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SWS

SWS YARD PRACTICE


2008
2008 EDITION

Shanghai Waigaoqiao Shipbuilding Co. Ltd.

FOREWARD
In order to carry out standard shipbuildingimprove the quality of shipbuildingshorten the
period of shipbuildingin year 2003Shanghai Waigaoqiao Shipbuilding Company Limited
following called as SWSStandard Committee organized the complication of SWS Building
Technological Usual Practice Manualfollowing called as Manual
and revised its 2003
edition in October2004
Since the publication of the Manualit has benefited the communication with the ships
owners and the classification societiesand it has also played an important role in normalizing
production technologies and improving the shipbuilding quality of SWS
With the development of the shipyardshipbuilding technology is improved continuously
Thereforein October 2007the SWS Standard Committee convened a meeting specific to
revising the manual and made the decision of revising the ManualWith the coordination of
all the departments concernedthe revision work was finished in April2008
On the basis of the previous technological standards, three (3) new technological standards
including theRudder Installation Technology Standardhave been added in theManual
And nowtotally 26 enterprise standards are selectedconsisting of 4 items for hull part, 5 items
for welding part, 3 items for hull outfitting , 5 items for machinery part, 3 items for painting part,
and 6 items for electrical partFor using conveniently, the Manualis written in both Chinese
and English
During revising themanual,we got the huge support and coordination of all the branches
in the design department and also got the company responsible leaders and design department
leaders concern and helpWe express our thanks here
The Manualwas planned and guided by Mr. Li Gaoxing in the design departmentMr.
Dai Xiaohu, Mr. Shen Zhiping, Ms. Xu Yuzhen, Ms. Wu Xin in the Standard Team of the design
department were in charge of compiling the Manual
When the Manual (2008 edition) is issued, the previous Manual (2004 edition)will
be invalid
The Standard Team of the design department is the permanent organization of the SWS
Standard Committee, which is in charge of the issue, implementation, maintenance and
amendment work of the Manual
Improving ideas and suggestions from the Users of the
Manualare valuable and welcomedAnd please contact the Standard Team of the design
department in timeThe extension telephone number is 8755The liaison man is Mr. Dai
Xiaohu

Shanghai Waigaoqiao Shipbuilding Company Limited


Design Departmant
June2008

TABLE OF CONTENTS

HULL
1

HULL ASSEMBLY TECHNOLOGICAL RULES......................................................1


Q/SWS42-034-2003

2 HULL STRENGTH STRUCTURE OPENING AND REINFORCEMENT ......................20


Q/SWS52-014-2006
3 PROCEDURES FOR HULL TIGHTNESS TEST OF SEA-GOING STEEL SHIPS ........26
Q/SWS62-001-2006
4 INCLINING TEST RULE...................................................................................................30
Q/SWS62-002-2006

WELDING
1 PROCEDURES FOR HULL STRUCTURE WELDING AND SELECTION OF
GROOVE TYPES ...............................................................................................................51
Q/SWS41-003-2007
2 PROCEDURES FOR WELDING OF CU/NI ALLOY PIPES ...........................................66
Q/SWS41-006-2006
3 PROCEDURES FOR WELDING OF CARBON STEEL PIPE AND STAINLESS
STEEL PIPES ......................................................................................................................69
Q/SWS41-008-2004
4 PROCEDURES FOR HULL WELDING ...........................................................................73
Q/SWS41-009-2005
5 GENERAL PROCEDURES FOR TECHNOLOGY OF WELD REPAIR.........................80
Q/SWS41-011-2005

HULL OUTFITTING ACCOMMODATION VENTILATION


1 INSTALLATION PROCEDURE OF RUDDER SYSTEM................................................83
Q/SWS43-025-2007
2 BORING PROCEDURE FOR RUDDER SYSTEM ..........................................................87
Q/SWS44-004-2003
3 TIGHTNESS TEST PRACTICE FOR DOORS AND WINDOWS ...................................91
Q/SWS63-005-2006

MACHINERY INSTALLATION
1 INSTALLATION PROCEDURE OF MARINE PIPING...................................................93
Q/SWS44-001-2007

2 INSTALLATION PROCEDURE OF MARINE AUXILIARY MACHINE......................99


Q/SWS44-002-2004
3 STANDARD OF STRENGTH TEST AND TIGHTNESS TEST OF PIPELINE ..........102
Q/SWS44-003-2007
4 MANUFACTURE PROCEDURE OF PIPING ACCESSORIES .....................................106
Q/SWS44-009-2007
5 EARTHING PROCEDURE OF PIPING ..........................................................................114
Q/SWS44-017-2007

PAINTING
1

GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR SHIP PAINTING ......................................................117


Q/SWS45-007-2007

2 GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR SECONDARY SURFACE PREPARATION IN


SHIPBUILDING ...............................................................................................................125
Q/SWS45-008-2007
3

PROCEDURE FOR IN-DOCK PAINTING OF SHELL PLATES

WITHOUT

SHIFTING BLOCKS ........................................................................................................128


Q/SWS45-009-2007

ELECTRIC INSTALLATION
1

TECHNOLOGICAL REQUIREMENTS FOR INSTALLATION OF ELECTRIC


CABLES ON SHIPS .........................................................................................................130
Q/SWS46-001-2007

2 INSTALLATION PROCEDURES OF MARINE ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT............148


Q/SWS46-002-2007
3 PROCEDURE FOR SAFETY EARTHING OF MARINE ELECTRICAL
EQUIPMENT AND CABLES .........................................................................................166
Q/SWS46-003-2007
4 INSTALLATION PROCEDURES OF MARINE NAVIGATION EQUIPMENT............171
Q/SWS46-004-2007
5 INSTALLATION PROCEDURES OF MARINE RADIO EQUIPMENT.......................175
Q/SWS46-005-2007
6

PROCEDURES FOR ANTENNA INSTALLATION .......................................................178


Q/SWS46-013-2006

II

SWSHULL ASSEMBLY TECHNOLOGICAL RULES


Reference StandardQ/SWS42-034-2003
1

SCOPE
The Rules prescribe preparation before construction, personal, technical requirement and technics flow for
steel ship hull construction.
The rules apply to steel work of hull construction for bulk carrier, oil tanker, container carrier and oil storage
ship, other types ship can applied as applicable.
2 NORMATIVE REFERENCE
Q/SWS60-001.2-2007
Shipbuilding Quality Standard Construction Accuracy
3 TERMS AND DEFINITION
The following terms and definition apply to the Rules.
3.1 Part
Part refers to a single steel plate or a profile, for example one floor, one longitudinal.
3.2 Assembly
Assembly refers to two or more parts fit together, for example floor with stiffeners, planar bulkhead with
stiffeners.
3.3 Block
Total hull structure is split into several planar or cubic masses, which can be fitted together to form a full ship,
these masses are called blocks.
3.4 Grand block
Several adjacent blocks made up of a large block, which is called a grand block, for example, a deck house
grand block.
3.5 Sub-assembly
The production process of fitting two or more parts together to form an assembly is calledsub-assembly, for
example, building up a T profile, fitting stiffeners or opening reinforcement onto a floor .
3.6 Unit-assembly
The production process of fitting sub-assemblies and parts together to form a large assembly is called
unit-assembly, for example, building up an oil tank.
3.7 Grand assembly
The production process of fitting assemblies and parts together to form a block is called grand assembly.
3.8 Pre-erection assembly
The production process of fitting several adjacent blocks together to form a grand block is called pre-erection
assembly.
3.9 Erection
The production process of fitting blocks and grand blocks together in dock to form a full hull of ship is called
erection.
4 PREPARATION BEFORE CONSTRUCTION
4.1 Drawings
Make available the construction related drawings, part list, welding procedures, on-completion measure
tables etc.
4.2 Material
Check parts material grade, steel plates thickness, profiles dimensions to be same as the drawings
4.3 Tools
Get ready steel tape, plumb, leveling set of glass tubes and hose, oil pump joist, pull screw, steel wedge,
various kinds of strip shores/clamps, laser transit instrument, hammer, oxyacetylene cut torch, electric welding
holder, electric welding mask, angle square, angle gauge.
5 PERSONNEL
Assembly workers should have specialty and safety training before assigning their jobs, and should pass the
examination. They should know contents and intentions of the drawings, understand letters and symbols meaning
on the cutoff parts. They should be familiar with related technics and technical documents and carry out the job
accordingly.
6 TECHNICAL REQUIREMENT
6.1 Sub-assembly
6.1.1 Sub-assembly technics flow:

get ready and check

welding

6.1.2

align small parts with


big parts' mark line

flame fairing after welding

fit and tack welding

essential reinforce and support

Sub-assembly work criteria:

align line

The installation of structural member is on the basis of align line or offset line, error limits: 1.5mm
2.0mm
Flatness limits: 4mm6mm
Vertical limit of small piece fit to big piece: 2 mm
Standard range
tolerance limit
Planar panel:
L4mm
6mm
B4mm
6mm
Difference between diagonals:
L1-L24mm
8mm
6.2 Unit-assembly
6.2.1 Unit-assembly technics flow
laydown big parts
on jig or platform

make jig or platform

fit and tack welding

6.2.2

welding

fit small parts


on big parts

temporary support

flame fairing

e
n
i
l
n
g
i
l
a

Unit-assembly work criteria


The installation of structural member is on the basis of align line or offset line, error limits1.5mm
Main plane flatness limits
4mm
Vertical limit of small piece fit to big piece
2 mm
Framework 4-corner level
8mm
Longitudinal end flatness
4mm
Two diagonals mid point distance
2mm
e
n
i
l
n
g
i
l
a
temporary
support

oil chest

6.3 Grand assembly


6.3.1 Cargo hold double bottom grand assembly
6.3.1.1 Technics flow
member sub-ass.

6.3.1.2 Assembly work criteria:


Block length L 4mm
Block width B 4mm
Block height H 3mm
Block square
4mm (inner bottom and shell plate diagonals difference)
Block twist
8mm inner bottom 4-corner level
Longitudinal end flatness: 4mm
Inner bottom and shell center line warp: 3mm
Inner bottom and shell floor line warp: 3mm

B2

B1

frustum
6.3.2 Cargo hold bilge block grand assembly
6.3.2.1 Technics flow

acceptance inspection

Panel center

outfitting

final measure

welding

block ass.

set the longi. on shell plt.

touch-up primer

set the longi. on inner bot. plt.

check line of member,adjust

outfitting

check line of member,adjust

FCB weld

weld members

FCB weld

built-up shell plt.

install the longi. on frame

built-up inner bot. plt.

Platform

panel center:sub-ass. of block

welding

unit ass. of panels

set longi.of shell plate

set bkt.of frame

set longi. of hopper plt.

acceptance inspection

final measure

outfitting

welding

block ass.

set frame or rib

FCB welding

member check line and adjust

FCB welding

built-up side plt.

member check line and adjust

built-up inner bot.plt.

member check line and adjust

FCB welding

built-up hopper plt.

Curved center or platform


Typical block with longitudinals to be singly fitted
H2
H1

frame

B1

unit assembly

B1

singly set for


curved block

B13

L25

L20

L24

bracket
bilge keel

hopper
bottom shell

6.3.2.2 Assembly work criteria:


Block length L 4mm
Block width B 4mm
Inner bottom height H1 3mm
Block height H2 4mm
Block square (hopper)
4mm
Block twist (hopper)
8mm
Longitudinal end flatness: 4mm

side shell

6.3.3 Cargo hold Top side block grand assembly


6.3.3.1 Technics flow:
panel center:sub-ass.of block
set bracket and frame plt.

built up the hopper plt.and nukle plt.

set longi.on hopper plt.

welding

built-up topper plt.

welding

join up the topper and deck

set longi.on deck

weldinh

built-up deck plt.

temporary support
B4

B2

B1

B3

topside deck
6.3.3.2 Assembly work criteria:
Block length L 4mm
Block width B 4mm
Block height H 3mm
Block square (upper deck)
Block twist (upper deck)
Longitudinal end flatness:

upper deck

4mm
8mm
4mm

B2

B3

B1

B4
? ? 2 ?? ?

L
B

6.4.4 Side shell block grand assembly


6.4.4.1 Technics flow:

6.4.4.2 Assembly work criteria:


Block length L 4mm
Block width B 4mm
Block height H 3mm
Block square (side shell plate) 4mm
Longitudinal end flatness:
4mm

6.4.5 Engine room double bottom block grand assembly


6.4.5.1 Technics flow:

final measure

flame fairing

welding

insert frame and topper plt.

set side shell plt. on planar jig

parts prepare

top plt. of hopper tank

member sub-ass.

weld the member with shell plt.

set lifting lug,release form jig


turn over block and place

install shell plt.


set steel outfitting

measure before welding


welding

tightness test
acceptance inspection

pipe piece in tank

welding

measure before welding


set members
secondary draw line on inner plt.

set inner btm.plt.


make jig

6.4.5.2 Assembly work criteria:


Block length L 4mm
Block width B 4mm
Block height H 4mm
Block square (inner bottom plate) 8mm
also measure engine foundation inner bottom level

outfitting, cover shell plate, welding


set jig,fit inner plate,lift unit-assembly

6.4.6 Eengine room main deck (platform) block grand assembly


6.4.6.1 Technics flow
member sub-ass.
weld the member

install member

t)

bo

B(

to

L
p)

6.4.7 Corrugation bulkhead block grand assembly


6.4.7.1 Technics flow:

painting

bo

acceptance inspection

final measure and check


center line,frame check
line and other marks

outfitting

weld the members

measure before welding

set lifting lug and reinforce

install side plt.

set member

secondary draw lines

built-up the main deck or platform

weld the seam

set shell plt.and weld

make jig for main deck(platform)

secondary marking off

make jig for shell plt.

6.4.6.2 Assembly work criteria:


Block length L 4mm
Block width B 4mm
Block height H 4mm
Block bottom width 0~8mm
Transverse and longitudinal BHD. vertical 3mm
Block end flatness(plates and longitudinal parts) 3mm

member sub-ass.

weld
set wall of low stool

set top plt.of low stool

set members
set plates

make jig for low stool

tightness test

set&weld reinforce bar&lifting lug

fit the top plt.and weld

fit&weld shed plt.

outfitting
turn over,fit&weld the shed plt.

outfitting

horizontal check line,align line for

final measure and check center line


docking and other marks

acceptance inspection
painting

fit the low stool ass.and weld


draw line and cut off

weld them
built-up the corrugation bhd.

make jig for corrugation bhd.

6.4.7.2 Assembly work criteria:


Block width B 4mm
Block height H 4mm
Transverse and longitudinal BHD. vertical 3mm
Block end flatness(plate and longitudinal part) 3mm
Stool bottom opening width S
3mm
Stool bottom 4-corner level
4mm
Stool bootom linearity
3mm
Mid point curve of bertical BHD. 8mm
Corrugation BHD. top cover plate flatness 3mm
Mark centerline, upper align line and lower align line after work finished.

6.4.8 Aft block grand assembly


6.4.8.1 Technics flow
fit the stern boss

preheat

fit stern tube

weld

member sub-ass.
stern tube

preheat the stern boss

weld the seam of shell and members

set the shell plt.

outfitting

tightness of stern tube and submission

weld the stern tube and casting

preheat the stern tube and casting

weld the members

measure before welding

install stern tube

install frame one by one

fit the bhd.of the apt.

fit the casting in front of the stern tube

make jig

weld the boss and shell plt.

frame check line and other marks

final measure and check center line

acceptance inspection

painting

6.4.8.2 Assembly work criteria:


Aft and fore shaft center eccentricity 3mm welding deformation be controled duiring working
The allowance of the length L,: +30+40shared equally by both ends
(L refers to the length between aft end of the aft stern tube and fore end of the fore stern tube).
After bulkhead level
3mm
Stern tube hydraulic pressure 0.02MPa
When weld with casting steel, casting steel and steel plate be warmed up to 120C

10

half stern tube fit together


stern tube and boss fit

cover shell plat, welding and


hydraulic pressure test

L+30+40

weld between panels


stern tube insert

pressure0.02MPa

level3mm

eccentricity3mm

6.4.9 Rudder horn block grand assembly


6.4.9.1 Technics flow

preheat rudder horn

set shell plt.

weld rudder horn and shell plt.

set lifting lug

final measurea and sheck center line

and other marks

acceptance inspection

frame check line,align line in dock

preheat rudder horn

painting

11

weld the rudder horn and members

weld members

measure before welding

set long.&trans. member

secondary draw line

weld them

set steer gear platform plt.

make jig

6.4.9.2 Assembly work criteria:


Block length: L 4mm
Block width B 4mm
Block height H 4mm
Rudder stock centerline 3mm
Aft BHD. vertical 3mm
Steering gear room platform flatness 8mm
6.4.9.3
Technics essentials

weld shell plt.seam and members

member sub-ass.

6.4.9.3.1 Preset 7mm12mm (aft inclinition) rudder horn defromation in reverse before welding.
6.4.9.3.2 Rudder horn should be warm up to 120 at least before welding.
6.4.9.3.3 Monitor rudder stock centerline offsetting with a plumb momentarily, adjust welding sequecense to
reftify the deviation during rudder horn and block welidng.
rudder horn inclined suppory by
30a left and right
aft bulkhead

rudder stock
centerline

Steering gear
room platform

platform

6.4.10 For block grand assembly


6.4.10.1 Technics flow:
member sub-ass.

weld

install frame

secondary draw lines

painting

weld

submit before welding

measure before welding and check


center line,frame check line,align
line for docking and other marks

set shell plt. ass.

install beam,longi.on main deck

secondary marking off

weld main deck

make main deck ass. on jig

12

final measure and acceptance inspection

built-up shell plt.

make jig for shell plt.

6.4.10.2 Assembly work criteria:


Block length: L 4mm
Block width B 4mm
Block height H 4mm
Opening platform 4-corner level 8mm

shell longitudinal

6.5 Pre-erection assembly


6.5.1 Cargo hold side block pre-erection assembly
6.5.1.1 Technics flow

touch-up primer

final measure and acceptance inspection

13

outfitting

temporary support40220

weld

mesure before welding and check


center line,frame check line,align

line for docking and other marks

grand assemble

fit another block

fit the block with center line

joist arrangement

6.5.1.2 Assembly work criteria:


Block length: L 4mm
Block width: B 4mm
Block height: H 0~5mm
Camber:
b 0~10mm
Longitudinal ends flatness
3mm
Corrugation bulkhead vertical
3mm
Corrugation bulkhead level
4mm
Topside and hopper tanks rib misalign 4mm

6.5.2 Cargo hold double bottom pre-erection assembly


6.5.2.1 Technics flow:

touch-up primer

final measure and acceptance inspection

14

touch-up primer

B2 bot

outfitting

strength

weld

measure before welding and check frame


check line,horizontal line,elev.line,align
line for docking and other marks

lifting reinforce

grand assemble

B2 top

final measure and acceptance inspection

B2
L

outfitting

L
B1

weld

mesure before welding and check


center line,frame check line,align
line for docking and other marks

grand assemble
fit another block

fit another block

fit the block with center line

joist arrangememt

Assembly work criteria:

6.5.3.2

fit the block with center line


joist arrangement

6.5.2.2 Assembly work criteria:


Block length: L 4mm
Block width: B 4mm
Inner bottom level8mm
Longitudinal ends flatness
3mm
Inner square(diagonals difference) 4mm

6.5.3 Engine room upper deck pre-erection assembly (platform deck similar)
6.5.3.1 Technics flow:

Block length: L 4mm


Aft and fore deck breadth
05mm
Aft and fore bottom breadth
015mm
Deck level
8mm
Height
05mm
Longitudinal ends flatness
3mm
Transverse and longitudinal BHD vertical 0.1%h and 10mm
6.5.4 Superstructure pre-erection assembly
6.5.4.1 Technics flow:
mark off for fitting 3rd wall

weld

fit the 2nd accomodation deck block

lift part before covering

draw lines for fitting 2nd wall

fit the accomodation block

make jig

lift blocks tier by tier

6.5.4.2 Assembly work criteria:


Centerline warp:
3mm
Tier height 015mm
Deck 4-corner level 3mm
Main wall cross joint misalign 1/3 t
t is thickness of thinner wall
compass deck
bridge deck
D deck
C deck
B deck
A boat deck
main deck
platform

6.6 Erection in dock:


6.6.1 Marking off in dock
6.6.1.1 Technics flow:
Mark off center-line with fine laser theodolite, set laser point by fixed distance and flip them by powder
thread, frame datum line and dock centerline should be marked with nailed stainless steel plate, set 2 surveyor's
poles per bottom block.
bottom block

surveyor's pole

dock centerline

15

dock datum line

6.6.1.2 Assembly work criteria:


Dock centerline right-and-left warp 1.5mm
Dock datum line up and down warp 1.5mm
Frame datum line vertical 3mm at max. half width
Half width line 3mm
Adjacent block frame datum line distance warp 3mm
Longitudinal space adjusting line 3mm
Ship overall length 3mm
6.6.2 Bottom PE block erection
6.6.2.1 Technics flow:
submit for acceptance

weld

fit to right position

release from 600T crane

measure for erection

lift grand block

6.6.2.2 Assembly work criteria:


Centerline
3mm
Datum frame line
4mm
Block 4-corner level 8mm
Height from base line 5mm

6.6.3 Transverse BHD block erection


6.6.3.1 Technics flow:
final measure and
acceptance inspection

weld

install attached part in dock

16

erection assemble

measure before welding

release from 600T crane

fix up with reinforcement

measure for erection

lift grand block

6.6.3.2 Assembly work criteria:


Centerline
3mm
Datum frame line
4mm
Height
5mm
Vertical
0.1%h and 10mm

Stool vertical BHD bottom and inner bottom floor top misalign 1/4 t,t is thickness of thinner plate
corrugation
BHD
steady rope

bottom block

6.6.4 Side shell PE block erection


6.6.4.1 Technics flow:

assistant bars
for fitting
D type PE block

corrugation BHD

support inside
cargo hold

hydraulic jack

6.6.5

Block between hatch erection

17

final measure and


acceptance inspection

weld

measure before welding

erection assemble

release from 600T crane

fix up

set overbridge

set support in tank

fit for erection

lift grand block

set support outside shell

6.6.4.2 Assembly work criteria:


Datum frame line
4mm
Distance from cargo hold opening to center 4mm
Upper deck level
8mm
+ 6
Butt gap between blocks 6 - 2 mmlocal gap 18mm
Frame space at block butt 10mm utmost 20mm
Set support outside bigle and inside cargo hold

6.6.5.1

Technics flow:
final measure and
acceptance inspection

weld

measure before welding

erection assemble

release from 600T crane

fix up

turn over grand block and lift

6.6.5.2 Assembly work criteria:


Centerline
3mm
Datum frame line 4mm
Cargo hold opening longitudinal half length 4mm
Deck level meet with side deck
block between hatch

6.6.6 Stern frame and rudder horn block erection


6.6.6.1 Technics flow:

18

final measure and


acceptance inspection

shaft centerline

weld

rudder stock centerline

measure before welding

erection assemble

release from 600T crane

secondary fit and reinforce with bar

draw lines for excess and cut off

fit the grand block

turn over the grand block and lift

pre-set support in dock

6.6.6.2 Assembly work criteria:


Rudder stock , dock center line and #0 frame warp 5mm
Centerline fore-and-aft level
4mm
Rudder stock and shaft centerline warp 4mm
Steering gear room platform 4-corner level 8mm
Aft BHD vertical 0.1%h and 10 mm

6.6.7 Fore bottom PE block erection


6.6.7.1 Technics flow:
submit for acceptance

weld

fit to right position

release from 600T crane

measure for erection

lift grand block

6.6.7.2 Assembly work criteria:


Centerline warp
3mm
Datum frame line warp 4mm
Thruster installation requrement: thruster platform level 1/1000 or according to manufacturer
requirement.

thruster platform level 1/1000

6.6.8 Superstructure PE block erection


6.6.8.1 Technics flow:

acceptance inspection

flame fairing

weld

measure before welding

erection assemble

release from 600T crane

fix up

fit for erection

lift grand block to right position

set covering

draw lines for fitting superstructure


on upper deck

6.6.8.2 Assembly work criteria:


Centerline warp
3mm
Datum frame line warp 4mm
PE block level warp
8mm
Tier height
015mm
Front wall bottom and BHD below main deck misalign 1/3t,t is thickness of thinner plate.
Per frame flatness of outer wall and weather deck
4mm
Per frame flatness of inner wall and non-weather deck
7mm
6.7
Hull construction accuracy according to Q/SWS60-001.2-2007 Shipbuilding Quality Standard
Construction Accuracy.

19

SWSHULL STRENGTH STRUCTURE OPENING AND


REINFORCEMENT
Reference StandardQ/SWS52-014-2006
1

SCOPE
This standard defines general opening principles, stress zone classification, opening and opening
reinforcement for hull strength structures.
This standard applies to the detailed design and production design of hull structures.
2 HULL STRENGTH STRUCTUR GENERAL OPENING PRINCIPLES
In general, opening in stress concentration area of hull structure shall be avoided as practicable as possible.
Hull structure stress distribution is shown in Figure 1. The left figure shows the maximum bending moment
appears at both ends of the beam, and there is no any stress at the locations that are 0.25L to both ends. The right
figure shows the maximum bending moment appears near the face plate, and there is no any stress in the middle
of the web. Therefore, the opening for a transverse beam should try to be in the middle region of the beam web
and at a location that is 0.25L or 0.75L to the end of the beam.

Fig. 1 Hull structure stress distribution


3 HULL STRENGTH STRUCTUR STRESS ZONE TYPE
3.1 Stress zone classification of the hull strength structures is shown in Table 1.
Table 1 Classification of stress zone
Zone

Symbol

Definition

Low stressopening ok.

General stressopening ok.

High stress, try to avoid opening. Once a hole opened, reinforce it


carefully.

Stress concentrated area, avoid opening.

3.2 Typical stress zone of hull strength structures


3.2.1 Typical frame section is shown if Figure 2.

Fig.2 Typical frame section

20

3.2.2

Typical longitudinal section is shown in Figure 3.

3.2.3

Fig.3 Typical longitudinal section


Typical stress zones for other structures are shown in Figure 4.
D/B,S/Shell and deck longitudinal
Longi. BHD, swash BHD.

Fig.4 Others
4 OPENING
4.1 General requirement for opening
4.1.1 Allowable opening size in zones A and B is in accordance with Table 2. The dimensional symbols in
Table 2 are shown in Figure 5.

Fig.5 Opening symbols


Table 2 Opening allowable size
Opening height(b)/member height(h)
Member

Oil tank
Girder

Cargo hold, engine room


and all the other tanks
except oil tank
Accommodation area and
weather deck
Solid floor

Frame plate, side girder in


double bottom, all kind of
clapboard
* b300 ** b600.

Zone A
No reinforce
force

Zone B
reinforce

No reinforce

reinforce

0.2 *

0.2 **
0.5

0.1 *

0.1 **
0.25

0.25

0.25
0.5

0.125

0.125
0.25

0.33

0.33
0.5

0.165

0.165
0.25

0.4

0.4
0.5

0.2

0.2
0.25

0.5

0.5
0.66

21

___

___

4.1.2 Try to avoid opening in zone C. Structure strength shall be considered carefully when making
reinforcement if the opening is inevitable ..
4.1.3 Openings are forbidden in zone D.
4.1.4 Total height of all openings in girder vertical direction shall be less than the limit in Table 2.
4.1.5 Total length of all openings shall be no more than 0.6 times frame space (or 0.6 times longitudinal space ),
Openings shall be scattered and shall be never gathered closely in the adjacent frame spaces or longitudinal
spaces.
4.1.6 Opening length shall be no more than 2 times opening height..
4.1.7 Opening edge shall be ground smoothly. The radius of opening should be more than 1/8 height or 25mm.
4.1.8 The maximum width and length of the outer contour of all openings shall be used in the calculation of the
opening when there are many small holes in beam, and the space between them can not meet the requirement.
4.2 The minimum space between holes and minimum distance to the member edge shall be in compliance with
Table 3. S value can be reduced when an opening is added with the same thickness doubling or ring. The
reduction value is half of the doubling or rings width, but should be no less than half of the standard value of S.
Table 3 Minimum space between holes and holes to member edge
Minimum (S)
Description
Sketch
Remarks
Zone A
Zone B

Hole to hole

d1 + d2
2

d1+d2

Hole to edge

d/2

2d

Heating pipe
opening(LR
S100mm

Hole to scallop

d+R
2

d+R

Hole to cutout

d+B
2

d+B

S 150mm
(ABS)
S 180mm
(LR)

Cutout to cutout

S12B
S12d
S22B

5 OPENING REINFORCEMENT
5.1 Reinforcement for bending stress should be in compliance with Table 4.
Table 4 Reinforcement for bending stress
Requirement
1) A zone
btR=1/2(d-dA)tW(MIN.=758)
tRtW
dA=Max. allowable sizeif no reinforcement.
2)

B zone
btR=1/2dtW(MIN.=758)
tRtW

22

Figure

5.2 Reinforcement for shear stress should be in compliance with table 5.


Table 5 Reinforcement for shear stress
Requirement
1A zone
(b1+b2)tR=1/2(d-dA)tW

Figure

2) B zone
(b1+b2)tR=dtW
when b2=b1ttR=1/2dtW

5.3 Reinforce method in the region where stress level is difficult to be estimated
5.3.1 When openings are allowable in A and B zones, they shall be reinforced with doubling or ring whose
sectional area must be over a quarter of sectional area of the hole along the width direction. Increase the web plate
height locally according to the opening size is also allowable, but material of the reinforcements shall be same
as that of the strength members.
5.3.2 When the openings length is less than 2 times of its width, and its width exceeds the allowable value, the
reinforcement method is shown in Figure 6.

a. add doubling

b. add T-TYPE face plate

c. add L3TYPE face plate

Fig 6 Reinforce type I


5.3.3 When the openings length is over two times of its width, and its width is under limit, add carlings along
length direction to prevent local deformation. The ratio of openings length and width should never over 3. If the
ratio is over 3, the opening should be replaced by several openings. Add carlings at upper and lower positions
along length direction as shown in Figure 7.

Fig 7 Reinforce type II


5.3.4 When the openings length and width are both beyond the standard, add carlings at upper and lower
positions along length direction to reinforce local bending stress, and carlings should be added to openings fore
and aft position to compensate lost sectional area. Reinforcement method is shown in Figure 8.

Fig 8 Reinforce type


23

APPENDIX A
(NORMATIVE APPENDIX)
CLASS REGULATION
A.1 CLASS REGULATION
A.1.1 Longitudinal strength member opening (DNV 3.1.5, LR 4.1.4)
aGenerally no openings on keel plate;(DNV)
bTry to avoid openings on bilge plate in the mid 0.6L area, otherwise there should be enough space between hold
and bilge keel plate;(DNV)
cTry to set openings inside of hatch line on strength deck, otherwise openings should have enough space from
hatch corner and side shell;(DNV, LR)
d) Openings on side shell, stringer, transverse and longitudinal BHD should have twice of the openings
diameters distance from strength deck ;( DNV)
e) Openings without reinforcement should have 4 times of adjacent openings diameters distance from transverse
adjacent openings;
f) Try to set enough space from lower deck openings to hatch corner or high stress area; (DNV)
g) No small openings should be set outside of strength decks hatch line ;( LR)
A.1.2 Openings on floor (LR 3.10.4, 3.10.5)
aOpenings on main floor should be in compliance with Figure A.1
d 0.25D
c 0.4D
L D or 0.6 S
A B
d 0.25D (MAX.75mm)
R 25 mm
S 75 mm
L 150 mm
A.1 Opening principle on main floor
bThere should be no manhole or lightening hole in following high stress areas unless it is proved to be
satisfied with strength and yield requirements by calculation:
1/3 length area from both ends for stringers or vertical clapboard in narrow empty tank or double
cofferdam;
Floor and double bottom longitudinal girder near pillar root or bracket toe.
cAir hole, drain hole, cutout and notch should have more than 200mm distance from bracket toe and other
stress concentrated area;(LR Pt.3 Ch.10 Sec.5.3)
d) The size of openings on double bottom contacted members without reinforcement should be no larger than
half of double bottom height(LR, 4.1.8)
A.1.3 Transverse section coefficient calculation (KR 3.3.2, DNV 3.1.5, LR 3.3.3)
a Strength deck openings with length less than 2.5m and width less than 1.2m can be treated as no
opening ;(KR)
bDeck openings with length less than 2.5m and width less than the smaller of 1.2m and 4% of the molded
breadth, whichever is less, can be treated as no opening;
c Openings with length less than 2.5m and width less than 1.2m can be treated as no opening when calculate
section coefficient;(DNV)
dFloor and girder openings with height no bigger than 25% of floor height, or notches no bigger than
75mm ,can be treated as no opening (LR, DNV)
e Above four types of openings should be set as the same orientation as floor and the space should be more
than 1m,(LR) otherwise the space must be more than 10 times of opening height;(DNV)
f Corresponding extent summation of such types of openings in one section shouldnt reduce bottom section
coefficient more than 3%,otherwise take proper reinforcement.(KR,DNV)
gCorresponding extent summation of such types of openings in one section of bottom or deck should less
than 0.06 (B-b).
hereB = breadth of deck or bottomb = breadth of large opening fall short of above requirements
Find opening top point in the diameter direction vertical to hull longitudinal direction, draw a line by 30of
hull longitudinal diameter from this point, find the intersection point, the space between openings both sides
24

is corresponding extent as shown in Figure A.2.

