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Quaternary Loess and Glacial Record

of Southwestern Illinois

QUATERNARY LOESS AND GLACIAL RECORD
OF SOUTHWESTERN ILLINOIS

Field Guide

Leon R. Follmer and E. Donald McKay, III
Illinois State Geological Survey
Champaign, IL 61820
and
Edwin R. Hajic
Department of Geology
University of Illinois
Urbana, IL 61801

Geological Society of America
Post-Meeting Field Trip 16
Friday, November 10, 1989

QUATERNARY LOESS AND GLACIAL RECORD OF SOUTHWESTERN ILLINOIS
Foreword
Most of the information in this guidebook is taken from previous
Our current understanding of the
guidebooks or from studies in progress.
Quaternary hi story of the region has not evolved much si nee 1986 when a
guidebook was prepared that summarized the status of Quaternary issues of the
region for the American Quaternary Association meeting in Illinois. Therefore
we will use parts of the 1986 guidebook (Graham et al., 1989, reprinted as
Illinois State Geological Survey Guidebook 23) for this trip.
The information for the five stops we will make on this trip comes from
the following sources.
Stop 2 Maryville and Stop 5 Pancake Hollow are
described in Guidebook 23. Stop 3 Paddock Creek discussion is from Guidebook
14 (McKay, 1979).
No information has been published for Stop 1 Powdermill
Creek; we have studied it and Canfield, H. E. and D. M. Mickelson (in press,
Quaternary Research) have sampled it for thermoluminescenCE analysis. Stop 4
Williams Hollow has been studied by Ed Hajic as a part of his dissertation in
progress. The timing of this trip in respect to our studies is such that we
chose to not prepare a new coherent guidebook but to make do with the pieces
we have.
Abstract
Quaternary field trips visit outcrops and exposures which are best for
understanding geo 1ogi c processes and st rat fg rap hi c re 1at ion ships. This trip
wi 11 vis it f·i ve exposures that best show the re 1at ion ships of 1oesses, tills
and paleosols in southwestern Illinois at this time. Several key exposures
have been recently lost because of construction and others have been lost for
a variety of reasons, including mass wasting and vegetation cover.
The East St. Louis area has been an important area in past studies of
loess formations and their relation to Illinoian and older tills. The most
significant locality was the Pleasant Grove School Section where three loess
formations (overlying an Illinoian till) were described including the
controversial mid-Wisconsinan Roxana Silt (Willman and Frye, 1970; Winters et
a 1., 1988; and Johnson and Fo 11 mer, 1989). This section was designated the
type section for the Roxana and served as a bench-mark for about 20 years
until it was mined away for road construction in 1988.
As new studies were completed in the area a more detailed stratigraphic
picture evolved (McKay, 1979; Graham et al., 1986). Older loesses have been
identified and problems with Illinoian interpretations arose, such as number
and distribution of till members. The emphasis of this trip will be on the
examination of the stratigraphic relationships used to interpret the loess
record in Illinois, and to discuss work in progress on the evolution of the
lower Illinois River Valley.

2

Stratigraphy O.f The Field Trip Stops Listed From The Top Down
Stop 1. Powdermil l Creek borrow pit.
Peoria Loess, Roxana Silt, Sangamon
Geosol (soil) in Illinoian till, and Chinatown silt.
Stop 2.

Mary vi 11 e st ream cuts. Peoria Loess, Roxana Silt, Sangamon in Berry
Clay/Teneriffe Silt/till, Chinatown silt with weak soil, Maryville
silt with strong soil ( 11 Yarmouth 11 ) , pre-Illinoian till, and loess.

Stop 3.

Paddock Creek cut.
Peoria Lo es s, Roxana Silt, Sangamon Geo sol in
Illinoian till over a strong soil developed in pre-Illinoian till.

Stop 4.

Williams Hollow borrow pit. Peoria Loess showing zonation, including
a clay bed, over a Farmdale Geosol developed in Roxana Silt.

Stop 5. Pancake Ho 11 ow st ream cut.
Peoria, Roxana, Sangamon in Love 1and
Loess, weathered gravel over a strongly weathered Chinatown (lower
Loveland?), and a sequence of weathered loesses and alluvium.
Limited results from radiocarbon, thermoluminescence, amino acid ratio,
and magentic susceptibility measurements have given promising results for
correlations, but the details are not clear yet.
The lithostratigraphic
record of the Wisconsinan has three parts: early--poor sediment record (cool
climate soil formation), mi dd l e--Roxana Silt, and 1ate--Peori a Lo es s.
The
record of the Illinoian is not clear; it may have up to four
lithostratigraphic parts, and apparently spans two glacial stages. The preIllinoian appears to be middle Pleistocene.
The Illinois River valley has
late Wisconsinan and Holocene terraces and stratigraphic features that record
major glacial events in the upper Illinois and Mississippi River basins.
References
Graham, R. W., et al., 1989, Quaternary records of Southwestern Illinois and
adjacent Missouri: Illinois State Geological Survey Guidebook 23.
Johns on, W. H., and L. R. Fo 11 mer, 1989, Source and origin of Roxana Silt and
middle Wi scans i nan mi dcont i nent gl aci a1 activity:
Quaternary
Research 31, 319-331.
McKay,

E. 0., 1979, Stratigraphy of Wisconsinan and older loesses in
Illinois State Geological Survey Guidebook
Southwestern Illinois:

14.
Willman, H. B., and J. C. Frye, 1970, Pleistocene stratigraphy of Illinois:
Illinois State Geological Survey Bulletin 94, 204 p.
Winters, H.A., Alford, J.J., and Rieck, R.L., 1988, The anomalous Roxana Silt
and mid-Wisconsinan events in and near southern Michigan: Quaternary
Research 29, 25-35.

3

Introduction
Southwestern Illinois and the bordering area in Missouri is an important
region for middle and late Pleistocene research because several major loess
sheets are intercalated with deposits of several continental glacial advances,
and the geologic record is relatively well preserved. However the details are
poorly understood yet. In stratigraphic terms much of the attention of early
studies was on multiple loess unit sequences. Early work on glacial deposits
was mostly concerned with landforms, age and distribution of the surficial
deposits, and stratigraphy in terms of glacial-interglacial cycles.
Because the scope of the problems is so large early studies were largely
limited to local areas or states. Regional studies on loess stratigraphy and
soi 1 (parent materi a1) di st ri but ion became important in the 1ate 1940 1 s.
Multiple loess sequences were known at this time but correlations across the
region were not certain except for the Peoria Loess (Late Wisconsinan) and the
Roxana Silt (middle Wisconsinan to late Sangamonian). Both are more than 10 m
thick in the bluffs of the East St. Louis area. A 11 third 11 loess in the lower
Mississippi Valley was tentatively correlated with the Loveland Loess of the
Missouri Valley (western Iowa) in 1947. In only a few cases has a third loess
been recognized in the East St. Louis area. After 1947, much interest was
directed toward loess stratigraphy in the midcontinent region and the Loveland
was accepted as the 11 th i rd 11 1oess in Il 1i noi s. However the re 1at ion of the
Loveland to glacial events remains uncertain except for the fact that the
Sangamon Soil denotes the upper boundary of the Love 1and Loess and can be
observed to continue on to the Illinoian glacial deposits in many places along
the glacial border.
Before the 0-18 model of glaciation became widely
accepted,
a three loess-sheet model
was satisfactory for general
interpretations of the surficial loess deposits of the central U.S. Evidence
for more than three 1oess sheets and 1oess under non 1oess deposits had not
been seriously evaluated.
In the last 10 years, six loess sheets and five palesols (geosols) have
been recognized in Illinois.
Evidence for three loesses are found below
Illinoian till at key locations (Maryville, Stop 2).
Beyond the glacial
margin, at least five loesses with paleosols have been discriminated. Two
Ill i noi an and two pre-I 11 i noi an tills are known in the St. Lou i's region but
their distribution is only partly worked out.
Correlations have been
difficult because of the large area and lack of diagnostic critieria;
correlations have been based on conceptual models, limited age control,
lithology, and relationships with discontinuous terraces and paleosols.
Significant new 1oca1 it i es in Illinois at Pancake Ho 11 ow and the Mounds area
(north of Cairo) provide new links for stratigraphic correlation between the
glaciated area and the lower valley loess areas that is currently best
represented at Wittsburg, Arkansas, on Crowley 1 s Ridge.

