)
BB Scala and Scala Iewel
Caps
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Avant-garde designers aimed, instead,
to express the techniques oF production in the Form and appearance oF the object.
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Toxt adaµtod lion Ellon Luµton, ºDosign and
Pioduction in tho Mochanical Ago," Giaµhic Dosign in
tho Ago ol Mochanical Roµioduction: Soloctions lion
tho Moiiill C. Boinan Colloction, Maud Lavin, od. (Now
Havon: Yalo Univoisity Pioss.j Wiitton in Scala, ¡oo8.
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·zJ·, pt .PEFSOJTN Fetishized the very means oF manuFacture,using the systems
oF IA?D=JE?=HNALNK@Q?PEKJ to build a mode oF design that openly en-
dorses its technical origins. 1he SVMFS and SVMFS SVMFS DPNQBTT, the DBNFSB and IBMG
UPOFCMPDL, the MFUUFSQSFTTTIPQ and the PGGTFUQSFTT: these were technologies
charged with meaning, their presence heroically narrated in the visual Forms
they served to produce.
"SUJTUTBOEEFTJHOFST tapped the ?QHPQN=HAJANCUKBPDAI=?DEJA, viewing industrial
production as a vehicle For utopian social change. Although the visual languages oF the
avant-garde were suppressed in the Soviet Union, they continued to grow in the vest, where
HSBQIJD EFTJHO emerged as a practice that translates the technologies oF communication
into compellling visual Forms.
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·6 pt
·o pt
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·z pt
Regular
¡o pt
·z pt
·· pt
Caps
zz pt
·· pt
Regular
Italic
Caps
BB Scala Sans
Bold, Regular,
Caps, Italic
Bold, Regular,
Caps, Italic
zz pt
·z pt
zz pt
Scala and Scala Sans, designed by Martin Majoor
Typeface with coordinated serif and sans serif variations
Jonathan Hoefer, typography.com
Hoefer & Frere-Jones. Knockout, typeface
originally developed for Sports Illustrated
Jonathan Hoefer, typography.com
Hoefer & Frere-Jones.
Giza, by David Berlow, Font Bureau
Logotype for MICA (Maryland Institute College of Art),
using Giza typeface by David Berlow (modifed).
< Highway Gothic
< Clearview
< Highway Gothic
< Clearview
Clearview Hwy is the new typeface developed for use
in U.S. highway and street signs. As they are adopted
over time, the United States will become the most
legible place on Earth. The designers’ goal was to
create more readable roadsigns without having to make
the existing signs bigger (which would cost a huge
amount of money as well as causing more visual clutter
and crowding.) Designed by Don Meeker and James
Montalbano. Available from http://clearviewhwy.com.

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