Fig A.2 Corresponding extent


A.1.4 Strength deck and bottom shell opening reinforcement (DNV 3.1.5)
a) Circular opening: diameter b0.325m
b) Ellipse opening: length / width2width0.5m
c) Rectangular opening: width 0.4m; corner radius 0.2bmust reinforce, but for streamline corner
with a 0.15bneedn't reinforce, see Figure A.3;

Fig A.3 Streamline corner


d) Section area of reinforcement stiffener is shown as follows:
A2.5 bt(cm2)
t = deck or shell thickness(mm)
b = opening diameter(m)
The distance between opening edge and reinforcement stiffener should be no bigger than 0.05b
e) Shell shearing strength area opening should be circular type, reinforcement or not is same as above.
When average shearing strength exceeds 60N/mm2 , stringer and floor openings should be reinforced
horizontally and vertically at surrounding. But if shorter side stiffener is less than 400mm or both sides
stiffeners are less than 300mm, no reinforcement required. Whats more, for cutout of longitudinal or
floor whose height is more than 500mm, reinforce it on the top.DNV 3.1.3 C600

25

SWSPROCEDURES FOR HULL TIGHTNESS TEST OF SEA-GOING


STEEL SHIPS
Reference StandardQ/SWS62-001-2006
1

SCOPE
This procedure specifies the definition, nomenclature, symbol, purpose, condition, item, sequence and
inspection of hull tightness test of sea-going steel ships.
This procedure is applicable to hull tightness test of sea-going steel ships.
2 NORMATIVE REFERENCE
CB/T 257-2001
Hull tightness test method of steel ship
Q/SWS 60-001.2-2003
Shipbuilding Quality Standard and Shipbuilding Accuracy
3 DEFINITION, NOMENCLATURE AND SYMBOL
3.1 The following definitions and nomenclatures are applicable to this procedure.
3.1.1 Air testing
The compressed air shall be filled into the closed tank until it reaches the specified pressure. After holding
the pressure for a specified time, the testing liquid ( if using soap liquid, it shall be heated when the ambient
temperature is below 0 ) shall be sprayed upon the welds to be tested, then check whether air bubbles occur on
the welds.
The air test shall not be performed simultaneously for adjacent tanks.
3.1.2 Water testing
The fresh water shall be filled into the closed tank until it reaches the specified water level. After holding the
water level for a specified time, check whether the leakage occurs on the weld and whether the structure is
distorted.
3.1.3 Structural strength testing
The fresh water or sea water shall be filled into the big compartment such as cargo hold, ballast tank, deep oil
tank etc. until it reaches the specified water level, then check whether the structure of compartment is distorted.
Generally, this testing should be carried out after ship launching.
3.1.4 Filling water testing
Water shall be filled into opened compartment until it reaches the height of door sill, then check whether the
leakage occurs on the weld.
3.1.5 Combined water and air testing
Water shall be filled into the closed tank until it reaches the back face of manhole cover, then fill in
compressed air and check whether the leakage occurs on the weld.
3.1.6 Hose testing
The clean water having a certain pressure shall be sprayed upon the weld to be tested by means of a nozzle
with specified size according to the requirements, then check whether the leakage occurs on the back face of weld.
3.1.7 Vacuum testing
The testing liquid (if using soap liquid, it shall be heated when the ambient temperature is below 0) shall
be sprayed on weld, next the weld shall be covered by a vacuum box, the vacuum is established through high
speed air flow, and finally, check whether air bubbles occur on the weld.
3.2 Symbols
The following symbols are applicable to this standard.
A---- Air testing
W---- Water testing
S---- Structural strength testing
F---- Filling water testing
W+A Combined water and air testing
H---- Hose testing
V---- Vacuum testing
4 TESTING PURPOSE
For the hull structure with tightness requirements, the tightness testing shall be carried out according to the rules
for Building and Classing Steel Vessels of relative classification society or design requirements so as to check the
tightness and strength of weld or hull structure. For the tightness testing method, refer to CB/T 257-2001
Tightness Testing Method for Steel Ships.
5 TESTING CONDITIONS
5.1 The tightness testing shall be carried out in accordance with Tightness Testing Drawings drawn out by the
design department. During testing, the testing method and contents shall not be changed without agree by design
department.
5.2 Tightness testing may be carried out in accordance with the area, status of hull structure, testing method and
requirements separately after the stage of block subassembly, block assembly, dock erection or undocking.
5.3The installation, welding and rectification work of hull structure, pre-outfitting etc. in the area related to
tightness testing should have been completed.
5.4 The installation of main piping, joints and machine foundations etc. in the compartment to be
tightness-tested should have been completed; the installation and welding of appendages etc. which penetrate
adjoining tank and are specified with tightness requirements should have been finished completely.
5.5 The installation and welding of hull structure and pre-outfitting should have been measured and inspected by
the inspection department, and the important welds should have been NDT- tested and accepted.
5.6 Tightness testing area (compartment) shall be cleaned, the rust shall be removed, the welds to be tested shall
be kept clean and dry.
26

5.7 Appendages, support blocks, staging etc. which encumber the tightness testing shall be removed or shifted.
5.8 Tightness testing area of hull structure may be coated with shop primer before testing, the paint film
thickness should be less than 40m, if the weld to be tested is out of accord with specified requirements, its
painting should be removed thoroughly.
5.9 During tightness testing, if environmental temperature is below 0, the corresponding anti-freezing
measures should be taken.
6 PERSONNEL
6.1 Persons who perform the tightness testing must be those engaged specially in such work or the relative jobs
and can make a right estimate of testing contents and carry out the operation skillfully.
6.2 Persons engage in the weld repairing after tightness testing may carry out the repair welding work only after
they passed the qualification test approved by classification society and obtained the welder certificates.
7 TESTING ITEMS AND SEQUENCE (F)
Filling water testing, hose testing, air testing (include air testing of compartment and fillet weld air testing),
vacuum testing etc. shall be carried out in accordance with different requirements for the structural strength, water
tightness, oil tightness etc. of hull. If approved by owner and surveyors, tightness testing of local area may be
replaced by magnetic particle testing or liquid penetration testing.
7.1 Filling water testing
7.1.1 Testing locations
Galley, pantry, laundry, bathroom, water closet, storage battery room etc
7.1.2 Testing requirements
7.1.2 1Filling water testing shall be alternately performed. Filling water testing of adjacent tanks shall not be
carried out simultaneously.
7.1.2.2 During filling water testing, clear water must be used. If environmental temperature is below 0, the
antifreeze (such as salt, purifying agent) should be added to the water, so that the water exuded from leakage point
does not freeze. Generally, the temperature of water shall be above 5.
7.1.2.3 All pipings and openings which locate below the water level shall be closed before filling water.
7.1.2.4 The testing water shall be filled into the compartment to be tested until it reaches the height of door sill.
After holding the water level for 30 minutes, check whether leakage occurs in the testing area.
7.2 Water testing (W)
7.2.1 Testing locations
Ballast water tank, deep oil tank, fore peak tank, after peak tank, oil/water tank etc.
7.2.1.1 Preparation before water testing
aClose the bilge discharge holes and manholes, except one manhole which is used to fill water;
bChange the manhole cover to a specially fabricated manhole cover according to actual demands, a steel
pipe of above 50 mm diameter and a air pipe are welded on the front face of the latter, they are used to fill
water and increase testing pressure head.
cClose the pipings and openings which lead to the adjacent tanks;
dFill clear water into the compartment.
eFor big compartment, use a pump to fill water so as to increase the water flow.
7.2.1.2 Requirements for water testing
aWater testing of the compartment shall be carried out after tightness testing is completed.
bFor the compartment with both tightness and strength requirements, if its tightness test is not carried out as
yet, water test and tightness test may be carried out simultaneously when allowed by the environmental
conditions.
testing shall be carried out in
cFor the compartment whose storage capacity is not more than 100m3, water
dock; for the compartment whose storage capacity is more than 100m3, water testing may be carried out
after ship launching.
dDuring water testing, if environmental temperature is below 0, water should be heated, or the antifreeze
shall be added to it. Generally, water temperature is above 5.
eWater shall be filled to the specified level and the water level shall be held for 30 minutes, then the welds
shall be checked under the condition that the water level is kept constant, no leakage is allowed.
fWater testing shall be alternately performed. For the sake of easy examination, the water testing of adjacent
compartments shall not be carried out simultaneously..
gDuring water testing, keel blocks shall be suitably placed under the bulkhead of compartment to be tested
in order to avoid distortion.
hThe compartment to be water-tested shall be provided with an air pipe, after filling water, there should be
no remained air on the top of compartment.
iDuring testing, if the leakage is found, it should be marked by chalk, and weld repair shall be carried out
after draining off the water. The length of repair weld shall be above 50mm, local tightness testing shall
be performed again after weld repairing.
7.3 Hose testing (H)
7.3.1 Water shall be sprayed vertically and directly upon the weld by a fire hose nozzle to check whether
leakage occurs on the weld. Generally, hose testing is applicable to bulkhead, weather deck, outer wall of
superstructure, hatch coaming, hatch cover, and weathertight door, window etc.
7.3.2 The water testing shall be carried out by a nozzle having a diameter of 12.5 mm, the distance of nozzle
away from the weld to be tested shall not exceed 1.5 m.
7.3.3 The water pressure for hose testing shall be at least 0.2MPa (the water pressure shall be sufficient to ensure
that the height of water sprayed upwards from testing point is no less than 20 m).
7.3.4 During hose testing, an operator and a checker shall be respectively inside and outside the compartment
and cooperate closely each other to carry out water test from bottom to top. Before hose testing, the hatch cover,
watertight door etc. shall be closed.
27

7.4 Air testing of compartments (A)


7.4.1 Air testing method is that the compressed air is filled into the closed compartment and the testing liquid
(such as soap liquid etc.) is sprayed upon the surface of weld to be tested so as to check whether the leakage
occurs on the weld.
7.4.2 Air is filled into the compartment to be tested through a specially fabricated manhole cover (on which the
connections of air filling pipe, pressure gauge, safety valve etc. are fitted).
7.4.3 For big compartment such as deep tank etc., in order to prevent accident, pressure gauges and safety values
shall be fitted in two places, the compressed air should be controlled by pressure regulator or reducing valve.
7.4.4 Pressure for air testing is 0.02MPa, the air inlet valve shall be closed after the pressure reaches a required
value, then observe whether the pressure drops quickly, if it is really true, it shall be checked whether there is
miss-welding or not tight closure. If the pressure is kept constant and there is no obvious leakage after holding the
pressure for 60minutes, the pressure shall be decreased to 0.015MPa and the soap liquid shall be sprayed upon the
welds to check whether the leakage occurs.
7.4.5 For the weld which is difficult to be visually checked, the spraying of the soap liquid shall be repeated
several times, if no air bubble occurs, the weld is referred as acceptable.
7.4.6 During testing, the unfrozen soap liquid shall be used when environmental temperature is below 0.
7.5 Fillet weld air testing (A)
7.5.1 Fillet weld air testing method is that the root of unbevelled fillet weld of watertight hull member (such as
floor plate, bulkhead etc.) is filled with air and the testing liquid is sprayed upon the outside surface of fillet weld
to check whether the leakage occurs.
7.5.2 The fillet joints to be air-tested shall be all fillet welded joints forming boundaries of the compartment.
The assembling quality of fillet welded joints should conform to the requirements of Q/SWS 60-001.2-2003<<
Shipbuilding Quality Standard and Shipbuilding Accuracy>>.
7.5.3 The complementary plate of longitudinal such as angle steel, bulb flat bar, T-steel etc. which penetrates
watertight members must be one-piece.
7.5.4 Installing type of connecting plate for fillet weld air testing is as shown in Figure 1, the connection of
compressed air inlet pipe is fitted on the connecting plate at one end of the fillet weld, the connection of the
pressure gauge is fitted on the connecting plate at the other end of fillet weld, and the air stop holes are cut at two
ends of the fillet weld and be welded up, so that the fillet weld to be tested is completely sealed.
connection plate
water stop
air injection

connection plate
pressure gauge
water stop

Figure 1

Type of connecting plate

7.5.5 The pressure for fillet weld air testing is 0.015MPa ~ 0.02MPa.
7.5.6 Tightness testing and examination method of fillet welds
7.5.6.1 Open the ball valve and fill the compressed air into the gaps of fillet weld root. When the indicated value
of pressure gauge exceeds 0.015MPa, close the ball valve and hold the pressure for 15 minutes.
7.5.6.2 Check whether the indicated pressure of pressure gauge drops, if the pressure drops obviously within 15
minutes, check whether leakage occurs on connection or weld and find out the cause of pressure drop. If the
pressure is kept constant, coat the surface of fillet weld with the soap liquid and check whether the air bubbles
occur on the weld. When no air bubbles occur on the weld, the weld is referred as acceptable.
7.5.7 During testing, if the leakage is found, it shall be marked by chalk and the weld is repaired after
discharging the air, the length of repair weld shall be more than 50 mm, the vacuum testing shall be carried out
after weld repairing.
7.5.8 After testing is completed, the connection of compressed air pipe and the connection of pressure gauge on
the connecting plates must be fully welded.
7.6 Vacuum testing (V)
The fillet joint welds and butt welds to be vacuum-tested must be welds of watertight hull member forming
the boundaries of compartment.
7.6.1 In order to see clearly the leakage on the weld, vacuum box must be transparent.
7.6.2 Evacuation device is as shown in Figure 2.

28

BUTT SEAM

CASE WITH RUBBER PACKING

VACUUM GAUAGE

INJECT AIR PIPE

INJECT AIR PIPE


VACUUM GAUAGE

VACCUM TEST OF BUTT WELD

INJECT AIR PIPE


VACUUM GAUAGE

VACCUM TEST OF FILLET WELD

Figure 2 Evacuation device


7.6.3 The pressure for vacuum testing is 0.015MPa ~ 0.02MPa.
7.6.4 The method of vacuum testing is that the weld is coated with soap liquid and covered by a vacuum box,
then open the ball valve and check whether the bubbles occur on the weld. If no air bubbles occur, weld is referred
as acceptable.
7.6.5 During testing, if the air bubbles are found, the weld shall be repaired. The length of repair weld shall be
more than 50mm. The re-testing shall be performed after weld repairing.
7.7 Magnetic particle testing
7.7.1 Magnetic particle testing method is that the magnetic medium is sprayed upon the surface of magnetized
weld and the nature, shape and size of defect are concluded through visually inspecting the distribution of
magnetic particle on the weld.
7.7.2 For partial deep and full penetration fillet welds on the boundaries of compartment which are required to
be tightness-tested, the fillet weld air testing may not be adopted. The magnetic particle testing shall be used to
check the tightness of welds.
7.7.3 Magnetic particle testing must be approved by Surveyors and Representatives of Owner.
7. 8 Liquid penetration testing
7.8.1 Liquid penetration testing method is that the dye penetrant is sprayed upon the weld surface to demonstrate
the nature, shape and size of weld defects.
7.8.2 For the area where partial welds are required to be tightness-tested, in case it is unable to carry out the
vacuum testing or fillet weld air testing, the liquid penetration testing may be adopted.
7.8.3 Adoption of liquid penetration testing must be approved by Surveyors and Representatives of Owner.
7.8.4 Filling water testing, hose testing, air testing of compartment, fillet weld air testing, vacuum testing,
magnetic particle testing and dye penetration testing shall be carried out in accordance with the tightness test
drawings of each ship.
8 INSPECTION
8.1 After each tightness testing is completed, test department shall inform QC Department in written and QC
Department shall notify Surveyors and Representatives of Owner to carry out the site-inspection. If no leakage is
found, this tightness testing is finished.
8.2 If leakage is found in some location of weld during inspection by Representatives of Owner and Surveyors,
this weld shall be repaired, and tightness testing of this location shall be carried out again after repairing is
completed, the repaired weld must be subjected to inspection by owner and surveyors. This tightness testing is
finished after signature and approval by Representatives of Owner and Surveyors.

29

SWSINCLINING TEST RULE


Reference StandardQ/SWS62-002-2006
1

SCOPE
The rule prescribe the test purpose and calculation principle, environment condition, preparation before test,
test schedules, error check and record
The rule apply to the passenger ships and the cargo ship having a length, as defined in the International
Convention on Load Lines 1966, of 24m and upwards.
2 TERMS AND DEFINITION
The following terms and definition apply to this rule.
2.1 Lightship condition
A ship complete in all respects, but without consumables, stores, cargo, crew and effects, and without any
liquids on board except thatmachinery and piping fluids, such as lubricants and hydraulics,are at operating levels.
3 TEST PURPOSE AND CALCULATION PRINCIPLE
3.1 Test purpose
The test is intended to determine the position of the center of gravity and light weight of the ship.
Prepare the inclining test report according to the inclining test record.
3.2 Calculation principle
3.2.1 Calculate the metacenter height according to formula1
GM=M/(tg)
1
whereGMTransverse metacenter height above vertical center of gravity (m)
M heeling moment t.m
Displacementin water (t)
heeling angle (deg.)
3.2.2 Calculate the longitudinal center of gravity according to formula2:
2
XG=XB+ZG-ZBtg
whereXGlongitudinal center of gravity from midshipmpositive means forward midship
XBlongitudinal center of buoyancy from midshipmpositive means forward midship
ZGvertical center of gravity above baselinem
ZBvertical center of buoyancy above baselinem
trim angledeg.positive means trim by stern
3.2.3 Calculate the vertical center of gravity according to formula3:
ZG=KM-GM
3
whereZGvertical center of gravity above baselinem
KMTransverse metacenter height above baselinem
GMTransverse metacenter height above vertical center of gravity (m)
4 ENVIRONMENT CONDITION
4.1 The test should be carried out at weather with wind not exceeding Beaufort scale 3. Otherwise the test can
be done if administration agrees.
4.2 The test should be done in outfitting quay. Pay attention to the wind direction and wave direction. Try to
done at slack tide.
4.3 There should be enough space to ensure the ship be afloat freely and not touch any other things during the
process of the test.
4.4 The ship should be moored in a manner to allow unrestricted heeling. The access ramps should be removed.
Power lines, hoses, etc., connected to shore should be at a minimum, and kept slack at all times.
4.5 The mooring lines should be as long as practical. All lines are to be slack, with the ship floating and heeling
freely, when takereading during test.

30

5 PREPARATION BEFORE TEST


5.1 The test should be carried out after completing as far as possible. The ship should be lightship condition. All
shipyard tools and remainders should be removed from the ship.
5.2 If it is difficult to get to lightship condition, a few value of missing weights and surplus weights is allowed.
But the total value of both should not exceed 1% of the lightship displacement. This doesnt include the test
weights and necessary ballast.
5.3 The day before test, a preliminary survey should be done. The names, weights, vertical and longitudinal
center of gravity of the surplus and missing weight should be recorded in the table respectively. Referred to the
Appendix A.4. Ships conditions should be checked by owners representative and Classs surveyor for their
conformation before commencing of test.
5.4 Decks should be free of water. Any rain, snow or ice accumulated on the ship should be removed prior to the
test. All equipments and other things which are liable to swing or moving should be lashed in proper position
securely, to prevent from moving or swinging during the test.
5.5 All water or oil in machinery, boiler, piping and system should be of the quantity equivalent to lightship
condition. Relevant valves should be kept closed to avoid the oil, water flowing or losing. Sea chest valves also
should be closed. The relative system is allowed to be in working condition if it is necessary for the generator to
work during the test.
5.6 The ballast tanks involved in the test and oil tanks allowed to fill oil in should be full. The ballast tanks
should be filled several times to ensure it is full completely. The number of slack tanks should be kept to an
absolute minimum. Effect of the free surface of specific tanks not to be full should be determined.
5.7 Fortests accuracy, ballast tanks and oil tanks not involved in the test should be emptied completely to
minimize the effect of free surface as far as possible.
5.8 Water or oil which accumulates in the space (including the cofferdam space) except ballast tanks and oil
tanks should be removed.
5.9 The ship should be as upright as possible and have sufficient draft so that any abrupt changes in the water
plane will be avoided when the ship is inclined from side to side. Ship floating condition can be adjusted by
ballast weight such as ballast water which has known weight and VCG (vertical center of gravity). When no
trim or trim is very little, displacement, vertical center of transverse metacenter, longitudinal center of buoyancy
etc can be determined using hydrostatic data according to average corrected draft. A deviation from trim of up to
1% of L is normally acceptable when using hydrostatic data. Otherwise, the hydrostatic data should be calculated
for the actual trim. For the ship has design trim, above-mentioned trim requirement base on design trim.
5.10 With inclining weight in the initial position, up to one-half degree of list is acceptable.
5.11 The total weight used should preferably be sufficient to provide a minimum inclination of two degrees and
a maximum of four degrees of heel to each side. However, a minimum inclination of one degree to each side may
be accepted for large ships.
5.12 Test weight should be compact and of such a configuration that the VCG (vertical centre of gravity) of the
weights can be accurately determined.
5.13 Water ballast is generally not acceptable as inclining weight. However, water ballast transfer may be
permitted when it is absolutely impractical to incline using solid weights if acceptable to the administration.
Where water ballast is permitted, the following should be complied with:
a) Inclining tanks should be wall-sided and free of large stringers (air pockets).
b) Tanks should be directly opposite to maintain ships trim.
c) Pipe lines to inclining tanks should be full.
d) All ballast valves should be closed prior to the test. Strictly valve control should be maintained during the
test. If the water is transferred through manifolds or valve boxes, all valves to the branches not used
should be tagged or locked to prevent opening during the test.
e) Inclining tanks initial weights and transfer weights should be satisfied with the requirement of maximum
inclining of heel to each side.
5.14 Test weight should be divided into four groups with similar shift moments. Certification of the test weights
should be carried out prior to the inclining and be acceptable to the administration. Test weights location should
avoid the deck to be overloaded and the location should be painted clearly on the deck.
5.15 The heeling angle of the ship to be measured by hanging pendulum. Three sets of hanging pendulum to be
located. They should each be located in an area protected from the wind and as far apart as practical. The
pendulum length () is the perpendicular distance from the nail to the scale gauge. The pendulums should be long
enough to give a measured deflection, to each side of upright, of at least 15cm. Generally, this will require a
pendulum length of at least 3m. The pendulum weight should be immersed into the liquid in the trough and not
touch the bottom and side each movement. Pendulum arrangement is simply shown in figure (1) .

31

Fig. 1
5.16 Interphones are provided for communication between central control and each pendulum station and
between central control and the test weight position. One person at a central control station should have complete
control over all personnel involved in the test.
6 TEST PROCEDURE
6.1 The test should be carried out in presence of administration representative and owner. The test commander
organizes shipyard, administrationowner and other delegates to check the ships status completely together and to
confirm whichhas been satisfied with the test requirement.
6.2 During the test, one person as commander in chief should plan the test procedure, give orders to start
reading pendulum gauge and to superintend personnel in place. Furthermore, meet with administration
representative and relative delegates to survey the wind direction, the wind velocity, current, the status of river
surface around and to confirm which is satisfied with the test required condition and mooring status.
6.3 The personnel who take part in the inclining test should be in right place and their weights and position
should be recorded. Excess personnel should be away from the ship.
6.4 To get accurate test displacement and buoyancy center, all draft marks (forward, mid ship, and aft) on each
side of the ship should be read accurately. At the same time, the measurement of the density of test areas water
should be carried out. The data recorded in appendix A.1.
6.5 If the test weight is solid weight, test procedure is showed as fig 2. If the test weight is ballast water, test
procedure is showed as fig 3 (a example of 175k bulk carrier).
0

Fig. 2
note 1-- the position of test transfer weight
2-- the position of notest transfer weight

32

Fig. 3
6.6 When everything and personnel is in place, the test should commence immediately. After the ship is stable,
observers should start reading under the instructions of commander in chief and record the data in appendix A.2.
Hereafter, reading and recording should be made for each weight movement. For each movement, the pendulum
gauge reading should be repeated recordedten times when the pendulum is swing by right and left, then the
average value should be calculated and recorded. At the same time, the incline liquid tanks sounding should be
repeated and recorded three times in appendix A.3. Then the average value should be calculated and recorded.
6.7 After each weight movement and prior to each reading, the following should be checked:
athe mooring arrangement should be checked to ensure that the ship is afloat freely.
bwhen the ship heels, the wire for pendulums should be perpendicular and should not touch the scale gauge.
call personnel are in place.
6.8 The heeling angle is calculated by the following formula:
tg=a/
4
where heeling angle.
athe average value of swing of pendulum (m).
the value of perpendicular distance of pendulum wire from nail to scale gauge (m).

33

7 TEST ERROR CHECK


7.1 A error check plot should be plot during the test to ensure that acceptable data is being obtained. The
abscissa of the plot will be heeling moment and the ordinate will be the tangent of the heel angle. The error check
plot refer to figure 4

Fig.4
7.2 Plotting the average of the readings after each weight movement. Once any deviation is found, analyze the
reason and determine if part or the entire test to be redone.
8 TEST RECORDS
During inclining test, relevant data should be recorded, the records format refer to the Appendix A.

34

APPENDIX A
(NORMATIVE APPENDIX)
INCLINING TEST RECORDING TABLE
A.1

Ship test condition record:


General
Time of the test started:
Time of the test finished:
Weather condition:
river condition:
Air temperature:
Draft, water temperature, water specific gravity reading
(Port side)
aft
mid
fwd

(Stbd side)
Item
Position

Draft
(m)

water specific gravity (t/m3)

water temperature ()

Port
Fore
Stbd

Mid.

Port
Stbd

Aft.

Port
Stbd
Personnel: Class
Owner
Shipyard

A.2

Pendulum reading record:


Pendulum position
Position
No

Length
Longitudinal

No.1 pendulum
No.2 pendulum
No.3 pendulum

35

Transverse

(mm)

Pendulum deflection
No.1 pendulum

No.

Reading
(mm)

Deflection
(mm)

No.2 pendulum
Reading (mm)

Deflection
(mm)

No.3 pendulum
Reading (mm)

Deflection
(mm)

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Personnel:

36

Class
Owner
Shipyard

No.1 pendulum reading


ReadingNo.
Shift No.

Length=
1
(mm)

2
(mm)

3
(mm)

4
(mm)

5
(mm)

mm
6
(mm)

7
(mm)

8
(mm)

9
(mm)

10
(mm)

Aver.
(mm)

Personnel:

Class
Owner
Shipyard

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

37

No.2 pendulum reading reading


ReadingNo.
1
Shift No.
(mm)

Length=
2
(mm)

3
(mm)

4
(mm)

5
(mm)

6
(mm)

mm
7
(mm)

8
(mm)

9
(mm)

10
(mm)

Aver.
(mm)

Personnel:

Class
Owner
Shipyard

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

38

No.3 pendulum reading reading


ReadingNo.
1
Shift No.
(mm)

Length=
2
(mm)

3
(mm)

4
(mm)

5
(mm)

6
(mm)

mm
7
(mm)

8
(mm)

9
(mm)

10
(mm)

Aver.
(mm)

Personnel:

Class
Owner
Shipyard

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

39

A.3

Shifting ballast water sounding record:


Sounding position
Tank name

Longitudinal

Sounding level

Port

Read. No
Shift No

1
(m)

2
(m)

Starboard
Aver.
(m)

3
(m)

1
(m)

2
(m)

3
(m)

Aver.
(m)

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Personnel:

40

Class
Owner
Shipyard

A.4

Detail of weight to be loaded and unloaded


Detail of weight to be loaded and unloaded - E/R part
1. Detail of weight to be loaded
Items

Weight
(t)

L.C.G
(m)

L.C.G-M
(t-m)

V.C.G
(m)

V.C.G-M
(t-m)

TOTAL
Personnel:

41

Class
Owner
Shipyard

Detail of weight to be loaded and unloaded - E/R part


2. Detail of weight to be unloaded
Items

Weight
(t)

L.C.G
(m)

L.C.G-M
(t-m)

V.C.G
(m)

V.C.G-M
(t-m)

TOTAL
Personnel:

42

Class
Owner
Shipya

Detail of weight to be loaded and unloaded - E/R part


3. Detail of weight to be unloaded (liquid)
Soundg
Volume
Items
S.G
(m)
(m3)

Weight
(t)

L.C.G.
(m)

L.C.G-M
(t-m)

V.C.G
(m)

V.C.G-M
(t-m)

F.S.M
(t-m)

TOTAL
Personnel:

43

Class
Owner
Shipyard

Detail of weight to be loaded and unloaded - main hull part


1. Detail of weight to be loaded
Items

Weight
(t)

L.C.G
(m)

L.C.G-M
(t-m)

V.C.G
(m)

V.C.G-M
(t-m)

TOTAL
Personnel:

44

Class
Owner
Shipyard

Detail of weight to be loaded and unloaded - main hull part


2. Detail of weight to be unloaded
Items

Weight
(t)

L.C.G
(m)

L.C.G-M
(t-m)

V.C.G
(m)

V.C.G-M
(t-m)

TOTAL
Personnel:

45

Class
Owner
Shipyard

Detail of weight to be loaded and unloaded - main hull part


3. Detail of weight to be unloaded (liquid)
Soundg
Volume
Items
S.G
(m)
(m3)

Weight
(t)

L.C.G.
(m)

L.C.G-M
(t-m)

V.C.G
(m)

V.C.G-M
(t-m)

F.S.M
(t-m)

TOTAL
Personnel:

46

Class
Owner
Shipyard

Detail of weight to be loaded and unloaded - accomodation part


1. Detail of weight to be loaded
Items

Weight
(t)

L.C.G
(m)

L.C.G-M
(t-m)

V.C.G
(m)

V.C.G-M
(t-m)

TOTAL
Personnel:

47

Class
Owner
Shipyard

Detail of weight to be loaded and unloaded - accomodation part


2. Detail of weight to be unloaded
Items

Weight
(t)

L.C.G
(m)

L.C.G-M
(t-m)

V.C.G
(m)

V.C.G-M
(t-m)

TOTAL
Personnel:

48

Class
Owner
Shipyard

Detail of weight to be loaded and unloaded - other part


1. Detail of weight to be loaded
Items

Weight
(t)

L.C.G
(m)

L.C.G-M
(t-m)

V.C.G
(m)

V.C.G-M
(t-m)

TOTAL
Personnel:

49

Class
Owner
Shipyard

Detail of weight to be loaded and unloaded other


2. Detail of weight to be unloaded
Items

Weight
(t)

L.C.G
(m)

L.C.G-M
(t-m)

V.C.G
(m)

V.C.G-M
(t-m)

TOTAL
Personnel:

50

Class
Owner
Shipyard

SWSPROCEDURES FOR HULL STRUCTURE WELDING AND


SELECTION OF GROOVE TYPES
Reference StandardQ/SWS41-003-2007
1

SCOPE
This standard defines the basic groove types and dimensions for the hull structural butt joints and T-type
joints.
This standard applies to welding design and production which include such welding processes as SMAW,
single-wire or double-wire SAW, FCB SAW, semi-auto or auto FCAW, combined welding of FCAW and SAW,
EGW, HS-MAG, T-bar welding and so on.
2 BUTT WELDING
2.1 The options for butt welding are as shown in table 1.
Table 1
Options for butt welding
N
o.

Welding
Processes

Applicable range

Remarks

FCB SAW

During block construction:


(1) Butt welds of the planar plates in the inner bottom plate;
(2) Butt welds of the planar plate in the bottom shell plate;
(3) Butt welds of the planar plate in the side shell plate;
(4) Butt welds of the planar plate in the deck;
(5) Butt welds of the slope plate in the top or bottom side
water ballast tanks;
(6) Butt welds of the plates in the longitudinal or transverse
bulkheads.

(1) Apply to welding in the


panel production flow line;
(2) The butt welds must be
perpendicular to the flow
direction of the line;
(3) The chamfer must be in
the back of the weld if
there is plate thickness
difference.

Single-wire
or
double-wire
SAW

EGW

During blocks construction:


(1) Butt welds of the planar deck plate and the platform
plate;
(2) Butt welds of the planar bulkhead plate and the transom
plate;
(3) Butt welds of the longitudinal girder plate and floors
plate during sub-assembling;
(4) Butt welds of the superstructure plates;
(5) Butt welds of the face plates or the web plates of the
main engineer seat;
(6) Butt welds of the corrugated bulkhead plates, the vertical
plates of stool and the slope plates;
(7) Butt welds of the web plates(the weld length is over 1
meter) in the large T-bar;
During pre-erection and erection stage in dock:
(1) Vertical butt welds of the planar part in the side shell
plate;
(2) Butt welds of the slope plate in the bottom water ballast
tank;
(3) Vertical or slope block butt welds of the vertical plate in
low stool;
(4) Vertical block butt welds of the transverse or
longitudinal bulkheads;
(5) Vertical butt welds of the transverse bulkhead in the bow
between portside and starboard block.

51

The welding face must be


the non-frame side.

The angle between the


weld plane and the horizon is
less than 10;
d
Wel

10

During block construction stage


Butt welds of the inner bottom plates, shell, side shell
Combined (1)plate,
deck, slope plate which couldnt be welded by FCB
Welding
SAW
in
the planar panel flow line or have local curved;
(FCAW+SA
During
pre-erection
and erection stage in dock:
W)
(1) Butt welds of the inner bottom plate, deck, platform
plate;

(1) The angle between the


weld plane and the horizon
is less than 10;
(2)The welds of the plates
that wont flow into the
planar panel flow line.

The horizontal.

Table 1Continued
No.

Welding
Processes

Options for butt welding

Applicable range

Remarks

During block construction stage

FCAW
(ceramic
backing)

SMAW

2.2

(1) Butt welds of the shell plates (in the bow, stern, round
plate) in the partly curved block;
(2) Butt welds of mini-type floors;
During pre-erection and erection stage in dock:
(1) Longitudinal butt welds between the shell plates of up
and downward block;
(2) Butt welds of longitudinals, frame;
(3) Butt welds of the partly curve shell in the bow or stern
body;
(4) Butt welds of the bottom shell plate;
(5)Vertical butt welds of the flat bulkhead, longitudinal
girder and floors;
(6) Butt welds of all inner frameworks;
(1) Welds repairing;
(2)Local area that other processes are unable to be used;

Definitions of groove code, as shown in Figure 1.


O

C
Welding Position Code /3 - horizontal.
Chamfer Value
Chamfer Side CodeS - Chamfer in frame side;
N - Chamfer in non-frame side.
Chamfer CodeC.
Groove Depth Code1 - Groove depth is half of plate thickness in double side groove;
2 - Groove depth is two third of plate thickness in double side groove.
Groove Direction CodeS - Groove in frame side;
N - Groove in non-frame side.
GroovesIV1/2VXKYDY( ).
Welding Type CodeO - Single side welding.

Welding Processes Code A - Single - Wire SAW;


S - Combined Welding ( FCAW + SAW);
C - FCAW;
G - EGW;
F - FCB SAW;
D - Double - Wire SAW.

SAW Submerged arc welding;


FCAW Flux-cored arc welding;
EGW Electrogas welding;
FCB SAW Flux copper backing submerged arc welding;
Fig. 1 Definitions of groove code

52

2.3 Butt welds grooves type and applicable range (including chamfer).
2.3.1 Table 2 guides the butt joints chamfer between two different thickness plates.
Table 2 Chamfering details
Arrangement plan

Remarks

t1

SVS CNa

Developed view

Groove type

t1

SVN CNa

t1

t1

t1

SVS CSa

t1

t1

SVN CSa

t1

t1

53

SVN CSa CNa

t1

(1) a=t1-t
(2) Chamfering if a
3mm
(3) L=4a~8a;
(4)The direction of
these grooves as
I,1/2V,V,X,Y,
,DY,K is as
indicated in 2.2
(5)Selection of
welding parameter
bases on the
thinner plate when
automatic
welding.

2.3.2

Groove types for FCB SAW, as shown in Table 3.


Table 3 Groove type for FCB SAW

Welding
Process

Code

Applicable
plate
thickness

Groove Type

Remarks

t1

t2

3
60

3 -0.5

8t19

+1.5

+1
0

(1)Apply to Grade AB
DAH32AH36 DH32
DH36 steel;

t2

FCB
SAW

24t31

+1.5

3 -0.5

+1
0

19t24

t2

t1

3
50

FYS

t1

3
50

+1
0

+1.5

5 -0.5

(2)Single side
welding;
(3) Selection of
welding parameter
bases on t1 when t1
t2;
(4)Chamfer length
L=8a when a=t2-t1
3mm.

Groove types for FCAW, as shown in Table 4.


Table 4 Groove types for semi-auto FCAW
Code

(Single-side)
semi-auto
FCAW

Case 1)
COVS
COVN

Groove Type

Applicable
plate
thickness

Remarks

5t65

Ceramic backing is used


on back side.

405

Welding
Process

02

2.3.3

+1
0

+1.5

31t36

6 -0.5

t1

t2

3
45

+6

6 -2 Max.20

54

Table 4 (Continued)
Welding
Process

Code

Groove types for one-side FCAW


Applicable
plate
thickness

Groove Type

Case 2)
COVS
COVN

02

405

25t48

35

02

5t48

Ceramic backing is used


on back side.

10

Max.20

+6
-2

(Single-side)
semi-auto
FCAW

(1) Used for the butt


joint between cast
steel and Grade AB
DE steel;
(2) Ceramic backing is
used on back side.

+6

4 -1

Case 3)
COVS/3
COVN/3

Remarks

25t48

10

+6

4 -1

5
35

02

Case 4)
COVS/3
COVS/3

(1) Used for the


transverse butt joint
between cast steel and
Grade ABDE
steel;
(2) Ceramic backing is
used on back side.

Case 5)
CYS
CYN

555

5t25

Used when single-side


FCAW cant be used.

5t25

Used when
single-side FCAW in the
horizontal position cant
be used.

25t100

Used when
single-side FCAW cant
be used.

1 +2-1
t

100
-2

+2
-1

Case 6)
CYS/3
CYN/3

5
45
t

Case 7)
CXS
CXN

2/3t

55

0-3

(Double-sid
e) semi-auto
FCAW

21
55

55

Table 4 (Continued)
Welding
Process

Code

Groove types for one-side FCAW

Groove Type

Applicable
plate
thickness

Remarks

25t100

Used when single-side


FCAW cant be used.

Case 8)
CKS
CKN

0-3

(Double-side)
semi-auto
FCAW

2/3t

45

21
45

Note: Gouging shall be used until sound metal appears before welding back side.
2.3.4 Groove types for SAW.
2.3.4.1 Groove types for single-wire SAW, as shown in Table 5.
Table 5 Groove types for single-wire SAW
Welding
Process

Code

Applicable
plate
thickness

Groove Type

Remarks
(1)Back gouging

t1

t2

(2)Selection of welding
parameter bases on t2
when t2-t13mm;

AI

5t16
max.0.8

(3)Selection of welding
parameter bases on t1
when t2-t13mm;
(4)Grades E, EH steel
applies to the range of
5t13mm;

50+15
-5

2nd W/D

t2
max.0.8

(1)Selection of welding
parameter bases on t1
when t1t2;
(2)1st W/D refers to the
face side;
(3)Back gouging.

+10
0

50

1st W/D

+2
-2

2nd W/D

ADYS
(=AXS)
ADYN
(=AXN)

16t25

AYS
AYN

t1

Single-wire
SAW

1st W/D

60+10
0

56

25t75

Groove types for double-wire SAW, as shown in Table 6.


Table 6 Groove types for double-wire SAW
Code

Applicable
plate
thickness

Groove Type

t1

Welding
Process

Remarks

t2

2.3.4.2

DI

10t20
max.1

(1)Back gouging
40

+15
-5

t2

DYS
DYN

10

Double-wire
SAW

t1

1st W/D

2nd W/D

20t26

(3)Selection of
welding parameter
bases on t1 when
t2-t13mm.

max.1

+5

26t32

50+5
-5

2nd W/D

Groove types for EGW, as shown in Table 7.


Table 7 Groove types for EGW

Welding
Process

Code

Applicable
Plate
thickness

Groove Type

Remarks
(1) Weld position: up
going vertical welds
Gt=6090
Gh=4590

4010

GVN

EGW

02

2.3.5

DDYS
(=DXS)
DDYN
(=DXN)

40-5

1st W/D

(2)Selection of
welding parameter
bases on t2 when
t2-t13mm;

+6

6 -2 Max.18

57

11t40
Gt: Angle between the
weld line and the
horizon line of the
welding plate;
Gh: Angle between the
welding plane and the
horizon plane;

2.3.6

Groove types for Combined Welding (FCAW+SAW), as shown in table 8.


Table 8 Groove types for combined welding
Welding
Process

Code

Sketch

Applicable plate

405

SOV
N

12t65

02

Combined
welding

Notes

First semi-auto or auto


FCAW with ceramic
backing then SAW to be
used.

+6

6 -2 Max.20

3 FILLET WELDING
3.1 Selection of fillet welding processes, as shown in Table 9.
Table 9 Selection of fillet welding processes
No.

Welding processes

Applicable welds

HS-MAG welding

Fillet welds of longitudinals in the planar


panel flow line.

T-bar auto welding


flow line

Fillet welds between the face plate and the


web of the T-bar.