4

Modern dating methods promise significant resolution of Quaternary
stratigraphy and better correlation models. Present age information for loess
units (Table) show conflicts and overlaps among a confusing array of local
terms shown in Figure 2, which is one of several possible models. The ages of
the loesses are difficult to assess from early studies because original
stratigraphic interpretations were often based on ages estimates. Much work
is needed to examine the field and analytical relationships in light of
current viable alternatives. A current model of correlation (Fig. 12) places
emphasis on soils (geosols) to correlate lithostratigraphic units. New work
on aminostratigraphy and magnetic susceptibility has shed light on some of the
correlation problems. Amino-ages indicate that type Sicily Island (Louisiana)
loess is older than Loveland, and a silt at County Line, north of Quincy,
Illinois, is a new observation of an old deposit that may have been derived
from loess. Barry Miller (personal communication, 1989) suggests that the age
of this silt appears to be in the range of 700 to 900 ka, which means that it
is the oldest Pleistocene silt documented in the region.
Magnetic
susceptibilities at Pancake Hollow (Stop 5) suggest that Ml is 0-18 stage 8,
M2 and M3, may be stage 10, and M4 may be stage 12.

5

Table 1

Age estimates of loesses at or near localities
Unit

Morton

Locality

C-14 (ka)

TL(ka)

Farm Creek

20-25

20

Maryville

16-25

18

Witts burg

-

19

Vicksburg

9-20

5-20

Loveland

15-23

13-24

Farm Creek

25-39

29

Maryville

31-40

25-33

Wittsburg

26

46

Vicksburg

18-24

20-37

Loveland

25-31

46-47

Teneriffe

Maryville

-

73

Chinatown

Maryville

-

77-83

Witts burg

-

85

Loveland

-

89

Sicily Island

Vicksburg

-

74-85

Fourth

Vicksburg

-

117-123

Peoria

Roxana

Loveland

Sources:

Canfield, H. E. and Mickelson, in press Thermoluminescence Dating of Loess in the Central United
States: Quaternary Research
Norton, D. L. and Bradford, J.M., 1985, Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Journal, 49: 708-712.
Pye, K. and Johnson, R., 1988, Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 13: 103-124
Illinois State Geological Survey

South

North
Modern Soil

Richland
Wisconsinan Till

Vicksburg

Peoria

Morton
1--r--,------,---.----,..---,----.----,--.,...--,--.,--,.-.,...--------~~--.--~-.---~~~-.-~--l

Farmdale Geosol

Geosol1

"Farm dale"

Roxana

1---.---.-----,--.---r---,.---r--.----..--.---.--.,-,--.----------.--.--.--.----r__,-..---.---.--.--~--lGeosol2

Sangamon Geosol

Teneriffe

lllinoian Till
?
..------_...__ - ?

Petersburg
Maryville
Pre-lllinoian Till

?

Burdick
bedrock

Figure 2

Loess Terminology

I

Farm
Creek

Athens

Pancake

Maryville

Mounds

H.

Wittsburg

Vicksburg

Sicily I.

p

Ri
p

p

p

p

p

Geo sol

p

1+2

gr

s

1

w

Ro

Rx

2

Rx

Rx

Rx

Rx

Geo sol
4+?

2

Mo

Rx

L

T
3

Ro

Be
4

c

Rx

Ma
?

5
6

Pl
7

Bu

Figure 12

Be
Bu

?

s

L

gr

4

Ml

4

M2

gr

gr

s

T

M3
M4

gr

c

gr
I
L
Ma
Mo
p
Pl
Ri
Ro
Rx

w
gr

Correlation of principal loess localities

4
5
M1-M4

Berry Clay, accreted
Burdick silt
Chinatown silt
gravel
lllinoian till
Loveland L.oess
Maryville silt
Morton Loess
Peoria Loess
Pre-lllinoian till
Richland Loess
Robein Silt, accreted
Roxana Silt
Sicily Island loess
Teneriff e Silt
Wisconsinan till
Fourth loess
Fifth loess
Silt units of Pancake Hollow

8

POWDERMILL CREEK EAST SECTION
STOl

Measured in borrow pit in NW NE NW Sec. 10, T. 1 N., R. 9 W., St. Clair
County, Illinois, 1984. French Village 7.5 Minute Quadrangle.
Thickness in Meters.
Peoria Loess
Loess, light yellowish-brown, massive, silt loam, calcareous,
Modern Soil developed in upper part: thickness measured in
borehole G21 located in NW SW NE Sec. 10, T. 1 N., R. 9 W.,
St. Clair County, Illinois (McKay, 1977). TL sample number
i.C5 0.40 to 0.55 m above base.------------------------------------ 8.07
Roxana Silt
Zone r-4
Loess, brown to reddish brown, weakly granular to blocky,
Farmdale Soil developed throughtout, noncalcareous, A/Cl.---------- 1.10
Zone r-3
Loess, light brown, massive, silt loam weakly calcareous,
C2. TL sample number IC4 across contact with r-2.---------------- 2.50
Zone r-2
Loess, reddish brown, massive, silt loam, weakly calcareous,
lower 0.50 m noncalcareous, C2-Cl. TL sample number IC3
includes lower 0.10 m of r-2 and upper 0.20 m of r-1.------------- 1.50
Zone r-1
Loess, yellowish-brown, weakly granular to fine subangular
blocky in lower 0.20 m, silt in upper part to heavy silt
loam in lower 0.20 m, noncalcareous, A/E.----------~--------------- 1.25
Glasford Formation
Fort Russell Till Member
Till, reddish-brown, blocky, clay loam, noncalcareous, Bt.--------- 1.25
Till, yellowish-brown, coarse blocky, loam, calcareous, C2.-------- 0.25
Chinatown Silt
Loess, light yellowish brown to pale brown, silt loam,
calcareous, massive, common iron bands, gastropods, deformed,
contains a few isolated pebbles and zones of diamicton alorrg
shear planes, C2. TL sample IC2 near base.----------------------- 3.50
Loess, as above but light brown, C2.

TL sample ICl near top -------2.50

Loess, gray, massive, silt loam, thin (5 to 10 cm) diamicton
layers common, calcareous to base of section, C4.----------------- 2.50
TOTAL:
24.42

~
~

9

-1----------------->---I

;-L1Ll_l-L.!_!_/~~2f

,........_,

....--........-:--.

P~T

Table 1.

POl
P02
P03
P04
P05
P06

Depth Unit
**
(m)
FRT
5.0
cs
5.7
cs
7.2
cs
8.9
cs
9.2
cs
14.2

/_/_'I" 2 5

___

F"loor

F 1 ·~ v...ve I. 'fow&.~,... m,: II Cv e e V{

Sample

~

Lz7__=L~-=---=--~· --!:-:/._J-__.f.._/_/---'-1_~',.......

o=-:_.:t

- .

...

S"l<c 1-c 1' i hot

to

.Sc.<-ile

Powdermill Creek Data

Grave 1

Sand

%

6.0
0.3
0
0

0
0

%
20
4
4
tr
1
2

Silt

Clay

%

%

56
83
86
92
87
84

24
13
10

8

12
14

Calcite

Dolomite

%*

%*

1. 7

4.6
11.9
13.8
15.6
8.7
5.7

1.8
1.4
3.8
0.6
1.0

** FRT-Fort Russell Till; CS-Chinatown Silt

* Percent calcite and dolomite in <74 µm fraction

STOP

Stop 2 Maryville.

See ISGS Guidebook 23.

@

10
STOP

DESCRIPTIONS OF SECTIONS

@

STOP 1-Paddock Creek Section. SW% SW% SE% Sec. 1, T. 5 N., R. 8 W., Madison County, Illinois,
Prairietown 7.5-minute Quadrangle (fig. 1).

The section, a large stream-cut exposure located 15 km east of the Mississippi
bluffs on the outside of a meander loop of Paddock Creek, offers one of the
best exposures in the field trip region of the two principal till units in
the area (figs. 3, 4). The section has not been previously described.
Northeast

Southwest

Elev. (ml

Peoria Loess

10

5

0

30

20

10

40

50
ISGS 1979

Distance {ml
Figure 3.

Sketch of the Paddock Creek Section, Stop 1.