Auto CO2 Shielded


fillet welding

Fillet welds of the panel frameworks in the


unit or sub-assembling.

FCAW

3.2

Remarks

(1) All the non-penetration fillet welds ;


(2) All the full-penetration fillet welds;
(3)Fillet welds between plates and pipes.

Downward-vertical
fillet FCAW

(1) Vertical fillet welds of the


super-structure members whose
thickness is not more than 20mm, and
the weld leg length is not more than
10mm.
(2) Vertical fillet welds of which the weld leg
length is not more than 10mm for
non-watertight and non-strength structure
members in the parallel block.

Unable to be used
within the midship
0.5L area.

The expression of fillet welding


Length of weld

Inverse indicated side


leg length

Space between welds

Round welding

L-P

K
60

Indicated line

Indicated side

F: full-penetration corner weld;


P: partial-penetration corner weld.

3.3 Groove symbols and types for fillet welding.


3.3.1 Requirements for groove symbol, type and gap of the fillet welding.

58

F.P

3.3.1.1

Requirements for groove symbol, type and gap of the fillet welding, as shown in table 10.
Table 10 Groove symbol and type for the non-penetration fillet welding

Types of fillet welding

Symbol

Sketch

Double continuous weld

K
K

Single continuous weld

L-P

L-P
L

Double symmetry
intermittent fillet weld

L-P

L-P

Double staggered
intermittent fillet weld

L-P

Slot weld

3.3.1.2 Gap of fillet welding G = 0~2mm. leg length K=K(original leg length) +(G-2) when 3mmG5mm;
fillet welding shall be changed to full penetration welding when 5mmG16mm.
3.3.2

Groove types of full or partial penetration welding, as shown in Table 11.

59

Table 11
Welding
Process

Groove types of full or partial penetration welding

Symbol

Applicable
plate
thickness

Sketch

(1)Semi-auto

45
5

02

t6

48

(1) No back gouging

10

90
5
45

02

03

(2) n=0.25t(max.6)
(3)Single-side welding with
steel backing if the
back-side is impossible to
weld
(4) 45135

Single
beveled
T-joint
welding

Remarks

6.5t13

(2) Manual or semi-auto


welding
(3) n=0.25t(max.6)
(4) Backing required

(1) No back gouging

90

P(X)

t50

(3) n=0.25t(max.6)
(4) =40~60

03

(2) Manual or semi-auto

P(3)

5t19

No back gouging

5
45

03

Special
fillet
welding
t
45

+2

4 -1

02

60

(1) No back gouging


t5

(2) n=0.25t(max.6);
(3) Manual or semi-auto.

Table 11Continued Groove types of full or partial penetration welding


Welding
Process

Symbol

Applicable
Plate
thickness

Sketch

(1) No back gouging

10

03

45

90

13t19

(1) No back gouging

45
5

t19

(2) Manual or semi-auto


welding
(3) n=0.25t(max.6).

8
03

(2) Manual or semi-auto


welding
(3) n=0.25t(max.6).

Remarks

Partial
welding

n
n

45

penetration
90

10
n

(1) No back gouging


t19

(3) n=0.25t(max.6).

45 5

(1) No back gouging


8

0 3

t19

(2) Manual or semi-auto


welding
(3) n=0.25t(max.6).

(1) No back gouging


t

K
03

Double
continuous
fillet
welding

(2) Manual or semi-auto


welding

61

7t20

(2) Manual or semi-auto


welding
(3)60,Bevel is
required.

Table 11Continued Groove types of full or partial penetration welding


Welding
Process

Symbol

Sketch

Remarks

7t20

(1) No back gouging


(2) Manual or semi-auto
welding
(3) t=78
7090
(4) t=910
7590
(5) t=1115
8090
(6) t=1620
8590

13t20

(1) No back gouging


(2) Manual or semi-auto
welding.

90

Applicable
plate
thickness

Max.3

3
0

Double
continuous
fillet welding

40

1/2t

60

4 5

2
1

5t19

45
5

12
3

5t

2
0

welding

F()

45
5

312

t38

90
n

10

F
02

Penetration

Full

62

(1) n=0.25t(max.6)
(2)Manual or semi-auto
welding
(3)Weld Beveled side firstly,
2/3t(with backing) then
weld the other side after
removing the backing;
(4)when 03no backing
required, back gouging
needed;
(5)3090
(1) n=0.25t(max.6)
(2)Manual or semi-auto
(3)Weld Beveled side firstly,
2/3t(with backing) then
weld the other side after
removing the backing;
(4)when 03no backing
required, back gouging
needed;
(5)3090.
(1) n=0.25t(max.6)
(2)Manual or semi-auto
(3)Weld Beveled side firstly,
2/3t(with backing) then
weld the other side after
removing the backing;
(4)when 03no backing
required, back gouging
needed.

Table 11Continued Groove types of full or partial penetration welding


Welding
Process

Symbol

Sketch

Applicable
plate
thickness

Remarks

t38

(1) n=0.25t(max.6)
(2)Manual or semi-auto
welding
(3)Weld Beveled side firstly,
2/3t(with backing) then
weld the other side after
removing the backing;
(4)when 03no backing
required, back gouging
needed.

19t25

(1) n=0.25t(max.6)
(2)Manual or semi-auto
welding
(3)Weld Beveled side firstly,
2/3t(with backing) then
weld the other side after
removing the backing;
(4)when 03no backing
required, back gouging needed.

25t38

(1) n=0.25t(max.6)
(2)Manual or semi-auto
welding
(3)Weld Beveled side firstly,
2/3t(with backing) then
weld the other side after
removing the backing;
(4)when 03no backing
required, back gouging
needed.

25t38

(1) n=0.25t(max.6)
(2)Manual or semi-auto
welding
(3)Weld Beveled side firstly,
2/3t(with backing) then
weld the other side after
removing the backing;
(4)when 03no backing
required, back gouging
needed.

t13

(1) n=0.25t(max.6)
(2)Manual or semi-auto
welding
(3)6590, 13<t25.5
(4)7590, t25.5
(5)pre-weld Beveled side
firstly,2/3t(with backing)
then weld both sides after
removing the backing.
x is groove depth sign of
indicated side.

F()

2
31

02
t/2 t/2

455

5
4

t
5

02
n

312

X = t/3, 2/3t

45

F(X)

45
5

X = t/3

312

02
n

t/3

X = 2/3t

10

02
n

312

F(X)
45

90

5
45

60

t/3
t

312

welding

F(X)
60

60

Full
Penetration

10

5
90
60

45

t/3
t

5
45

90

10

t/3

F(x)

X = 2/3t

02

63

4 GROOVE TYPE FOR ROUND BAR


4.1 Groove type for round bar, as shown in Table 12.
Table 12 Groove type for Round bar
Kind

Symbol

Sketch

Applicable range

40

D25

Round bar

40

10

40

10

40

25D75
(secondary
members)

30

D25

6
6

40

10

Half
Round
Bar

25D75
(secondary
members)

5 DIAGRAMMATIC EXPLANATION
5.1 Welding processes for unit and sub assembling, as shown in Figure 2.

C
C
X
Z

C
X
Y

Y
Z

COVS

X
Y

COVS
AYS

HS-MAG

FYS

Y
Z

Fig. 2

FYS

Z
Y

Welding processes for unit and sub assembling.

64

5.2

Welding processes for double bottom and double hull vessel, as shown in Figure 3.

Fig. 3

Welding processes for double bottom and double hull vessel

5.3 Welding processes for double bottom and single hull vessel, as shown in figure 4.
C

Fig. 4

Welding processes for double bottom and single hull vessel

65

SWSPROCEDURES FOR WELDING OF CU/NI ALLOY PIPES


Reference StandardQ/SWS41-006-2006
1

SCOPE
This procedure specifies the welding preparation, personnel, technological requirements, technological
process and inspection of welding of Cu/Ni alloy pipes.
This procedure is applicable to the welding of Cu/Ni alloy pipes for various kinds of ships.
2 NORMATIVE REFERENCE
Q/SWS 60001.22003
Shipbuilding Quality Standard and Shipbuilding Accuracy
3 WELDING PREPARATION
3.1 Welding Process
Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) shall be adopted for Cu/Ni alloy pipes.
3.2 Materials
3.2.1 Cu/Ni alloy pipe: CuNi10Fe1Mn, 4CuNi30Mn1Fe etc.
3.2.2 Welding consumables: Wires for argon arc welding: HSCuNi (2.5mm) and KW-TCuNi2.4mm.
Shielding Gas: Argon, Purity99.99%
Tungsten rod: 1.6mm3.2mm
3.3 Welding Equipment:
All welding equipment to be used shall be checked and maintained periodically to ensure that they have a
good operation performance.
3.4 Groove Type
3.4.1 When wall thickness of pipes is equal to or more than 2mm, the butt joints shall be vee - grooved, and the
groove angle shall be as shown in Figure 1.
When wall thickness of pipes is less than 2mm, the butt joints shall square-grooved, as shown in Figure 2.

01

5
55

04

01

Figure 1

Figure 2

3.4.2 The external dimensions shall be accepted in accordance with Q/SWS 60-001.2-2003 Shipbuilding Quality
Standard and Shipbuilding Accuracy
3.5 Cleaning before welding
3.5.1 The cutting and groove preparation of Cu/Ni alloy pipe shall be performed by the appropriate machining
method or plasma cutting. Thereafter the groove and its vicinity (at least 50mm in width) shall be ground by 0#
1# emery paper to remove the impurities such as burr, oxide layer, and the rust in the areas of 100mm in length at
both ends of pipe shall be removed by stainless steel or copper wire brush until the pipe shows the metallic luster.
Then the grease shall be removed with acetone and two ends of cleaned pipe shall be sealed.
4 WELDER
Welders engaged in the welding of Cu/Ni alloy pipe must be subjected to train, and may be permitted to carry
out such welding work only after they have passed the qualification tests and their qualifications have been
approved by classification society.
5 TECHNOLOGICAL REQUIREMENTS
5.1 When butt-jointing the pipes, the concentricity of pipe joints shall be checked (0.5mm) to avoid
misalignment.
5.2 In order to ensure the welding quality, the assembling gap of pipes shall be 0~4mm.
5.3 Welding parameters
In order to ensure the welding quality, welding shall be performed according to the welding parameters in
Table 1.
Table 1 Welding Parameters
Wall thickness
t

Wire Dia.
mm

Current
A

Voltage
V

Speed
mm/min

t2mm

2.4/
2.5

60120

1521

4585

100220

1017

45150

t2mm

66

Gas flow
l/min
For welding

For shielding

1018

535

6 TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESS
6.1 Tack welding
Tack welding shall be performed with Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW). The wires for tack welding shall
be the same as that to be used for production welding. The thickness and quantity of tack weld shall be kept to a
minimum as possible, but shall be sufficient to ensure that the weld will not be cracked. The width of tack weld
shall not exceed that of production weld. No welding defect is permitted in tack weld. During the production
welding, the tack weld must be fused completely. Tack welds shall be cleaned with stainless wire brush before
commencing the welding. If bridge type positioning is adopted, the bridge type positioning dog shall be removed
when welding comes on it.
6.2 Welding
6.2.1 Before welding, two ends and the grooves of pipe should be sealed with aluminum foil tape or other
suitable methods (for the long pipe, sponge, meltable paper etc. may be used as blocker to form an air chamber on
both sides of the joint). Argon gas is filled into the pipe from one end of pipe, and an air hole of about 5mm is
made at the other end. Welding may be performed only after the oxygen content inside the pipe is less than 0.5%.
6.2.2 If aluminum foil tape is used to seal the groove surface, during welding, a 30~40mm length of aluminum
foil tape shall be firstly torn from the groove surface, and then the welding is performed; another length of
aluminum foil tape shall be torn after a length of weld is finished. It is not permitted that welding is carried out
after whole tape is torn off completely. During welding, the pipe shall be always filled with argon gas for
shielding.
6.2.3 The Cu/Ni material is very easy to be oxidized after it is heated. During welding, the end point of filler
wire shall be always under shielding of argon. If the end point of wire has been oxidized due to heating, it shall be
cut off before re-welding.
6.2.4 During welding, the arc shall be ignited and excited in the groove. It is not permitted that the arc is ignited
or excited on the pipe wall at will. At the end of every weld, the welding current shall be gradually reduced by
means of the attenuation performance of welding machine, thus the welding pool is made smaller. After the arc is
extinct, argon gas filling shall be continued to maintain the gas shielding for 2~5 seconds at the arc extinction
point. The welding torch may not be removed until the welding pool is solidified. If deposit metal is out of the
shielding of argon gas accidentally, the oxidized points must be removed before re-welding.
6.2.5 During welding, the interlayer temperature shall not exceed 150.
6.3 Butt welding of pipes in different positions
6.3.1 For the butt welding of horizontally rotating pipes, the arc may be ignited in the area where the vertical
position is opposite to welding direction 10~ 20 (i.e. position of 1 ~ 2 oclock), as shown in Figure 3.
10
2
0

Welding
Direction

Figure 3
6.3.2 For the butt welding of horizontally fixed pipes, the arc shall be ignited at the position of 10 mm to the left
or right of overhead position (for clockwise welding, the arc ignition point is in the position of about 5 oclock;
for counter-clockwise welding, the arc ignition point is in the position of about 7 oclock.), as shown in Figure 4.

anticlockwise
welding

clockwise
welding

star-arc point

star-arc point

Figure 4
6.3.3 For the butt welding of non-straight pipes or pipes which can not rotate horizontally, upward welding shall
be carried out separately from both side, then the pipe is turned over 180 and upward welding is carried out from
both sides also, as shown in Figure 5.

67

Welding
Direction

Welding
Direction

Figure 5
7 INSPECTION
7.1 The profile of the weld shall be smooth and well formed. The reinforcements of the front weld and back
weld shall be 3mm. The surface of weld shall be free of visual defects such as porosity, undercuts or slag
inclusions. Transition of edge of weld to base metal shall be smooth.
7.2 After welding is completed, the pressure test of pipes shall be performed according tocorresponding
requirements.
7.3 If required, the radiographic testing shall be performed according to corresponding standard.
8 REPAIR
8.1 The defects shall be removed through the grinding or suitable machining method. After confirming by visual
inspection that the defects are removed completely, the penetrant testing must be performed to ensure that there is
no defect in the repaired area.
8.2 The at least 50mm wide adjacent areas of both ends of the weld to be repaired shall be cleaned according to
the requirements in 3.5.1.
8.3 During weld repairing, the back face must be shielded always by argon gas.
8.4 The inspection after repairing shall be as specified in section 7. Final non-destructive testing shall be
performed after repaired welds are cooled to room temperature, the range of non-destructive testing for repairing
shall extend 50 mm outwards from each end of the repaired weld.
9 MATTERS NEEDING ATTENTION
9.1 Acetone to be used for cleaning before welding is a combustible material. It may be used only after the
working environmental conditions and safety measures are checked and approved by the safety department.
9.2 The place for welding shall be dedicated to its purpose. Because a large amount of argon gas will be emitted
during welding, the welding place shall be good ventilated and corresponding safety measures shall be taken to
ensure that the welding work is performed smoothly.

68

SWSPROCEDURES FOR WELDING OF CARBON STEEL PIPE AND


STAINLESS STEEL PIPES
Reference StandardQ/SWS41-008-2004
1

SCOPE
This procedure specifies welding preparation, personnel, technological requirements, technological process
and inspection of CO2 gas shielded welding and tungsten arc argon-shielded welding of pipes.
The procedure is applicable to the butt joints and fillet joints between pipes and between pipes and fittings.
When welding, semi-automatic or automatic gas shield arc welding using pure CO2 or CO2+Ar mixture can be
adopted, and tungsten arc argon shielded welding can be adopted too.
2
WELDING PREPARATION
2.1 Selection of wires for semi-automatic or automatic CO2 gas shielded welding, see Table 1.
Table 1 Selection of wires for semi-automatic or automatic CO2 welding
Pipe material

Wire brand

Size (mm)

Carbon steel pipe

H08Mn2SiA, DW-100, YJ502


TWE-711, KFX-712C

1.0
1.2
1.4

1Cr18Ni9Ti

1Cr18Ni9Ti

304L

304L

316L

316L(solid or flux-cored)

317L

317L(solid or flux-cored)

Stainless
steel pipe

2.2

1.0
1.2

Selection of wires for tungsten arc argon-shielded welding, see Table 2.


Table 2
Selection of wires for tungsten arc argon-shielded welding
Pipe material

Wire brand

Carbon steel pipe

J50(rod)

Stainless
Steel pipe

1Cr18Ni9Ti

1Cr18Ni9Ti (rod)

304L

304L(rod)

316L

316L(rod)

317L

317L(rod)

Size (mm)

1.6
2.4

Shielded gas.
CO2 gas or CO2+Argon mixture for semi-automatic or automatic gas shield welding, or pure Argon gas for
tungsten arc argon-shielded welding shall conform to the gas quality usage standard, their purity must reach 99.9
.
2.4 Welding equipment
The welding equipment to be used must be checked and maintained periodically to ensure their well
operation performance.
2.5 Groove preparation
2.5.1 When the wall thickness of pipes is t 2mm, the butt joints shall be square-grooved, See Figure 1.

2.3

Fig.1

69

2.5.2

When the wall thickness of pipes is t 2mm, the butt joints shall be vee-grooved, See Figure 2.

60

Fig.2
2.6 Cleaning before welding.
2.6.1 Before welding, welders must clean the surface of groove and the region of 20mm in width at each side of
groove (for fillet welds, the region of 20mm in width at each side of weld) and remove dirt such as greaserust
etc.
2.6.2 Rust on the carbon steel pipes shall be removed by grinding wheel or wire brush until the pipe shows the
metallic luster. The stainless pipe shall be cleaned by acetone.
2.6.3 The burr produced due to the groove preparation shall be removed, and the groove shall be cleaned again.
3
WELDER
Welders engage in the welding work of Carbon Steel Pipe and Stainless Steel Pipes must be subjected to the
qualification tests, and may be permitted to carry out the welding work appropriate to the qualification grade only
after they passed the qualification tests and their qualifications have been approved by the classification society.
4
TECHNOLOGICAL REQUIREMENTS
4.1 Requirements for assembling
4.1.1 When assembling the pipes, the concentricity of the pipe joints shall be checked to avoid the
misalignment.
4.1.2 Fixing of the pipes can be done by position dog or tack welding.
4.1.3 Assembling gap, see Table3.
Table 3 Assembling gap
Pipe size mm
Groove type
Gapmm
Diameter Wall thickness t
t 2 Not limited

I type

1.62

90 or 2t4

V type

22.4

V type

2.43

90 or t4

4.2 For the joints of stainless steel pipes which shall be welded by one side welding with temporary backing
materials, the pipe shall be filled with argon gas before welding, and the root pass shall be applied by tungsten arc
argon-shielded welding (TIG welding).
4.3 For the joints of stainless steel pipes which shall be welded by one side welding with temporary backing
materials on the board of ship, because it is unable to fill the pipe with gas for shielding, the welding pool shall be
carefully observed during welding so as to ensure the quality of back weld. For pipes with special corrosion-proof
requirements, whether the passivation treatment is required for the inner surface of pipe after welding shall follow
the requirements specified in the technical specifications of each ship as criterion.
4.4 Welding parameters
In order to ensure the welding quality of pipes, the welding shall be carried out in accordance with the
parameters in Table 4.
Table 4 Welding Parameters
Gas flow
Tungstn
Pipe size
Welding
Number
Wire
Arc
l/min
rod
Welding
mm
current
of
diameter
voltage
Process
diameter
Dia. wall
For
For
layer
mm
A
V
thickness t
mm
welding
shielding
t 2
Not
1
90~130
18~21
1.0
limited
Semi1.2
1
90 or
automatic
2 t4
or
90~150
18~22
2

15~20

automatic
1
70~130
16~21
CO2
1.0
welding
90 or
1.2
2
90~150
18~22
t 4
1.4
3
100~180
18~24

70

Welding
Process

Tungsten
arc argonshielded
welding

Pipe size
mm
Dia. wall
thickness t
t 2
Not
limited

Table 4Continued Welding Parameters


Tungstn
Welding
Arc
Number
Wire
rod
current
voltage
of
diameter
diameter
mm
A
V
layer
mm
1
1.6

1
90 or
2t4

2
3

2.4

1
90 or
t 4

2.4

11

50~55

13~14

45~50

12~13

55~60
50~60

1.6

45

60~70

Gas flow
l/min
For
For
welding
shielding
12

15

16

13~14
14~15

15

3
2.4
Notes: When combined argon arc welding and CO2 gas shielded arc welding is adopted, welding parameters in
above table shall be observed.
5
TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESS
5.1 Tungsten arc argon-shielded welding of root pass of stainless steel pipe joint weld
5.1.1 Filling gas before welding.
Before welding, two end faces of the pipes to be welded and surface of grooves shall be sealed by aluminum
foil tape (for longer pipes, sponge, plastic foam, meltable paper etc. may be used as blocker which is located at
150mm ~ 200mm away from two sides of the joint, to form a air chamber), argon gas is filled into the pipe from
one end of pipe, a small hole of about 5mm is made at the other end of the pipe for air discharging. Welding may
commence only after air in the pipe is discharged completely and the pipe is full of argon gas.
5.1.2 Welding process
During welding, a 30~40mm length of aluminum foil tape shall be firstly torn from the groove surface, and
then the welding is performed; another length of aluminum foil tape is torn after a length of weld is finished. It is
not permitted that welding is carried out after whole tape is torn off completely. During welding, the pipe shall be
always filled with argon gas for shielding.
5.1.3 Lagging the gas filling
After welding is finished, the gas filling shall be continued for some minutes to maintain the gas shielding.
For the intermediate layers and cap layer of multi-layer weld, whichever welding method is adopted, the pipe
must be always filled with shielding gas before the welding of the whole joint is finished.
5.2 For the joints of pipes for which deep penetration welding is required and x-ray test is not required, for
example, for joint welds of the grade 2 pipes, their root passes may be directly applied by CO2 gas shielded
welding. For the joint welds of pipes for which x-ray test is required, their root passes must be applied by tungsten
arc argon-shielded welding, and their fill layers and cap layers may be applied by CO2 gas shielded welding or
tungsten arc argon-shielded welding.
5.3 Operation essentials
5.3.1 Operation essentials for CO2 gas shielded welding
5.3.1.1 During welding , the backwards inclined angle of welding gun shall be about 15~ 20, and the
protruding length of wire shall be 10~15mm, see Figure 3.

welding
direction

Fig 3
5.3.1.2 When weaving operation of electrode is adopted, the weaving amplitude shall be a little bigger than the
root gap or distance between two toes of previous layer of weld, and then weaving stops for a moment to ensure
the fusion penetration of root and metal between toes.
5.3.1.3 When arc is extinct halfway, the crater shall be ground to smooth transit by grinding wheel, and then the
arc is reignited to continue the welding. When the weld comes across the tack weld, the tack weld must be
removed firstly, then the arc ignition and welding are performed again.
5.3.2 Operation essentials for tungsten arc argon-shielded welding
71

5.3.2.1 For the butt welding of horizontally turning pipes, the arc may be ignited in the area where the vertical
position is opposite to welding direction 10~ 20 (i.e. position of 1 ~ 2 oclock), see Figure 4.
10

20

Welding
direction

Fig 4
5.3.2.2 For the butt welding of horizontally fixed pipes, the arc shall be ignited in the position of 10 mm to the
left or right of overhead position (for clockwise welding, the arc ignition point is in the position about 5 oclock;
for counter-clockwise welding, the arc ignition point is in the position of about 7 oclock.), see Figure 5.
5.3.2.3 The arc shall be ignited in the groove. It is not permitted that the arc is ignited on the pipe surface at will.

Welding arc point in


clockwise

Welding arc point in


counter-clockwise

Fig 5
5.3.2.4 The position of each point shall be changed along the circumference during welding. Half penetration
welding is adopted with welding wire as globular transfer to welding pool. . The end of filler wire remains in the
welding pool all the time. The welding torch shall be moved at a uniform speed.
5.3.2.5 When reigniting the arc after the arc is extinct in welding, the arc ignition point shall be on the
overlapping weld (5 ~ 10mm) behind the crater. After arc is ignited, the welding torch shall stop for 5 ~ 10
seconds at the arc ignition point to get a bright and fusing weld whose breadth is the same as the overlapping weld,
and then the welding is running in the welding direction, the welding wire may be filled only after the root of
crater is fused.
5.3.2.6 After welding is finished, welding current shall be gradually decreased by the current attenuator on the
welding machine so as to make the welding pool smaller. After the arc is extinct, argon gas filling shall be
continued to delay the gas shielding at the arc excitation point. The welding torch is not allowed to be removed
until the welding pool is solidified.
6
INSPECTION
6.1 The welder must remove welding splatters from the surface of welds by himself after welding is completed
and carefully check whether there are defects on the surface of welds. If defect is found, it must be removed by
grinding wheel and repaired before the weld is put into acceptance inspection.
6.2 Exterior inspection of weld shall be carried out in accordance with the weld surface quality acceptance
standard.
6.3 The inherent quality of welds shall be proportionally checked by the non-destructive testing, the
non-destructive testing shall be carried out according to pipe weld NDT standard of this ship.
6.4 If the unacceptable defects in the weld are found during the non-destructive testing, the defects must be
removed and repaired.
6.5 When repairing the weld defect, it shall be removed by grinding wheel or mechanical method, and then the
repair welding and NDT shall be performed. If the weld defect has a possibility of extension, the inspector is
entitled to extend testing length at each end of original non-destructive testing position.
6.6 After pipe welding is finished, the tightness testing must be performed to check whether the leakage occurs
on the weld. If the leakage is found, the tightness testing must be suspended and the leakage position shall be
found out. The weld in leakage position must be removed by grinding wheel or mechanical method, and then the
weld repairing and the re-testing for tightness shall be carried out to eliminate the leakage.

72

SWSPROCEDURES FOR HULL WELDING


Reference StandardQ/SWS41-009-2005
1

SCOPE
This procedure specifies the preparation before welding, personnel, technological requirements,
technological process and inspection of hull welding during ship construction.
The procedure is applicable to hull welding. It is also used as a reference and used in preparing documents of
other welding procedures.
2
NORMATIVE REFERENCE
CB/T 3802-1997
Quality Inspection Requirement of Hull Weld Surface
Q/SWS 41-002-2004
Keeping Requirement of Welding Consumable
Q/SWS 41-003-2004
Selection Rules of Welding and Grooves for Hull Structure
Q/SWS 41-011-2005
General Repair Procedure of Weld
Q/SWS 60-001.2-2003
Shipbuilding Quality Standard and Shipbuilding Accuracy
3 PREPARATION BEFORE WELDING
3.1 Principles
3.1.1 Welding materials and welding methods specified by this procedure shall be approved by domestic and
aboard class societies.
3.1.2 Application of efficient welding methods, such as semi-automatic and automatic CO2 gas shielded arc
welding, down-vertical welding, electrogas welding, and all kinds of back welding which welding on one side and
formed in two sides etc. shall be shown clearly in the relevant documents and construction drawings.
3.1.3 Hull plate thicknesses, material grades, welding methods, welding materials, groove types and sizes of
weld joints, and welding positions specified in this procedure shall be approved by class society.
3.2 Selection of steel grades and welding consumables
Selection of steel grades and welding consumables, see Table 1
Table 1 Selection of steel grades and welding consumables
Welding
Welding
Steel
No.
Applicable range
Method
Consumable
Grade
Butt welding of framing
E4315.01 (SH427.01)
member
ABD
E5015.01 (SH507.01)
All position fillet welding
AH32DH36
And other equivalent materials
Butt welding of shell
Shielded metal arc
1
plate
welding
Butt welding of shell
E5015.02 (SH507.02) and
plate
EH32EH36
other equivalent materials
All position fillet welding
of framing member
Wire: H08A
Flux: SHJ431
A, B, D
Two-side
And other equivalent materials
submerged arc
2
Jointing plate
Wire/Flux
AH32 AH36
welding
H10Mn2/HJ101 (CHJ101)
DH32 DH36
H10Mn2G/HJ331 (SHJ331)
EH32 EH36
And other equivalent materials

Semi-auto CO2 gas


shielded welding

E70T-1 (MX-200)
E70T-1 (TM-70C)
And other equivalent materials

A, B, D
AH32 AH36
DH32 DH36

E501T-1 (YJ-502)Q
E71T-1 (TWE-711)
And other equivalent materials

A, B, D
AH32 AH36
DH32 DH36
EH32 EH36

73

Butt welding of shell


plate and framing
member, flat fillet
welding and vertical fillet
welding of framing
member and plate

Table 1 (continuing) Selection of steel grade and welding materials


No.

Welding
Method

One-side
CO2 gas shielded
arc welding

One-side
shielded metal arc
welding
with backing

Electrogas welding

FCB SAW

Welding
Materials
Wire:
E71T-1 (TWE-711)
Backing
TC-1, JN-4
And other equivalent materials
Wire:
E5015.01 (SH507.01)
Backing
JN-1
And other equivalent materials
Wire:
EG70T-2 (DWS-43G)
Backing: JN1001, TC-F2
And other equivalent materials
Wire:
DWS-1LG
Backing: JN1001, TC-F2
And other equivalent materials
Wire Y-A
Surface fluxNSH-50
Bottom fluxNSH-IR
And other equivalent materials
Wire BD FCB-1W
Surface fluxDQFCB-1
Bottom fluxDQFCB-1R
And other equivalent materials

High efficient
powder gravity
welding

High-speed MAG

10

CO2 gas shielded


vertical-down fillet
welding

Steel
Grade

Applicable range

A, B, D,
AH32, AH36,
DH32, DH36,
EH32, EH36

Butt joints of sub-assembly,


assembly and erection

A, B, D,
AH32, AH36,
DH32, DH36

Butt joints of sub- assembly,


assembly and erection

A, B, D,
AH32, AH36,
DH32, DH36

EH32, EH36

A, B, D,
AH32, AH36,
DH32, DH36

Vertical butt welding in the


pre-erection or in-dock
erection of longitudinal
bulkhead, transverse
bulkhead, side plate and
shell plate

Butt welding of the plate in


the panel assembly line

E4313 (CJ421FeZ)
And other equivalent materials

A, B, D

E5024 (CJ501FeZ)
And other equivalent materials

AH32, AH36,
DH32, DH36

SF-70MX (2Y)
And other equivalent materials

A, B, D,
AH32, AH36,
DH32, DH36

Welding between plates and


T-bars in the panel flow line

A, B, D,
AH32, AH36,
DH32, DH36

Vertical-down fillet welding


of no-watertight members of
accommodation or
superstructure and those
beyond the region 0.5L
midship that bear minor
loads.

Welding wire:
E71T-1 (TWE-711)
And other equivalent materials

74

Flat fillet weld in


sub-assembly or assembly

3.3 Welding consumables and welding methods used for typical structures:
3.3.1 When shielded metal arc welding is adopted, the following structures must be welded by low hydrogen
electrodes.
a)Annular butt joints and butt joints of girders during hull erection;
b)End and side butt joints of shell plate for ice strengthened ship;
c)Outfittings which are subjected to heavy load, such as foundations of main and auxiliary engines, mast,
derrick boom, towing arch, bollards etc. and their parts which are subjected to high tension.
d)The members which are required to have higher rigidity, such as bow frame, stern frame and their joints to
shell plate or hull frame.
3.3.2 Vertical down welding (including semi-automatic CO2 gas shielded arc welding and shielded metal arc
welding) is not allowed to be adopted for the following structures during sub-assembly, assembly and erection:
a)Vertical butt joints of all hull plates;
b)All vertical butt joints and relevant vertical fillet joints in ice breaking area of ice strengthened ship;
c)Vertical fillet joints of the members which are subjected to heavy load or have higher rigidity, such as
foundations of main and auxiliary engines, derrick boom etc.;
d)Fillet joints on continuous location of transverse framework and discontinuous location of longitudinal
framework in way of 0.5L area.
3.4 Baking, storage and usage of welding consumables
3.4.1 The normal welding consumables shall be baked, stored and used in accordance with the Q/SWS
41-002-2004 Keeping Requirement of Welding Consumable.
3.4.2 Special technological documents shall be compiled for baking, store and usage of special welding
consumables.
4
WELDER
4.1 Welders engaged in the welding work must hold the welder certificates issued by Class and may only carry
out the welding operation appropriate to their qualified range.
4.2 Welders engaged in the high efficient welding such as CO2 gas shielded welding and one-side backing
welding etc. must be subjected to a short-term training and may carry out such welding work only after they
obtained quantification certificates.
4.3 Welder shall show his certificate when the surveyor or owner representative wants to check such certificate.
5
TECHNOLOGICAL REQUIREMENTS
5.1 Groove types and sizes shall conform to Q/SWS 41-003-2004Selection Rules of Welding and Grooves for
Hull Structure. Assembling accuracy shall be in accordance with the requirements of Q/SWS60-001.2-2001
Shipbuilding Quality Standard and Shipbuilding Accuracy.
5.2 Before welding, welder must remove the oxide, moisture and grease etc. from the grooves and regions of
20mm width at two sides of butt weld groove, and for r fillet weld, from the regions of 20mm in the widthwise
direction of welding to each side.
5.3 When the weld joints get rusty due to delayed welding, get wet or water due to weather influence or other
reasons after cleaning, they shall be cleaned again before welding.
5.4 Welding consumables for tack welding shall be the same as those for normal welding. No cracks, pores, slag
are allowed in tack welds. When defects are found in tack welds, they must be eliminated before welding, then be
tack-welded again. Length of tack weld shall be above 30mm for normal strength steel, and its length must be no
less than 50mm for high tensile steel.
5.5 The welding norms and requirements shall strictly follow the welding procedure.
5.6 When multi-pass welding or multi-layer welding is adopted, welder shall remove the welding slags and
spatters after completion of each pass. Distance between joints of passes shall be staggered at least 30~50 mm.
5.7 During welding, hull members (hull shell plate and deck etc.) of normal strength steel must be preheated if
the ambient temperature is below 5, and members of high tensile steel shall be also preheated when the
ambient temperature is below 0. Preheating temperature is normally greater than 80. For the members of steel
with special requirements or most thick steel plate (t50mm), the special welding procedure shall be prepared and
followed strictly during welding.
5.8 When automatic submerged arc welding is adopted, run-on and run-off tabs must be fitted at the beginning
end and the terminal end (free end) of weld. The size of tab is 150150mm, its thickness is the same as that of
weldment. When one side welding is adopted, the run-on and run-off tabs shall be chosen according to the special
requirements.
5.9 When shielded metal arc welding or automatic or semi-automatic CO2 gas shielded arc welding is adopted,
run-on and run-off tabs must be fitted at the beginning end and the terminal end of weld. The size of tab is
100100mm, its thickness must conform to the requirements in Table 2.
Table 2 Thickness of run-on and run-off tabs
Unit: mm
14

t
16
18
20
22
24
26
28t
Thickness of
jointing plate
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
Thickness of
run-on and
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
run-off tabs

75

5.10 When run-on and run-off tabs are used, distance between arc strike point and weld is 80~100mm for
automatic welding, and the distance is about 50mm for manual welding.
5.11 During hull block welding, a length of 300mm free from welding shall be left separately at two ends of
longitudinal members of the block. The length shall be welded when the block is joined to the other blocks.
5.12 When fitting structural members onto the jointed plate, because the reinforcement of weld on the jointed
plate affects the compactness between the member and jointed plate, before fitting the member, the reinforcement
of weld in way of cross joint between the member and the plate shall be chipped off, the chipping length shall be
no less than the thickness of the member, and then fit the member; or a scallop shall be cut at the edge of web
cross over the butt weld, so that the member can be closely fitted onto the jointed plate and the welding quality is
ensured. When one-side fillet welding or intermittent welding is adopted in this place, the cross joint between the
member and the plate shall be welded by two-sides welding, weld length shall be more than 75mm.
5.13 The craters shall be fully welded at the ends of welds. The scallop or leakage stop hole shall be well
return-welded.
5.14 The welding of alloy steel shall be carried out according to the special welding procedure.
6
TECHNOLOGICAL PROCEDURE
6.1 Sequence for hull welding
6.1.1 When starting welding, it should be considered that powerful rigid restriction will not exerted on other
welding.
6.1.2 When welding, one end of each weld shall be kept in free shrinking condition as far as possible.
6.1.3 When manual arc welding is adopted, if welding length is more than 2000mm, step-backslide welding
shall be adopted from the mid-length.
6.1.4 When welding block members, welders shall be in pairs and weld the members from the middle to the
side.
6.1.5 Welding sequence as follows:
a)Welding sequence of closing plate on rectangle or circular hole, see Figure 1.
2
3
1

1
2
300mm

300mm

Fig.1 Welding sequence of closing plate on rectangle or circular hole


b)Welding sequence of jointing plate, see Figure 2
1

2
1

(Numbers in circle indicate welders codes)


Fig.2 Welding sequence of jointing plate
c) Welding sequence of blocks, see Figure 3
Firstly welding butt joint between shell plates, secondly welding butt joints between frameworks, thirdly
welding fillet joints between frameworks, finally welding fillet joints between shell plate and framework.
left
2

1
back

2 1 1

2 1 1

right

Fig.3

Welding sequence of blocks

76

fore

d)Welding sequence of erection butt joint, see Figure 4

Fig.4 Welding sequence of erection butt joint


6.2 Prior welding method for hull:
6.2.1 Prior welding method of sub-assembly, see Figure 5 and Table 3

No.

Fabrication

1
2
Sub-assembly
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Assembly

Fig 5
Main welding joint in sub-assembly works
Table 3
Prior welding method of sub-assembly
Parts
&
Welding Methods
Joints
One-side CO2 gas shielded arc welding
Butt joint of flat plate
Submerged-arc welding
auto CO2 gas shielded arc welding
Fillet joint of stiffener
semi-auto CO2 gas shielded arc welding
HS-MAG
Fillet joint of longitudinal auto CO2 gas shielded arc fillet welding
semi-auto CO2 gas shielded arc welding
Butt joint of large jointing
FCB SAW
plate
Fillet joint of transverse
member slots
semi-auto CO2 gas shielded arc welding
Inside of double bottom
tank
Butt joint of curve jointing
One-side CO2 gas shielded arc welding
plate
Fillet joint of curved
semi-auto CO2 gas shielded arc welding
frame
Fillet of curve frame

CO2 semi-auto welding


77

Remarks
Auto
Auto
Semi-auto
Auto

Semi-auto

6.2.2 Prior welding methods for erection


a) Double bottom and double shell vessel, see Figure 6 and Table 4

Fig 6 Main welding joint in double bottom and double shell vessel
Prior welding methods of erection for double bottom and double shell vessel
Welding
Block Joint
Welding Method
Remarks
Position
CO2 welding with
Semi-auto
Butt joint of shell plates
ceramic backing
Butt joint of inner bottom
Flat position
CO2 welding with
plate (longitudinal)
ceramic backing +
Semi-auto/ auto
Butt joint of inner bottom
Submerged arc welding
plate (transverse)
Butt joint of planar side
Electrogas welding
Auto
shell plate
CO2 welding with
Vertical
Butt joint of side
backing welding or
Semi-auto/ auto
position
longitudinal bulkhead
Electrogas welding
Butt joint of the slope plate
CO2 welding with
Semi-auto
backing welding
in bottom side tanks

Table 4
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Butt joint of upper deck


longitudinal

Flat position

CO2 welding with


ceramic backing +
Submerged arc welding

CO2 welding with


ceramic backing +
Submerged arc welding
Fillet
welding
on
inner
auto
CO2 fillet welding
9
Flat position
semi-auto CO2 welding
bottom plate
Flat & vertical
CO2 welding with
10
Butt joint of longitudinal
backing welding
position
b)Double bottom and single shell vessel, see Figure 7 and Table 5
8

Butt joint of upper deck


transverse

Semi-auto+ auto
Auto
Semi-auto+ auto
Auto
Semi-auto
Semi-auto

Fig 7 Main welding joint in double bottom and single shell vessel
78

Table 5
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6

Prior welding methods of erection for double bottom and single shell vessel
Welding
Block Joint
Welding Method
Remarks
Position
CO2 welding with
Butt joint of shell plates
Semi-auto
ceramic backing
Butt joint of inner bottom
Flat position
CO2 welding with
plate (longitudinal)
ceramic backing +
Semi-auto/ auto
Butt joint of inner bottom
Submerged arc welding
plate (transverse)
Butt joint of side
Electrogas welding
Auto
longitudinal bulkhead
Butt joint of bottom plate
CO2 welding with
Vertical
Semi-auto
ceramic backing
in top side tanks
position
CO2 welding with
Butt joint of the slope plate
backing welding or
Semi-auto/ auto
in bottom side tanks
electrogas welding
Fillet joint of hatch rubber
path

semi-auto CO2 welding

Semi-auto

Flat position
8

Butt joint of upper deck


transverse

Fillet welding on inner


bottom plate

10

Butt joint of longitudinal

Flat position
Flat & vertical
position

CO2 welding with


ceramic backing +
Submerged arc welding
auto CO2 fillet welding
semi-auto CO2 welding
CO2 welding with
backing welding

Semi-auto+ auto
Auto
Semi-auto
Semi-auto

7 WELDING INSPECTION
7.1 Exterior inspection of welds
7.1.1 Dimensions of welds shall be checked in accordance with CB/T 3802-1997 Inspection Requirements for
Weld Seam Surface Quality of Ship Hullor the requirements of relative construction drawings or technological
documents.
7.1.2 After welding is completed, the welder must remove welding slag and splatters from the welds and inspect
visually the weld surface himself.
7.1.3 If defect is found on weld surface, defect must be removed and repaired.
7.2 Non-destructive inspection of welds
7.2.1 Non-destructive inspection of welds shall be carried out in accordance with the relative construction
drawings or technological documents, welds shall be proportionally spot-checked by inspectors in accordance
with requirements for weld non-destructive inspection of this ship, evaluation criteria of NDT shall be in accord
with the technological documents of this ship.
7.2.2 If unacceptable defects are found in the weld during NDT, the weld must be repaired, the weld repair shall
be performed in accordance with requirements of Q/SWS 41-011-2005General Repair Procedure of Weld.
7.2.3 In case fatal defects are found at one end or two ends of the location to be inspected, inspection shall be
extended along the weld for an additional length.
7.3 Tightness testing of welds
7.3.1 After welding of block is finished completely, the perimeter welds of compartment with tightness
requirements shall be airtight-tested.
7.3.2 If leakage is found on the weld, defects of this weld must be removed by carbon arc-air gouging or
pneumatic tool, then the weld shall be repaired and airtight-tested again to ensure that no leakage occurs on the
weld.

79

SWSGENERAL PROCEDURES FOR TECHNOLOGY OF WELD


REPAIR
Reference StandardQ/SWS41-011-2005
1

SCOPE
This procedure specifies the welding preparation, personnel, technological requirements, technological
process and inspection in local repairing of welds of normal strength structural steel, high tensile structural steel,
stainless steel and steel castings.
This procedure is applicable to the repair of welds of normal strength structural steel, high tensile structural
steel, stainless steel and steel castings to be used for the construction of ships.
2
NORMATIVE REFERENCE
CB/T 3802-1997
Quality Inspection Requirement of Hull Weld Surface
GB/T 772-1998
Technical Requirement of Carbon and Carbon- Manganese Casting Steel
3
WELDING PREPARATION
3.1 Welding Consumables
3.1.1 The welding consumables for repairing shall be certificated through the company qualification tests of
welding procedure.
3.1.2 Selection of welding consumables for shielded metal arc electrode welding and CO2 gas shielded arc
welding, see Table 1.
Table 1 Selection of welding consumables for shielded metal arc welding and CO2 gasshielded arc welding
Welding method

Welding consumables grade


SH507.01E5015
and other equivalent consumables
SH507.02E5015

Shielded
welding

metal

arc

TS-316L (E316L-16)
TS-347L (E347L-16)
TS-410 (E410L-16)
TS-309L (E309L-16)
TWE-711
and other equivalent consumables

CO2 gas shielded arc


welding

Applicable steel grade


A, B, D, AH32, AH36, DH32, DH36
carbon - manganese steel castings used for ship
E, EH32 and EH36
304, 304L,316 and 316L
321
410
connect normal strength structural steel, high tensile
structural steel with stainless steel
A,B,D,E,AH32,AH36,DH32,DH36,EH32,EH36
carbon - manganese steel castings to be used for
ships
304, 304L,316 and 316L
321
connect normal strength structural steel, high tensile
structural steel with stainless steel

TFW-316L (E316LT1-16)
TFW-347L (E347 T1-16)
TFW-309L (E309LT1-16)

3.1.3 Electrodes to be used for repairing shall be baked, the baking temperature of low hydrogen electrodes to be
used to repair of welds of normal strength structural steel, high tensile structural steel and steel castings is
350~400, holding duration is 2 hours, the baking temperature of stainless steel electrodes is 250~300 and
holding duration is 1 hour. A small amount of electrodes shall be stored in a temperature-holding container when
they are in use. Those electrodes must be used within 4 hours or 2 hours in rainy weather, otherwise they shall be
re-baked by bake oven.
3.1.4 Cleaning before repair welding
Before repair welding, welder shall remove the oxide scales, rusts, moisture and grease from areas of 20mm
in width at two sides of the weld to be repaired.
4 PERSONNEL
4.1 Welders engaged in the weld repair shall be subjected to the theoretic and operationaltraining, and may carry
out the repair welding according to the requirements specified in this procedure only after they passed
qualification test approved by classification society.
4.2 Welder must wear operation card when welding.
5
TECHNOLOGICAL REQUIREMENTS
5.1 The welds of various types of joints shall be repaired according to the requirements of CB/T3802-1997
Quality Inspection Requirement of Hull Weld Surface.
5.2 During the weld repairing, the shielded metal arc welding and CO2 gas shielded welding may be adopted.
5.3 When the repair is carried out by the special welding process, this welding process shall be approved by
classification society or the relative inspection departments.

80

6
TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESS
6.1 Repair of welds of normal strength structural steel and high tensile structural steel
6.1.1 After the defects of weld are directly removed by grinding wheel, if the integral weld can meet the
requirements of standard, the defects are not needed to be repaired.
6.1.2 The surface defects of general fillet welds and butt welds may be directly repaired by shielded metal arc
welding and semi-automatic CO2 gas shielded arc welding. The repairing length of welds of normal strength
structural steel shall not be less than 30mm, the repairing length of welds of high tensile structural steel shall not
be less than 50mm. It is prohibited that the defects such as pores, undercuts etc. are repaired by spot welding.
6.1.3 When there are defects such as pores, slag inclusions, incomplete fusions etc. on the surfaces of fillet
welds of watertight members and welds of butt joints, they shall be removed by grinding wheel or carbon arc air
gouging before repair welding.
6.1.4 For the unacceptable defects in the butt welds, they shall be removed thoroughly by carbon arc-air gouging
and the grooves shall be correspondingly prepared before repair welding.
6.1.5 When defects are present at two ends of butt weld of a jointed plate, run-on and run-off tabs shall be fitted
during repairing, the run-on and run-off tabs shall be grooved by carbon arc-air gouging, and the grooves on the
run-on and run-off tabs and repairing positions of butt welds shall be continued.
6.1.6 For welds of high tensile structural steel for hull structure, when the length of surface defect is more than
50mm or defects inside weld are repaired, the repairing area shall be preheated before repair welding, the
preheating temperature is 80~100.
6.1.7 When the repair welding is carried out by means of the multi-pass and multi-layer welding, welding
parameters shall be controlled strictly, low-current and narrow weld pass shall be used, the width of ripple shall be
less than 14mm, interlayer temperature shall be kept below 200, the joint of next pass shall be offset from that
of previous pass by 30~50mm, and welding shall be carried out at one go.
6.1.8 When cracks are present in welds, if the length of crack is less than 20mm and its depth is less than 5mm,
the cracks may be removed by carbon arc-air gouging and the repair welding is performed after confirming that
the cracks have been removed thoroughly. If the length of crack exceeds above-stated size, anti- extension holes
shall be firstly made by drilling bit or carbon arc-air gouging at two ends of crack to prevent the crack from
extension, then the crack is removed by carbon arc-air gouging layer by layer. Before repair welding, it shall be
examined and confirmed by PT or MT that the cracks be removed completely.
6.1.9 For the welds of plate jointed by FCB method, it must be examined and confirmed by UT whether there
are cracks in the areas of 500mm in length at the starting end and terminal end of weld, if crack is found, the
operator shall mark its locations and indicate the repairing range, then repairing is carried out in accordance with
requirements in 6.1.5, 6.1.6 and 6.1.7. If the length of crack at starting end or terminal end exceeds 550mm, the
whole weld must be examined by UT, and the examination results shall be timely reported to the relevant
departments to carry out the monographic analysis, study and work out the special repairing procedure.
6.2 Repair of welds of carbon-manganese steel castings
6.2.1 When defects such as pores, slag inclusions, incomplete fusions etc. are present on the surfaces of welds of
steel castings, the defects shall be removed by grinding wheel or carbon arc-air gouging before repair welding.
When unacceptable defects are present in the weld, the defects shall be removed thoroughly by carbon arc-air
gouging and grooves shall be correspondingly prepared before repair welding.
6.2.2 When the cracks are present in the welds of steel castings, if the length of crack exceeds 20mm and depth
of crack exceeds 5mm, anti-cracking holes shall be made by drilling head or carbon arc-air gouging at two ends of
crack, then the cracks are removed by carbon arc-air gouging and the grooves are correspondingly prepared, the
bottom of groove shall be rounded. Before repair welding, it shall be checked by non-destructive testing (PT or
MT) whether the cracks are removed thoroughly.
6.2.3 When the repair of defects is carried out, the welding consumables shall meet the requirements specified in
3.1.The cleaning before welding shall carried out in accordance with the requirements of 3.1.4. Welders
qualification shall conform to the requirements of 4.1.
6.2.4 Before the repair welding, the steel castings shall be preheated, the preheating temperature is 125~160,
the distance of the measuring position of temperature away from groove is 75mm. The preheating may be carried
out by electric heating or oxy-acetylene flame.
6.2.5 During repair welding, downhand welding shall be selected as far as possible. When the shielded metal arc
welding is adopted, the diameter of electrode for root pass shall not be more than 4mm. When multi-pass and
multi-layer welding is used, welding parameters shall be controlled strictly, the low current and narrow weld pass
shall be adopted, the width of weld shall not exceed 3.5 times of electrode diameter.
6.2.6 After repair welding is completed, the welds shall be ground smooth and visually inspected. The welds
shall be given a stress relieving heat treatment after confirming that the surface quality of welds is satisfied. For
the steel castings which need the weld repair and whose processing reached the final stage, the welds may be
given a local stress relieving heat treatment.
6.2.7 Heat treatment method: The electric heating board is appressed to the surface of weld and covered with
rock wool cloth, then the electric power is switched on. The temperature is raised to 200 ~ 250 and is held for
40 minutes, then the welds are cooled slowly. After cooling in atmosphere for 36 hours, the repaired welds and
150 mm wide areas around them are examined by MT or PT. If any defect is not found, the repair welding is
referred as acceptable.
6.3 Repair of welds of stainless steel
6.3.1 For the general fillet welds and butt welds of stainless steel structure, the surface defects of may be
directly repaired by shielded metal arc welding and semi-automatic CO2 gas shielded arc welding. The repairing
length shall not be less than 50mm. When defects such as pores, incomplete fusions etc. are present on the surface
of fillet welds and butt welds of watertight members, the they may be removed by grinding wheel or carbon
arc-air gouging before repair welding.
81

6.3.2 Where unacceptable defects are present in butt welds or weld defects such as cracks etc. occur during
construction, they may be removed by grinding wheel or carbon arc-air gouging, then the grooves are
correspondingly prepared and the repair welding is carried out. In order to avoid that the carbon and other
impurities get into the welds, the welds may be only cleaned by the grinding wheel or stainless steel wire brush. It
is not permitted that the welds are cleaned by carbon steel wire brush.
6.3.3 When the welds of austenitic stainless steel are repaired, in order to prevent the intercrystalline corrosion
and thermal cracks from occurence, the fast-welding, narrow weld pass, non-weaving of electrode and low current
shall be used. The welding current shall be decreased by 20% compared to the mild steel welding. During the
multi-layer welding, the interlayer temperature shall not be more than 60.
6.3.4 When the welds of martensitic stainless steel are repaired, the preheat before welding shall be carried out,
the preheating temperature may be determined in accordance with thickness and rigidity of weldments, In general,
the preheating temperature is 150~350. During welding, in order to prevent the cracks from occurence, the
larger welding current shall be appropriately used and the interlayer temperature shall be controlled between
300350.
6.3.5 When butt welds of two different steels are repaired, the key problem is that the composition of fusion part
of mild steel and stainless steel shall be ensured, therefore the high chromium-nickel austenitic electrode shall be
used, such as A309. For the repairing procedure, refer to the repairing procedure of austenitic stainless steel.
7 INSPECTION
7.1 After the repair is finished, the welder shall remove all welding slags and spatters and
check whether the surface quality of repaired welds meet the acceptance requirements.
7.2 For welds originally subjected to the non-destructive tests, the non-destructive tests must be performed again
after repair.
7.3 The repaired welds are permitted to be re-repaired, but the third repair shall be approved by technical
department and corresponding technological measures shall be taken before repair.

82

SWSINSTALLATION PROCEDURE OF RUDDER SYSTEM


Reference StandardQ/SWS43-025-2007
1

SCOPE
This procedure specifies the preparation before installation of rudder system, and the requirements for the
personnel, process and inspection of the rudder system installation.
This procedure is applicable to the installation of partially underhung rudder system on large steel sea-going
ships and the installation of other type of rudder system as applicable.
2 TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
2.1 Rudder horn
It means a horn-shape component of supporting the partially underhung rudder.
2.2 Partially underhung rudder
It means top half of a rudder is supported on gudgeon (pintle) in way of rudder horn, and with its lower half
being underhund.
2.3 Rudder blade
It means the main part of a rudder from which pressure will produce.
2.4 Gudgeon
It means the protrusive part at rear part of a rudder horn to be used for fitting rudder pintle.
2.5 Rudder pintle
It means a pintle or bolt for connection of rudder and rudder horn. Generally, it is made in shape of taper and
called as upper rudder pintle or lower rudder pintle according to its location and function.
2.6 Rudder stock
It means a turning stock to connect rudder blade and steering gear or tiller and transfer rudder torque.
2.7 Rudder carrier
It means a carrier at the upper part of a rudder stock to support the weight of the rudder and bear radial and
axial forces to be exerted on the rudder.
2.8 Rudder carrier seat
It means a component to support the rudder carrier.
2.9 Centerline of rudder system
It means the centerline and the extension line of rudder stock.
2.10 Centerline of shafting
It means the centerline and extension line of propeller shaft system.
3 PREPARATION FOR RUDDER SYSTEM INSTALLATION
3.1 Drawings
a) Arrangement of rudder system / Rudder Construction;
b) Rudder stock;
c) Upper and lower rudder bushes;
d) Rudder carrier seat;
e) Rudder carrier;
f) Bolts and nuts for rudder stock;
g) Installation drawings of rudder tiller and steering gear;
h) Others.
3.2 Working field
Rubbish should be removed from the field at the ship stern where rudder blade to be fitted. Around the
railway of hydraulic trolley, any scaffolds which obstruct the operation of hydraulic trolley-vehicle should be
removed. Lighting luminance in working field should be sufficient. Movable lighting devices should be fitted
besides fixed lighting.
4 PERSONNEL
4.1 Installation personnel and inspectors should have professional knowledge, be trained professionally and be
qualified before engaging in their jobs.
4.2 Installation personnel and inspectors should read the drawings relating to the system beforehand, and any
problem raised should be submitted to relevant department for resolving in advance.

83

4.3 Installation personnel and inspectors should be familiar with this procedure and strictly comply with the
technology discipline and safety regulations.
5 REQUIREMENTS
5.1 The rudder system should not be installed until the welding, fairing and tightness test of hull structure at
stern are finished.
5.2 The actual dimensions of machined rudder stock and rudder blade should be in hand ( The acceptance report
from QC department can be referred).
5.3 Alignment of rudder system and that of shafting can be made at the same time. The alignment is better to
carry out at dawn or dusk. All vibration work should be stopped when alignment is done.
5.4 When alignment to be done by wire-tautening, the reference point of rudder system should be checked and
approved.
5.5 After adjustment, the deviation of centerline of rudder system from the centerline of the shafting should be
less than 8mm.
5.6 After boring rudder system on slipway or in dry dock, the deviation between center of each hole and
centerlines of rudder system should not be bigger than 0.3mm.The allowance limit is not bigger than 0.5mm.
5.7 Deviation of center should not be bigger than 0.25mm after connection of rudder and rudder stock, and the
allowance limit is not bigger than 0.5mm.
5.8 Interference amount of reamed bolts for connection of rudder and rudder stock is 0.005mm~ 0.015mm. The
allowance limit should be more than 0, fitting could be done by way of shrinking or pressing.
5.9 Roundness of bolt holes in connection of rudder and rudder stock should not be bigger than 0.01mm,
cylindricity of bolt holes should not be bigger than 0.02mm, roundness of bolt should not be bigger than 0.01mm,
and cylindricity of bolt should not be bigger than 0.02mm.
5.10 When the bush fixed on gudgeon is made of synthetic material, its interference amount should be fixed as
per the manufacturers calculation. The calculation of its pressing force, shrinking requirement and other
technology requirements should be fixed by the manufacturer.
5.11 The interference amount of reamed bolts for rudder carrier is 0.005mm~0.015mm.
5.12 The sealing glue should be added between the contact surface of rudder carrier and the deck seat.
5.13 Clearance between jump-stoppers of rudder blade is 2mm~3mm, the dimension should be measured on
spot and then machining until required size.
6 PROCESS
6.1 Alignment of rudder system by wire-tautening and sighting
6.1.1 Tools for alignment of rudder system:
a) Tools for alignment by wire-tautening: No.19 piano wire(diameter: 1mm), cross type adjustable tautening
pedestal, wire-tightener, simple angle ruler, compasses, hammer, marking punch, steel tape, tailors chalk
line, straight ruler, 1kg plumb and other regular tools.
b) Tools for alignment by sighting: Telescope for measurement, target trunk and bracket of laser collimator,
target(cross optical target, calibrated and certified by metering department), and fixing support etc.
6.1.2 Steps for alignment by wire-tautening and sighting
Fix tautening pedestals at the extension of upper and lower benchmarks of rudder system separately and
tauten the piano wire on the pedestals (as shown in Figure 1).
Adjust the bolts on tautening pedestals to make the tautened wire coincide with No. 0 frame line
athwartships.
Check the deviation of shafting centerlines and rudder system centerline fixed by the above steps is not
bigger than 8mm, and perpendicularity error is not bigger than 1/1000. Intersection of centerlines of
rudder system and shafting can be measured with steel ruler or feeler gauge, and perpendicularity can
be measured by simple angle ruler.
In accordance with the preliminarily determined centerlines of shafting and rudder system, check
machining surplus and center deviation of steel casting, and on the premise of assuring machining
allowance for every steel casting, check the pivot clearance between the rudder blade and the rudder
horn. Based on practical measurements, it is allowable to make proper adjustment to the centerlines of
shafting and rudder system to meet the requirement above mentioned.
Ensure the height of rudder carrier seat and that of steering gear seat.

84

rudder carrier seat


steering gear room deck

upper gudgeon

rudeer horn

centerling of rudder stock


lower gudgeon

centerline of shafting
base line

Fig.1
Arrangement of optical alignment target
Cut off the lower edge margins of rudder carrier seat and steering gear seat and finish their welding.
Fix the bracket of optical collimator on top of rudder carrier seating, install the collimator on it and
adjust its position to make the center of optical collimator coincide with the center that is determined
by two reference optical targets respectively at rudder carrier seat and lower rudder pintle (points A, C
as shown in Fig.1).
As per the adjusted center of optical collimator as mentioned in above step, cast light to optical targets
at two ends of each rudder bearing and adjust the center of each optical target till no visible deviation
could be found visually.
Above mentioned centers of each optical target have fixed the centerline of rudder system and the
process should be submitted for check.
After above process is confirmed and accepted, according to centers of each rudder bearing, a cutting
circle shall be drawn on the surface of the bearing according to the size in the drawing by use of
marking compasses, while a check circle of 20mm bigger in diameter than the cutting circle to be
marked by punching as a reference for boring and for checking of the boring center.
Remove optical targets, fix the center of boring stock against the check circle and bore the rudder
carrier seat and upper and lower gudgeons.
Inside diameter and height of holes in which synthetic material bushes will be installed should be
measured on site after completion of the machining of upper and lower gudgeons. The result of
measurement should be filled in a table (see Table 1) and submitted to the manufactory of synthetic
bush. Size required for machining of such a bush is determined by comprehensive consideration of the
materials characteristics, water expansion coefficient, thermal expansion factor, requirement of
interference amount, Rules and Regulations requirement and shrinking of inner hole of bushes etc, and
the bush is to be machined as per these requirements.
Table 1 Actual dimensions of upper and lower gudgeons of rudder horn
Average
Theoretical
Measurement
a
b
c
d
location*
value
value
1

2
3
4
Measurement locations as follows

fore a

85

6.2 Rudder system installation (with the aid of a hydraulic trolley)


6.2.1 Procedure
Finish the fabrication of components of rudder blade and rudder stock carry rudder blade and rudder stock to
dry dock fit bushes at upper and lower gudgeon by way of shrinking handle the rudder carrier into steering
gear room beforehand (If straight rudder stock is used the rudder carrier can be subassembled with the stock in
the workshop, temporarily lashed with steel wire rope and lifted in the steering gear room for installation.)
handle the rudder stock at trunk prepare hydraulic trolley for rudder blade fitting in dry dock put rudder blade
on hydraulic trolley move hydraulic trolley on rail to desired position hoist hydraulic trolley to put rudder
blade and rudder pintle into gudgeon fit connection bolts between rudder stock and rudder blade by means of
shrinking assemble rudder stock and rudder carrier fit detachable part of rudder blade measure clearance
between rudder blade and gudgeon and machine the jump-stopper fit jump-stopper fit tiller inspect rudder
system for acceptance carry out function test of rudder blade (turning angle should be bigger than the
mechanical limit of steering gear) mark 0 position on tiller painting inspection.
6.2.2 Straight stock subassembly
Push upper part of the stock into rudder carrier in workshop install friction piece (friction piece made
of synthetic material should be put into oil for over 12 hours) and fix it fit pit key of the tiller push tiller
and tighten hydraulic nut connect it with steel wire between carrier and tiller temporarily (See Fig. 2). After
inspection according to tiller pushing requirement, should it be lifted onboard ship for installation.
nut

tiller

colligation by
steel wire
rudder carrier

stock

support

Fig.2 Straight stock subassembly


INSPECTION
During installation of rudder system, the inspection items of rudder system may be different and dependent
on structure of rudder system, technical requirement and ship-owners demand, but in general the inspection
items of rudder system are as shown in Table 2.
Table 2 Inspection items of rudder system
7

Acceptance
No.

Inspection item

Check phase
Class

Ship
owner

Alignment of rudder system

Together with
alignment of
shafting

Boring of rudder system

After boring
finished

Fixing of bushes of upper and


lower gudgeons

During
installation

Fixing of connection bolts of


rudder stock and rudder blade

During
installation

Connection of rudder stock


and rudder carrier

After installation

Check clearance between


rudder jump-stoppers
Function test and check of zero
position of rudder blade

Before out of
dry-dock
Before out of
dry-dock

6
7

86

Remarks

Including machining of
surface of rudder carrier
seat

Including installation of
rudder carrier

SWSBORING PROCEDURE FOR RUDDER SYSTEM


Reference StandardQ/SWS44-004-2003
1

SCOPE
This procedure specifies technical preparation, personnel, technical requirements, technical process and
inspection for boring of the rudder system on board ship.
This procedure applies to boring of rudder system of steel vessels above 10,000 DWT and can also be used in
building other steel vessels as applicable.
2 NORMATIVE REFERENCE
CSQS CHINA SHIPBUILDING QUALITY STANDARD (1998)
3 TECHNICAL PREPARATION
3.1 Working drawings and related technical documents
3.2 Tools for hole boring
a) Special-purpose boring machine
b)Scribing tool and flexible coupling for alignment of rudder system centerline
c) Spanner
d)cutting tools
3.3 To make sure that all boring tools are in good condition.
3.4 Temporary boring brackets are to be set up to suit to the seat of rudder carrier , upper gudgeon and lower
gudgeon which will be bored in dry dock.
3.5 To make sure that holes which will be machined should be marked with accurate check circle lines and
cutting circle lines. Screws which will be used as benchmark of rudder center line should be placed correctly. .
4 PERSONNEL
4.1 Operators and inspectors should have relevant professional knowledge, should be trained ,tested and be
qualified.
4.2 Operators and inspectors should be familiar with the requirements of the boring procedure, abide by
technical rules and site safe operation rules.
5 TECHNICAL REQUIREMENT
5.1 Roundness and cylindricity of boring should be in accordance with CSQS (1998), see Table 1.
Table 1 Values Of Roundness And Cylindricity Of Boring
Unit: mm
Hole Diameter

Standard Range

120
0.015
120180
0.020
180260
0.025
260360
0.030
360500
0.035
500700
0.040
700900
0.050
9001100
0.060
11001300
0.070
13001500
0.080
5.2 The direction of deviation of cylindricity of the hole should be in same way of bushes. Never be in reverse.
5.3 Coaxiality between centerlines of rudder carriers, upper and lower gudgeons after boring should be no more
than 0.3 mm.
5.4 After holes are bored surface roughness should be no more than
no more than

and end surface roughness should be

5.5 After boring the uprightness of the machined planes against the centerline of rudder should be no more than
0.10 mm/m.
87

6 TECHNICAL PROCESS
6.1 Boring shaft should be set and aligned on the base of check circle lines and the benchmark screws which are
on the rudder carrier seating ,on the technical flange, on the upper ends and lower ends of gudegeons. Boring shaft
should be so adjusted that the deviation between the boring shaft centerline and rudder centerline to be no more
than 0.02 mm by using micrometer. See Figure 1.

Figure 1 Centerlines of boring shaft and rudder to be coincident


6.2 Installation of boring shaft for rudder system
a) Figure 2 is the sketch of installation of boring shaft for upper and lower gudgeons

Figure 2 The sketch of installation of boring shaft for upper and lower gudgeons
b) Figure 3 is the sketch of installation of boring shaft for rudder carrier seating

Figure 3 The sketch of installation of boring shaft for rudder carrier seating
Boring shaft should be operated without load after it is adjusted and filled with lubricant. To make sure that
all bolts and nuts have been firmly fixed

88

6.4 Rough machining


6.4.1 Gudgeons are to be bored so that inside diameters have a margin of 1~1.5mm according to detail drawings.
6.4.2 Cutting depth is no more than 4 mm , cutting rate is 0.60mm/r, the rotation speed of boring shaft is 10
r/min. Roughness is no more than
6.4.3 Defects of the casting such as bigger blow holes, cracks, etc, which are found during machining, should be
informed to the personnel concerned ,.
6.5 Half fine machining
6.5.1 The deviation between centerlines of boring shaft and rudder centerline should be less. Gudgeons are to be
bored so that inside diameters have a margin of 0.5mm
6.5.2 Cutting depth is no more than 0.80 mm , cutting rate is 0.30mm/r, the rotatation speed of boring shaft is 10
r/min. Roughness is no more than
6.5.3 When boring gudgeons cooling oil is to be injected on it ,which is formed by mixing with 70% vegetable
oil and 30% kerosene.
6.6 Fine machining
6.6.1 Fine machining should be done at night or when it is rainy or overcast and no other working which will
cause shake of hull is allowed to do during adjusting and machining.
6.6.2 Cutting depth is no more than 0.15 mm, cutting rate is 0.15mm/r, the rotatation speed of boring shaft is 10
r/min. Roughness is no more than
6.6.3 Boring operation of the gudgeon should be finished without a break. No stop to be allowed during the
boring.
6.6.4 During boring, to eject mixed cooling oil. onto the hole surface being bored.
6.6.5 It is only after the machining of gudgeons is completed that machining upper ends can be done.
Uprightness of the machined end planes against the centerline of rudder should be no more than 0.1 mm/m
6.6.6 End planes should be machined according to cutting lines of end planes, total length deviation should be
no more than 2
6.7 Make sure that the machining quality of machined surfaces complies with the requirements of this procedure
before boring shaft is removed.
6.8 After boring shaft is removed, remove burrs on hole edges, measure and record dimensions of inside
diameters at several places as shown in Table 2.
Table 2
Record Form Of Inside Diameters
Unit: mm

position of measure
a
direction
b
of measure
c
d
average
diretio
n of
taper

B1

B2

B3

C4

positive
negative

temperature
Hull name

Hull number

Surveyor::
89

Date

C5

C6

INSPECTION
The items as follows should be checked after boring is finished:
a) Roughness of machined surfaces;
b) Dimensions of length and diameters of machined holes;
c) Roundness and cylindricity of machined holes;
d) Coaxiality between machined holes;
e) Correctness about dimensions of fillets or chamfers of the bored holes and correctness about outside
diameters of machined surfaces.

90

SWSTIGHTNESS TEST PRACTICE FOR DOORS AND WINDOWS


Reference StandardQ/SWS63-005-2006
1

SCOPE
The practice stipulates the test purpose, test condition, personnels, test items, procedure and test result
evaluation for the tightness test of doors and windows .
The practice shall apply to the doors and windows on board marine vessels and surface combat ships.
2 TEST PURPOSE
In accordance with the classification rules and regulations for ship construction or design requirements,
tightness test for doors and windows shall be carried out to check the tightness characteristics of their welding
joints or their structure .
3 TEST CONDITIONS
3.1 Before tightness test of the doors and windows they should be checked in terms of the integrality,
appearance, and agility of opening and closing.Their surfaces and joints to be tested should be clean and dry.
3.2 The part or component that would affect the tightness characteristics, should be installed completely.Check
the contact condition between the sealing surface and the sealing stuffing with dye color , the stuffing should be
pressed evenly on the sealing surface without gap.
3.3 I f the part to be tested need to paint or install with insulation, the painting or installation should be carried
out after the tightness test is finished and accepted.
4 PERSONNEL
4.1 The test personel should be professionals who specially enange in this test work or those who engage
relative job , can correctly judge the test result and could operate skillfully.
4.2 The welder to be engaged in the repair work of the welding joint should have welder qulaification
certificate.
5 TEST ITEMS AND PROCEDURE
5.1 Test items
The doors and windows should be tested according to the requirement for the tightness characteristics by
means of one of the five kinds of tests as follows: hose test, shower test, air-blowing test, smogging gas tightness
test, and choke test.
5.1.1 Weather tight door
Weather tight doors of Grades A, B and C , after they are installed on the mock-up cabin or onboard the shipthey
shall be hose-tested, and weather tight doors of Grade D shall be shower-tested (no requirement for the water
pressure)..
5.1.2 Gas tight door
Do air-blowing test for gastight doors of Types A and B. For gastight doore of Type C , smogging gas
tightness test shall be done on the mock-up cabin before their installing on board.
5.1.3 Anacoustic choke door
Choke test for the anacoustic choke door shall be carried out after are installed onboard.
5.1.4 Fixed rectangle windows for wheel house, general rectangle windows and side scuttles shall be hose-tested
after they are installed onboard.
5.2 Test procedure
5.2.1 Hose test
Using a nozzle of not less 12mm in diameter, eject water with a pressure of 0.2 Mpa from a distance of 1.5
metres,, directly onto the test part from the bottom up, The ejecting time should be not more than 3 minutes for
side scuttles and rectangle windows, and the ejecting time for other types of windows depends on the inspection
requirement.
5.2.2 Shower test
Using a nozzle of 16mm in diameter drip (pour sprinkle) free-falling water onto the test part. Test time
should be in accordance with the inspection requirement.
5.2.3 Air-blowing test
Close the gas tight door, let the air-charged sealing rubber be in the working state,using a pipe with an outlet
of 5 mm in diameter blow air with a pressure of 0.2 Mpa on to the gap between the door and its frame, and brush
suds on the back side of the gap to check if there is any air bubbles.
5.2.4 Smogging Gas tightness test
Gas tight door is to be installed in the mock-up cabin in the same way of onboard installation, burn the
smogging medium in the cabin, then close the door tightly with locking mechanism or clips, check the door s gas
tightness.
5.2.5 Choke test
91

Blow smoke of cigarret or mosquito-repellent incense to the test part, check the door s gas tightness.The
duration time of the test is to be determined according to the requirement.
6 TEST RESULT EVALUATION
6.1 For hose test, if on the testing part there is no leaking such as water bead or water mark, the test is
acceptable.
6.2 For shower test, if on the testing part there is no leaking such as water bead or water mark, the test is
acceptable.
6.3 For air-blowing test, if thers is no soap bubble arising from the suds that smeared on the gap between the
door and its frame, the test is acceptable.
6.4 For smogging gas tightness test, if there is no smog leaking from the gap between the door and its frame, the
test is acceptable.
6.5 For choke test, if there is no smoke leaking from the gap between the door and its frame, the test is
acceptable.