The two tills exposed at Paddock Creek are the "Omphghent til1 (lower
part) and the "Fort Russell till.
If formalized, both units will have the
Paddock Creek Section as their type sec ti on. The 0mphghent til 1 is a gray
calcareous silty to clayey till exposed from stream level to about 3 m above
stream level. An auger hole at stream level at the north end of the section
penetrated an additional 4 m of 0mphghent till .
Deep oxidation along
joints truncated by the overlying "Fort Russell till" indicates that a
strongly developed soil probably existed on the "Omphghent till prior to
deposition of Fort Russell." This soil in the absence of the Chinatown
Toess'' would represent the combined development of unnamed soils B and c·
(fig. 2). The soil is progressively truncated to the south in the exposure
where the Fort Russell rests directly on calcareous 0mphghent til 1.
At
the north end of the exposure, a severely distorted B horizon is still present on the lower till.
11

11

11

11

11

11

11

11

11

11

11

11

11

The "Omphghent till at Paddock Creek has a grain-size composition of
23 percent sand, 54 percent silt, and 23 percent< 4 µm clay, an average
unoxidized clay mineral composition of 24 percent expandable clay minerals,
47 percent illite, and 29 percent kaolinite plus chlorite, and a carbonate
mineral composition of 8 percent calcite and 9 percent dolomite. Hiqh illite
and high calcite tills with compositions like the "Omphghent til1 have not
been identified within the Illinoian of central and western Illinois (Lineback,
1979). However, similar tills do occur in east-central Illinois (Johnson et
11

11

11

al., 1972) wher~ they are included in the Banner Formation and were probably
deposited by ice from the Erie or Saginaw Bay Lobes (Johnson, .1976) ... ·The .
0mphghent till occurs in the subsurface in much of Madison and St. Clair
Counties and extends beyond the limit of the Fort Russell till in western
St. Clair and Monroe Counties (fig. 1). Borings for Alton Lock and Dam~No.
26 penetrated Orn phghen t ti l l i n the bottom ·of the Mi s s i s s i pp i Va 11 ey
beneath 20 to 25 m of alluvium and outwash, indicating that deep incision
of the va 11 ey into bedrock preceeded deposition of the '. Omphghent ti lJ.
The Fort Ru.ssell. till is a sandy ill itic dolomitic till that is· 6.6 m
thick in the Paddock Creek Section. The "Fort Russell" has a· grain-size
composition of 34 percent sand, 42 percent silt, and 24 percent < 4 µm
clay, an average unoxidized clay mineral composition of 24 percent expandable
.clay minerals, 55 percent illite, and 21 percent kaolinite plus chlorite, and
a carbonate composition of 4 percent calcite and 18 percent dolomite.~ The·
Fort Russell till is tentatively correlated with Lineback's (1979) unnamed
till C (table 2) and on that basis is included in the Glasford Formation
(fig. 2). The "Fort Russell is the surficial till unit over most of Madison
County and has been found at one site on the west bluff of the Mississippi
Valley near Larimore, Missouri, in St. Louis County. In the eastern part of
Madison County the Fort Russe1l IT!ay be overlain by a sandier, more illitic
and more dolomitic till. Tills with high illite and high dolomite contents
in central Illinois are generally considered to have been derived from a
Lake Michigan Lobe source.
11

11

11

11

1
1

11

1

11

11

11

11

11

11

11

11

A moderately well drained profile of the Sangamon· Soil is developed in
the upper part of the "Fort Russell till. The Sangamon Soil and overlying
loesses are not accessible in the main exposure but can be seen along the
shallow roadcut just to the south. Wisconsinan loess·thicknesses of 3.3 to
3.9 m occur on upland areas in the vicinity of the section. The 2.8-m_loess
thickness at Paddock Creek is partially truncated by erosion on the hill. slope.
11

Unit

Description

m

Peoria
Loess

Loess, weathered; moderately "well drained profile of the Modern Soil; leached silt
foam and silty clay loam.

1.5

Roxana
Silt

Loess, weathered; profile of the Farmdale Soil and lower part of the Moderr;i Soil;
leached silt loam, becomes more sandy toward base.

1.3

c
.g..., *

·;:;

E

~:::l

0
u.

a:
0

-0

~

!2

Till, massive, loam texture, calcareous; weathered in upper part; profile of the
Sangamon Soil; about 2 m of leaching; prominent vertical joints above discontinuous sand lenses near base; unoxidized gray (5Y 5/1) at base; lower part
contains sheared bodies of underlying material.

6.6

~

(.'.)

c
OJ

.!:

Cl

.!:

a.

E

Till, massive, silt loam, calcareous; weathered in upper part; unnamed soil; upper 1_ to
2 m sheared and remolded by glacial overriding; soil zone progressively truncated
toward southwest part of exposure; prominent oxidized yellowish brown ( 1OYA
5/5) joints; unoxidized gray (SY 5/1) to greenish gray (5GY 5/1) between joints;
several large distorted silt inclusions; abundant wood fragments.

6.6

p

ISGS 1979

*Informal name introduced in this report

Figure 4.

Generalized description of stratigraphic units exposed in the Paddock Creek Section.

13

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HoLlouJ Sr:crtofl/

G-f::"/Jf;"l(_,All"l:./;"JJ fl{OFtLE
13oRJ(.olt) f'rr A-All)
Co1u:

t//

{::
~ECTf()}J u/

51J)

P1T

¢
Col{t=

510

- l 5"t"

-- - -

SOD

-

ct....+Y deo/

v.nf11/

~lif PQcP r1i. r
CL.4'( S GJJ1 "V, TH/'1

~
\,\

c l-'"Y $t:;, /, T/11 11

llJ
()

--.J

}bO
f~O

r

r

J'~L~S

So;I

-

~

?

~
~

~

\.....

fFO

Q..

Ft (/.104L t'

SlJll
~
......,

tu

C)

~
<:)

u

,

.... ,. ""

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460

l{tlNA.ifE".# /JURJ

~

sn..

~

')(

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C;::)

~
J!\1./$-A/tfOA/ SotL

L

col/tJ.crt~

-1-

s-i/f

f-SO

dt"' fif/e I silt
/35

aw( .s-(117

cl7 /"4.Hf

: (Pt()J,I~
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()

~
'it:
~
~
~

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lJ:
~

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l" cA r10AI- !:="Yi. SF IJ F
{!;f...tU5('t.5

Sec, 4 1 T,' IJ. 1 /(.,13 W, Jctt>~Y Co.1 IL,
7P'z_ /.-ittVUI~ Q.uAIJ~AtVG-U~

14

Section:
Williams Hollow Borrow Pit (WH)
Location:
El/2 SE NE 4 T6N R13W
Landscape Position:
Longitudinal cut in spur on north side of valley, 0.7 km from Illinois Valley
Altitude:
Spur slopes soulh from 530 lo 490 ft; core top --473
SCS Mapped Soil Series:
Date Cored:
16 July 1987
By:
Edwin R. Hajic, Geology Department, University of Illinois
Roxana Silt
0.00 - 0.95

c,

0.95 - 2.15

cl

2.15 - 3.93

C3

3.93 - 4.37

2c.

4.37 - 4.50

2C,

4.5 - 4.58

3C,

Unnamed paleosol
4Bwb
4.58 - 5.65
5.65 - 5.88
5.88 - 6.46
6.46 - 7.85
7.85 - 8.44

5C3
5Bwb1

slightly yellower than brown (7.5YR 4.5/4) silt, with few coarse brown (7.5YR 4.5/3) mottles; weak
coarse platy; slightly effervescent (dolomitic), few secondary carbonate linings in pores; few fine
pores; gradual boundary.
slightly yellower than brown (7.5YR 4.5/4) silt, with few coarse brown (7.5YR 4.5/3) mottles;
massive; slightly effervescent (dolomitic), very few secondary carbonate nodules < 2 cm, few
secondary carbonate linings in pores; few fine pores; very gradual boundary.
brown (7.5YR 4/4) coarse silt with some very fine sand; massive; very slightly effervescent
(dolomitic), one large concretion at 3.10; gradual boundary.
dark yellowish brown (IOYR 4/3.5) loamy very fine sand grading up to silt, with common fine very
dark grayish brown (IOYR 3/2) mottles; massive; very slightly effervescent (dolomitic); basal part of
unit with burrows filled with underlying material; clear boundary.
brown (7.5YR 4/4) very fine sandy loam; massive; very slightly effervescent (dolomitic); abrupt
boundary.
dark yellowish brown (IOYR 4/5) silt loam, many fine very dark grayish brown (lOYR 3/2) mottles;
massive, single bed; very slightly effervescent (dolomitic); abrupt boundary.
slightly yellower than brown (7.5YR 4.5/4) silt, with common medium faint dark yellowish brown
(IOYR 4/5) mottles; massive; very slightly effervescent (dolomitic) to leached; one fine chert pebble;
abrupt boundary.
dark brown to brown (7.5YR 4/2) silt ; massive; leached; clear boundary.
dark brown to brown (7.5YR 4/4) silt loam; massive; leached; very few coarse chert sand grains and
fine chert pebbles; gradual boundary.
brown to strong brown (7.5YR 4/5) silt loam; massive; leached; clear boundary.
dark yellowish brown (IOYR 4/5) silt loam; weak coarse subangular blocky with few redeposited silt
loam peds; leached; clear boundary.