92

SWSINSTALLATION PROCEDURE OF MARINE PIPING


Reference StandardQ/SWS44-001-2007
1

SCOPE
This standard specifies the pre-installation preparation, personnel, technical requirements, technical process
and inspection for the piping installation.
This standard is applicable to the piping installation of large and medium vessels. The relevant procedure
documents shall be worked out in accordance with design requirements for special vessels or piping with special
requirements.
2 NORMATIVE REFERENCES
The following normative documents contain provisions which, through reference in this text, constitute
provisions of this Standard. For dated references, subsequent amendments to (excluding corrigenda), or revisions
of, any of the publications do not apply. However, parties to agreements based on this Standard are encouraged to
investigate the possibility of applying the most recent editions of the normative documents indicated below. For
an updated reference, the latest edition of the normative document referred to applies.
Q/SWS 34-020A-2006
Pipe Support
Q/SWS 36-001.2A-2006
Combined Cable Tray
Q/SWS 44-024-2005
the Procedure of Hot Dipped with Zinc for Pipes
Q/SWS 44-035-2007
the Procedure of Sleeve Joints Installation
Q/SWS 54-002-2003
the Rule for Production Design of Marine Piping
Q/SWS 54-004-2003
Opening Holes and Reinforcement for Pipe Penetrating Hull Structure
Q/SWS 64-001A-2004
Standard of Strength Test and Tightness Test of Pipeline
3 PRE-INSTALLATION PREPARATIONS
3.1 Related persons shall know and master the design drawings and technical documents of piping, and make
preparations before installation in accordance with the requirements.
3.2 Pipes to be fitted should have qualification marks. Pipe ends to be sealed, for pipes with damaged seals,
compressed air shall be blown into pipes to clean up the inner wall prior to installation.
3.3 Valves and other pipe fittings to be fitted should have the product qualification certificates and have proper
clean seals. Any damage on the sealing surface of flanges and the thread of connectors must be repaired properly.
3.4 The pipes, valves and fittings to be fitted shall be checked and compared with relevant drawings and
technical documents for the correctness and completeness.
3.5 Pipes, valves and fittings shall be placed in clean area before installation.
3.6 The surface of the galvanized pipes or galvanized parts should be smooth. During welding process, any
damage shall be promptly touched up with zinc rich primer.
3.7 When connecting the mechanical equipments with pipes, check whether pipes can match with relevant
connector of the equipment, and also check the cleanliness of inside of the connector under the condition that
there is no pressure on the pipe end of the pump and the air compressors. If there is oily dust, the unclean part
should be cleaned partly or be dismantled for cleaning based on actual condition. The connection of pipes can be
done only after cleaning requirements are met.
3.8 When connecting valves or pipe fittings with pipes, check whether pipes can match with corresponding joint
of valves or fittings. The cleanliness condition of inside of the connector on valve or fittings should also be
checked. Any oily dust, rust or corrosion should be cleaned up before installation. Only after the cleanliness
requirement are met, the installation work can be started.
4 PERSONNEL
4.1 The installation personnel and inspectors should have professional knowledge, go through relevant training ,
and then can be assigned to the job posts.
4.2 The installation personnel and inspectors should master the requirement of this standard and strictly follow
the technical procedure and safety operation regulation.
5 TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS
5.1 Piping installation must be performed in accordance with the drawings and related technical regulations, the
pipes fabricated and installed on site shall meet relevant technical requirements. and pipes should be arranged as
parallel and straight as possible, and lined up in groups and bunches, to avoid unnecessary roundabout and cross,
for the purpose of easy maintenance and installation.
5.2 Installation distance of piping
5.2.1 The distance between the two adjacent pipes in parallel or crossing to each other (including fittings)
normally should be above 20mm, allowable limit is not less than 10mm. See Drawing 1:

93

20
10

Dwg.1 Distance of pipe


5.2.2 For pipes covered with insulation materials, the distance between their external surface and adjacent pipes,
fittings or hull structural components should be above 30mm.
5.2.3 In following cases, the distance between the pipes and cables in parallel should be above 100mm
aCalculated from the outside surface of insulation layer of steam pipes;
bCalculated from the outside surface of non-watertight insulation layer of exhaust pipes;
cHigh-pressure air pipes with working pressure above 9.8Mpa(100kg/cm2);
dThe distance between pipes and cables crossing each other should not be less than 80mm
5.2.4 For pipes which are located on deck or at the bottom, the distance between the lower edge of flange and
deck or bottom should be not less than 50mm.
5.2.5 During installation of pipes and valves, the passageway with a width of 800mm or more and the
maintenance way with a width of 600mm or more shall be ensured.
5.2.6 For two adjacent valves arranged side by side, the distance between adjacent hand wheels shall not be less
than 40mm. See Drawing 2.

40

450

450

760

760

Dwg.2 Distance between Adjacent Hand Wheels


5.3 Air pipes and vent pipes shall be arranged upward as reasonably as possible, rise and fall combination of the
pipe arrangement are not allowed. It should be ensured that no condensate water can stay in air pipes and vent
pipes. The height of vent pipes arranged on the open free-board deck or the bridge deck of superstructure shall
meet the requirement shown in Drawing 3.

free-board deck

bridge deck

Dwg. 3 Height of vent pipes located on deck


5.4 Sounding pipes to be installed as vertically as possible. Pipes should be bent moderately if they must be
arranged in curves for the purpose of sounding tools (such as tape) to pass conveniently. The upper part of
sounding pipes shall be led to the location above the bulkhead deck for easy access, and led to safe location on
open deck for oil tanks. The structure of lower part of sounding pipes are shown in Drawing 4 and Table1. Air
holes shall be provided on the suitable location at the top of the sounding pipe. Protection plates shall be arranged
on bottom of the tanks corresponding to the lower end of sounding pipes. The size of the protection plates is
shown in Table 1. Cut 3~4 long slots on the lower end of sounding pipes at the cover plate under the sounding
pipe, and the location of slots are shown in Drawing 4. The type of sounding pipes end shall be selected based on
the viscosity of fluid in tank. The type of cover plate is applied to the sounding pipe for tanks filled with low
viscosity fluid.
3~4 long slots

sounding pipe

cover plate

bottom of tank

Dwg.3

Location of slot
94

Diameter of
sounding pipe
(DN)

Size of
protection
plate
(DT)

50

10012

Table 1 Size of protection plate


Distance of
sounding pipe end
and protection plate
(L)

Unit: mm
Sketch

sounding pipe

2025

protection plate

bottom of tank

65

12012

Note: In engine and pump room, the distance L


should not be bigger than 40mm.

1520

5.5 The end surface perpendicularity tolerance of aluminum brass heating pipe, after cutting, is to be less then
0.2mm, the part within at least 30mm of the end edge is to be grinded and impurity removed, and the surface is to
be cleaned with organic solvent. The sleeve is to be heated continuously during braze welding. After welding, the
welds are to be cleaned, and pressure test shall be carried out according to requirements.
5.6 The arrangement of condensate pipe and drain valve shall be able to ensure efficient draining of condensate
water from the condensate piping.
5.7 Check the cleanliness of pipes inside prior to installation. For the pipe ends to which fitting work is not
finished yet for the time being or fitting work has been completed, foreign substances shall be avoided to enter the
pipes. Seal the pipe ends and keep their inside clean.
5.8 For the piping which requires oil flushing after installation, make sure that there isnt any rust, corrosion or
dirt on the inner surface of pipe.
5.9 During the installation of steam pipes and hot water pipes, the compensation for expansion and shrinkage
should be considered.
5.10 For every oil and water tank, there should be a certain height between the suction nozzle and bottom of
tank. For details, see relevant drawings.
5.11 Drain pipes of bathroom sanitary ware and water sink without water seal shall be provided with S type of
elbows. The inclination of pipe lines shall be 2~ 3. Additional elbows shall be fitted if possible.
5.12 When flanges need to be fitted near elbows, flanges should not be fitted in the bending part generally.
5.13 When there is a 90bend in the middle of a pipe, it shall be avoided that two sections divided by the bends
have greater or equal length.
5.14 Sleeve pipes should be arranged in way of connection between hull blocks, units and equipment. The
length of the sleeve pipe is around one meter.
5.15 In order to fit pipes easily, the arrangement of flanges of pipes in bunches should be in type of staggering
or staircase. See Drawing 5.
staircase type

staggering type

Dwg.5 Arrangement of flanges of pipes in bunches


5.16 When valves are fit below floor plates, the hand wheels shall be arranged in parallel with floor plates where
openings shall be arranged and covered with removable covers.
5.17 According to makers recommendation, the connecting of pipe and equipment should comply with the
requirement of deflection and offset between flange surface and equipments surface under free condition. See
Drawing 6 and Table 2.
a1

a2

Dwg.6

Deflection and Offset between Flange Surfaces


95

Table 2

Deflection
a=|a2-a1|

Requirements of deflection and offset between Flange Surfaces


Diameter
Standard Range
DN 100

1.5

DN 200

DN 400

DN 400

Unit: mm

Offset
b1.5
5.18 The instruments for piping or equipments should be installed in places easy for inspection and
maintenance.
5.19 The instruments for piping or equipments should be installed in places easy for inspection and
maintenance.
5.20 The pipe penetration type should comply with the standard Q/SWS 54-002-2003.
5.21 If the pipe needs to be modified on site, the worker shall prepare a pipe model first according to the actual
pipe arrangement, and then manufacture the said pipe completely in workshop.
5.22 The temp pipe shall be lap welded outside the workshop, and be welded, ground and hydraulic tested in
work shop. Then after surface treatment, the temp pipe can be installed on board.
5.23 To protect screw-threaded joints, the lubricants shall be applied on screw thread and the adhesive tape or
plastic seal shall be used.
5.24 During the pipe installation, if there is damage on the coating of pipe surface and hull structure because of
holes opening and welding, personnel on site should inform painting department to do repair work.
5.25 Before installation of epoxy pipes, it is ensured that the inner coating of pipes shall be smooth and even,
and the flange connection surface shall be flat and without sagging.
5.26 During the hydraulic tightness test of pipes, if the atmosphere temperature is lower than 0, the water
filled in pipes should be drained out to prevent pipes from being frozen.
5.27 Installation of multi tube
5.27.1 During the installation of multi tube, there should be no naked-fire working and grinding around the
multi tube installation area.
5.27.2 The multi tube shall be arranged as independent single piece or in groups. It is not allowed that the multi
tube is arranged to be crossing with other system pipe lines.
5.27.3 When welding the pipe supports, protection measures shall be taken around the multi tube. Welding
spatter and slag are not allowed to be spilled on the surface of multi tube.
5.27.4 Many multi tubes in bundle should be arranged on brackets with plastic cover and be fixed by stainless
steel band (according to Q/SWS36-001.2A-2006 Combined Cable Tray). The support for gauge pipe can be
used for single multi tube (according to Q/SWS34-020A-2006 Pipe Support D type).
5.27.5 It is prohibited strictly that knives or cutter damage the surface of multi tube.
5.27.6 To install/dismantle conveniently, sleeve joints shall be arranged in crossing method or in up and down
combination method.
5.27.7 Naked single multi tube is not allowed to be in direct contact with steel parts, Hammer and other iron
tools are also not allowed to be used to adjust pipes.
5.27.8 To avoid dirt and impurities dropping into the multi tube, open ends of the multi tube shall be sealed
properly.
5.27.9 There should be no damage or rupture on the outside protection surface of multi tube. If there is light
damage in parts of the areas, repair (with sealing glue) shall be done in a timely way.
5.27.10 Special bending machine shall be used for bending of multi tube. The pipe joints between multi tube and
equipments/instruments shall be protected properly with sleeve.
6 TECHNICAL PROCESSES
6.1 The installation of piping should be conducted sequentially, that is pre-fitting in blocks, erection assembly
and installation on board according to the requirement of work procedures.
6.2 Installation of piping
6.2.1 Personnel for installation should first find out the reference base of installation and then install according
to drawings. The basic installation method is to fix the location of pipes by the distance to deck (platform), frames,
midship or relevant hull components.
6.2.2 Pipes should not be under stress after installation, and flanges to be connected concentrically.
6.2.3 When installing ship side connection pipes on board, the pipes should be hot dipped with zinc after fit-up
of bracket.
6.2.4 After welding of galvanized pipes on board, any damage on galvanized surface should be repaired timely
as per the standard Q/SWS 44-024-2005 The procedure of hot dipped with zinc for pipes.
6.3 Installation of sleeve joints should be in accordance with the standard Q/SWS 44-035-2007 The procedure
of sleeve joints installation.
6.4 Installation of seal washer
6.4.1 Seal washer should be installed strictly according to the washer material requirements specified by the
piping.
6.4.2 When seal washers are fitted, the size of the washer shall be the same to that of the flange, only one
washer is allowed to be put between two flanges.
96

6.5 Fixing the fastening pieces


6.5.1 Galvanized bolts and nuts for flange installation are used in most areas on board. Black treated bolts and
nuts are used for pipes in oil tanks.
6.5.2 The flange bolts for perpendicular pipes can be inserted from upside to downside. For horizontal pipes on
deck, the flange bolts shall be inserted from fore to aft.
6.5.3 For fastened bolts and nuts, it is required 13 threads of bolts should be extruding out of nuts.
6.5.4 When connecting flanges, tightening of bolts and nuts should be fastened step by step according to the
distribution of bolts, normally in the diagonal direction.
6.5.5 The material of bolts and nuts normally is carbon steel. The high tensile steel bolts and nuts are applied for
high-pressure pipes and high-pressure air pipes in the hydraulic system. The stainless steel bolts and nuts are to be
used for stainless steel pipe.
6.5.6 The flange bolts shall be tightened in diagonal direction, after the first pair of bolts are cross tightened,
then other bolts around the circle.
6.6 Opening holes and reinforcement
6.6.1 To open holes on board, first to make a mark, then punctuate on the marks. Opening holes can be carried
out after self-check, and approval of monitor and foreman. After opening, holes shall be ground.
6.6.2 The round location for round opening and elliptic opening should be cut by compasses cutter, and be
ground off the scale and bur after opening.
6.6.3 Opening on upper deck and side-shell should be carried out after approval of QC.
6.6.4 Opening holes should be far away from the grand butt joints of hull structure.
6.6.5 No opening to be allowed on important component of the hull structure.
6.6.6 When pipes passing through the longitudinal web and the transverse web, reinforcement is required.
Doublers and flat bars can be used around the opening for reinforcement.
6.6.7 When pipes passing through the watertight deck and the watertight tank, doublers can be used for
reinforcement. Retainers shall be used for non-watertight tank and deck. Please see the standard Q/SWS
54-004-2003 Opening holes and reinforcement for pipe penetrating hull structure
6.7 Installation of pipe support
6.7.1 Supports should be timely used during installation of pipes: the support shall be fixed on the hull structure,
and different types of supports to be applied in accordance with the hull structure and the piping arrangement.
6.7.2 Pipes should not be under stress due to installation of supports.
6.7.3 The distance between two supports should comply with the specification of Q/SWS54-002-2003The
Production and Design Requirement of Marine Pipingin table 2, and more supports should be added properly if
there is deflection and vibration on pipes.
6.7.4 Connection of supports and hull structure: when support foot welded on deck or tank, a pad to be placed
under the support, and continuous welding to be applied for welding the pad and the structure, and fillet welding
to be applied for welding the pad and the support.
6.7.5 Adjustable pipe section for steam pipes and exhaust pipes should adopt supports which can allow pipes to
be adjusted axially.
6.7.6 1~3 threads of fastening bolts should be extruding out of nuts after installation.
6.8 Installation of piping fittings and valves
6.8.1 The correct location for installation of piping fittings should be fixed according to the flow of the medium
inside of the pipe when pipe fittings are fitted.
6.8.2 The flow arrow on valves should be consistent with the flow direction of the medium inside of the pipe.
The valve body should be kept horizontal during installation of straight non-return valves, stop check valves,
storm valves and solenoid valves. The hand wheel shall be positioned according to the actual condition of the
installation space. The hand wheel under floor plates shall be fixed upwards. In confined areas, it should be taken
into consideration of that whether the turning of the handwheel will touch the hull structure or other pipes so that
it obstructs the operation of valves. The flow of fluid through quick-closing valves shall be noted. The bolts of
swing remote butterfly valve should be taken and installed according to the requirements in pallet material list.
And the driving device of butterfly valve should be nice enough so that the butterfly valve can be opened /closed
conveniently.
6.8.3 It should be considered that the strainer in the filter could be taken out for cleaning. Pay attention to the
installation direction and the securing of the filter foot. No pipes to be allowed to pass over the filter.
6.8.4 Suction bellmouth and suction strainer should be kept a certain distance from the tank bottom, and the
value to be defined in accordance with the design requirement.
6.8.5 Fittings of axial adjustable type, such as adjustable joint, expansion pipe to be fitted in compliance with
the requirements of the maker. Adequate adjustment amount shall be ensured.
6.9 Installation of name plates
Installation of nameplates on pipelines and fittings shall be completed before ship delivery.
7 INSPECTIONS
7.1 Inspection of installation completeness

97

7.1.1 Completeness inspection to be carried out in system after installation of piping finished according to the
Inspection Item. Self-inspection shall be first conducted, then the second and third inspection shall be performed
by monitor and foreman, next inspected by QC, and finally it can be submitted to the Owner and the class
Surveyor for approval.
7.1.2 Inspection files: system principle drawing, relevant working drawings, technical documents and drawing
revision notification..
7.1.3 Inspection items: piping connection, appearance, correct installation, operation of valves and fittings,
complete installation of pipe supports, etc.
7.2 Tightness test
7.2.1 The pressure of tightness test for piping to be conducted according to Q/SWS 64-001A-2004 Standard of
Strength Test and Tightness Test of Pipeline.
7.2.2 The tightness test for air pipes and drain pipes shall be carried out by water filling method.
7.2.3 Pipes which cannot be carried out with tightness test shall be checked for leakage during function test.
7.2.4 Coolers, pumps and filters are outside the range of tightness test.

98

SWSINSTALLATION PROCEDURE OF MARINE AUXILIARY


MACHINE
Reference StandardQ/SWS44-002-2004
1

SCOPE
This procedure specifies the preparation, personnel, workmanship requirements, process, trial running and
inspection after installation of marine auxiliary machines.
The procedure is applicable to the installation of auxiliary machines except for main engine, steering gear
and deck machinery.
2 TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
The auxiliary machines are divided into first grade, second grade and third grade according to their
complexity and importance. The contents of each grade are shown as below:
2.1 First grade aux. Machines: diesel oil generator set, steam turbine generating set, steam turbine aux.
machines.
2.2 Second grade aux. machines: fresh water pump, fresh water cooling pump, bilge water pump, M/E sea water
cooling pump, fire pump, FO transfer pump, ballast pump, bilge water and general service pump, the pump(or
pump set) with electrical motor such as, emergency diesel generator, air compressor, cargo oil pump, purifier,
hydraulic pump.
2.3 Third grade aux. machines: other auxiliary machines which are not included in the first grade and second
grade.
3 PREPARATION BEFORE INSTALLATION
3.1 Be sure to know well about the design drawings, installation and operation manuals and other technical
books for aux. machine installation, and the installation work shall be carried out in accordance with requirement
of the technical documents.
3.2 Machine and electrical equipments taken out of the warehouse should be strictly checked; all the fittings
should be complete. Name, size, type and quantity of the product should be in compliance with the drawings.
3.3 Appearance conditions of equipments should be carefully checked to see if there is any scrape, paint
stripping-off, spare parts missing or contaminant.
3.4 Ends of the pipes, thread joints, accesses and other plane connections should be checked for cleanliness,
anti-corrosion and blocking. Any doubts found related to the items should be reported immediately, and measures
should be taken to deal with.
3.5 Relevant installation personnel and their departments should implement and take responsibility of the
above-mentioned work listed from item 3.1 to 3.4.
4 PERSONNEL
4.1 Staff in charge of installation and inspection are to be professionally trained, and they are not allowed to be
on duty unless gaining the certificate.
4.2 Staff in charge of installation and inspection should also be familiar with the procedure herein and strictly
follow the workmanship and safety operation regulation.
5 WORKMANSHIP REQUIREMENTS
5.1 Foundation face plate
5.1.1 For the foundation face plate unnecessary to be machined, the flatness of which should be 2mm/m as a
standard, allowance limit is5mm/m. Differences found in local area, sparsely distributed, or in small amount are
allowed.
5.1.2 For supporting face plates (including welding chocks) of the foundations to which equipment will be
12.5

directly installed, the surface roughness should not be less than


; the 0.05mm feeler gauge should not get
through while the flatness is measured by a flat plate or a ruler, and the insertable depth in local area should
be10mm.
5.2 Chocks
5.2.1 Installation of foundation with adjustable chocks made of steel or cast iron.
5.2.1.1 Installation clearance
a) First grade aux. machine: prior to securing bolts between foundations, adjust plane contact surface with
chocks, then check with a 0.05mm feeler gauge, insertable depth of which is not supposed to exceed
10mm.
b) Second grade aux. machine: prior to securing bolts, clearance between foundation and the foundation to be
checked with a 0.08mm feeler gauge, insert depth of which is not supposed to exceed 10mm
c) Third grade aux. machine: no requirement for clearance.
5.2.1.2 Contact area between chocks
a) First grade aux. machine: contact area 60%, allowance limit is 50%.
b) Second grade aux. machine: contact area 50%, allowance limit is 40%, after fixing the foundation,
steel sheet or brass liner inserted in each support should not exceed three pieces, and half piece of liner is
not allowed.
c) Third grade aux. machine: no requirement
5.2.1.3 The standard of chock plane outward for welding should be 1:100
5.2.1.4 The standard thickness for adjustable chock should be 12mm.
99

5.2.2 Epoxy chock fast permitted by the class can be used as adjustable chock.
5.2.3 Wooden chocks
5.2.3.1 Normally, foundation adopting wooden, lead or canvas chocks is unnecessary to be machined, but the
surface of the supporting plate should be flat and free from slag and spatter etc.
5.2.3.2 For those machined foundations, if not to be fixed to the equipment immediately , their supporting faces
should be protected by oil seal.
5.2.3.3 Requirement of wooden chock.
a) Normally, the wooden chocks are made of camphor, elm and Manchurian ash, the thickness of which
should be 25mm.
b) Wooden chock should be soundproof and shockproof, normally applied to package unit set with a low
coaxial requirement, or with a common seat and body shell of enough rigidity
c) Wooden chocks are to be painted in pinky white.
d) Wooden chocks should be dry, and its water content should not exceed 15%.
e) Wooden chock should be machined on the basis of actual measured thickness, it is required that 0.5mm
feeler gauge cannot get through, and insertable depth in local area should be 20mm, flatness tolerance of
the foundation should be 0.5mm/m.
f) When wooden chock is applied in wet areas (for instance, refrigerating machine room, cold storage room,
etc.) wooden chock should be dipped in the dry oil for 2~3 hours before fitting.
5.2.4 Canvas chocks
5.2.4.1 Canvas chock is made of flaxen canvas or canvas of similar nature, the thickness of which should be 1~2
layers.
5.2.4.2 When applied, canvas chocks should be coated in pinky white, surface of the foundation should be flat,
and area of the canvas chock should not be less than support foot area of the equipment.
5.2.4.3 When the canvas chock is adopted during installation of the equipment, under the condition that bolts are
not tightened, 80% of the contact area should be ensured, and the 0.03mm feeler gauge should not get in.
5.2.5 Lead chocks
5.2.5.1 The chock is made of lead, thickness of which should be 3~12 layers.
5.2.5.2 The thickness of each layer is 2mm 6mm
5.3 Coupling alignment: when the shipyard is to fix the machine and electrical equipment into aux. machinery,
rigid connection of the equipment and various kinds of flexible connection should be carried out according to the
following requirement.
5.3.1 Rigid connection
5.3.1.1 Packaged unit with a capacity not more than 37 kw
a) Axis offset standard 0.05mm, allowance limit0.07mm
b) Axis distortion standard 0.10D/1000mm, allowance limit 0.12D/1000mm
5.3.1.2 Packaged unit with a capacity more than 37 kw
a) Axis offset standard 0.08mm, allowance limit0.10mm
b) Axis distortion standard 0.16D/1000mm, allowance limit 0.20D/1000mm
5.3.2 Flexible connection
5.3.2.1 Axis offset standard 0.10mm, allowance limit 0.12mm
5.3.2.2 Axis distortion standard 0.30D/1000mm, allowance limit 0.32D/1000mm
Notes: D is the flange diameter of the coupling, unit: mm.
5.3.3 When there is a special requirement on installation from the equipment maker, installation should be
conducted in accordance with the technical requirement of the maker.
5.4 Normally, axial connection of auxiliary machinery composed of packaged equipment on a common seat will
not be checked. The grade requirement of foundation to the aux. machinery can be lowered properly, once the aux.
machinery composed of packaged equipment has been fixed on a common seat.
6 INSTALLATION PROCEDURE
6.1 Foundation installation
6.1.1 Positioning: working staff should first find the right installation position according to the drawings
showing detailed distances between aux. machinery and deck (platform), frame, mid-ship and relevant hull
structures.
6.1.2 Lifting the pre-made foundation to the fixing position, check to ensure that the foundation positioning can
meet the requirement of drawings.
6.1.3 Check matching condition of the structure and the foundation bottom plane. Modification should be done
when too big gap is found. Welding can be carried out only after the requirement for gap is met. Welding
procedure should be followed to reduce distortion during welding.
100

6.1.4 Check to ensure that the requirement for welding quality can be reached after welding is finished.
6.1.5 Check to ensure that the requirement for foundation plane stipulated in this standard can be met.
6.1.6 When the requirement for plane is met, the chocks should be fixed, positioned and welded, and flatness
between the fixed chocks should be checked.
6.2 Aux. Machine installation
6.2.1 Positioning and installation of aux. machine should be in accordance with the drawings.
6.2.2 Chocks, washers and bolts for installation should be in accordance with the drawings
6.2.3 Aux. machines to be lifted on board, and the adjustable chocks are fitted and adjusted and the requirement
for aux. machines installation should be satisfied.
6.2.4 When the installation technical performance of aux. Machine on the foundation is reaching the technical
requirement, immediately fasten all the fixing bolts of positioning brackets, and tighten all the holding-down bolts
or other relative securing pieces to keep the technical performance unchanged.
6.2.5 When side positioning of thrust block is adopted, the thrust block should be closely contacted, and the
clearance to be measured by a 0.05mm feeler gauge, insertable depth of which should not exceed 10mm.
6.2.6 When fixing with positioning pin and fitting bolts, after fixing the position, first drill all the bolt holes and
positioning pin holes then ream all the positioning pin holes and bolt holes. Positioning pins and bolts should be
well fitted in transition.
6.2.7 Fitting bolts should be well prepared, after tightening, extruding length of the bolt ends should be 2~3
pitches.
6.2.8 Check the aux. machine installation technical performance again to see if it meets the technical
requirements.
6.2.9 Relevant safety measures for cleaning, anti-moisture, anti-collision and scrape, etc. should be taken after
the installation of aux. machines.
6.3 Installation of aux. Machine system
6.3.1 After fixing the aux. machine on the foundation, its relative piping should be connected in accordance with
the drawings.
6.3.2 After fixing the aux. machine on the foundation, its relative apparatus, instruments and other affiliated
devices should be fitted, adjusted and checked in accordance with the drawings.
6.3.3 Besides completeness of the above mentioned oil, air and water systems, electrical system (including
electric control component, power cables and operating component etc.) must be finished, commissioned and
checked according to the specification.
7 INSPECTION
7.1 Foundation inspection
7.1.1 Quality control department should check the condition of aux. machine positioning
7.1.2 On the basis of self-inspection made by welders, QC should carry out weld quality inspection in
accordance with the standard.
7.1.3 On the basis of self-inspection made by operators, QC should check the plane of the foundation in
accordance with the quality standard.
7.1.4 Quality and matching condition of the fixed chocks and adjustable chocks on the foundation should be
checked in accordance with the requirements stipulated in this standard.
7.2 Installation inspection for aux. machine
7.2.1 Clearance (contacting condition ) between foundation and the chock should be checked.
7.2.2 Securing bolts and positioning pins are to be checked in accordance with the requirements.
7.2.3 If necessary, the connection between flanges of driving shaft of the auxiliary machine should be checked.
7.3 The inspection for installation integrity should be conducted.

101

SWSPROCEDURE OF BORING FOR SHAFTING LINE


Reference StandardQ/SWS44-003-2007
1

SCOPE
This standard specifies the preparation, personnel, technical requirements, technical process and inspection
for boring for shafting line.
This standard applies mainly to boring for shafting line of conventional steel ships above 10000 tons
deadweight. This standard also can be applicable to building other steel ships.
2 REFERENCES
CSQS
China Shipbuilding Quality Standard (issued in 2005)
3 PREPARATIONS
3.1 Working drawings and related technical documents
3.2 Boring tools
aSpecial boring equipments
bScribing tool and flexible joint for alignment
cSpanner
dLong connecting rod
eV type level gauge
fCollimator
gReamer
3.3 Check the completion status of boring tools and equipments
3.4 Make boring support as per the line type of sternpost.
3.5 Before boring, aligning circle, boring circle and technical benchmark screws on fore and back end surface of
stern tube must be confirmed. The technical benchmark screw can improve the precision of shafting alignment.
4 PERSONNEL
4.1 Operators and inspectors should have professional knowledge and certificate through training, exams or tests,
then be entitled to be on duty.
4.2 Operators and inspectors should be familiar with the requirements of this standard and strictly comply with
the technical discipline and safety operation regulations.
5 TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS
5.1 The roundness and cylindricality tolerance of boring should comply with CSQS i.e. China Shipbuilding
Quality Standard (2005). See Table 1.
Table 1 the Roundness and Cylindricality Tolerance of Boring
Unit: mm
Diameter of Shafting

Roundness and Cylindricality Tolerance of Boring

120
120180
180260
260360
360500
500700
700900
9001100
11001300
13001500

0.015
0.020
0.025
0.030
0.035
0.040
0.050
0.060
0.070
0.080

5.2 The direction of bores cylindricality tolerance value must be in accordance with the direction of bush pushing.
The opposite direction is not allowed.
5.3 The error of coaxial degree between the fore and aft bores shall not be bigger than 0.08mm.
6.3

5.4 The surface roughness of bored cylindrical surface is to be not less than
12.5

surface is to be not less than

102

; and the roughness of every end

5.5 The perpendicularity between back-end boring surface and shaftings center line shall not be more than
0.10mm/m.
6 TECHNICAL PROCESSES
6.1 When install the boring rod, based on the aligning circle of stern tubes fore and back end surface and
technical benchmark screws, first align aligning circle with scribing tool, then adjust the distance between boring
rod and technical benchmark with inner diameter micrometer to make the center of boring rod and shafting
coincide. The superposition error shall not be more than 0.02mm. The coincidence situation is shown in Drawing
1.

Dwg.1 Coincidence of Boring Rod Center and Shafting Center


6.2 Aligning and positioning of borer on board
6.2.1 If the length of stern tube is more than 3.5m, an intermediate support shall be set to correct
boring rod. The sketch drawing of sag correction is shown on Drawing 2.

the sag of

Dwg.2 Sketch Drawing of Aligning on Board


6.2.2 Set the collimator at a distance of 1.5m from the back end surface of stern tube; adjust the two level
gauges separately to make them at the same level.
6.2.3 Set the two level gauges of the same level at A&B points; adjust the collimator to make its level the same
as the two level gauges.
6.2.4 Move the level gauge from A point to C point. Based on the level set by the collimator, adjust the
intermediate support with a long connecting rod, correct the sag of boring rod to make sure the error is less than
0.02mm.
6.3 Aligning and positioning of borer in workshop
6.3.1 Aligning of borer in workshop
According to the actual arrangement of borer on board, lift the borer onto the cast iron flat roof, put two
stow-woods with the same height separately under two bearings and confirm that the boring rod is in free
condition; install a collimator on one side of the boring rod, make sure that the data measured by gauge 1 and
gauge 2 are the same. Then measure and record the sag of boring rod. See Drawing 3.

103

gauge 1

collimator

gauge 2

intermediate support

bearing

bearing

stow-wood

flat roof

Dwg.3 Sketch Drawing of Aligning in Workshop by Simulation


6.3.2 Positioning of borer on site
After measuring the sag of boring rod by simulation method, adjust four adjusting bolts on intermediate
support to ensure that the raised height of boring rod is the same as the data measured by dial gauges which are
adsorbed on borer. The data change appearing on left and right dial gauges shall be the same, the deviation
between them shall not be more than 0.05mm. See Table 4.
temporary supports4

dial gauge
adjusting bolts4

borer

Dwg.4 Sketch Drawing of Adjusting on Site by Simulation


6.4 After adjusting the boring rod, start working without load, fill lubricants, check whether the connecting bolts
on supports are tightened enough or not.
6.5 Rough boring
6.5.1 According to Working Drawings, every ladder bores diameter and length shall be rough machined to the
pre-secondly boring (pre-accuracy boring) condition. Make sure every diameter of ladder bore has a margin of
11.5mm.
6.5.2 The cutting depth shall not be more than 4mm. The feeding value is 0.60mm/r. Rotating speed of the
boring rod is 10r/min. The roughness shall reach

6.5.3 If the casting defects such as big air bubbles, cracks etc. are found, they shall be fed back in time.
6.5.4 Align boring rod again, correct the sag of boring rod, repeat Procedure 6.2, 6.3 and satisfy the
requirements of Procedure 6.2, 6.3.
6.6 Secondly boring
6.6.1 To improve the precision of coaxial degree, every aperture shall keep a machining margin of 0.5mm.
6.6.2 The cutting depth shall not be more than 0.80mm. The feeding value is 0.30mm/r. Rotating speed of the
boring rod is 10r/min. The roughness shall reach
.
6.6.3 During the course of machining, put the cooling oil which is mixed by 70% vegetable oil with 30%
kerosene onto the surface of bored cylindrical surface.
6.7 Final boring (accurate boring)
6.7.1 The final boring should be conducted at night or during overcast or rainy day, and all the work which may
produce vibration influencing the final boring shall be stopped on board.
6.7.2 Align boring rod again, correct the sag of boring rod, repeat Procedure 6.2, 6.3 and satisfy the
requirements of Procedure 6.2, 6.3.
6.7.3 The cutting depth shall not be bigger than 0.15mm. The feeding value is 0.15mm/r. Rotating speed of the
boring rod is 10r/min. The roughness shall not be less than.
6.7.4 Every aperture should be bored at a time. Stopping boring during the cousre is not permitted.
6.7.5 During the course of machining, put the mixed cooling oil onto the surface of bored cylindrical surface.
6.7.6 After the boring of inner hole is found qualified, cut the end surface according to Working Drawings. The
cutting surface must be perpendicular to the center line; the perpendicularity tolerance shall not be more than
0.1mm/m.
6.7.7 The cutting dimension of fore and back end surface shall be in accordance with the requirement of
working drawing. It is based on the boring circle of end surface. The sum of the two length errors is 1.5 .
104

6.8 Before removing the boring rod, check the quality of every machining surface carefully to make sure it
complies with the requirements of this procedure.
6.9 After removing the boring rod, cut burs on the edge of aperture, measure and record every apertures
dimension. (See Table 2)
Table 2 Record of every Apertures Dimension
Unit: mm

Measuring point

A
Measuring
direction

b
c
d

Average
Taper

order
reverse order
Temperature

Ships name
Surveyor
7

Hull No.
Date

INSPECTIONS
After boring for shafting line, the items below should be inspected.
aThe roughness of machining surface for stern tube;
bEvery apertures diameter and length dimension of stern tube;
cThe roundness and cylindricality of boring;
dThe coaxial degree of boring;
eThe correctness of fillet or chamfer on the connection of ladder bores.

105

SWSMANUFACTURE PROCEDURE OF PIPING ACCESSORIES


Reference StandardQ/SWS44-009-2007
1

SCOPE
This standard specifies the preparation, personnel, technical requirements, technical process and inspection
for manufacture of piping accessories.
This standard is applicable to the pipe manufacture which are used onboard various ships and in marine
engineering project.
2 NORMATIVE REFERENCES
The following normative documents contain provisions which, through reference in this text, constitute
provisions of this Standard. For dated references, subsequent amendments to (excluding corrigenda), or revisions
of, any of the publications do not apply. However, parties to agreements based on this Standard are encouraged to
investigate the possibility of applying the most recent editions of the normative documents indicated below. For
an updated reference, the latest edition of the normative document referred to applies.
GB/T 3670-1995
Welding Rod for Copper and Copper Alloy
GB/T 9460-1988
Welding Wire for Copper and Copper Alloy
GB/T 14957-1994
Electrode Wire for Fusion Welding
CB/T 3832-1999
Technical Requirement for Welding of Copper pipes
Q/SWS 41-004-2005
Welding Procedure of Aluminum-Brass Pipes
Q/SWS 41-006-2006
Welding Procedure of CU-NI Pipes
Q/SWS 41-008-2004
Welding Procedure of Carbon Steel and Stainless Steel Pipe
Q/SWS 64-001A-2004
Standard of Strength Test and Tightness Test of Pipeline
3 PREPARATIONS
3.1 The mechanical characteristics and chemical components of pipe material should comply with related
national standard, industry standard and other national shipbuilding regulations.
3.2 Class and pipes shall be approved with certificates by related classification society. The furnace
number for Class and pipes shall be provided by maker.
3.3 Different pipes shall be piled up properly in different groups, and be clearly marked. Special pipes shall be
kept by special personnel.
3.4 The pipe fittings such as flanges, screw thread joints, sleeves, elbows, reducers etc. shall be furnished with
qualification certificates for pipe material. The fittings for Class I and II pipes shall comply with the requirement
of related classification society.
3.5 Welding wire, electrode and welding flux shall be in compliance with related standards. The qualification
certificates shall be supplied by maker and be stored properly.
3.6 Pipe bending machine, cutting machine, fillet machine, welding equipment and so on shall be in normal
working condition.
3.7 The site for manufacture and production shall be kept clean. Any looming safety hazards shall be eliminated.
4 PERSONNEL
4.1 The workers should have professional knowledge and operation ability for piping manufacture.
4.2 The welders shall be trained with professional knowledge and obtain qualification certificates.
4.3 The workers shall understand related requirements of Shipbuilding Quality Standards.
5 TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS
5.1 The cutting surface of pipe shall be kept perpendicular. The length tolerance of pipe cut shall be within
2mm.
5.2 For pipe bending, the angular tolerance shall be 0.5; the ellipticity shall be 10 (for class I and II
pipes, the ellipticity shall be 7); when the bending radius is three times the pipe diameter, the wall thickness
reduction ratio shall be 20.
5.3 Assembling of pipes
5.3.1 The flange perpendicularity, the deviation of flange screw hole and the sag of pipe are shown in Table1.
106

Table 1 the Assembling Tolerance of Flange


Nominal
Diameter

Item

Deviation rang
e

Unit: mm
Example

Pipe flange pla


ne

DN150

30

DN150

20

DN150

0.5

DN
200450

1.0

DN450

1.5

40

1.5mm/m

Angular deviation of flange fixation to end o


f pipe,

a-Deformation of flange plane


a

Deformation of
flange

Sag of pipe

Flange screw
hole

100

0.5

100

L-Length of straight pipe

C-Deviation of flange screw hole


5.3.2 The concentric degree of main pipe and branch pipe shall be 1mm and the angular tolerance shall be
0.5.
5.4 As to the pipe welding, the welding defects such as slag, gas holes and false welding are not allowed.
Different pipes shall be welded as per related welding regulations.
5.5 Strength test of Pipe
Every piping shall do the strength test according to the technical requirements shown in production drawing.
Care shall be taken to make sure no welding seam will be leaking.
5.6 Non-destructive examination for pipes shall be carried out as per the class regulations.
5.7 Surface treatment of pipes shall be carried out according to the requirement of drawings.
6 TECHNICAL PROCESSES
6.1 Before pipe cutting, the specification, material, brand and grade of pipe shall be checked; visual inspection
shall be made to the exterior surface of pipes. Track record for each piece of Class I and II pipes shall be well
made.
6.2 Cutting of pipes
6.2.1 Before pipe cutting, according to the requirement of batch production, pipes of the same material shall be
cutted properly to increase the usage rate of pipes.
6.2.2 There are many cutting methods for steel pipes. In workshop, it is better to use mechanical band saw to cut
pipe.
6.2.3 Copper pipes and stainless steel pipes shall be cut by machine or by hand.
6.2.4 Special pipe cutter shall be used for cutting pipes which are connected with sleeve joint.
6.2.5 After pipe cutting, the cutting surface shall be finished smoothly and slag and burr shall be removed.
6.2.6 After pipe cutting, the perpendicularity tolerance of pipe end shall comply with the requirement in Table 2.
Table 2 the Perpendicularity Tolerance of Pipe End
Unit: mm
Sketch

Nominal Diameter
DN

Perpendicularity Tolerance of Pipe End


L

100

125200

200

107

Bending model
Collet and Towing bracket
Dwg.1 Bending model, Collet and Towing Bracket
General requirements of insert-core (See Drawing 2)

6.3.4

6.3 Bending of pipes


6.3.1 In general, cold bending is applicable. Hot bending may be applied as a special case. Although different
bending method is adopted, there will be no bad effect on the performance of pipe materials.
6.3.2 According to the bending requirement in piping manufacture drawings, proper bending machine and
related accessories should be selected.
6.3.3 The diameter D of bending model, collet and towing bracket shall be 0.25mm0.5mm bigger than the
external diameter of pipe. The bending model, collet and towing bracket shall be on the same horizontal plane,
and the horizontal tolerance value f shall be within 0.25mm. See Drawing 1.

k
L

Dwg.2 Location of Insert-core


6.3.4.1 The diameter of insert-core (d)
a) When the actual inside diameter of pipe 50, d = inside diameter of pipe - 11.25mm;
b) When the actual inside diameter of pipe 80, d = inside diameter of pipe - 11.5mm;
c) When the actual inside diameter of pipe 150, d = inside diameter of pipe - 1.251.75mm;
d) When the actual inside diameter of pipe 200, d = inside diameter of pipe - 1.52mm.
6.3.4.2 Length of insert-core (L)
a) When the external diameter of pipe 3257mm, L = 5d;
b) When the external diameter of pipe 6076mm, L = 4d;
c) When the external diameter of pipe 89114mm, L = 3.5d;
d) When the external diameter of pipe 133168mm, L = 3d;
e) When the external diameter of pipe 168219mm, L = 2.8d.
6.3.5 To great extent, the quality of pipe bend depends on the location of insert-core. The requirement of
distance between pipe bend and the center of bending model are shown in Drawing 2 and Table 3.
Table 3 Distance between Pipe Bend and Center of Bending Model
Unit: mm
Bending radius

Distance to centre of bending model (K)

2D
0.12d
2.5D
0.14d
3D
0.16d
Note: ddiameter of insert-core, Dexternal diameter of pipe
6.3.6 Before clamping the pipe bend, the clearance among bending model, towing bracket and collet shall be
adjusted in accordance with the requirements.
6.3.7 Before pipe bending, the burr on pipe end surface shall be removed and a suitable amount of lubricating
oil shall be filled into the pipe.
6.3.8 Bending of pipes shall be made steadily. In order to keep the bending accuracy, the value of bending angle
shall be controlled carefully.
6.3.9 Hot bending of pipes shall be done by mid-frequency bender.
6.3.10 Before cold bending of non-ferrous pipe, the part to be bent shall be annealed. Then after cooling down,
the pipe can be cold bent. (The annealing temperature of copper pipe is 600700; the annealing temperature
of aluminum pipe and Al-Brass pipe is 300400).
6.3.11 The pipe for hot bending shall be heated up slowly and evenly to prevent overheating. The heating
temperature are shown in Table 4.
108

Table 4
Pipe material

Hot Bending Temperature of Pipe


Finishing Temp. of Hot
Bending()
700
300

Beginning Temp. of Hot Bending()

carbon steel
9001050
copper
750850
stainless steel (including HDR
900
9501050
stainless steel)
6.4 Assembly of pipe fittings
6.4.1 Check and assembly of single item
After pipe bending, the geometry dimension of various pipe parts shall be counterchecked carefully as per
the manufacture drawings of pipe accessories. The pipe fittings such as flanges, joints shall be selected correctly
as per related regulations and be spot welded to the pipe after checking.
6.4.2 Steel branch pipe fitting
6.4.2.1 Normal branch connection and groove type for steel pipe (shown in Dwg. 3)

detailed

detailed

02

02

02

t 45

A Type 90 Branch
B Type Inclined Branch
Dwg.3 Branch connection and groove type for steel pipe
6.4.2.2 For branch pipe with inner diameter 100mm and height 150mm, double-side welding without grooves
for branch pipe is applied directly.
6.4.2.3 The A type bevel angle depends on the thickness of branch pipe. If the thickness of branch pipe is bigger
than 3mm, the bevel angle is 45 5; If the thickness of branch pipe is smaller than or equal to 3mm, the groove
is not necessary.
6.4.2.4 The concentricity of main pipe and branch pipe shall be 1mm.
6.4.2.5 Branch pipes for fuel oil, lubricating oil, hydraulic use and compressed air shall be welded with the
protection of inert gas.
6.4.3 Copper branch pipe connection
6.4.3.1 In general, tee type tie-in shall be selected for copper branch pipe connection.
6.4.3.2 Normal welding connection type for copper branch pipe are shown in Dwg. 4.
K

D=d

510

Dd

A type
B type
Dwg.4 Welding connection for copper branch pipe
6.4.3.3 The insert end of A type branch pipe shall not exceed the lowest point of main pipes neckline.
6.4.3.4 B type branch pipe shall be penetrated into main pipe.
6.4.3.5 On main pipe, the concentricity of hole of branch pipe and inner hole of branch pipe shall be 1mm.
6.4.4 Butt connection between steel pipe and accessories
In general, there are three types of grooves for butt welding between steel pipe and accessories. (Shown in Table
5)
109

Table 5 Three types of grooves for butt welding


Groove for butt welding of steel pipe
a

t3

Standard range

3t6

t6

Unit: mm
Allowable limit

a02

a02

3035

40

a=22.5

5055

60

6.4.5 The assembly between pipe and accessories shall be carried out in accordance with related standard about
flange and screw thread connections.
6.5 Welding of pipe
6.5.1 Welding of steel pipe
6.5.1.1 The welding of carbon steel pipes and stainless steel pipes should comply with the standard Q/SWS
41-008-2004Welding Procedure of Carbon Steel and Stainless Steel Pipe.
6.5.1.2 When the thickness of pipe is not bigger than 1.5mm, welding of steel pipe should be carried out in
accordance with the standard GB/T14957-1994Electrode Wire for Fusion Welding, and H-08A welding wire
shall be selected for soldering.
6.5.1.3 When the thickness of pipe is bigger than 1.5mm, proper welding material should be selected according
to the standard Q/SWS 41-008-2004Welding Procedure of Carbon Steel and Stainless Steel Pipe.
6.5.2 Welding of copper pipe
6.5.2.1 For copper pipe, when the external diameter D40mm or the thickness 2.5mm, according to
GB/T9460-1988Welding Wire for Copper and Copper Alloy, 1# brass wire shall be selected for welding. And
these copper pipes shall be brazing welded according to the regulation of CB/T 3832-1999 Technical
Requirement for Welding of Copper Pipe.
6.5.2.2 The copper pipes, when the external diameter D40mm or the thickness 2.5mm, according to
GB/T3670-1995Welding Rod for Copper and Copper Alloy, shall be arc welded with Ecu welding rod.
6.5.3 The welding of Cu-Ni pipes should comply with the standard Q/SWS 41-006-2004Welding Procedure of
CU-NI Pipes.
6.5.4 The welding of Aluminum-Brass pipes should comply with the standard Q/SWS 41-004-2005Welding
Procedure of Aluminum-Brass Pipes.
6.6 Hydrostatic pressure test of piping
6.6.1 Before hydrostatic pressure test of piping, the welding slag, splatter and borax shall be removed from the
welding line of pipes and the welding defects such as miss welding and false welding shall not exist.
6.6.2 The hydrostatic pressure shall be carried out in accordance with the pressure specified in the manufacture
drawing of pipe and pallet material list. Generally, the hydrostatic pressure of pipe in work shop is 1.52 times
bigger than the system working pressure.
6.6.3 The inside diameter of sealing gasket for hydrostatic pressure test shall be bigger than the external
diameter of the pipe to be pressure tested.
6.6.4 Before hydrostatic pressure test of piping, every branch pipe and instrument joint shall be checked to be
unblocked with air. After air is discharged, the end of branch pipes and joints shall be sealed properly.
6.6.5 During hydrostatic pressure test of piping, the test pressure shall be raised step by step. Brief pause shall
be made during the process of pressure rise. It is not allowed to raise it to the test pressure directly.
6.6.6 After the test pressure has risen to the hydrostatic pressure, keep the pressure for 5 minutes, blow off the
water on the welding seam of flange, branch pipe and joint connection, and knock the steel pipe lightly with a
small hammer. If there is no leakage, then the pipe is qualified by the hydrostatic pressure test.
6.6.7 During hydrostatic pressure test of piping, if there is leakage from the welding seam, this welding seam
shall be repaired after the pressure is discharged. In general, one welding seam is not allowed to be repaired for
more than two times. If there is leakage from the crack, the pipe shall be replaced.
6.6.8 After hydrostatic pressure test, the remaining water in pipes shall be cleared away by compressed air.
6.7 Surface treatment and storage of pipes
6.7.1 After machining of pipes, acid pickling, galvanizing or other surface treatments shall be carried out on
pipes according to the requirement of drawings.
6.7.2 After acid pickling, the exterior surface of pipes shall be treated with suitable antirust coating as per the
requirement of painting.
6.7.3 All pipe ends shall be sealed properly and all pipes shall be stored in a clean and dry place.
6.7.4 Pipes shall be piled up properly in sorts as per the pallet material list.
6.7.5 During the lifting of pipes, in order to avoid pipe distortion and surface scrape, all pipes shall be packed
properly with a suitable centre of gravity.
6.7.6 Electro galvanizing and hot galvanizing are adopted for galvanizing of pipe. For electro galvanizing of
pipe, the galvanized thickness shall be not less than 20m; for hot galvanizing of pipe, the galvanized thickness
shall be not less than 80m.
110

7 INSPECTIONS
7.1 Quality inspection of bent pipe
7.1.1 The assembling dimension of pipe and the angular tolerance for pipe bending are shown in Table 6.
Table 6 Assembling Dimension of Pipe and Angular Tolerance for Pipe Bending
Unit: mm
Item

Standard range

Sketch
L

Straight pipe

L
3

LLength of straight pipe

H
Bent pipe

0.5

LLength of first section of bent pipe;


HLength of second section of bent pipe;
Bend angle
a

2
L

H
|1-2|

0.5

HDistance between deflected bent pipe sections;


LTotal length of bidirectional bent pipe;
aLength of initial section of bidirectional bent pi
pe;
12Bend angle

L
Three-dimens
ional bent pi
pe

L1

H
1
2

0.5

Bidirectional
bent pipe

2
L1

LL1Length of straight section of bent pipe;


HHeight of bent pipe;
12Angle of bent pipe

L
3

L1

L1
L

Branch pipe

L
L1

0.5

LLength of main pipe;


L1Distance between branch pipe and one end of
main pipe;
HLength of branch pipe;
Angle of branch pipe against main pipe

L1
L

Penetrating p
ipe

0.5

LLength of penetrating straight pipe;


L1Distance from end flange of penetrating straig
ht pipe to doubling plate;
Angle of penetrating straight pipe against doubling
plate.

111

7.1.2 Wall thickness and reduction ratio


After pipe bending, the wall thickness reduction ratio of pipe should be less than the figures shown in Table 7.
The reduction ratio F can be calculated as per the following formula:
F=

t t1
100%
t

t------- Wall thickness of pipe before bending, mm;


t1-------The thinnest wall thickness of pipe after bending, mm.
Table 7 Wall Thickness Reduction Ratio of Pipe
Bend radius
(R)

Steel pipe

Wall thickness reduction ratio of pipe


Copper pipe

Unit: mm

F%
Al-brass pipe

Cold bend

Heat bend

Cold bend

Heat bend

R2D

20

20

2DR3D

25

10

30

15

3DR4D

20

R4D

15

25

Cold bend
25
20

10

20

15

h1

7.1.3 After pipe bending, the buckling height h1, h2 should be less than D/100 (Please see Dwg.5 in detail), i.e.:
h1 D/100
h2 D/100
h1h2------ Value of buckling height of pipe bend, mm
D ------ External diameter of pipe, mm

h2

Dwg. 5 Buckling heights of pipe bend


The ellipticity of section of bent pipe (Dwg.6 and Table 8)
A-A
b

7.1.4

Dwg.6 Ellipticity of section of bent pipe


Table 8 Ellipticity of section of bent pipe
Bend radius
(R)
R2D

Limit for ellipticity of section of bent pipe E%


Cold bend

Heat bend

10

2DR3D
3DR4D

Unit: mm

10

R4D

8
5

Noted: For Class and pipes, the limit ellipticity of section of cold bent pipe is 7%.

112

After bending of pipes, the formula of ellipticity of section of bent pipe is as follows:
E = ( a b) / D 100%
D External diameter of pipe, mm
a Value of max. external diameter of bending section, mm;
b Value of min. external diameter of bending section, mm.
7.1.5 The assembling tolerance of flange is shown in Table 1.
7.2 The strength test and tightness test of pipeline shall comply with the standard Q/SWS 64-001-2004
Standard of Strength Test and Tightness Test of Pipeline.
7.3 Non-destructive examination of pipesZC
7.3.1 For class pipes, butt-welded joints of pipes with an external diameter exceeding 76mm are to be
subjected to full X-ray or -ray examination.
7.3.2 For class pipes with an external diameter exceeding 100mm and class pipes with an external diameter
not exceeding 76mm, butt-welded joints of pipes are to be subjected to 10% random X-ray or -ray examination.
7.3.3 In special cases, pipes can be non-destructive examined by ultrasonic instead of radial based on the classs
agreement.
7.3.4 For class pipes, fillet welds of flange connections are to be examined by magnetic particles tests or by
other appropriate non-destructive tests.

113

SWSEARTHING PROCEDURE OF PIPING


Reference StandardQ/SWS44-017-2007
1

SCOPE
This standard specifies the preparation before installation of earthing device, personnel, technical
requirements, technical process and inspection after installation.
This standard is applicable to the dangerous zone(explosion proof), such as pump room, working place on
upper deck, inert gas system of topside & SPMvapor emission control system, steam and condensate water
system, tank cleaning system, cargo oil handling system etc.
2 NORMATIVE REFERENCES
The following normative documents contain provisions which, through reference in this text, constitute
provisions of this Standard. For dated references, subsequent amendments to (excluding corrigenda), or revisions
of, any of the publications do not apply. However, parties to agreements based on this Standard are encouraged to
investigate the possibility of applying the most recent editions of the normative documents indicated below. For
an updated reference, the latest edition of the normative document referred to applies.
GB/T 861.21987 Locking Washer with Inside Sawtooth
3 PREPARATIONS PRIOR TO INSTALLAION
3.1 Working drawings and related technical documents;
3.2 Suitable earthing type shall be selected based on marine earthing requirements. earthing types including:
a) Earthing wire is a special copper lead with yellow bottom color and green stripes;
b) Stride-connecting copper sheet
c) Locking washer with inside sawtooth (In compliance with GB/T861.2-1987, material: 65Mn.
3.3 Equipments for welding the earthing bolts
The earthing bolts on flanges and hull structure can be welded with common welder. But the earthing bolts
on pipes shall be welded with RSN type bolt arc welder.
4 PERSONNEL
4.1 The installation personnel and inspectors should have professional knowledge, and operate as per this
standard strictly.
4.2 The installation personnel and inspectors should master the requirement of this standard and strictly follow
the technical procedure and safety operation regulation.
5 TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS
5.1 Earthing wire and stride-connecting sheet copper
5.1.1 The connection of earthing lead to the ships structure is to be secured by bolts with a diameter not less
than 6mm. Before the bolts are screwed down, the contact surface shall be clean and smooth. After screwing down,
the connection place shall be protected from electrolytic corrosion; the connection place shall not be painted.
5.1.2 Two earthing points or more shall be provided between every pipeline and hull structure. Three earthing
points or more shall be provided between every pipeline and main deck. Bolts (M6X25) are located on the
stride-connecting place and welded on hull structure, flanges and pipelines. (Note: if the pipeline has been surface
treated, bolts cant be welded on pipeline directly.) See Drawing 1.

welding bolts on flanges

welding bolts on pipes

Dwg.1 Typical Type of Bolts Installation on Stride-connecting Place of Pipe


5.1.3 Earthing wire is a special copper lead with yellow bottom color and green stripes. The section area is
10mm2. It is made of multi-strand cords intertwisted with copper core. The length is 250mm or 500mm. Two ends
of every lead shall have cold-pressed connectors.
5.2 Locking washer with inside sawtooth
5.2.1 Two earthing points or more shall be provided between every pipeline and hull structure. Three earthing
points or more shall be provided between every pipeline and main deck. For earthing of pipeline, the angle steel
pipe support beside shall be bored or welded with bolt, and then one pair of bolts, nuts, tooth washers and sheet
copper are installed. See Drawing 2.

114

tooth washer

flat washer

tooth washer

flat washer

sheet copper

5.2.2
3.

Dwg. 2 Typical Installation Type of Stride-connection and Earthing Place


One pair of tooth washers shall be installed for every pair of flanges, pipe fittings and valves. See Drawing

tooth washer

Dwg. 3

flat washer

Typical Installation Type of Flanges Connecting with Tooth Washers

5.2.3 Stride-connecting sheet copper with one pair of tooth washers shall be installed on two ends of expansion
joint. See Drawing 4.

flat washer

tooth washer

sheet copper

tooth washer

sheet copper

tooth washer flat washer

expansion joint

Dwg. 4 Typical Installation Type of Expansion Joint Connection

115

5.2.4 The tooth washer shall be installed on the location of upper screw of flange.
6 TECHNICAL PROCESSES
6.1 Earthing wire
6.1.1 Two ends of earthing wire shall be fixed to the ground properly without any looseness.
6.1.2 During the installation of earthing wire, the pressed surface of earthing connector shall be kept clean.
6.1.3 During the installation, if the earthing wire is too long, it shall be set in several circles with a diameter of
40mm.
6.1.4 Screws which connect the end of earthing wire with earthed end shall be tightened. The earthing place
shall be treated with vaseline.
6.2 Type of stride-connecting sheet copper
6.2.1 Sheet copper with suitable dimensions shall be selected properly. The diameters of screw holes shall be
1mm bigger than the diameters of bolts. See Drawing 5 and Table 1.

L1

4R
5

Table 1
Diameter of bolts

Dwg.5 Boring Type of Sheet Copper


Basic Dimensions of Stride-connecting sheet copper

Length
L

12
16

300

20
24
27

L1

Bore

Weight
Kg

26

13

13

0.138

32

16

17

0.171

20

21

0.213

48

24

25

0.341

54

27

28

0.384

Width
W

40
400

Unit: mm

Thickness

6.2.2 The scale shall be removed from the surface of sheet copper.
6.2.3 The contact surface between sheet copper and flanges or angle bar shall be flat and clean.
6.2.4 The bolts on sheet copper shall be screwed down and vaseline shall be applied.
6.3 Locking washer with inside sawtooth
6.3.1 Each locking washer with inside sawtooth shall be arranged on two ends of flanges. One flat washer shall
be located beside the nut.
6.3.2 Only one pair of locking washers shall be installed for one pair of flanges.
6.3.3 During installation, the contact surface shall be flat and clean.
6.3.4 The screws on locking washer with inside sawtooth shall be tightened and vaseline shall be applied.
7 INSPECTIONS
7.1 Cargo oil handling system in explosion-proof area shall be earthed properly (1 megohm).
7.2 Installation of earthing wire, stride-connecting sheet copper and locking washer with inside sawtooth shall
comply with Item 5 Technical Requirements.
7.3 Every contact surface shall be flat, clean and free of paint. Two connections or more shall be provided
between every pipeline and hull structure. Three connections or more shall be provided between every pipeline
and main deck.
7.4 After complete installation, every earthing place shall be applied with vaseline.

116

SWSGENERAL REGULATIONS FOR SHIP PAINTING


Reference StandardQ/SWS45-007-2007
1

SCOPE
This standard stipulates technological preparation and persons, technological requirements, procedures and
inspection for painting operation of steel ships.
This standard applies to the painting of steel ships, and can also be applied to the painting of other steel
structures as applicable.
2 NORMATIVE REFERENCES
The provisions in the following documents quoted by this standard become the provisions of the latter. For
all the dated documents, any subsequent amendments to (excluding corrigenda), or revisions of them do not apply
to this standard. However, parties to agreements based on this Standard are encouraged to investigate the
possibility of applying the most recent editions of these documents. For an updated reference, the latest edition of
the normative document is applicable.
CB/T 3513-93
Requirements to Quality Inspection of Ship Surface Preparation
Q/SWS 65-002-2005
Quality & inspection standard for painting
3 TECHNOLOGICAL PREPARATION
3.1 General requirements to marine paints
3.1.1 Marine paint should be produced by professional manufacturer. The paint provided for shipyard should be
tightly packed in bucket. The product name, trademark, color, batch number from factory, period of storage
etc.must be shown on the packing bucket, and for an imported paint, a Chinese label is necessary..
3.1.2 Each batch of paint must be delivered with a quality guarantee.
3.1.3 Performance indexes of the marine paint must be in accordance with the specification of product offered
by the manufacturer.
3.2 Coating systems for various parts of ship hull
Proper coating systems shall be selected in accordance with the Specification.
4 PERSONNEL
4.1 Operators and inspectors should have professional knowledge and certificates through training, exams or
tests, then be engaged in their jobs .
4.2 Operators and inspectors should be familiar with the requirements of this standard and strictly comply with
the technical discipline and work site safety operation rules.
5 TECHNOLOGICAL REQUIREMENTS
5.1 Technological stages of shipbuilding painting:
a) steel pretreatment;
b) block T/U;
c) block painting;
d) Grand block painting;
e) Painting in dock;
f) Painting beside quay;
g) Painting before delivery.
5.2 Steel pretreatment
5.2.1 The pre-heated temperature of steel shall be controlled at about 40.
5.2.2 The surface quality after shotblasting or spray-pill de-rusting should meet the standard Q/SWS
65-002-2005Quality & inspection standard for painting
5.2.3 After shotblasting or spray-pill de-rusting, the steel materials should be shop-primer coated immediately,
the thickness of shop-primer should be in accordance with the painting specifications.
5.2.4 The shop-primer coated steel can not be lifted and carried if the primer is not dry.. The coating with
mechanical damage must be repair-painted manually.
5.3 Block painting
5.3.1 Block painting mustnt be done until the structural integrity inspection and specified pre-outfitting work of
block is finished.
5.3.2 Additional technical holes may be made for abrasive cleaning and ventilation with agreement of the owner
and classification society, if necessary.
5.3.3 Painted blocks shouldnt be transported until the coating is completely dry. For the non fully-opened space
in block, it needs to test the concentration of solvent gas. Only it is in a safe range, can the block be transported.
5.3.4 Bottom blocks should be transported to the platform or dry dock only after the coatings of outside shell are
completely dry. When the blocks are lifted down, its better to put some solvent-resistant soft material on the
117

wooden sleepers.
5.4 Painting of grand block
5.4.1 For grand blocks painting must be done after completion of structural integrity inspection and
pre-outfitting.
5.4.2 Grand blocks can not be transferred into the dock for erection, if the drying time of coating is not as
enough as that specified in the painting specification after painting of the welding seams.
5.5 Painting in dock
5.5.1 The big weld seam between blocks and the watertight weld which is not painted in the block painting stage
should be repaired and repainted after tightness test.
5.5.2 The part of the ship under waterline should be fully painted, if docking is not necessary after launching. .
5.5.3 For the areas of shell plate above waterline, the finish coat should be painted during docking. Water guide
exit pipes or wooden plugs shall be used temporarily at the overboard scupper before painting, and can not be
removed until the painting is finished and the coat is completely dry.
5.5.4 In order to prevent unreasonable overlapping of painting on the boundary of different coats, the coats
should jointed according to the designed sequence.
5.5.5 The scaffolding, launching cradle when they are partly welded on the hull, should be cut and removed
before launching, and the leftover must be ground flush.
5.5.6 The areas that neednt to be painted, such as sacrifice anodes, sonar detector, screw propeller, impressed
current protection electrode etc., shall be properly covered and secured before painting to prevent them from being
painted.
5.5.7 Inner painting of the cargo tank, coat of which will be under waterline after launching, shall be finished or
repaired before launching, otherwise, suitable measures shall be made to repair the coat under the condition that
the temperature of the steel sheet is 3 higher than dew points.
5.5.8 Waterline, draft marks, the names of ship and port as well as various kinds of outboard marks should be
carefully brushed or painted and completely dry before launching.
5.6 Painting beside quay
5.6.1 Inner painting of cargo tank which is not finished during docking shall be repaired beside quay. in order to
avoid dewing on the cargo holds wall, it must be well ventilated and dehumidified during working,
5.6.2 Coating of the top of engine room should be completely repaired before running test.
5.6.3 Indoor and weather decks should be painted near delivery. Painting works is to be properly done by areas
in order to assure passages. Dried coat shall be properly covered to prevent it from trample.
5.7 Painting before delivery
It mainly contains repair-painting, the surface of coat after being damaged should be treated, repair-painted in
time.
5.8 Outfitting painting
5.8.1 Outfittings shall be surface-prepared and well painted with universal epoxy primer or finish paint before
installation, except those specified ones that neednt to be painted (stainless steel, non-ferrous, galvanized units
etc.). The steel outfittings without surface preparation and painting mustnt be installed on board.
5.8.2 The coating system of outfittings before their installation on board should be in accordance with the
Specification and paint specifications.
5.8.3 The technical requirements to surface preparation and painting of the purchased equipments and outfitting
parts shall be offered to the manufacturers during ordering. The paint type, film thickness and color etc. shall be
specified, and if necessary, SWS can send QC inspectors to the manufacturer for acceptance check.
5.8.4 The outfittings shall be coat-repaired with the same coating system layer by layer, if their coatings are
damaged partly after installation.
5.8.5 If finish painting is to be carried out in vicinity of the installed outfittings or for their component, the
non-painted parts (mechanical movable surface, name plate etc.) must be well protected.
6 TECHNOLOGICAL PROCEDURE
6.1 Surface preparation before painting
6.1.1 Steel surface pretreatment
6.1.1.1 The technological processes of steel pretreatment line include: cleaning, pre-heating, shot blasting,
automatic painting, post-heating, steel plate transportation.
6.1.1.2 The steel surface can be treated by shot blasting or acid pickling for the primary surface preparation at
the stage of raw materials (primary surface preparation)..
6.1.1.3 The steel plates and profiled bar in thickness of 6.0mm and above shall be surface-treated on shot
blasting line, also can be treated by shot blasting machine; for those in thickness of less than 6mm, the surface can
be treated on the thin plate shot-blasting line or by acid pickling, also can be derusted by shot blasting after
assembling them into components and block sections;, outfittings can be derusted by shot blasting, with power
tools or by acid pickling.
6.1.1.4 The prepared surface shall be free of oil, grease, water and other contaminant.
6.1.1.5 Iron shot and other mixed abrasive such as grit and so on can be used as the shot abrasive,
6.1.1.6 The shot blasted surface should be free of dirt and waste abrasive etc.
118

6.1.1.7 If the components and blocks assembled with steel materials without pretreatment are derusted by shot
blasting, the surface quality of them shall be as same as that of parts derusted by secondary surface preparation,
6.1.1.8 The quality of pickling-derusted surface should meet the requirement of the standard CB/T 3513-93 Ship
surface preparation quality inspection.
6.1.1.9 The surfaces prepared according to the above items 6.1.1.7 and 6.1.1.8 shall be post-painted according to
Painting Specification.
6.1.2 Secondary surface preparation
6.1.2.1 surface faults preparation of construction
This preparation mainly applies to dealing with the problems caused by cutting, welding and assembly. It
includes at least:
a) Grinding and smoothing sharp edges;
b) Grinding rough welding seams;
c) Cleaning and grinding splatters and welding slag;
d) Crack and pits;
e) Surface defects, e.g. plate lamination;
f) Smoothing manual welding seams;
g) Grinding cut edges.
For requirements to surface faults preparation of construction and methods of preparation, see Table 1.
Table 1 Requirements and methods of surface faults preparation of construction
Item

Requirements and methods of preparation


1
2

In WBT and FWT, sharp


edges shall be two-pass ground
with sander gun or disc grinder.

Sharp edges
1

One-pass ground except above


areas.
1

Welding
spatter

1Remove the spatter before shot


blasting.
2For the spatter found after shot
blasting:
a)Remove it with hammer or
scraper
b)remove sharp spatters with
disc sander.
c)Smooth spatters neednt to be
treated.

Plate
lamination

Any plate lamination shall be


removed with disc sander.

Undercut

If the undercut depth is over 1 mm


and the width is less than the
depth, it can be removed by
welding or grinding, depending on
circumstances .

(a)
(b)
(c)

119

Table 1 (continuing) Requirements and methods of surface faults preparation of construction


Item

Requirements and methods of preparation

Hand
welding

The irregular hand welding


seams and those with too many
sharp edges are to be treated with
sand disc or grinding gun.

Gas-cut
surface

The irregular surface shall be


treated with sand disc or grinding
gun.

6.1.2.2 Solvent cleaning


Remove all visible oil, grease, contaminants and other soluble filth. The thick grease can be removed with
tools first and then with the methods given in Table 2.
Table 2. Methods of solvent cleaning
Item

Method
Water cleaning
Steam cleaning

Grease

Emulsion cleaning
Alkaline cleaning
Organic solvent
cleaning

Contaminant
(Soluble in
water) such as
salt

Remarks
Fresh water with detergent. Pressure 70MPa.Hose down
thoroughly with fresh water
Fresh water (if detergent is added, hose down thoroughly with
fresh water.)
Hose down thoroughly with fresh water.
Aluminum, zinc and some metals are easily eroded in strong alkali
solution. Hose down thoroughly with fresh water.
Many kinds of organic solutions are harmful to health. If a rag is
used for cleaning, it must be changed time after time, otherwise,
grease cant be removed but become thin oil film on the surface after
solvent volatilized.

Water cleaning

Fresh water, pressure70MPa

Steam cleaning

Hose down thoroughly with fresh water.

Alkaline cleaning

Aluminum, zinc and some metal are easily eroded in strong alkali
solution. Hose down thoroughly with fresh water.

6.1.2.3 Secondary surface preparation


6.1.2.3.1 The secondary surface preparation is mainly by means of shot-blasting and power tool.
6.1.2.3.2 Secondary surface preparation shall be carried out under conditions according to relative requirements.
The derusted surface shall be treated in time to be free of dirty oil, dust and so on, and painted the specified primer
immediately.
6.1.2.3.3 The technological requirements to secondary preparation of all positions are shown in Table 3.
Table 3 Technological requirements to secondary preparation
Position

Preparation tool

General requirement

Welding seams

Shot(grit) blasting
Pneumatic disc sander
and wire brush

Remove the damaged coating (burnt, getting


blister, discoloration) along the seams and within
30-50mm.
Remove the mill scale and rust along the seams.