Undifferentiated colluvial sediments (pre-Wisconsinan)
Sangamon Soil
8.44 - 8.64
6Bwb2 dark yellowish brown (IOYR 4/5) silt loam, with few very fine chert pebbles; weak coarse subangular
blocky with few redeposited silt loam pe<ls; leached; abrupt boundary.
7Bwb3 one bed of very fine to coarse chert gravel with a matrix of slightly yellower than brown to strong
8.64 - 8.85
brown (7.5YR 5/4) silt loam, with many oxide concretions < 4 mm diameter; leached; abrupt
boundary.
8.85 - 9.60
8Bwb4 slightly yellower than (7.5YR 4/5) very fine sandy loam grading up to silt loam (with noticeable fine
sand and clay), with very few very fine chert pebbles and very coarse chert sand grains; with many
coarse dark yellowish brown (lOYR 4/6) and common coarse brown to strong brown (7.5YR 4/5)
mottles, and many fine and medium black oxide concretions and stains; weak coarse subangular
blocky; leached; clear boundary.
9.60 - 9.97
8C 1
light olive brown (2.5Y 5/4) silt grading up to very fine sandy loam, with many medium and coarse
dark yellowish brown (IOYR 4/6) mottles and few medium black oxide stains; graded with no soil
structure; leached; abrupt boundary.
Undifferentiated floodplain sediments
9.97 - 11.35 9C2
stratified (thin bedded to laminated) light olive brown (2.5Y 5/5) silt, grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) silly
clay loam, with few laminae of brown to dark brown (7.5YR 4/4, 4/3) and reddish brown (5YR 4/4)
silty clay; leached.

Stop 5 Pancake Hollow.

See ISGS Guidebook 23.

STOP

@

15
REFERENCES
Frye, J. C., L. R. Follmer, H. D. Glass, J. M. Masters, and H. B. Willman, 1974a, Earliest
Wisconsinan sediments and soils: Illinois State Geological Survey Circular 485, 12 p.
Frye, J. C., H. D. Glass, and H. B. Willman, 1962, Stratigraphy and mineralogy of the
Wisconsinan loesses of Illinois: Illinois State Geological Survey Circular 334, 55 p.
Frye, J. C., H. D. Glass, and H. B. Willman, 1968, Mineral zonation of Woodfordian loesses
of IJlinois: Illinois State Geological Survey Circular 427, 44 p.
Frye, J. C., A. B. Leonard, H. B. Willman, H. D. Glass, and L. R. Follmer, 1974b, The late
Woodfordian Jules Soil and associated molluscan faunas: Illinois State Geological
Survey Circular 486, 11 p.
Frye, J. C., and H. B. Willman, 1960, Classification of the Wisconsinan Stage in the Lake
Michigan glacial lobe: Illinois State Geological Survey Circular 285, 16 p.
Frye, J. C., and H. B. \~illman, 1963, Loess stratigraphy, Wisconsinan classification and
accretion-gleys in central-western Illinois: Midwestern Section Friends of the
Pleistocene, 14th Annual Meeting, Illinois State Geological Survey Guidebook Series 5,
37 p.
Frye, J. C., and H. B. Willman, 1965, Illinois, in Guidebook for field conference G--Great
Lakes-Ohio River Valley (R. F. Black and E. C. Reed, organizers; C. B. Schultz and
H.T.U. Smith, eds.): International Association of Quaternary Research 7th Congress,
Nebraska Academy of Science, p. 5-26; Illinois State Geological Survey Reprint 1966-B
(supplemental data H. D. Glass, p. G-51 to G-54), 26 p.
Johnson, W. H., 1976, Quatern~ry stratigraphy in Illinois: Status and current problems:
in Quaternary Stratigraphy of North America (W. C. Mahaney, ed.), Dowden, Hutchinson
and Ross, Inc., Stroudsburg, PA, p. 161-196.
Johnson, W. H., L. R. Follmer, D. L. Gross, and A. M. Jacobs, 1972, Pleistocene stratigraphy of east-central Illinois: Illinois State Geological Survey Guidebook Series
9, 97 p.
Jones, R. L., and A. H. Beavers, 1964, Magnetic susceptibility as an aid in characterization
and differentiation of loess: Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, v. 34, p. 881-883.
Leighton, M. M., and J. A. Brophy, 1961, Illinoian glaciation in Illinois: Journal of Geology,
v. 69, p. 1-31.
Leighton, M. M., and H. B. Willman, 1950, Loess formations of the Mississippi Valley: Journal
of Geology, v. 58, no. 6, p. 599-623.
Leonard, A. B., and J. C. Frye, 1960, Wisconsinan molluscan faunas of the Illinois Valley
region: Illinois State Geological Survey Circular 304, 32 p.
Lineback, J. A., 1979, The status of the Illinoian glacial stage: Midwest Friends of the
Pleistocene 26th Field Conference, Illinois State Geological Survey ·GuJdebook 13.
Lineback, J. A., and J. T. Wickham, 1977, Correlation pf the Quaternary stratiqraphic record
of Illinois with marine paleoclimatic changes [abstract]: Geological Society of America
Abstracts with Programs, v. 9, no. 7, p. 1071.
Lineback, J. A., and J. T. Wickham, 1978, Is the Illinoian a superstage? [abstract]:
Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 10, no. 7, p. 445.
McKay, E. D., 1977, Stratigraphy and zonation of Wisconsinan loesses in southwestern Illinois:
Ph.D. thesis, University of Illinois, Urbana, 242 p.
McKay, E. D., 1979, Wisconsinan loess stratigraphy of Illinois: Midwest Friends _of the
Pleistocene 26th Field Conference, Illinois State Geological Survey Guidebook 13.
Smith, G. D., 1942, Illinois loess~Variations in its properties and distribution: a pedologic
interpretation: University of Illinois Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 490,
p. 139-184.
Wascher, H. L., R. P. Humbert, and J. G. Cady, 1948, Loess in the southern Mississippi Valley~
Identification and distribution of the loess sheets: Soil Science Society of America
Proceedings, 1947, v. 12, p. 389-399.
Wickham, J. T., 1979, Pre-Illinoian till stratigraphy in the Quincy Illinois, area:
in 43rd annual Tri-State Geological Field Conference, Illinois State Geological
Survey Guidebook 14.
Willman, H. B., and J. C. Frye, 197~, Pleistocene stratigraphy of Illinois: Illinois State
Geological Survey Bulletin 94, 204 p.