120

Table 3 (continuing) Technological requirements to secondary preparation


Position

Preparation tool

burning loss area

Shot blasting
Pneumatic disc sander
and wire brush

Naturally rust area

Shot blasting
Pneumatic disc sander
and wire brush

intact surface of
shop primer

Shot blasting
Pneumatic disc sander
and wire brush

General requirement
Remove the damaged coating (burnt, getting
blister, discoloration) along the seams and within
30-50mm.
If the total DFT is over 50m, the coating in range
of 25-30mm around above-mentioned areas shall be of
a certain gradient.
Remove rust area and the coating film and scale in
range of 20-25mm around.
When total DFT is over 50m, the coating in
range of 25-30mm round above-mentioned areas shall
be of a certain gradient.
Remove the zinc salt by light grit sweeping or soft
grinding with power tool.
Lightly roughen surface and clean it.
some special parts shall be treated according to
the paint technical requirement.

converse side of
Shot blasting
steel bars, corners,
ini pneumatic derusting
Remove mill scale and rust, if possible.
edges and other
tools.
areas difficult to
Hand tools
treat
6.1.2.3.4 The class of secondary preparation of hull should be in accordance with specification.
6.1.2.3.5 Regarding to the requirement of quality inspection of secondary surface preparation for all parts, refer
to Q/SWS 65-002-2005 Quality & inspection standard for painting.
6.2 Paint Application
6.2.1 Environment
6.2.1.1 Painting work should be carried out in possibly best weather or in doors when it is moist or at lower
temperature;
6.2.1.2 Painting work in open air is not suggested in rainy, snowy or foggy days;
6.2.1.3 Usually, epoxy and tar epoxy paints shouldnt be apllied if ambient temperature is below 5, otherwise,
the epoxy paint should be of winter type; watersoluable type paint should not be used when ambient temperature
is below 0; other types of paint should be preheated properly when ambient temperature is below 0.
6.2.1.4 Paint works should not be performed on the moist surface but should be done under the conditions that
the relative humidity is less than 85% or the steel surface temperature is 3 more than the dew point.
6.2.1.5 Special painting should be carried out under the conditions recommended by the manufacturer.
6.2.1.6 The working surface should be prevented from being dirtied by surrounding dust or splashed during
painting or before the coating dried.
6.2.2 Preparation for painting works
6.2.2.1 Issuance and Requisition of Material
6.2.2.1.1 Paint shall be issued and requisitioned strictly in accordance with the type, brand, color and quota
given by the technical drawings.
6.2.2.1.2 Thinner shall be issued and requisitioned in accordance with the type and proportion specified in the
technical drawings.
6.2.2.2 Tin Openning
6.2.2.2.1 It should be checked for the paint type, brand and color of the paint before the tin is opened. according
to the technical drawings, and the batch number should be recorded.
6.2.2.2.2 In order to save paint, the tins shall to be opened just before painting according to actual demand.
6.2.2.3 Stirring paints
Paints should be stirred uniformly before use. For the double-component paint, it should be mixed uniformly
at first, and then the mixture should be stirred together with hardener..
6.2.2.4 Mixing and curing
Double-component and even three-component paint shall be mixed in proportion. The procedures are as
follows:
a) Stir the paint uniformly;
b) Add a half of hardener into the paint and stir uniformly;
c) Add another half of hardner and stir uniformly;
121

d) If necessary, add diluent and stir uniformly;


e) Cure in accordance with the time given (pre-reaction);
f) Filtrate and spray.
Note: The painting time shall not exceed the specified time, in order to avoid gelling. The time for curing and
mixing is to be shorten as the temperature rises. Refer to the manufactures specification during painting. Do not
paint with exposure in the sun in high-temperature seasons.
6.2.2.5 Thinner
In general, paint can be used just after open the tin without thinner, but the thinner may be added in the
following circumstances:
a) Low temperature in winter;
b) Hand or air-spray painting;
c) Decrease the coating film designedly;
The above operations shall be done under instructions of the manufactures.
6.2.2.6 Filtration
In order to get rid of the remnants which are difficult to be separated such as big grain, cement and so on, the
following methods are applicable:
a) Pour into another tin through filter mesh;
b) Use a mesh or filter at the inlet of the paint pump during painting;
c) Clean it with solvents after painting;
d) Remove the filter mesh when paint special coat, for example, glass-flake paint.
6.2.2.7 Shielding
6.2.2.7.1 Big weld seam and watertight seam of block prior to the tightness test must not be painted with any
rust-resisting paint or primer and shall be well shielded before painting.
6.2.2.7.2 The parts that mustnt to be painted shall be well shielded during painting.
6.2.3 Painting works
6.2.3.1 Painting works are mainly of brush, roller and airless spray painting. The painting method is mainly
depended on one or more of the following factors:
a) size and type of workpiece;
b) approachability of the areas to be painted;
c) shape of the areas to be painted;
d) over-painting (during spray painting) may damage the important areas or destroy surrounding
environment;
e) type of paint.
6.2.3.2 Brush painting
6.2.3.2.1 Brush painting usually applies to:
a) Partial/local repair and the areas which is not suitable for roller or spray painting ;
b) cut angle and edge;
c) good osmosis in the crack or rusted pitting;
d) the adjacent areas of sensitive equipments, electric machines, machinery and instruments;
e) pre-painting of welding point, rivet, bolt, nut, edge, flange, corner, etc.
6.2.3.2.2 Working procedures for brush painting
a) Dip half of the brush into paint;
b) scrape off the excessive paint on the inner rim of the tin while put out the brush;
c) the brush shall always be vertical to the painted surface and moved, and forced uniformly.
d) the brush moves along parallel tracks which are superposed in one third of the brush;
e) The next coat shall be across applied at right-angle to the previous coat.
6.2.3.3 Roller painting
6.2.3.3.1 Roller painting applies to wide and flat surface.
6.2.3.3.2 The roller shall be moved on the painted surface in a acrossed way in order to uniformly apply the
paint.
6.2.3.4 Airless spray painting
6.2.3.4.1 the nozzle for airless spray painting is to be selected according to the performance of different paint.
See Table 4 and Table 5 for details:

122

Table 4

Selection of nozzle for deferent paints

Nozzle tip size

Applicable fan width


(30cm distance from nozzle12 inch)

0.28 mm
(0.011 inch)

15, 20 or 25 cm
(6, 8 or 10 inch)

shop

0.17to 0.27 mm
(0.007 to 0.011 inch)

15, 20 or 25 cm
(6, 8 or 10 inch)

Paint, varnishes, lacker


finish paint

0.28 to 0.38 mm
(0.011to 0.015 inch)

15, 20, 25, 30 cm


(6, 8, 10, 12 inch)

0.38 to 0.53 mm
(0.015 to 0.021 inch)

15, 20, 25, 30 cm


(6, 8, 10, 12 inch)

Paint type

Low adhere paint


Wash
primer

primer,

Industrial paint

Notea filter net of 100 mesh shall be used for above mentioned nozzles.
Middle or high adhesion
vinyl, acrylic latex alkyd
paint

0.43 mm
(about 0.017 inch)

15, 20, 25, 30 cm


(6, 8, 10, 12 inch)

Thick film paint

0.48 to 0.63 mm
(0.019 to 0.025 inch)

20, 25, 30, 35 cm


(8, 10, 12, 14 inch)

Glass-flake paint

0.63 to 1.0 mm
(0.025to 0.040 inch)

25, 30, 35 cm
(10, 12, 14 inch)

Notea filter net of 60 mesh shall be used for above mentioned nozzles
Table 5.
Tip size

Compassion for tips of airless spray


Fan width

Flow rate

mm

1/1000inch

Spray angle
(degree)

0.23

10-15

70-230

2.75-9

0.35

0.10

0.28

11

10-80

70-350

2.75-14

0.55

0.15

0.33

13

10-80

70-350

2.75-14

0.80

0.20

0.38

15

10-80

90-350

3.50-14

1.30

0.35

0.45

18

20-80

140-350

5.00-14

1.60

0.42

0.65

23

20-80

140-350

5.00-14

2.30

0.60

mm

inch

L/min

Gallon/min

6.2.3.4.2 Essentials for airless spray painting


Pay attention to the following essentials while spraying:
a.) Painters must check the spray gun and adjust it for the best spray fan before painting.
b.) Always keep the gun vertical and in a proper distance of 25 to 30 cm to the surface to be painted, try to
prevent from hand turning during painting, otherwise an arc-form moving will be caused..
c.) Push the trigger before the tip is on the same line with the edge of surface to be painted. Push the trigger
completely and move the painting gun regularly; release the trigger and cut off the paint fluid while the
painting gun moved to the other side of the painted object, but when the painting gun moved a certain
distance and go back to the return track, re-push the trigger and move the gun to go along the target
123

object .
d.) Push the trigger as well as release it in moving while spraying.
e.) It must be overlapped by 50% between two spray tracks. The surface should be covered equally by paint.
f.) the gun must aim on the axis of corner during painting corner, in order that there is equal and enough
thickness of coat on both sides.
6.2.3.5 Stripe coats (pre-painting?)
For below areas, it should be striped by brush or roller (one to two coats) before full painting. When the coat
is appreciably dry, apply full painting.
It must be pre-painted by one or two layers of paint and then completely painted after slight drying in the
following areas
a.) Roughened and hand welded areas.
b.) Edges of reinforce bar, face plate, bosom plate and disk;
c.) Insides of scallops, supports of pipes, sewer and air hole.
d.) Defective and damaged areas.
e.) All the areas difficultly to be approached.
The areas to be pre-painted are shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1 Areas to be pre-painted


6.2.3.6 Recoating
Recoating shall be applied strictly at intervals offered in the product specification of the paint manufacture. It
mustnt be recoated if it is less than the minimum value of specified interval. The surface of coat must be
roughened before recoating if interval exceeded the maximum value.
6.2.3.7 Coat overlapping
In case of overlapping of two different types of paints, it should be applied in according to technical design.
6.2.3.8 Coat repair
6.2.3.8.1 The areas where the film thickness is not conform with standards or damaged shall be repaired.
6.2.3.8.2 Type and layer of paint, film thickness of each layer should be the same as that of surrounding coat and
painted in the same order.
6.2.3.8.3 The boundary between repaired area and surroundings shall be smooth and flat.
7 INSPECTION
7.1 For coating quality inspection, refer to Q/SWS 65-002-2005 Quality & inspection standard for painting.
7.2 For scope and items of inspection, refer to Q/SWS 65-002-2005 <Quality & inspection standard for
painting>.
7.3 Procedures of inspection
In general, inspection and acceptance of quality of surface preparation and painting are in the following
procedures:
aself-inspection in working areas;
binspection and acceptance of QC Dept. of Shipyard, signing acceptance document;
c According to No.7.2, some inspection items shall be submitted to Paint makers TSR or Owner
representative for their confirmation, and acceptance document shall be signed.

124

SWSGENERAL REGULATIONS FOR SECONDARY SURFACE


PREPARATION IN SHIPBUILDING
Reference StandardQ/SWS45-008-2007
1

SCOPE
This standard stipulates the preparation for operation, personnel, technological requirements, technological
process, safety and inspection before secondary surface preparation of shipbuilding.
This standard applies to all kinds of steel vessels. It can also be used for marine structures as applicable.
2 NORMATIVE REFERENCE
The provisions in the following documents quoted by this standard become the provisions of the latter. For all
the dated documents, any subsequent amendments to (excluding corrigenda), or revisions of them do not apply to
this standard. However, parties to agreements based on this Standard are encouraged to investigate the possibility
of applying the most recent editions of these documents. For an updated reference, the latest edition of the
normative document is applicable.
Q/SWS 65-002-2005
Quality & inspection standard for painting
3 TERMS AND DEFINITION
The following terms and definitions are suitable for this regulation.
3.1 Pretreatment
Pretreatment is the process of mill scale, rust and other contaminations from the ship construction steel and
shaped steel mechanically and chemically and then spraying of the first shop primer before steel cutting.
3.2 Secondary surface preparation
The ship construction steel prepared by pretreatment and painted by one coat of shop primer is processed,
assembled and welded to form blocks or areas. If the welds, edges, paint film damage by mechanical impact are
not repaired in time, or the blocks are kept too long time after construction, which leads to the re-rusting and
contamination of the steel surface, then all the steel surface needs to be prepared again to reach standard.
4 PREPARATION BEFORE OPERATION
4.1 Drawings and relative technical documents.
4.2 For the relation of power tools and de-rust grade, see Table 1
Table 1 Relation of power tools and de-rust grade
Secondary surface preparation
Applicable
Tool name
Tool shape
grade
scope
P3
P2
P1

Sand paper disc

Large surface
and butt
welding

Steel wire disc

Corundum cone

Corundum cylinder

125

Small edge,
corner, hole
and fillet
welding
seams

Table 1(continuing)
Tool name

Relation of power tools and de-rust grade


Secondary surface preparation
grade
Tool shape
P3
P2
P1

Steel wire noddle

Applicable
scope

notesymbol means applicable.


5 PERSONNEL
5.1 Operators and inspectors should have professional knowledge and certificates through training, exams or
tests, then be engaged in their jobs .
5.2 Operators and inspectors should be familiar with the requirements of this standard and strictly comply with
the technical discipline and work site safety operation rules.
6 TECHNOLOGICAL REQUIREMENT
6.1 Requirement to surface preparation and painting for all technological working stages
6.1.1 Assembly stage for parts
All free edges, edges of opening and welding seams shall be cleaned up and free of burr and sharp edges
after the hull parts are welded, assembled and rectified. Damaged area of shop primer should repaired with T/U
primer.
6.1.2 Block stage
Pre-outfitting of block, installation of pipes and cable supports are to be started after the block is assembled,
welded and rectified. Secondary surface preparation of block is to be carried out according to relative
requirements of the Painting Specification after structural inspection of shipowner. It is usually performed at
working fields in case of shot (sand) blasting. After passing secondary surface preparation inspection, painting
work shall be applied according to the Painting Specification.
6.1.3 Erection stage in dock
When the assembling and rectification in dock are finished, in other words, installation of foundations for
outfitting equipment, pipe-lines and their accessories and tightness test are finished, the secondary surface
preparation shall be carried out thereto according to Painting Specification. After passing secondary surface
preparation inspection, painting work shall be applied according to the Painting Specification.
6.2 Requirement to inspection of secondary surface preparation
6.2.1 Inspection of secondary surface preparation shall be in accordance with Q/SWS 65-002-2005 Quality &
inspection standard for painting.
6.2.2 The general grades of surface preparation of China, Japan and American and international standards are
listed in Appendix A for easy comparison.
6.3 Surface preparation of all parts of ship hull shall be in accordance with the Specification and Painting
Specification.
7 Technological process
7.1 Surface cleaning
7.1.1 cleaning of relatively intact shop primer surface
a) Wipe the shop-primed surface of hull structure with a clean cloth /rag ;
b) Slightly roughen the primered surface of hull structure with corundum papers or grind with power steel
wire brushes;
c) Grind the surface with power sand paper discs;
d) Sweep the surface by shot (sand) blasting.
The above four methods are optional according to the conditions.
7.1.2 For treatment of contaminants on the primered surface, refer to Table 2.
Table 2 Methods for treatment of contaminants on the primered surface
Content
Treatment
water

wipe up the surface with dry compressed air or clean rags.

salt

flush the surface with water, then wipe up it with clean cloth.

Oil stain

wipe up the oil stain with rags with solvent.


remove the thick mud with scraper and flush with water, then wipe up the
surface with clean cloth.

Mud, dust

126

7.2 Secondary surface preparation and painting


7.2.1 Select proper de-rusting tools according to structure conditions of steel surface at different technology
stages.
7.2.2 Secondary surface preparation should be carried out according to different blocks and areas.
7.2.3 The painters shall keep up a distance of more than 2 m between them if they are working in the same area
or do their work alternately..
8 SAFETY
8.1 The operators must be dressed in working clothes, working shoes, safety cap, dustproof glasses, dustproof
respirator. (Shot blasting operators should wear dustproof enclosed type head-mask.)
8.2 High-altitude workers must be equipped with safety belts.
8.3 The used solvent materials and cloth with solvent should not be thrown randomly.
9 INSPECTION
The following items should be inspected during the operation:
a) Surface cleaning condition
The surface should be dry, without oil stain, chalk stain and smoke dust, and so on.
b) Surface preparation grades
It shall meet the requirement of Specification and Painting Specification.

APPENDIX A
(INFORMATIVE APPENDIX)
The general surface preparation grades comparing table
among China, Japan, international and American standards
Table A.1

The general surface preparation grades comparing table among China, Japan, international and
American standards
CHINA
JAPAN
INTERNATIONAL
AMERICAN
CB3230-85
JSRA-SPSS
ISO8501-1:1998(E)
SSPC-SP
b1

Sd3

Sa3

SSPC-SP5

b2

Sd2

Sa2.5

SSPC-SP10

bs

Ss

Sa2

SSPC-SP6

P1

Pt3

St3

SSPC-SP3

P2

Pt2

St2-St3

P3

Pt1

St2

SSPC-SP2

127

SWS PROCEDURE FOR IN-DOCK PAINTING OF SHELL PLATES


WITHOUT SHIFTING BLOCKS
Reference StandardQ/SWS45-009-2007
1

SCOPE
The standard stipulates the preparation for application, personnel, technological requirements, technological
process and inspection for the in-dock painting of shell plates without shifting blocks.
The standard applies to all kinds of steel vessels.
2 PREPARATION BEFORE APPLICATION
2.1 Drawings and relative technical documents.
2.2 Material
aVeneer sheet;
bPolyethylene film;
cMarine paint.
3 PERSONNEL
3.1 Operators and inspectors should have professional knowledge and certificates through training, exams or
tests before being engaged in their jobs.
3.2 Operators and inspectors should be familiar with the requirements of this standard and strictly comply with
the technical discipline and work site safety operation rules.
4 TECHNOLOGICAL REQUIREMENT
4.1 When the painting specification confirmed, design departments should validate the performances of
anti-fouling paint under preconditions of meeting the in-dock painting requirement of non-shifting blocks and
shipbuilding schedule of shipyard.
4.2 Painting of shell plates shall be completed before undocking.
4.3 Painting for underwater spaces shall be finished according to the coating system before undocking.
5 TECHNOLOGICAL PROCEDURE
5.1 Painting operation of outside shell below waterline before undocking
5.1.1 Flat bottom
5.1.1.1, Paint flat bottom at block stage in accordance with the coating system and acceptance-inspected by
Owner.
5.1.1.2 Paint and repair in dock the butt welding joints and damaged area of coat,.
5.1.1.3 Protection of finished coat in way of support-block area
aA layer of veneer (plywood) or other similar material should be placed on each of support area, and then a
layer of polyethylene film should be covered on the veneer;
bEnough time shall be ensured for desiccation of anti-fouling paint before transportation and erection;
cThe coating on the blocks shall be well protected during transportation and erection.
5.1.2 Vertical bottom
5.1.2.1 At block stage: paint the vertical bottom according to painting specification.
5.1.2.2 At pre-erection stage: re-paint and repair the coating of welding butt and damaged coating.
5.1.2.3 At dock stage: remained anti-fouling coating scheme shall be finished and completely desiccated before
undocking.
5.1.3 Repair work before undocking
athe docking block shall be removed in case of repairing damaged coat in way of a docking block, And the
painting repair of the damaged location shall be inspected and accepted.
bthe painting repair of other location than that in way of the docking block shall be made in time and fully
inspected and accepted.
cthe coating on large-area shell plate shall be desiccated for enough time after application of painting..
5.1.4 Attention shall be paid to the interval of painting during working.
5.2 Painting application of tanks below waterline before undocking
5.2.1 All tanks below waterline including water ballast tank, oil tank, void spaces and tanks in direct vicinity of
outside shell or hull structure, for instance, bulkhead of cargo hold of single-shell cargo vessel, shall be finished
and be completely painted.
5.2.2 Precision should be assured during design to avoid any coat damage of outside shell due to changes in
design, modification of structure, and reinforcement of structure and other cases of hot work after undocking.

128

5.2.3 When production department arrange the schedule, design modification should be taken account of during
arrangement of production and resolved possible problem before undocking. It shall be assured that the coat of
shell will not be burnt or damaged during after-undocking construction.
6 INSPECTION
6.1 Check that the painting of outside shell below waterline (including docking block) is finished .
6.2 Check that all the cargo tanks are ready for closure.
6.3 Final inspection of painting should meet Specification of the ship.

129

SWS TECHNOLOGICAL REQUIREMENTS FOR INSTALLATION OF


ELECTRIC CABLES ON SHIPS
Reference StandardQ/SWS46-001-2007
1

SCOPE
This standard specifies the preparation works prior to installation of electric cables, personnel qualification,
technological requirements, ways and inspections for installation of electric cables on board the ship.
This standard is applicable to installation of electric cables on ships to be built or repaired.
2 NORMATIVE REFERENCE
Q/SWS46-003-2007
Procedure for Protective Earthing of Marine Electric Equipment and Cables
3 PREPARATION PRIOR TO CABLE INSTALLATION
3.1 Get ready of drawings such as Arrangement Drawings of Electrical Equipment, Arrangement Drawings
of Electrical Outfitting, System Diagram of Comprehensive Conductance, Power System Diagram, Cable
List, Heat-Insulation Plan, Fire Fighting Area Division Plan etc.
3.2 Be well familiar with the requirements and working methods specified in this standard, and working
principles of electrical system on board the ship to be built.
3.3 Prepare supports,, brackets,, fastening pieces, tools and material for installation of electric cables .
3.4 For easy installation, cable supports, brackets, and fastening pieces shall be collected and distributed
according to working area.
3.5 Prepare cable material according to the cable list.
3.5.1 It is necessary to make two temporary labels for fastening separately at both ends of each cable which
indicate the cable number, type, length, terminal equipment names and installation location.
3.5.2 Check if there is a mark on the cable showing the point at which the cable passing through the bulkhead or
the deck shall stop in accordance with the cable list.
3.5.3 Lash temporary labels on both ends of the cable whenever it is cut.
3.5.4 Cable cutting end shall be protected from absorbing moisture, the measures to seal the cutting end can be
taken if necessary.
3.5.5 The cables shall be wound to cable drums according to the location where the cable is laid and cable
running sequence specified in the cable list.
3.6 Positioning of cable brackets and penetration pieces on board the ship shall be in accordance with
Arrangement drawing of electrical equipment and Arrangement drawing of electrical outfitting.
3.7 Opening on hull structure and deck
3.7.1 Generally, opening should be in round or ellipse shape. If the opening is in other shape, the corner of the
opening shall be in round shape.
3.7.2 Opening on beam, frame and girder as shown in Fig.1 & Table 1.
Distance H between the edge of the opening and top surface of the girder shall not be less than 40% of the
height of the girder web. When the size of the opening for penetration piece is larger than that specified above and
strength compensation is needed, contact with a hull structure designer .
L
0.1L

0.1L

0.1L

(a) Reinforcd beam structure


top part of
stanchion
d

d d

d d

( D i sa ll o w h o l i o n g

(b)

Fig.1

low part of stanchion


close to bulkhead

d d

A area
B area
C area

low part of
stanchion

S tan ch io n stru ctu re

Area division of opening on hull structure

130

Structure name position


Cargo oil tank
cargo hold, engine
room, other spaces
girder except for cargo oil
tank
Accommodation
area weather
deck
midship 0.75L, inner vertical
keel

Table 1 Opening on hull structure


Height of opening d /Height of section h
Area A
Area B
no
no
ReinforceReinforce
reinforce
reinforcement
-ment
ment
ment
0.2
0.1**
0.2 *
0.1 *
0.5 **
0.25
0.25

0.25
0.5

0.125

0.125
0.25

0.33

0.33
0.5

0.165

0.165
0.25

0.4

0.4
0.5

0.2

0.2
0.25

b/B

Remark

* d300
** d600

0.5

solid floor, side girder in


0.5
0.5
double bottom
0.66
note:
* The edge of opening should be smooth and the corner, in round shape.
** The coaming for the opening without reinforcement can be made by flat bar which the thickness
shall not be less than 5 mm, and the thickness of steel material by which the coaming for the opening
with reinforcement is made shall be the same as the members.
3.7.3 Opening on deck
3.7.3.1 If the opening is in round or ellipse shape , the length-width ratio of the opening shall be not less than
2, and the longer axis shall be arranged longitudinally as far as practicable to reduce the transverse opening size
and maintain opening area unchanged.
3.7.3.2 If opening is on strength deck at midship within the area of 1/2 of ship length, the opening size along
ship width shall be not more than 6 % of the distance between hatch coaming and ships side . If opening on other
deck, the width of ellipse opening shall not be more than 9% of the distance between hatch coaming and ships
side. The opening size in round shape shall not be more than 6% of the above montioned distance.When the
opening size of penetrating piece is more than that specified above and strength compensation is needed, contact
with the designers in charge of hull structure .
3.8 Space between cable coaming or cable trunk and cable bracket or hull members.
3.8.1 Cables pass through beams or bulkheads by cable coaming as shown in Fig.2(If there is stuffing in cable
coaming, 200D300). E as shown in Fig 2 indicates the minimum space between the cable and inner wall of
cable coaming. Generally, cable bracket inner surface is 10mm higher than the inner wall of the cable coaming.

D150

E5

D150

1
1

cable coaming

cable

2
3

3
cable bracket

Fig.2 Cables pass through beams or bulkheads by cable coaming


3.8.2 Cables pass through deck by cable trunk (see Fig.3)
E as shown in the figure indicates the minimum space between cable and inner wall of the cable trunk.
Generally, cable bracket surface is 10mm higher than inner wall of the cable trunk.

131

1
2

E5

cable

150

20

300

cable bracket 3

cable trunk

deck

Fig.3 Cables pass through deck by cable trunk


3.9 Fit-up of cable brackets, penetration pieces and fittings.
3.9.1 Cable brackets and penetration pieces should be welded firmly to ensure securing of cables. The cable
coaming and cable trunk passing through bulkheads or decks shall be welded to bulkheads or decks by two-sides
continuous welding to ensure the strength .
3.9.2 The legs of brackets and fittings shall be not welded directly on shell plate below main deck, nor on the
end of bulb bar.
3.9.3 All the welding pieces must be cleared of slugs and coated with anti-corrosion paint just after welding. The
part of the cable route must be painted with final coat before cable laying.
4 PERSONNEL QUALIFICATION FOR CABLE INSTALLATION
Before carrying out cable installation, the personnel shall be trained in technological and safety knowledge
and actual operation and pass the examination concerned.
5 THE TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS for Installation of CABLES
5.1 The cable runs shall be as far as practicable fixed in straight lines and in accessible positions.
5.1.1 If the main cables are installed in sheltered way, the measures for easy opening up the protective casings
along cable runs for maintenance shall be taken.
5.1.2 If all the junction boxes are arranged in a sheltered way, the measures for easy opening up them shall be
taken and a durable mark shall be given.
5.1.3 Cables shall not be installed within the thermal insulation or sound-damping layer, and not covered with
thermal insulation material like foam or paint.
5.1.4 All the cables in refrigerated space and a boiler room shall be installed in open way.
5.1.5 Cables in accommodation area shall be installed as far as practicable in sheltered way. If cables in
accommodation area are laid out in open way, they shall be protected by a duct which is made from flame
retardant plastics .
5.2 Cables shall be installed to prevent from mechanical damage.
5.2.1 The cables shall be as far as practicable not installed in spaces where they may be damaged such as in
cargo holds, store rooms, on decks or under floor plates. Where installation of cables in above spaces cannot be
avoided, cable protective cover or cable pipes must be fitted . Generally, the thickness of the cable protective
guard in the cargo hold or on deck shall be not less than 3mm to ensure enough strength.
5.2.2 Cables shall be as far as practicable installed remote from movable or detachable parts to avoid damage to
cables when they are moved or detached.
5.2.3 Cables passing through decks shall be protected by metal pipes, trunks or coamings.
5.2.4 Cable runs on foremast shall be protected by a galvanized steel pipe with its length not less than 2m (or
protected by single cable pipe with its length not less than 1m ). The protective steel pipe shall be fitted at the rear
part of the foremast as far as practicable and the top end of the pipe must be sealed (see Fig.4).

132

1
2

A-A

A
5
2000

1000

7
6
5
4

1-cables

(1)

(2)

2-gland 3-gland box

4-pipe support piece

5-cables conduit

6-type U pipe clamp

7-cables conduit

Fig.4 Cable runs on fore-mast


5.2.5 The cable runs inside the radar mast can be installed in such a way that cables run through several
watertight cable trunks or watertight gland boxes more than 250mm high above the deck.(see Fig.5)

1
B-B
2
3

B
3

1-flat bar cable saddle 2-group cable bracket

3-W.T.cable trunk

Fig.5 Cable laid inside of radar mast


133

5.3 The installation of cables across expansion joints in hull structures is to be avoided. Where this is not
avoided, a loop of electric cable of length sufficient to accommodate the expansion of the joint is to be provided.
5.4 The cable shall be as far as practicable installed remote from source of heat, such as steam pipes, exhaust
pipes and their flanges, resistors and boilers. Generally, the horizontal distance between cables and the source of
heat shall be not less than 100mm. Where cables are to be installed across a steam pipe or a exhaust pipe, the
spacing distance between them shall be normally not less than 80mm. Where this is not practicable, effective
heat-insulation measures must be taken.
5.5 The installation of cables shall be prevented from moisture , oil and water ingress.
5.5.1 Cables shall be as far as practicable avoided to be arranged in the area where moisture accumulation ,
water dripping, and oil or water ingress may occur.
5.5.2 If the installation of cables under the floor plate infused with oil or water can not be avoided, they shall be
arranged in a metal pipe or a flexible metal conduit. The metal pipe or conduit shall be fitted close to the floor
plate. Both ends of the pipe or conduit must be 250mm plus away from the floor plate and sealed by a gland or
guard ring with stuffing.
5.5.3 When cables are to be installed on wet bulkhead , the space between the cable and bulkhead must be at
least 20mm.
5.6 The cables shall not pass through the area where there is inflammable, explosive, or corrosive gas such as
oxygen room, painting room, battery room, coal bunker, magazine etc. Indispensable cables such as those of
lighting system in the area must be arranged in a metal pipe. Such pipe shall so pass through the bulkhead as to
ensure that the integrity of the bulkhead is not impaired and to prevent hazard gas penetrating it.
5.7 It is strictly prohibited that the cable passes through the oil tank.
5.8 The cable shall not pass through the water tank . If this can not be avoided, the cable must be laid out in
single seamless steel pipe. The pipe shall be so welded to bulkhead in such a manner that watertightness of the
bulkhead is not impaired. In addition, anti-corrosive measures must be taken.
5.9 The distance between cable and shell plate, deck, bulkhead, fireproof partition shall be not less than 20mm.
The distance between cable and double bottom, lube oil tank, fuel oil tank, not less than 50mm.
5.10 The internal radius of bend for the installation of cable shall be within allowance limit. The minimum
internal radius of bend shall comply with the requirements stipulated in Table 2.
Table 2 The minimum internal radius of bend for installation of cable
Overall diameter
Min. internal radius
Cable construction
of cable
of bend
Insulation
Outer covering
Metal sheathed, braided or
Any
6D
armoured
Thermoplastic and
elastomeric material
25 mm
4D
Other finishes
25 mm
6D
Mineral
Hard metal sheathed
Any
6D
5.11 The installation of following cables are to be kept away from each other.
5.11.1 The cables that have different allowable working temperature shall be not installed together. If this
cannot be avoided, the lowest allowable working temperature of one cable within the bunch shall be considered as
the allowable working temperature of all the cables in the same bunch.
5.11.2 The power supply cables for important equipment which need dual-feed such as the control box for
navigation lights shall be as far as practicable installed horizontally or vertically far away from each other.
5.11.3 The cables for intrinsically safe circuits and non-intrinsically safe circuit shall be installed separately.
That means they shall be not installed in one bunch or within the same pipe or casing. The min. clearance between
two cable bunches on the same bracket shall be not less than 50mm.
5.11.4 The power supply and control cables for duplex important equipment (or system, one acted as standby
of another) such as duplex power equipment for steering gear shall be as far as practicable installed horizontally or
vertically far away from each other.
5.11.5 Cable having a protective covering which may damage the covering of other cables shall be not bunched
with the latter, unless protective measures are to be taken.
5.11.6 Main cables connected to electric propulsion plant shall be installed separately from excitation cables and
other low voltage cables.
5.11.7 The cable runs to each generator shall be arranged separately, at least in two different routes. Power
cables and control cables of a generator can be laid out in different bunches supported by the same cable tray.
5.11.8 Except for optical fiber cables, the signal cables of control, monitoring and safety systems for marine
propulsion and manoeuvring equipment having a risk of electromagnetic interference shall be not arranged in
same bunch with power supply cables.
5.12 Cables other than power supply cables connected to important equipment, emergency power equipment,
emergency lighting, or interior communication and signal equipment used under emergency condition shall be
arranged far away from galley, laundry room, engine spaces, engine casing and other area with high fire risk as far
as possible.

134

5.13 The cables from emergency switchboard to steering gear and the cables from emergency switchboard to
emergency fire pump are not allowed to pass through the engine room.
5.14 The three phase system must adopt three-core symmetrical cable. If there is no choice to use single core
cables in the power system with rating current over 20A, the installation of such cables shall meet the
requirements stipulated in rules.
5.15 Joints and branch circuits in cable systems
5.15.1 Generally, no joint is allowed in cable system. If a joint is necessary due to maintenance or block
fabrication, it is to be carried out so that its conductivity, insulation, mechanical strength, outer covering, earthing,
fire resisting or flame retardant properties shall remain at least same as those of the cable.
5.15.2 Tapping(branch circuits) shall be made in suitable boxes of such a design that the conductors remain
fitted with terminals or bus bars of dimensions appropriate to the current rating. Where tapping are carried out, a
clear mark shall be identified.
5.16 The metal sheathed cable with its working voltage of over 50V shall be reliably earthed. The detailed
requirements see the company standard Q/SWS46-003-2007 Procedure for protective earthing of electric
equipment and cables.
6 TECHNOLOGICAL REQUIREMENTS FOR INSTALLATION OF CABLE
6.1 General technological requirements
6.1.1 Wiring
6.1.1.1 Before wiring, check that brackets, penetration pieces and fittings on the route have been all fitted at
places without any sharp edge and burr, they are firmly welded and coated with anti-corrosive paint and final paint.
From beginning to carry out wiring, gas cutting and welding along and near the cable run shall be as far as
practicable avoided so as not to burn cables. If this cannot be avoided, temporary precaution measures shall be
taken.
6.1.1.2 Before wiring, check cables type, code, dimensions, name and location of equipment at both ends of the
cable, locations of discontinuous points in accordance with the cable list and drawings . Check whether the cable
is damaged.
6.1.1.3 Cables shall be installed in specified sequence as stipulated in the cable list. Branch cables unlisted in the
cable list can be cut and laid on site according to actual route and the Equipment Arrangement Drawing and
Electric System Diagram. Temporary marks shall be made at both ends of the branch cable. Wiring of branch
cables shall be normally carried out after completion of main cable wiring.
6.1.1.4 During wiring, cables shall run continuously on brackets or through penetration pieces which have been
checked and along the installation route. Prohibit to work carelessly during wiring so as to prevent from damage
to cables. The main cable shall correctly stop at the specified discontinuous point according to the stop mark
identified to the cable.
6.1.1.5 When cables with different sheathes are laid together, special attention shall be paid to cable sheathes to
avoid damage due to rubbing each other.
6.1.1.6 After each cable run in position, it is necessary to put the cable in order and check its length . Such a
cable together with those to run to other positions shall be hung close to the equipment. Dont put the cables on
the ground.
6.1.1.7 Cables cannot be secured before their types, dimensions, the length of the cable entering into the
equipment and quantity have been checked.
6.1.2 Securing of cables
6.1.2.1 No loosening or damage to cables can be found after fastening. The cable runs shall be fixed in straight
line and in good order as far as possible.
6.1.2.2 In general, the number of layers for each bunch of cables shall be not more than two. The width of each
cable bunch shall be not more than 150mm. If cables are arranged in one bunch in more than two layers, special
account shall be taken into heat-removal from cables.6.1.2.3 For a horizontal cable run, the cable shall be laid on
the cable brackets. Generally, all kinds of brackets should not be transversely fitted so as to avoid stress
concentration on the top of the band during binding.
6.1.2.4 Except for optical fiber cable, signal cables of control, monitoring and safety system for marine
propulsion and maneuvering equipment can not be bound and secured together with power cables or lighting
cables,. The clearance between bunches of different type of cables shall be not less than 50mm.
6.1.2.5 If cables are to be bound on bracket of flat bar, those at lowest layer shall be made contact with the flat
bar. The width of the lowest layer of cable shall be greater than that of the flat bar as shown in Fig.6.
1
2
3