ROAD LOG DAY 1
Distance (miles)
0.0

0.0

0.1
0.4
6.0
1.4
0.6
0.4

0.1
0.5
6.7
8.1
8.7
9.1

1.3

10.4

2.7
5.7
0.7

13.1
18.8
19.5

0.5
0.7

20.0
20.7

2.1
0.2

22.8
23.0

0.2
0.5
0.4

23.2
23.7
24.1

0.4
0.7
0.2
1.6

24.5
25.2
25.4
27.0

0.5
1.2
0.7
0.2
0.3
0.2
0.6

27.5
28.7
39.4
39.6
39.9
40.1
40.7

0.3
0.1
0.1
0.9
9.0
0.3

41.0
41.1
41.2
42.1
51.1
51.4

0.3
0.5
0.1
11.1

51.7
52.2
52.3
63.4

0.6
0.1

64.0
64.1

start; turn right (north) out of Noah's Ark Best Western parking lot onto Fifth
Street
go under I-70; get in left lane
tum left (west) onto entrance ramp to I-70 and merge left onto I-70 west
descend temporarily into Mississippi Valley and cross Spencer Creek
ascend out of Mississippi Valley onto probable Savanna Terrace remnant
cross Dardenne Creek
exit right at exit 220; go up ramp, tum right (north) and merge left onto Missouri
Highway 79
cross Belleau Creek and continue northwest along west side of Mississippi River
Valley; low bluffs to west consist of loess over weathered 'residuum' on x bedrock
cross Peroque Creek
tum right (north) onto old highway 79
tum left (west) onto Dyers Road; drive along Cuivre River on right (north) side of
road; note multiple surfaces on north side of creek in valley mouth
begin ascent out of Mississippi Valley
tum right (west) onto Flatwoods road and descend immediately from uplands onto
Cuivre level of the St. Charles Terrace Family
take right (northwest) at stop sign onto county road Y
descend terrace scarp onto Holocene flood plain that is commonly overtopped during
floods
follow road as it curves to left (southwest) and travel along Cuivre River
tum left (southeast) on dirt lane
Stop 1: Cuivre Valley Section B; continue walking up road up terrace scarp
onto the Cuivre level
retrace route down dirt lane and tum right onto blacktop road
ascend terrace
tum left onto Flatwoods Road
Stop 2: Cuivre Valley Section A; walk north on dirt lane and follow field
edge to the east to just beyond power lines please stay out of wheat field
retrace route; tum left (north) onto Dyers Road
turn right (south) onto old highway 79
turn right (north) onto Missouri Highway 79
begin ascent out of Mississippi Valley
cross Cuivre River
Stop 3: Burkemper Archaeological Site; Cuivre Valley Mouth
continue north on Missouri Highway 79, then exit right, Old Monroe exit, and tum
right (east) at stop sign onto county road Cat top of ramp; enter Old Monroe
stop sign, tum right (south) onto old highway 79
stop sign, go straight
recross Cuivre River
tum left (south) on Missouri Highway 79 and retrace route
tum left (east) into Arrowhead Industrial Park
continue down industrial park road to edge of Mississippi Valley. Stop 4:
Arrowhead Industrial Park.
turn around, return to highway and tum left onto Missouri Highway 79 ; retrace route
stop light at west bound entrance ramp to I-70; go straight
cross over I-70, exit right Missouri Highway 79, then merge left onto I-70 eastbound
exit right, exit 229, and tum left (northeast) at stop light at top of ramp onto Fifth
Avenue
stop light at Riverbluff Drive, go straight
stop light at Boonslick Road, veer right (east) onto Boonslick Road; descend into
Missouri Valley

0.4
0.3
1.1

64.5
64.8
65.9

0.8
0.5
1.6
0.4

66.7
67.2
68.8
69.2

12.1

81.3

0.8
0.5
0.7
1.0
0.4

82.1
82.6
83.3
84.3
84.7

1.6
0.1
0.1

86.3
86.4
86.5

0.2
0.2

86.7
86.9

4.4
10.5

91.3
101.8

0.6

102.4

0.1
0.4
0.4
0.4

102.5
102.9
103.3
103.7

0.4
0.1
1.2
0.9
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.1
0.2
0.4
0.1
0.2
0.1

104.1
104.2
105.4
106.3
106.5
106.6
106.7
106.9
107.2
107.3
107.5
107.9
108.0
. 108.2
108.3

stop sign, veer left (northeast) onto Riverside Drive; drive along Missouri River
stop sign, turn left and park; Lunch
retrace route back to entrance ramp to I-70 east, exit right from Fifth Street onto
entrance ramp, and merge left onto I-70 east
enter Missouri Valley
start Missouri River bridge
leave Missouri Valley
exit right, exit 232, I-270 north to Chicago, stay left on exit ramp, and merge left
onto I-270 east
exit right, exit 3 lB, Missouri Highway 367 to Alton Illinois, and merge left onto
367
stop light, Dunn Road, go straight
stop light, Redmond Road, go straight
stop light, Parker Road, go straight
stop light, New Jamestown Road, go straight
cross Coldwater Creek which drains the Flourissant Basin and enters Mississippi
Valley
exit right, unmarked quarry exit, immediately before Missouri River bridge
descend into Mississippi Valley with Missouri River due in front
turn left (northwest) at bottom of hill, pass under Missouri Highway 367 and railroad
bridge
continue into quarry; Stop 5: Jamestown Quarry
leave quarry; turn right onto entrance ramp to Missouri Highway 367, ascend
uplands, merge left onto Missouri Highway 367 and retrace route
exit Missouri Highway 367 right and merge left onto I-270 west
exit right, exit 20B, Missouri 115 east, Missouri 180 east, St. Charles Rock Road,
Natural Bridge Road; get in right hand lane
stop light at end of ramp, turn right (northwest) onto St. Charles Rock Road and
immediately cross into left lane
stop light, turn left (northwest) onto Boenker Lane
descend into Missouri Valley to Stop 6: Bonfils Quarry
retrace route to stop light, turn left (northwest) onto St. Charles Rock Road
descend into Missouri Valley and onto the Cuivre level of the St. Charles Terrace
Family
stop light at Taussig Road; go straight
descend from terrace to Missouri River flood plain; landfill to the left (west)
stop light at Earth City Expressway; go straight
cross Missouri River
enter St. Charles, leave bridge
turn right (northeast) onto Second Street and go one block
turn left (northwest) onto Missouri 94; Clark Street
stop sign, turn left onto Fifth Street
stop light at Jefferson Streat; go straight
stop light at First Capitol Drive, go straight
stop light at cross walk, go straight
stop light at Boonelick Road, go straight
stop light at River Bluff Drive, go straight
cross under I-70 and get in left lane
stop light, go straight, get in left lane and turn left into Noah's Ark Best Western
parking lot end Day 1

ROAD LOG: DAY 2
Distance (miles)
town of Deer Plain, Illinois, rendesvouz at Stop 7: Deer Plain (Savanna)
Terrace

0.8

0.8

2.8

3.6

0.6
0.1
0.3
0.4

4.2
4.3
4.6
5.0

0.6
0.3
0.6
0.7
0.3
0.5
2.8
1.8
1.2

5.6
5.9
6.5
7.2
7.5
8.0
10.8
12.6
13.8

0.2
0.1
0.6
4.7
0.7
0.1
1.4

14.0
14.1
14.7
19.4
20.1
20.2
21.6

1.1

22.7

0.3
1.9
0.8
0.3

23.0
24.9
25.7
26.0

1.1

27.1

0.1
0.8
0.1
2.9
0.2
0.2
2.8
2.4
0.2

27.2
28.0
28.1
31.0
31.2
31.4
34.2
36.6
36.8

0.2
0.3
1.3
0.1

37.0
37.3
38.6
38.7

0.15
0.05

38.85
39.0

go west on blacktop, enter uplands along tributary valley; tributary valley flood plain
grades to the Deer Plain (Savanna) Terrace and much of the local upland surface was
mapped by Rubey (1952) as Brussels Terrace; topography is clearly erosional and
multiple levels are present
enter town of Brussels, believed by Rubey (1952) to be on the Brussels Terrace; core
on surface to east near valley edge encountered Peoria Loess over Roxana Silt over
Sangamon Geosol over a bedrock strath, no stratified material was encountered
leave Brussels
descend into side valley of Metz Creek; low spurs are Metz Creek Terrace
turn right (north) at St Mathews Luthem Church
cross Metz Creek, note low spurs mapped by Rubey (1952) as Metz Creek Terrace, a
young St. Charles Terrace equivalent
turn left (west)
turn right (north) onto gravel road
begin descent into Illinois Valley

Stop 8: Green Bay Hollow Section
turn right (east) onto gravel road
stop sign, turn left (north) onto blacktop road
turn left (west) onto road to Batchtown, leave Illinois Valley
drainage divide between Illinois and Mississippi Valleys
stop sign, go straight; town of Batchtown in Batchtown Channel of Rubey, a former
Mississippi River channel filled with loesses and some pre-Illinoian diamicton
stop sign, turn right (north)
leave Batchtown
crossing dissected surface that leads into Batchtown Channel
dissected surface to left (west) of road, possibly St Charles Terrace
take right (east) onto gravel road

Stop 9: Salt Spring Hollow Section
drainage divide between Illinois and Mississippi Valleys; road cuts expose Peoria
Loess over thin Roxana Silt over a thick, highly weathered colluvial diamicton
enter Illinois Valley; a large Late Woodland village site was excavated on the side
valley alluvial fan to the left (north)
stop sign, turn left (north) onto blacktop road
enter town of Hardin, much of which rests on the Deer Plain (Savanna) Terrace
stop sign, go straight
intersection with Highway 100 at Illinois River bridge; go straight onto Highway
100
Calhoun High School; excavations for the school into an alluvial fan encountered a
huge Middle Archaic archaeological site; the fan rests on the Deer Plain (Savanna)
Tena:e
leave Hardin
Deer Plain (Savanna) Terrace scarp in field to the right (east)
Deer Plain (Savanna) Terrace on either side of creek
enter town of Michael
turn left (west) onto blacktop road
leave Michael
drainage divide between Illinois and Mississippi Valleys
enter town of Hamburg
enter Mississippi Valley through artifical cut in bluff; jog right, then left and proceed
towards Mississippi River
stop sign, turn right (north) onto blacktop road
leave Hamburg
cross bridge
turn right (east) on gravel road; note high scrfaces on north side of valley that are
probably comparable to Stop 10
cross small bridge and immediately take right fork

Stop 10: Pancake Hollow; END FIELD TRIP

1991 MIDWEST FRIENDS OF THE PLEISTOCENE
ST. CHARLES, MISSOURI
MAY 10-12, 1991
SCHEDULE
Friday, May

10

4:00 p.m. to 10:00 p. m.

Registration, Noah's Ark Motel, Room 238-240

6:30 p.m. to ...... .

Socialization, Noah's Ark Motel, Room 220-222

Saturday,

May

11

6:00 am

Breakfast buffet open at Noah's Ark

7:00 am

Late Registration, Noah's Ark Lobby or Parking Lot

7:15 am

Bus loading, Noah's Ark Parking Lot

7:30 am

Bus

5:30 pm ?

Return, Noah's Ark

6:30 pm

Cash Bar, Cage Room (lower level) Restaurant
at Noah's Ark

7:30 pm

Banquet buffet, Cage Room

Sunday,

May

Departure

12, 1991

6:00 am

Breakfast buffet open at Noah's Ark

8:30 am

Rendezvous car caravan in Deer Plain,
Illinois, Stop 7. See attached for
directions.

12:45 pm

Trip ends.

DIRECTIONS TO SUNDAY MORNING RENDEZVOUS
The short route to southern Calhoun County, Illinois via the private
Golden Eagle Ferry is not available because the ferry does not run until after
8:00 am on week ends. If you are late Sunday morning, you may wish to
go this way and join the caravan at Stop 7 or 8. The ferry can handle 12
vehicles on one crossing. Directions: From Noah's Ark go north on 5th Street
to Clay Street (Missouri 94), east on Clay Street to 2nd Street, north on 2nd
Street (still MO 94); stay on 94 as you leave town (a one block jog along the
way); continue on 94 to Boschertown and junction with county road B; tum
northwest on Road B and stay on it through Kampville, turn off to ferry about
1/2 mile west of Kampville. On the Illinois side follow black top to Golden
Eagle, then north to Centerville, turn east and continue to Stop 7 (see attached
map). See below for directions to Stop 8.
Most of the group should leave early and drive to the
Brussels, Illinois ferry; driving time approximately 80-90 minutes.
Directions:
Take I-70 east to I-270 north or east
Take I-270 north and east to Missouri 367; exit north
Take MO 367 north, junction with US 67, continue north on 67, cross
Missouri River, cross Mississippi River to Alton, Illinois
and junction Illinois 100.
Take IL 100 north to Brussels Free Ferry (west of Grafton). Cross river
to Calhoun County. If a long line is waiting for the ferry, you
may wish to drive north to Hardin on IL 100; cross bridge and
turn south, stay on main road south to Brussels and Deer Plain,
Stop 7. See map.
From ferry landing in Calhoun County, proceed south on black top
about 4 miles to assembly point (Stop 7); see map.
If caravan has departed, proceed to Stop 8; follow black top west to
Centerville, turn N on "main road" (T intersection); continue N and W through
Brussels on main road, turn N at road intersection by Lutheran Church and
Cemetery; go north 1 mile, turn west on gravel road, go west 1/4 mile, tum
north on gravel road and continue to Stop 8.

LIST OF PARTICIPANTS
1991 MIDWEST FRIENDS OF THE PLEISTOCENE
MISSISSIPPI VALLEY TRIP
arry Abbott

0 Greenville Drive, #2
Urbana, IL 61801

Richard C. Anderson
Department of Geology
Augustana College
Rock Island IL 61201

Jane Hansen Anklan
5991 North Shore Dr.
Eau Claire, WI 54703

Joe Artz
Of. State Archaeologist
Eastlawn Bldg.
University of Iowa
Iowa City, IA 52242

John Attig
Wisc. Geol. &
Nat. Hist. Survey
3817 Mineral Point Rd.
Madison WI 53705

Whitney Autin
Dept. of Nat. Res.
Louisiana Geol. Survey
Box G, University Sta.
Baton Rouge, LA 70893

Robert Autio
Heritage Remediation/Eng. Inc.
P.O. Box 51020
Indianapolis, IN 46251

Cindy Balek
220 Davenport Hall
Geography Dept.
University of Illinois
Urbana, IL 61801

Richard Baker
Department of Geology
University of Iowa
Iowa City, IA 52242

Robert W. Baker
Dept. of Plant and Earth Sci.
Univ. Wisconsin -River Falls
River Falls WI 54022

Mike Barnhardt
615 E. Peabody Dr.
ISGS Rm. 425
Champaign, IL 61820

David Benn
Ctr. for Archaeological Res.
SW Missouri State University
Springfield, MO 65804

Margaret E. Berry
Department of Geology
Southern Illinois Univ.
Carbondale, IL 62901-4324

Art Bettis
Iowa DNR, Geolog. Survey
123 North Capitol Street
Iowa City IA 52242

Ned Bleuer
Indiana Geological Survey
611 N. Walnut Dr.
Bloomington IN 47405

Dr. Sabine Bock
90 Fountain View Terr. #8
Lake St. Louis, MO 63367

C. Scott Brockman
Ohio Geological Survey
4383 Fountain Sq. Dr.
Columbus, OH 43224

Steven E. Brown
Indiana Geological Survey
611 North Walnut Grove
Bloomington IN 47405

Steve Carmer
Dept. of Geology
Indiana Univer. - Indianapolis
425 University Blvd.
Indianapolis, IN 46202-5140

Michael Chalfant
Soil Survey Office
1st St., P.O. Box 322
Lutesville, MO 63762

Lee Clayton

Russ Clinton
Dept. of Geology
Indiana Univ. - Indianapolis
425 University Blvd.
Indianapolis, IN 46202-5140

James M. Collins
306 Eastlawn
Office of State Archaeologist
The University of Iowa
Iowa City, Iowa 52242

Z. Shaoguang Cong
Geology Dept.
North Dakota St. Univ.
"!O, ND 58105

Joseph Cummins
1057 Lewis
Owatonna, MN 55050

Brandon Curry
Illinois State Geol. Sur.
615 E. Peabody Drive
Champaign, IL 61820

Rinita Dalan
Center for Ancient Studies
206 Folwell Hall
Univ. of Minnesota
Minneapolis, MN 55455

Dennis E. Dahms
Geography Dept.
Univ. of Northern Iowa
Cedar Falls, Iowa 50614-0406

Tracy DeLiberty
455 W. Lindsey
Room 805
Norman, OK 73019

1

Steve Bennett
Dept. of Geological Sciences
'iana University
· .uioomington, IN 47405

Wisc. Geol. & Nat. Hist. Sur.
3817 Mineral Point Road
Madison WI 53705

Andrine Dell
Dept. of Geology
University of Cincinnati
Cincinnati, OH 45226

Jeramy S. Dillon
7831 Nina St.
Omaha, Nebraska 68124

Jennifer A. Distlehorst
245 NHB
1301 W. Green
Urbana, IL 61801

Anthony Dohmen
Soil Survey Office
107 112 s. 16th
Unionville, MO 63565

Wrick Dunning
916 W. 2nd St.
Northfield, MN 55057

James Durbin
Dept. of Geology
Southern Illinois University
Carbondale, IL 62901

Scott Eaton
Dept. of Geology
Southern Illinois University
Carbondale, Il 62901

Mike Ekbers
Dept. of Geology
University of Cincinnati
Cincinnati, OH 45226

Steven Esling
Dept. of Geology
Southern Illinois University
Carbondale IL 62901

Doug Faulkner
Department of Geography
University of Wisconsin
Science Hall
Madison, WI 53706

Henry J. Ferguson
503 W. George
Kirksville, M 0 63501

Jacqueline A. Ferguson
Illinois State Museum Res.
& Collections Center
1920 S. 10 112 Street
Springfield, IL 62703

Faith A. Fitzpatrick
USGS
102 E. Main Street, 4th Fl.
Urbana, IL 61801

Leon Follmer
Illinois State Geol Sur.
615 E. Peabody Drive
Champaign, IL 61820

Steve Forman
103 Mendenhall Lab
125 S. Mall Dr.
Ohio State University
Columbus, OH 43210

~larke Garry
Department of Biology
Univ. Wisconsin - River Falls
River Falls WI 54022

Bill Gartner
480 Science Hall
Dept. of Geography
Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison
Madison, WI 53706

Sharon Geil
10180 Chaucer #3
Overland, MO 63114

Robert Gibson
AMLR Council
SIUE - Box 1459
Edwardsville, IL 62026

Jay P. Gilbertson
South Dakota Geol. Survey
Science Center - USD
Vermillion SD 57069-2390

Beth Ginzel
Dept. of Geology
Indiana Univ. - Indianapolis
425 University Blvd.
Indianapolis, IN 46202-5140

R. W. Graham
Illinois State Museum
1920 10 112 St. South
Springfield, IL 62703

David Grimley
245 NHB
1301 W. Green
Urbana, IL 61801

James Grimes
405 W. Lindley Rm. 804
Norman, OK 73019

Peggy Guccione
Dept. of Geology
Univ. of Arkansas
118 Ozark Hall
Fayetteville, AR 72701

George F. Hall
Agronomy Dept. 0. S. U
2021 Coffey Rd.
Columbus, OH 43210

Robert D. Hall
Dept. of Geology
Indiana Univ. Indianapolis
425 University Blvd.
Indianapolis, IN 46202-5140

r:rl Hajic
5 Huckleberry Dr.
Jackson, WY 83001

Ardith K. Hansel
II. State Geol. Sur.
615 E. Peabody Drive
Champaign IL 61820

Dave Hansen
I51F University Village
Ames, IA 50010

Vince Hemly
Dept. of Geology
Indiana Univ. Indianapolis
425 University Blvd.
lianapolis, IN 46202-5140

Howard Hobbs
Minnesota Geol. Survey
2642 University Ave.
St. Paul MN 55114-1057

Vance Holliday
Geography Department
University of Wisconsin
Madison WI 53706

Jim Huber
214 Research Laboratory Bldg.
Univ. of Minnesota - Duluth
10 University Drive
Duluth MN 55812-2496

Dr. Sam J. Indorante
USDA-SCS MLRA Update Office
25B Center Plaza Dr.
Belleville, IL 62220

Peter Jacobs
Geography Department
University of Wisconsin
Madison WI 53706

Paul Jahn
1011 S. Lynn
Urbana, IL 61801

Cheryl Jaworowski
1414 Spring Creek
Laramie, WY 82070

Camie Jensen
Dept. of Geology
Indiana Univ. Indianapolis
425 University Blvd.
Indianapolis, IN 46202-5140

Don Johnson
Dept. of Geography
220 Davenport Hall
Univ. of Illinois
Urbana, IL 61801

Gerald Johnson
Dept. of Geology
Southern Illinois University
Carbondale, IL 62901

Hilt Johnson
Dept. of Geology
University of Illinois
Urbana, IL 61801

Sandy Jones
2818 Kensington Pl. E.
Columbus OH 43202

Alan Kehew
Dept. of Geology
W estem Michigan Univ.
Kalamazoo, MI 49008

Tim Kemmis
Iowa DNR, Geol. Survey
123 North Capitol Street
Iowa City, IA 52242

.Jn P. Kempton
Illinois Geological Survey
615 E. Peabody Dr.
Champaign, IL 61820

Steven G. Kenaga
2850 Ashland St.
West Lafayette IN 47906

Diann S. Kiesel
Dept. Geol. & Geog.
UWC - Baraboo
Baraboo, WI 53913

Steve Kite
Geology & Geography
West Virginia Univ.
Morgantown WV 26506

James C. Knox
Department of Geography
University of Wisconsin
Madison WI 53706

Mike Konen
Rt. 3 Tanner Road
Aurora, IL 60506

J. D. Lehr
MDNR - Division of Minerals
500 Lafayette Road
St. Paul MN 55045-4045

David Leigh
Univ. of Wisconsin
Dept. of Geography
Madison, WI 53706

Michael E. Lilly
6 Village Road
Hannibal, MO 63401

John Littke
Iowa DNR Geol. Survey
123 North Capitol Street
Iowa City IA 52242

Charles L. Love
40 Adloff Lane
St.# 7
Springfield, IL 62703

Tom Lowell
Department of Geology
University of Cincinnati
Cincinnati OH 45221

'11is J. Maher
Jlogy & Geophysics
University of WI-Madison
1215 W. Dayton Street
Madison, WI 53706

Chuck Martin
Geography Dept.
Dickens Hall
Kansas State University
Manhattan KS 66506-0801

Joe Mason
Soil Science Dept.
Univ. of Minnesota
1991 Upper Buford Circle
St. Paul, MN 55108

T

John Masters
IL State Geol. Survey
615 E. Peabody Dr.
·'.ampaign IL 61820

David May
Univ. of Northern Iowa
Geography Dept.
Cedar Falls IA 50614

Timothy McDonald
Dept. of Geology
Southern Illinois University
Carbondale, IL 62901

Charles McGimsey
Dept. of Anthroplogy
Southern Illinois Univ.
Carbondale, IL 62901

Dennis P. McKenna
IL State Geol. Survey
615 E. Peabody Drive
Champaign IL 61820

Dr. R. Bruce McMillan
Illinois State Museum
Spring and Edwards
Springfield, IL 62706

Randy Meier
Dept. of Geology
Indiana Univ. - Indianapolis
425 University Blvd.
Indianapolis, IN 46202-5140

Wilton N. Melhorn
Dept. of Geosciences
Purdue University
West Lafayette IN 47907

Laura Merkel
893 Senter Ave.
Burlington, CO 80807

Edgar P. Mersiousky
Agronomy Dept.
Univ. of Arkansas
Fayetteville, AR 72701

June Mirecki
Memphis State University
Dept. of Geological Sciencs
Memphis, TN 38152

Howard Mooers
Dept. of Geology
University of Iowa
Iowa City, IA 52242

Mudge Morris
Dept. of Geology
Indiana Univ. - Indianapolis
425 University Blvd.
Tndianapolis, IN 46202-5140

Jongwoo Oh
Dept. of Geog.
Univ. of Wisconsin
Milwaukee, WI 53201

Amy L. Ollendorf
Limnological Research Center
220 Pillsbury Hall
310 Pillsbury Drive S.E.
Minneapolis, MN 55455-0219

Bruce Olsen
2444 E. Larpenter
Maplewood MN 55109

Greg A. Olyphant
Dept. of Geological Sciences
Indiana University
Bloomington, IN 47405

Rod Padget
Dept. of Geology
Southern Illinois University
Carbondale, IL 62901

Rick Pavey
Ohio Geological Survey
4383 Fountain Sq. Dr.
Columbus, Ohio 43224

Milan Pavich
MS 908
U.S. Geological Survey
Reston, VA 22091

Thomas Peterson
1057 Linn
Ouatonna, MN 55060

James Piegat
Hennepin Conservation District
12450 Wayz.ata Blvd., #205
Minnetonka, MN 55343

Deb Quade
DNR - Geological Survey
123 N. Capitol St.
Iowa City, IA 52240

Richard S. Rhodes II
Dept. of Geology
University of Iowa
Iowa City, IA 52242

Cecilia Roark
1030 Village North
Arkadelphia, AR 71923

Carolyn Roberts
Regional Research Institute
West Virginia University
511 North High Street
Morgantown WV 26506

Donald Rodbell
U.S. Geological Survey
MS 966 Box 25046
Denver, CO 80225-0046

ye Rutledge
university of Arkansas
Dept. of Agronomy
Fayetteville AR 72701

Neil Salisbury
Dept. of Geography
Univ. of Oklahoma
Norman, OK 73019

Jon Sandor
Dept. of Agronomy
Iowa State University
Ames IA 50011

Kevin Savage
Dept. of Geology
University of Cincinnati
--:incinnati, OH 45226

Allan F. Schneider
Univ. Wisconsin - Parkside
Box 2000
Kenosha WI 53141-2000

Walter Schrader
Dept. of Geography
Univ. of Missouri
Columbia, MO 65211

Donald Schwert
Dept. of Geology
North Dakota State University
Fargo ND 58105

Kari Sever
1034 S. Broadway
Springfield, MO 65807

Martha Sheppard
RR2
Pearl IL 62361

Musa M. Shongwe
Dept. of Agronomy
2021 Coffey Rod
202 Kettman Hill
Columbus, OH 43210

Edward C. Smith
IL Geological Survey
615 E. Peabody Drive
Champaign, IL 61820

Phillip A. Smith
Dept Geog. & Earth Science
Southern Illinois University
Edwardsville, IL 62026

Norm Stephens
Dept. of Geology
Indiana Univ. - Indianapolis
425 University Blvd.
Indianpolis, IN 46202-5140

Barb Stiff
ISGS MC 650
615 E. Peabody
Champaign, IL 61820

John Tandarich
Hey & Associates
53 W. Jackson Blvd.
Suite 1401
Chicago, IL 60604

Dr. Ken Tankersky
Research & Collections Center
1920 10 112 Sts.
Illinois State Museum
Springfield IL 62703

Lawrence D. Taylor
Dept. Geological Sciences
Albion College
Albion MI 49224

Peter Townsend
Dept. of Geology
Southern Illinois University
Carbondale, IL 62901

Clair Trent
Dept. of Geology
Southern Illinois University
Carbondale, IL 62901

Dave Voorhees
245 NHB - Dept. of Geology
1301 W. Green
Urbana, IL 61801

Hong Wang
Davenport Hall
Dept. of Anthropology
University of Illinois
Urbana, Illinois 61801

Jiqing Wang
Dept. of Geology
Univ. of Wisconsin-Milwaukee
Milwaukee WI 53201

Larry B. Ward
Soil Conservation Service
Rm. 5404 Federal Of. Bldg.
700 West Capitol Avenue
Little Rock, AR 72201

Robert E. Warren
Illinois State Museum
1920 South 10 112 St.
Springfield, IL 62703

Tom & Donna Weaver
Consulting Geologists
2156 Alpine Place
Cincinnati, OH 45206

Wayne Wendlend
Illinois State Water Sur.
2204 Griffith Drive
Champaign, IL 61820

Michael Wilson
SSIV - USDA - SCS
Federal Building, Rm. 152
100 Centennial Mall North
Lincoln NE 68508-3866

Kathleen Woida
Dept. of Geology
University of Iowa
Iowa City IA 52242

Herb Wright
Limnological Research Center
University of Minnesota
Minneapolis, MN 55455

Bill Zanner
462 Borlaug Hall
Soil Science
University of Minnesota
Saint Paul, MN 55108

ILLINOIAN Tlt L PLAIN

Field Trip Stops
1 Powdermill Creek
2 Maryville
3 Paddock Creek
4 Williams Hollow
5 Pancake Hollow

Geologic Units

D

Peoria Loess and Roxana Silt
Wisconsinan, >20 feet thick

D

Cahokia Alluvium, Holocene
Equality Formation
Wisconsinan slack-water deposits

D

Glasford Formation
lllinoian glacial deposits
Mccredie Formation
Pre-lllinoian glacial deposits

O
L.J

UNGLACIATED
llLLINOIAN TILL PLAIN

I

8I miles

6
N

....

April 1990
Department of Energy and Natural Resources

ILLINOIS STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
(217) 333-4 74 7

ISGS Publications Released Since October 1989
ISGS Guidebook 23
Quaternary records o outhwestern Illinois
and adjacent sso , by Russell W. Graham,
Bonnie W. Styl , J rey L.
nders, Michael
D. Wiant, E. D
Edwin R. Hajic

a

cKay, T
1debook

as R. Styles,
p., $1.25).

This guidebook was used
ield trips held in
i
Quaternary
conjunction with the A~
Bie
I Meeting (ChamAssociation's Ni~
J
1, 1986). The Illinois
paign, Illinois, M
State Geological
ter Surveys, the Illinois
State Museum, an the University of Illinois
Departments of Geology, Geography, and
Anthropology sponsored the meeting, which
covered geological, archeological, and ecological research.

IMN 101
Illinois mineral industry in 1987 and review
of preliminary mineral production data for
1988, 1988, by Irma E. Samson and Subhash
B. Bhagwat (Illinois Mineral Notes 101, 40 p.,
$1.25).
This annual report, which includes 13 figures
and 25 tables, summarizes and discusses the
output and value of more than 30 minerals and
mineral products. The authors analyze trends in
the mineral industry and review preliminary data
for 1988.

IP 133
A gravity of marine field: case study for
Silurian reef exploration, by Paul C. Heigold
and Stephen T. Whitaker (Illinois Petroleum 133,
19 p., $1.25).
Measuring the local gravity field can aid in the
search for Silurian reefs and associated hydrocarbon reservoirs in the Illinois Basin. Gravity
surveys can be used effectively as an initial
exploration method in reef-prone areas to define
prospect-size areas in which geologists can
target intensive exploration techniques.

Coop Groundwater Report 11
Agricultural chemicals in rural, private water
wells in Illinois: recommendations for a
statewide survey, by D. P. McKenna, S. C.
Schock, E. Mehnert, S. C. Mravik, D. A. Keefer,
ISGS and ISWS (Cooperative 11, 109 p., $1.75).
Knowledge of the extent of agricultural chemical
contamination of groundwater in Illinois remains
limited. This project is a response to the mandate
of the Illinois Groundwater Protection Act to
evaluate the impact of pesticides on groundwater, particularly in rural areas where pesticides
are used most intensively.

EGN 131
Lake Michigan bibliography, volume 1 :
1960-1976, by Nancy Peterson Holm and Beth

IMN 102
Proceedings of the 23rd forum on the geology of industrial minerals, by Randall E.

McArdle Morgan (Environmental Geology Notes

Hughes and James C. Bradbury (Illinois Mineral
Notes 102, 105 p., $4.50).

EGN 132
Lake Michigan bibliography, volume 2:·
19n-1986, by Nancy Peterson Holm and Beth

Ralph Grim (the keynote speaker) and 25 other
researchers contributed to this proceedings. The
16 articles include such topics as the current
state of industrial minerals in China, an historical
perspective of the Chicago stone industry, and
evaluation of the economic usefulness of earth
materials by X-ray diffraction.

IMN 103
Directory of Illinois mineral producers
1988-1989, by Irma Samson and John M.
Masters (Illinois Mineral Notes 103, 134 p.,
$1.25).
This directory includes all companies (otherthan
oil and gas producers) involved in mining,
processing, and manufacturing mineral products
in Illinois. Illinois mineral producers are listed by
county, company, and commodity.

131, 454 p., $5.00).

McArdle Morgan (Environmental Geology Notes

tal feasibility of deep well injection, the adequacy
of current regulations and regulatory practices,
the ultimate fate of the injected waste in the
disposal system, and the comparative risks,
benefits, and costs of deep well injection and
alternative disposal options.

C535
Glaciation and origin of the geest in the
Driftless Area of northwestern Illinois, by H.
B. Willman, H. D. Glass and J.C. Frye (Circular

535, 44 p., $1.75).
Glacial deposits within the western margin of the
Driftless Area indicated the possibility of glaciation elsewhere in the area. Evidence from
studying modern stream alluvium and the thick
layer of clay underlying the loess suggests that
the major part of the Driftless Area was not
glaciated.

C541
Trench covers to minimize infiltration at
waste disposal sites, by K. Cartwright, T. H.
Larson, B. L. Herzog, T. J. Johnson, K. A.
Albrecht, D. L. Moffett, D. A. Keefer, C. J. Stohr
(Cirular 541, 88 p., $1.75).
Four field-scale experimental covers were
designed, constructed, and monitored. Multilayered soil covers were found to be superior to
single-layered covers; an important feature of
the multilayered covers is the ability of the
coarse-grained layer to remove moisture from
the system through drain tiles. The authors also
investigated methods to limit infiltration through
trench covers by reviewing current practices,
testing geologic materials, and simulating some
cover designs.

132, 531 p., $5.00).
ISSJR 2
Evaluation of underground injection of
industrial waste in Illinois, by Ross D. Brower,
Ivan G. Krapac, Bruce R. Hensel, Adrian P.
Visocky, Gary R. Peyton, John S. Nealon, and
Mark Guthrie (Illinois Scientific Surveys Joint
Report 2, 184 p., no charge) .
As required by the Environmental Protection Act,
the Illinois State Geological and Water Surveys
assessed the Illinois Underground Injection
Control program as it relates to injection of
hazardous industrial wastes in Class I waste
disposal wells. This comprehensive investigation
covered geological, technical, and environmen-

C546
Geological and hydrological factors for siting
hazardous or low-level radioactive waste
disposal facilities, by Richard C. Berg and John
M. Shafer (Circular 546, 61 p., $1.75).
This report outlines a systematic, multistep
approach to the selection and characterization
of candidate sites for the disposal of hazardous
and low-level radioactive wastes. Using Illinois
as an example, the authors detail the data requirements and evaluation criteria for three
distinct steps in the selection process: regional
directive screening, area screening, and site
characterization. The goal of the approach is to
identify geologically stable sites that offer natural
barriers to the migration of contaminants.

See reverse side for order information

Date _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
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Address _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ C i t y - - - - - - - - - - - - State _ _ Zip _ __
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Publication

Quantity

Price

ISGS Guidebook·23

$1.25

IMN 101

$1.25

IMN 102

$4.50

IMN 103

$1.25

IP133

$1.25

COOP11

$1.75

EGN 131

$5.00

EGN 132

$5.00

Does

abov~

$1.75

CIR541

$1.75

CIR546

$1.75

D Yes D No

Total

ISSJR2
CIR535

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