1flat bar bracket

Fig.6

40

2cables 3nylon band

Securing of cables on bracket of flat bar

135

6.1.2.6 When a vertical cable run is fixed by a nylon band to the bracket, the fixings shall be supplemented by a
metallic band spaced at 1.5 m distance.
6.1.2.7 Only the part of the effective length of a nylon band can be used to bind a calbe bunch. Making a nylon
band longer by joining is not allowed. Such bands shall be properly tightened and secured by means of a special
tool.
6.1.2.8 The lockers of bands for one cable-bunch shall be put towards the same direction, After securing of
bands, reserve a segment of 5~6mm from the locker and cut off the rest of the band. 6.1.2.9 In general,
fixings of a cable bunch shall be provided at the space of 300mm. For the cable bunch to be laid on a group cable
bracket, it shall be bound and secured to every guide plate of the bracket.
6.1.2.10 Generally, stainless steel band, stainless steel band with plastic cover and nylon band can be chosen for
securing of cables.
6.1.2.11 The principle of selecting bands shall be as follows:
The stainless steel band with plastic cover is to be used in engine room, the space of category A , fireproof
area, open area and wet space, and the stainless steel band, the stainless steel band with plastic cover and nylon
band are to be used in other spaces than that mentioned above.
6.2 Special technological requirements for installation of cables
6.2.1 Cables are to be arranged in metal pipes or flexible metal conduits
6.2.1.1 The inner wall of pipes or conduits shall be smooth and without any burr and the internal and outside
surfaces of the pipes shall be painted with a anti-corrosive coat..
6.2.1.2 There shall be no sharp edge at ends of a pipe or conduit , otherwise the pipe end must be fitted with a
retainer.
6.2.1.3 The radius of bends of protective pipes shall be not less than that required for cables installed therein.
For the pipe with its external diameter bigger than 63mm, the radius of bends of the pipe shall be not less than
twice the outside diameter of it.
6.2.1.4 The space factor (ratio of the sum of the cross sectional areas corresponding to the external diameters of
the cables to the internal cross sectional area of the protective pipes) is not to exceed 0.4.
6.2.1.5 Protective conduits or pipes shall be ensured to have properties of mechanical and electrical continuity
and they are reliably earthed.
6.2.1.6 The arrangement of pipes or conduits shall be made to prevent accumulation of water(possibly arising
from condensation) within them. Pipes or conduits shall have drain holes.
6.2.1.7 Both ends of the pipes or conduits arranged in the area where oil or water ingress may occur shall be
sealed with stuffing. If the pipe joint is directly connected with access of cables to the equipment, water-tightness
shall be ensured for such a connection.
6.2.1.8 When the cable pipe in a length of more than 6m is arranged vertically a metal support boxes or flat bar
saddles shall be fitted one for every about 6m.
6.2.1.9 In case that cable pipe or conduit may be broken due to passing through the expansion joints of hull
structure or its too long, the cable distributor must be fitted. The distance between waterproof cable distributors
on main deck shall be not more than 30m.
6.2.1.10 If the cables are to be laid in trunk, the trunk shall be constructed to prevent the spread of fire hazard
from one deck house or cabin to a passageway in other spaces.
6.2.1.11 The cables to be used for a cold cathode fluorescence lamp shall not be arranged in metal pipes unless
they are protected by metal sheath or shield.
6.2.2 Cable passing through bulkhead, deck and hull component .
6.2.2.1 Cable passing through non-W.T bulkhead or hull component
6.2.2.1.1 When cables passing through non-W.T bulkhead or hull component, cable coaming or sleeve pipe shall
be fitted. For aluminum or steel bulkhead or component with its wall thickness over 6mm, no coaming shall be
fitted, but the opening shall be no sharp edge and burr.
6.2.2.1.2 If the clearance between the cable coaming on bulkhead and cable bunch is over 10mm, it shall be
filled with stuffing.
6.2.2.1.3 If single cable passes through the compound rock wool plate or calcium silicate plate, flame retardant
nylon cable sleeve pipe should be fitted.
6.2.2.2 Cable passing through watertight bulkhead
6.2.2.2.1 When single cable passes through WT bulkhead such as that in galley, toilet, bathroom, and etc., gland
box shall be used. For multi-cables passing through WT bulkhead, the composite gland box or penetration piece
shall be used to keep watertight integrity of the bulkhead.
6.2.2.2.2 The stuffing to be filled in penetration piece or gland box shall be made of fire-resistant, and
anti-corrosion material and shall be approved by the relevant classifications.
6.2.2.2.3 Fastening of gland box shall be made to ensure stuffing in tight contact with protective covering of
cables and to have 2~3 screw threads projection.
6.2.2.3 Cable passing through watertight deck.
6.2.2.3.1 Single cable penetrating watertight deck can be arranged in a cable conduit with gland box (see Fig.
24). Multi-cable passing through such deck can be arranged in a cable conduit or cable trunk with composite
gland box of not less than 250mm in height. The welding ends of these penetration pieces shall be stretched
20mm out of deck (including heat-insulation layer).
6.2.3 Cable passing through fireproof partition
The space factor and the length (height) of cable penetration piece are two main elements that affect
watertight and fireproof performance. The space factor , that is the ration of the sum of the cross sectional areas
136

corresponding to the external diameters of the cables to the cross sectional area of the penetration piece, shall be
not more than 40%. The cable penetrations length (height) shall be 250mm as stipulated in IMO.A754(18).
6.2.4 Cables are to be installed in refrigerated spaces
6.2.4.1 No cable other than that to be installed in refrigerated spaces can pass through such places. The cable to
be laid in refrigerated spaces shall be of watertight one or protected by an overall impervious sheath. If the cables
are armored, a moisture resistant layer must be covered on it to prevent from corrosion (unless it is a galvanized
armor).
6.2.4.2 All cables in refrigerated spaces shall be installed in open-type way. Certain clearance should be kept
between the cable and the wall of refrigerating chamber.
6.2.4.3 The cable supports shall be galvanized or other anti-corrosion measures shall be taken. Stainless steel
band shall be used as a fastening piece.
6.2.4.4 Cables passing through thermal-insulation layer shall be arranged in metal pipes. Both ends of the pipe
shall be fitted with gland boxes and flame-retardant nylon pipe, fitted in the midway .
6.2.4.5 Normally no cable with PVC insulation or PVC sheath can be used in refrigerated spaces, unless such
PVC insulation material are suitable for working at the low temperature.
6.2.5 Cables to be installed in the vicinity of radio equipment
6.2.5.1 The cables to be laid on weather deck shall be of those with non-metallic, impervious sheath and be
arranged in metal pipes or casings.
6.2.5.2 All the cables which run into radio room and associated with radio assistant navigation system shall
maintain electrical continuity and they shall be reliably earthed by at least two terminals.
6.2.5.3 If there is a radio room on board the ship, no cable other than that associated with the radio room can
pass through the space. If necessary to pass through the space, they shall be arranged in continuous metal conduit.
The metal conduit shall be reliably earthed at access of radio room.
6.2.6 The installation of medium voltage cable
6.2.6.1 The medium voltage cable with metal sheath or armor, and to be effectively earthed can be laid in
open-type way, for example, laid on cable rack.
6.2.6.2 The medium voltage cable without metal sheath nor armor shall be laid in metal pipe or conduit. The
continuity of earthing of the metal pipe and conduit shall be ensured. It shall not be laid together with other cables
in the same metal pipe or conduit.
6.2.6.3 The medium voltage cables shall be installed far away from low voltage cables as far as possible and in
the space where mechanical damage can be avoided.
6.2.6.4 The installation of medium voltage cables in accommodation area shall be avoided as far as possible.
6.2.6.5 Medium voltage cables shall be readily identified by clear marks.
6.2.7 The installation of cables on board the oil tanker
6.2.7.1 Cables such as mineral insulation cables that may expose to cargo oil, oil vapors or gas shall have copper
or stainless steel sheath.
6.2.7.2 Where corrosion may occurred, cables with metal sheath or armor, shall be protected by additional
non-metal impervious shield.
6.2.7.3 No cable can be installed in dangerous areas. If it is unavoidable, submit it to a supervisory authority for
approval.
6.2.7.4 Cables shall be installed to maintain enough distance (normally 50mm) to deck, bulkhead, oil tank and
all kinds of pipes. The distance between cables passing through bulkhead and the flange of steam pipe shall be as
follows: when the diameter of steam pipe is greater than 75mm, it shall be not less than 450mm, when the
diameter of steam pipe is equal or less than 75mm, it shall be not less than 300mm.
6.2.7.5 The cables laid on open deck or catwalk at bow and stern shall be prevented from mechanical damage,
scrape or stress. Proper margin for the length of cable shall be given considering possible expansion or shifting of
hull structure.
6.2.7.6 Where electric cables or pipes pass through gas tight bulkheads or decks separating dangerous zones or
spaces from non-dangerous zones or spaces, the arrangements are to be such as to ensure the integrity of the
bulkhead or deck is not impaired.
6.2.7.7 The flexible cables or wires connecting to movable appliances shall not pass through the dangerous
zones or spaces except for those associated with I.S. circuit.
7 THE WAY FOR INSTALLATION OF CABLES
7.1 The basic way of installation of cables
7.1.1 Use cable brackets
7.1.1.1 For a horizontal cable run
a) Installation of a horizontal cable run on single tier of bracket shall be as shown in Fig.7

137

a
1
2

1
2

single layer cable bracket


cable band

Fig.7 Installation of a horizontal cable run on single tier of bracket


b) Installation of a horizontal cable run on double tiers of brackets shall be as shown in Fig.8

1
2

double layers cable bracket


cable band

Fig.8 Installation of a horizontal cable run on double tiers of brackets


7.1.1.2 For a vertical cable run
Installation of a vertical cable run shall be as shown in Fig.9. Double tiers of brackets can be used as
required.
1
2

300

20

250

30

1 single layer cable bracket


2 cables
4 watertight cable coaming
3 cable band

Fig.9

Installation of a vertical cable run on single tier bracket

138

7.1.1.3 For cables bent


a) Cables bent at right angle in horizontal level (see fig.10)
When L300mm, single bracket must be added.
1

group cable bracket

Fig.10

single bracket

cables

Cables bent at right angle in horizontal level

b) For cables bent vertically at right angle


Cables bent vertically at right-angle shall be as shown in Fig.11. Cables passing through bulkhead and bent
vertically at right angle shall be as shown in Fig.12( L130 , 200L2300 in Fig.12)
deck

bulkhead
2

group type cable bracket

cables

Note: the radius R of bend of the cable shall be not less than 4~6 times the biggest external diameter of the
cable in inner layer.
Fig.11 Cables bent vertically at right-angle
L2 L2
L1

deck

3
4
2

4
1

bulkhead

Fig.12

weldel type cable bracket

single bracket

cable coaming

cable

Cables passing through bulkhead and bent vertically at right angle

7.1.1.4 Cables routed in Z


a) When the drop height h is over 100mm, single bracket shall be added as shown in Fig.13.

139

300
1

h>100

group cable bracket

single bracket 3

cables

Fig.13 Cables routed in Z (type A)


b) When span L is equal to or less than 1200mm, additional single bracket shall be fitted within the span
and the drop d between two single brackets as shown in Fig.14 shall be controlled less than 100mm.
(see Fig.14)
L

300 300

group cable bracket

Fig.14

100

100

single bracket 3

cables

Cables routed in Z, ( type B)

C) When span L is above 1200mm, additional assembly bracket shall be fitted in the span and the drop
between ends of two different brackets such as a and b as shown in Fig.15 shall be controlled
less than 100mm.
L
1
100

300
100

300

single cable bracket

Fig.15

cables

Cables routed in Z, ( type C)

7.1.1.5 Cables routed in a cross way


When L is over 300mm, a single bracket shall be added. ( see Fig.16)
1
2
1
L

group cable bracket

cables

Fig.16

single bracket

Cables routed in a cross way

140

7.1.2

Cables laid on flat bar saddle (see fig.17)


300(500)

150

300

1
1

200

cables

Fig.17

cable band

flat bar cable saddle

Cables laid on flat bar saddle

7.2 Special way for installation of cables


7.2.1 Cables arranged in metal pipe or flexible metal pipe
7.2.1.1 Cables in engine space arranged in metal pipe
a) Cables arranged in flexible metal pipe see Fig.18;

1
2
3

4
6

7
1
4
6
9

4
5

8 9

2
support bracket
3
cable
control box
sleeve connector(optional)
stuffing and guard ring
5
metal flexible pipe
flat bar saddle
7
pump 8
stainless steel band with plastic cover

Fig.18

cable laying out in metallic hose

b) For cables arranged in metal pipe and installed vertically, if the length of cable is over 6m, flat bar saddle
shall be fitted one for every 6m, see Fig.19.

141

1
2

6m

Deck
3

4
6m

Deck
5

6
6m

Deck
7

1
4
7

guard ring and caulking


stainless steel band
metal conduit support

Fig.19
7.2.1.2

The

2
5

galvanized pipe
cable

3
6

flat bar saddle


earthing jumper

cable laying out in metallic pipe at vertical position

Cables arranged in pipes and installed on main deck see Fig.20.


1

1
2
4

waterproof distributor of cable conduit in rooms at fore and aft.


golvanized steel pipe 3
waterproof distributor of cable conduit on deck
buldhead type of expansion joint 5
earthing jumper
flange 6

Fig.20

Cables arranged in conduit and installed on main deck

7.2.1.3 Cables for speed log and echo sounder in water tank area arranged in pipes
The cable in water tank area shall be laid inside metal pipe. The watertight performance of metal pipe located
below water line must be good enough. If the total length of the cable is more than 6m, and it is arranged in the
metal pipe which is installed vertically, the metal support box must be added at every approximate 6m, see Fig.21.

142

1
2

6m

1
3
5

Fig.21

gland
galvanized pipe
transducers coaming

2
4

cable fastener
cable support box
transducers

Cables for speed log and echo sounder in water tank area arranged in pipes

7.2.2 The way of cables passing through bulkhead, deck and hull component.
7.2.2.1 Single cable passes through the compound rock wool plate or calcium silicate plate, see Fig. 22.
2

inverse

2.5

face

1
3

Fig.22
7.2.2.2

nylon sleeve pipe

2
3

silicia acid calciump late(compound rock wool plate)


cable

Single cable passes through compound rock wool plate or calcium silicate plate

The way of cables passing through watertight bulkhead


When single cable passes through WT bulkhead, the cable gland shall be used, see Fig.23 .
1

2
1

Fig.23

cable gland box

W.T.bulkhead

cable

Single cable passing through W. T. bulkhead

7.2.2.3 The way of cables passing through watertight deck.


When single cable passes through WT deck, the cable conduit with gland box shall be used, see Fig.24.
143

250

tube gland box

Fig.24

20

galvanized pipe

deck

cable

Single cable passing through waterproof deck

7.2.3 The way of cables passing through fireproof partition


7.2.3.1 Fire-resistant penetration piece shall be used if cable passing through A-60 grade bulkhead, see Fig.25.
40

8
40

1
250

40

35

7
6

Fig.25

barbed nail

stainless steel strap

cable

expansion stuffing 3

W.T.bulkhead

fire-resistant stuffing

casting cable coaming

heat insulation layer

Fire-resistant penetration piece for cables passing through A-60 grade bulkhead

Fire-resistant penetration form for cable passing through A-60 grade WT deck, see Fig.26.
1

40

250

35

7
6
40

7.2.3.2

40

1
fire-resistant stuffing 2
stainless steel strap
3
expansion stuffing
4
cable
5
cable trunk
7
heat insulation layer 8
6--barbed nail
W.T.deck

Fig.26

Fire-resistant penetration form for cable passing through A-60 grade WT deck

144

7.2.3.3

Fire-resistant penetration form for cable passing through A-0 grade WT bulkhead, see Fig.27.
250

35

5
4

Fig.27
7.2.3.4

expansion stuffing

3
5

fire-resistant stuffing
casting cable coaming

2
4

W.T. bulkhead
cable

Fire-resistant penetration form for cable passing through A-0 grade WT bulkhead

Fire-resistant penetration form for cable passing through A-0 grade WT deck, see Fig.28.
1

35

250

1
3

Fig.28

fire-resistant stuffing
4
cable trunk
cable

2
5

expansion s
W.T. deck

Fire-resistant penetration form for cable passing through A-0 grade WT deck

7.2.3.5 Fire-resistant penetration form for cable passing through B-0 grade deck & bulkhead, see Fig.29.
1

100

1
3

Fig.29

cable coaming
fire-resistant stuffing

2
4

non W.T.deck or bulkhead


cable

Fire-resistant penetration form for cable passing through B-0 grade deck & bulkhead

145

7.2.4 Cables installed in refrigerated spaces


a) All cables in refrigerated spaces should be installed in open way, see Fig.30.

htat insulation layer

cable
stainless steel band with plastic cover 2
stainless steel flat bar
4
washer
self-tapping screw 7
bolt
6
ceilling light
special lamp base plate

1
3
5
8

Fig.30

Cables in refrigerated spaces installed in open way

b) Cables passing through single heat-insulation layer , see Fig.31.

11

10 9

gland nut

gland washer 3

gland base

nylon tube

nonmetallic washer

Fig.31

rubber packing
cold room wall

10

rubber packing

bulkhead

8
11

tube gland
cable

Cables passing through single heat-insulation layer

c) Cable passing through double heat-insulation layers, see Fig.32.


12

11 10

cable gland 2

gland base

washer

5
8

nylon tube 6
cold room wall

socket nut

steel bulkhead

10

nonmetallic washer

Fig.32

11

9
tube gland
rubber packing
12

rubber packing

cable

Cable passing through double heat-insulation layers

146

8 INSPECTION
8.1 The route and procedures of installation of cables shall be in accordance with the requirements specified in
this standard.
8.2 The quality of securing cables shall be in accordance with the requirements specified in 6.1.2 of this
standard.
8.3 The radius of bend of the cable shall be in accordance with Table 2.
8.4 The insulation of cable should be in good condition and without any damage. Insulation resistance between
cores or between a core and the earth should be, as necessary, measured by a 500V DC(or above) megohm meter,
and the read shall be greater than 1M.
8.5 The installation of cables in pipes or conduits shall comply with the requirements given in 6.2.1.
8.6 The mechanical protection and tightness procedures of cables passing through bulkhead or deck shall
comply with the requirements given in 6.2.2 and 6.2.3.
8.7 The metal sheath of the cable shall be properly and reliably earthed and shall be in accordance with
Q/SWS46-003-2007Procedure for Protective Earthing of Marine Electric Equipment and Cables.
8.8 The installation of cables in refrigerated space shall comply with the requirements given in 6.2.4.
8.9 The installation of cables in the vicinity of radio equipment shall comply with the requirements given in
6.2.5
8.10 After completion of installation of medium-voltage cables inspection shall be carried out as required by the
relevant inspection department.
8.11 The installation of cables on board oil tankers shall comply with the requirements given in 6.2.7.

147

SWS INSTALLATION PROCEDURES OF MARINE ELECTRICAL


EQUIPMENT
Reference StandardQ/SWS46-002-2007
1

SCOPE
This standard specifies the preparation before installation of general marine electrical equipment, personnel
of equipment installation, technical requirements, operational technology and inspection of equipment installation.
This standard is applicable to the installation work of general marine electrical equipment on new building
and to ship-repair in our company. It doesnt apply to the special installation procedures of radio equipment,
navigation equipment and other kinds of equipment for special purposes.
2 NORMATIVE REFERENCE
Q/SWS 46-003-2007 Procedures for Safety Earthing of Marine Electrical Equipment and Cables
3 PREPARATIONS BEFORE EQUIPMENT INSTALLATION
3.1 Collection and distribution of the equipment shall be made according to the pallet list of the area electrical
outfitting. All the electrical equipment shall have the product conformity certificates from the makers. The
important equipment, which requires inspection approval by the classification society, shall have the class
approval certificate or type approval certificate of marine products with period of quality guarantee and period of
validity.
3.2 Check the type, size, setting value of the equipment and its protective components. Check any missing and
damage of the equipment and its parts, and any missing of required circuit diagram for internal wiring connection
of the equipment or the insert diagram (or wall diagram) of the distribution system. If necessary, check the
insulation resistance of the equipment.
3.3 Check whether the number and inner diameter of the gland box for the equipment are conformed to the
drawing requirements, which means that it shall fit the outer diameter of the cable.
3.4 The pre-made bracket, foundation and seat of the electrical equipment shall be provided by the collection
and distribution center and fitted with the identification plates. Connection terminals and end sleeve pipes with
permanent marks shall be prepared for shop preassembly.
3.5 The electrical equipment which use power adapter, such as navigation light, flood light, fan and so on, shall
be connected with cables and sockets beforehand according to the requirement of the system diagram.
4 PERSONNEL OF EQUIPMENT INSTALLATION
The personnel of equipment installation shall be trained and mastered the basic knowledge of electrical
equipment installation technology and the safety working. They can be assigned to their posts only having passed
the exams.
5 TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS OF EQUIPMENT INSTALLATION
5.1 For an electrical equipment which frequently is operated and needs maintenance, its installation area shall
have enough ventilation and space for the convenience of operation and maintenance.
5.2 The installation of the equipment shall not destroy the original protection performance and strength of the
bulkhead or the deck. Holes shall not be drilled to bolt an electrical equipment directly on watertight bulkhead,
deck or open wall of the deck house.
5.3 The electrical equipment shall not be fixed on the shell plate and the double bottom on board.
5.4 Do not fix any other type of electrical equipment, except for anti-explosion electrical equipment, in
inflammable and easy-explosion spaces, such as battery room, paint locker, bunker and so on. The type and grade
of anti-explosion type electrical equipment shall meet the requirements of inflammable and easy-explosion area.
Do not fix electrical equipment, except for waterproof electrical equipment, in the area where the steam
accumulates easily.
5.5 When an electrical equipment is to be fixed on the surface of outer wall of oil tank, water tank, exposed deck,
or water-tight bulkhead and so on where thickness of the steel plate is less than 16mm and the weight of the
electrical equipment is more than 200kg, reinforced plates shall be mounted.
5.6 When the installation area has heavy vibration to affect the normal work of the equipment, the equipment
installation shall take shock absorption measures.
5.7 In general, no electrical equipment shall be fixed inside the closed plate of the bulkhead. The junction box
can be fitted inside the closed plate which shall be easily opened and closed, and it shall be marked with
remarkable label of open and close.
5.8 In general, when an electrical equipment that does not meet the protection class requirements is to be fixed
on weather deck, it shall be equipped with a protective cover in accordance with the protection class.
5.9 When non-aluminum alloy bracket of the equipment is to be fixed on aluminum wall, insulation lining (such
as rubber cloth, canvas with white paint and etc.) shall be put in between to separate each other from direct contact
and prevent electrolytic corrosion.
5.10 The electrical equipment, such as regulating resistor, starting resistor, charging resistor, heater and others
that generate high temperature during work shall be installed away from inflammable structure and other
equipment as far as possible. Heat-insulation material in between shall be adopted if necessary. When the
temperature on the casing of the equipment is over 80, the protective net shall be fitted to prevent the personnel
from contact and hurt.
5.11 The installation of electrical equipment shall be in good order and no influence on the original protection
and working performance. The installation of electrical equipment shall be convenient for disassembly and its
fixation and connection shall be firm enough and have anti-loosening unit.
5.12 The electrical equipment without double insulation whose voltage is over 50V shall have protection
earthing. Refer to the company standard of Q/SWS46-003-2007Procedures for Safety Earthing of Marine
Electrical Equipment and Cables for the earthing requirements.
148

5.13 The protection type of the equipment casing shall meet the minimum requirements of the protection grade
specified in Rules and Regulations for the Construction and Classification of Sea-going Steel ships of CCS.
5.14 The installation of electrical equipment shall be carried out after the correction of hull structure and the
painting. Otherwise it shall take protection measures to avoid the equipment from being polluted.
5.15 Refer to 6.13 of this standard for the additional requirements of the installation of electrical equipment on
board the oil carrier.
6 OPERATIONAL TECHNOLOGY OF EQUIPMENT INSTALLATION
6.1 Main Switchboard and Emergency Switchboard (MSB & ESB)
6.1.1 There shall be enough space for passage in front of and behind the switchboard. Breadth of the passage in
front of the switchboard shall be at least 0.8m, and the breadth of the passage behind the switchboard shall be at
least 0.6m.
6.1.2 In way of the back passage entrance of the non-closed switchboard fixed outside the ECR, a door with a
lock shall be fitted for safety. When the length of the switchboard is over 4m, both ends of the passage shall be
fitted with doors.
6.1.3 Anti-skid and oil resistant insulation rubber shall be laid in front of and behind the switchboard.
6.1.4 No water pipes, oil pipes and steam pipes shall be fitted right above the switchboard. If there is no way to
avoid, no joints or disassembly joints of pipes shall be fitted and effective measures shall be taken to avoid
leakage of water, oil and condensed water. Oil tank and other kinds of liquid containers shall not be installed
above the switchboard.
6.1.5 The switchboard shall be fixed on the horizontal base of the deck (or on the base of the closed plate),
parallel or perpendicular to the midship line. The cable trunk of the lead-in cable shall be blocked by stuffing.
6.2 The control equipment and the distribution box
6.2.1 If the installation space is enough, the installation height of the control equipment and the distribution box
is normally 1.2m to the bottom edge (or 1.8m to the top edge). The box of the equipments fixed at adjacency shall
be fitted in the same height as practicable as possible.
6.2.2 The starter box of the electrical motor, the control box of the equipment and the command control box or
control push button box shall be fixed near the electrical motor for the convenience of operation, maintain and
observation.
6.2.3 When the operation hand wheel or handle of the control electrical equipment turns in clockwise, it means
that the rotation speed of the electrical motor is increasing, going up, heaving anchor and hauling cable.
On the contrary, it means the rotation speed of the electrical motor is decreasing, going down, dropping
anchor and releasing cable.
When the operation handle of the control electrical equipment moves forward, it means dropping anchor,
releasing cable and going down . On the contrary, it means heaving anchor, hauling cable andgoing up.
6.3 Battery
6.3.1 The battery shall be fixed in special room or box, cabinet and shall not be fixed inside the living area.
6.3.2 The battery for starting the prime mover shall be fixed as close to the prime mover as possible. If this
battery can not be fixed in the battery room, its installation place shall be well ventilated.
6.3.3 The installation of the battery shall be easy of check, dosing, clean and change. Top and lower level
between the batteries shall have enough space for fixing the battery. All round of each battery shall keep a gap of
at least 20mm. The height for the battery installation shall have a distance of less than 1.4m from the battery liquid
plug to the deck (except for maintenance-free battery). Otherwise, steps shall be fitted for easy of operation.
6.3.4 The gap between the batteries shall be fixed with insulation chocks made of moisture-proof and
electrolytic corrosion-proof materials. The bottom of the battery box or cabinet shall be laid with tray made of
corrosion-proof materials. The height of all round of a tray shall not be less than 45mm. As to the openly fixed
battery, protective plate shall be fitted on its top.
6.3.5 The battery room, box and cabinet shall have its own independent ventilation unit. Its air outlet is at the
top and air inlet is at the lower part. Inlet and outlet of ventilation are normally at two ends of diagonal line of the
battery box. Flap or cover shall be fitted in order to prevent water and spark ingress. In case the charging capacity
of battery set is over 2kw, its air outlet pipe shall be run to open deck directly.
6.3.6 It shall be marked with NO SMOKING on the battery room and the special box or cabinet.
6.3.7 The acid battery and the alkaline battery shall not be fixed in the same battery room, box or cabinet.
6.3.8 The connection of the batteries shall use special cables and bolts. After fastening, all the terminals shall be
covered by vaseline or other kinds of grease in order to prevent corrosion.
6.4 Lighting fixtures in cabins
6.4.1 The lighting fixtures shall be properly arranged according to the location of implements in the cabins.
Priority shall be given to enough illumination for operation and working areas, then the illumination in the other
places in the cabins. In case the lighting fixtures in a cabin have two routes of power supply, it shall be arranged in
cross or alternative way.
6.4.2 The lighting fixtures fixed in the cargo hold, outside passage and other area where they might be easily
mechanically damaged shall have strong protective covers.
6.4.3 The emergency lighting fixture shall have obvious red mark on its casing.
6.5 Flood light, search light and navigation signal light
149

6.5.1 The installation of the flood light and search light shall be easy of operation, and shall be ensured of their
movable parts to turn freely in their working range.
6.5.2 The flood light and search light shall be fixed on the special light rack or seat. The height and the type of
the light rack or seat shall fit the working requirements of the light fixture.
6.5.3 When the search light is fixed, a liner shall be fitted between its bottom and the seat for water tightness. As
to the search light controlled by a connection rod in the cabin, the installation of the connection rod shall also be
ensured of its water tightness and free operation.
6.5.4 The high voltage trigger for gas power discharging type of flood light shall be fixed in a metal box with a
mark of High Voltage, Dangerous. The metal box shall be fixed in the area where people cannot touch it easily.
6.5.5 The cable of the flood light, search light and the navigation light shall be connected to the junction box or
socket. It shall use flexible cable between the junction box or socket and light fixture.
6.5.6 The installation location, height and requirements of the navigation signal light shall conform to the related
stipulation of signal equipment.
6.5.7 The key of the Morse signal light shall be fitted at two sides of the front edge in wheelhouse. If there is a
third one, it shall be fitted in the center of the front edge in the wheelhouse. Normally its height is about 1m above
the deck for easy operation.
6.6 Lighting fittings and daily electrical apparatus
6.6.1 The installation heights of the lighting fittings in the same cabin or nearby shall keep the same as
practicable as possible.
6.6.2 All power switches shall be turn-on/off by two poles.
6.6.3 The non-waterproof socket shall not be fitted under windows. The socket shall not be upward when a
waterproof socket is fitted.
6.6.4 The sockets for different kinds of power and voltage grade shall use sockets of different structures, and
shall be marked with the power kind and voltage grade.
6.6.5 For the installation of the concealed type switch for lighting, when its knob turns to upward, it means
switch off, and otherwise it means switch on. In case there is an indication for turning on, it must be installed
with the indication upward.
6.6.6 The switches of lighting for paint locker, battery room, firefighting equipment control station, luggage
room, mail store, provision room, refrigerating room and other similar room, shall not be fitted in such rooms. The
switches of lighting for baggage store, mail store, provision room and refrigerating room shall be fitted with
power on indication light.
6.6.7 No socket shall be fitted under floor plate in way of engines and inside of closed FO and LO purifier room.
6.6.8 There shall be remarkable and durable marks on outside of the junction box, which correspond with the
code in system diagram.
6.6.9 The electrical heater shall be fixed firmly with no accumulation of flammable gas or dust in the installation
area. In case the heater is fitted near the flammable material, there shall be enough space between each other.
6.7 Communication and signal unit on board
6.7.1 The acoustics and light signal units shall be fixed in the place where concerned staff can easily hear and
observe, and it is necessary to have identification marks on them.
6.7.2 When the electric bell (alarm bell) is fitted, the bell cover shall not be put upward in order to escape from
accumulated water and dust.
6.7.3 The push-button box of the fire alarm shall be fixed in the remarkable position. The hammer shall be put
on the right side of the box.
6.7.4 If command telephone, public address station or cable walkie-talkie shall be fitted outdoor, they shall
normally be fitted in a metal box with the protective grade IP56.
6.7.5 The installation of ME telegraph shall make ahead and astern direction of its operation handle in the same
direction with navigation direction of the vessel in bridge; the same direction with ME maneuvering handle
direction as possible in ER; if there are two or more sets of MEs on board, the positions of the telegraphs shall be
arranged as the same as those of the MEs. The installation requirement of telegraph in vertical is the same as
6.2.4.
6.7.6 For the indication instrument of ME tachometer, rudder angle indicator and so on fixed separately, the
turning directions of their needles shall be the same as actual running directions. The locations and heights of their
installation shall be of easy observation.
6.7.7 For the controller of emergency alarm unit including the controller of general alarm etc., shall be painted
with red and fixed with a durable and remarkable name plate, indicating the purpose.
6.8 Installation position of the electrical equipment
6.8.1 The installation position of the electrical equipment in machinery space
6.8.1.1 See Table 1 for the installation heights of the electrical equipment to be fitted in the machinery space.

150

Table 1 Installation Height of the Electrical Equipment in the Machinery Space


Unit: mm
Standard range
No.

Item

MSB.ESB&GROUP
STARTER

Distribution, starter,
controllers

3
4
5

Reference

Setting Face

According to
equipment

Floor

Base

1800-2000

Floor

Upside

1200

Floor

Below

Top type

2100-3000

Floor

Below

Min.2100

Wall type

2100-3000

Floor

Below

Min.2100

1400

Floor

Centre line

1250-1500

Floor

Centre line

Light
Switch, socket, button,
switch socket
More than 2pcs for switch,
socket, button, switch
socket

Speaker, bugle, alarm bell

2300-2500

Floor

Centre line

Alarm column

2300-2500

Floor

Centre line

Wall telephone

1500

Floor

Centre line

Transformer

Height of
base

Base

Base

10

Small connector

11

Remarks

Installation
Height

To be installed in the convenient position


500-1000

Under deck

Upside

2100-3000

Floor

Upside

Fire detector

12

Indicating instrument

1800

Floor

Below

Light for outside


(including emergency
light)

150-200

Under deck

Centre line

13

2300

Floor

Below

151

To be away from
air vent
To be away from
air vent

6.8.1.2

See Fig.1 for the installation position of the electrical equipment in the machinery space.
fire detector

pendant light

alarm bell for general

500 at least

deck

speaker

telephone

1500

1400

1800-2000

push botton

connection box

2100-3000

socket with switch

starter

1800-2000

switch

2100-3000

distribution box

2200-2500

fire detector
connection box

transformer
G.S.P

floor
fig.1

152

500 at least

6.8.2 Installation position of the electrical equipment in the living area.


6.8.2.1 See Table 2 for the installation height of the electrical equipments fitted in the living area.
Table 2 Installation height of the electrical equipments in the living area
Unit: mm
Standard range
No.

Item

Distribution, Starter,
Controllers

2
3

lamps

Reading lamp

Installation
height
1800-2000

floor

1200

floor

below

ceiling
no ceiling
Portable type

2100

To be installed on the ceiling


floor
below
To be put on the desk

wall type

350

one bed

1100

Bunk bed

1100+H

Bed lamp

top of desk

upside

floor

centre line

Mirror light

20100

Mirror or mirror
box

centre line

Wall lamp

1800

floor

centre line

ceiling
8
9
10
11

12

13

Corner light

no ceiling

Passage corner
Switch, socket, button, switch
socket.
More than 2pcs for switch, socket,
button, switch sockets
room
Floor socket
passage
Socket for desk lamp, junction box
of desk type telephone ,
Socket of communication of
computer and community antenna
Tachometer, compass repeater,
Slave clock

14

Speaker, alarm bell ,buzzer

15

Non-waterproof connection box

16

telephone

desk type
wall type

2100

floor

below
near the corner

1400

floor

centre line

1250-1500

floor

centre line

floor

centre line

200

Top of desk

upside

1800

floor

centre line

300
500

1500

floor

centre line

2300-2500

floor

centre line

18

Extension alarm

1800

floor

centre line

ceiling

20

no ceiling

Indication instrument

250 between
two centers

The top
speaker to be
1800
floor
centre line
installed on
the ceiling
To be installed in the convenient position, generally on the
passage ceiling
top of desk

Speaker, bungle, alarm bell

Fire detector

The data of H
to be decided
on site
Independent
type

install on the ceiling

17

19

Remarks

Setting
face
upside

Reference

To be installed on the ceiling


2100

floor

upside

1800

floor

below

153

To be away
from the
air vent

6.8.2.2 Installation positions of the electrical equipment in the living area.


a) See Fig.2, Fig.3 and Fig.4 for the installation positions of the electrical equipment in the living area.

fluorescent ceiling light

speaker

clock

switch

1800

150

200

1/2

Bed lamp
(A OR B)

1800

socket
socket of antenna for tv
desk lamp
socket of telephone
1/2

1100

1100

1400

Fig. 2

Installation position A of the electrical equipment in the living area

a l a rm bel l
w a l l t y p e o f t elephone set

1400

1500

300

15

s o c k e t for re f r ig er at or

300

bu t to n fo r ca ll

1800

c o n n e c t i o n b o x f o r t elephone

f l o o r soc ket

Fig. 3

r e fr i g er ato r

Installation position B of the electrical equipment in the living area

154

ceiling

ceiling
wall plate

inlet hole for cable


upper of wall plate
1/2

wall type of lamp

1/2

200

350

socket for power

Fig. 4

Installation position C of the electrical equipment in the living area

b) See Fig.5 for the installation positions of the electrical equipment in the passage of the living area

200

corner lamp

loud speaker
distribution box
alarm bell

500

1800

socket for cleaner

passage

Fig. 5

Installation positions of the electrical equipment in the passage of the living area

c) See Table 3 and Fig. 6 for the installation heights of the equipment fitted in the wheel house and wings.

155

Table 3 Installation height of the electrical equipment in the wheel house and wings
Unit: mm
No.

Item

Installation height

Incandescent light

2200

Fluorescent light

2400

Antenna base

15002000

Indication instrument

22002400

Push button

1250

Search light

Parallel of the wall

Outside light

2200

Search lightSWIVEL TYPE

Parallel of the wall

antenna

1250

W/H

inside room

Fig. 6

electrical equipment

22002400

ceiling

2400

compass deck

15002000

wings

Installation positions of the electrical equipment in the wheel house and wings

d) See Fig. 7 for the installation heights of the ship name lamp and outside light in the compass deck.
ship name plate
ship name lamp

60

2200-2400

Fig. 7

Installation height of the ship name lamp and outside light in the compass deck

156

6.9 Basic form of the electrical equipment installation


6.9.1 Fixed directly on support or seat
6.9.1.1 See Fig. 8 for the electrical equipment to be fastened directly with bolt.
1

5
6
7

8
hull or metal structure 2

flat washer

tin foil(only for earthing by metal enclosure of equipment

Fig. 8
6.9.1.2

4
spring washer
3
nut
support
7
electrical equipment

bolt

Electrical equipment to be fastened directly with bolt

See Fig. 9 for the electrical equipment to be fastened directly with screw.
2

3
4
5
6

support or base

electrical equipment

spring washer

flat washer

electrical equipment

Fig. 9 Electrical equipment to be fastened directly with screw


6.9.2 Electrical equipment to be fastened indirectly on the base
See Fig. 10 for the electrical equipment to be fastened indirectly with wood or rubber pad.
1

2
3
4
5
6
7

8
1
4
5

3
flat washer
bolt
2
electrical equipment
tin foil(only for earthing by metal enclosure of equipment
nut
wood or rubber pad
7
6
base

spring washer

Fig.10

Electrical equipment to be fastened indirectly with bolt

157

6.9.3 Installation of the electrical equipment on the compound rock wool plate
6.9.3.1 Direct surface installation of the electrical equipment on the compound rock wool plate
The electrical equipment (weight<5kg) is directly fixed on the surface of the compound rock wool plate with
self-tapping bolts. See Fig. 13.
1
2
3
4
5
6
1
3
5

Fig.13

compound plate of mineral wool


2
electrical equipmint
self-tapping screw
6
cable bushing

4
cable
earthing bolt

Direct surface installation of the electrical equipment on the compound rock wool plate

6.9.3.2 Direct built-in installation of the electrical equipment


Open a hole on the compound rock wool plate according to the outer size of the electrical equipment (weight
5kg). The hole is a little bigger than the outer size, and then fix the equipment on the compound rock wool plate
with self-tapping bolts. See Fig. 12.
1
2
5
3

Fig.12

compound plate of mineral wool

self-tapping screw

electrical equipment

cable

Direct built-in installation of the electrical equipment on the compound rock wool plate

6.9.3.3 Indirect built-in installation of the electrical equipment on the compound rock wool plate
Make a fabricated section with the support or bracket, weld the fabricated section on the hull structure, open
a hole on the compound rock wool plate according to the outer size of the equipment and install the compound
rock wool plate after the cable has been entered into the equipment. See Fig. 13.
1

Fig.13

support

screw

electrical equipment

compound plate of mineral wool


5

cable

Indirect built-in installation of the electrical equipment on the compound rock wool plate

158

6.9.3.4 Indirect surface installation


Make a fabricated section with the support or the bracket, whose height shall match the outer surface of the
compound rock wool plate in order to fix the equipment closely to the compound rock wool plate.
a) See Fig. 14 for the indirect surface installation of the electrical equipment on the compound rock wool
plate with the support.
1

2
3

4
5
6

1
4

support
bolt

2
5

3
6

compound plate of mineral wool


cable

electrical equipment
cable bushing

Fig.14 Indirect surface installation of the electrical equipment on the compound rock wool plate with the support
b) See Fig. 15 for the indirect surface installation of the electrical equipment on the compound rock wool
plate with the bracket.
1

7
8

1
4
7

Fig.15

angle bar bracket


bolt
earthing conductor

2
5
8

bushing
electrical equipmint
cable

3
6
9

compound plate of mineral wool


rubber damper
cable bushing

Indirect surface installation of the electrical equipment on the compound rock wool plate with the bracket

6.9.4 Lamp installation


6.9.4.1 Installation of the revolving type working lamp
a) See Fig. 16 for the installation of the revolving type floor lamp

1
2

flood lamp

Fig. 16

deck fixed rotatable type column

deck

Installation of the revolving type floor lamp


159

b) See Fig. 17 for the installation of the revolving type wall lamp.

2
1

flood lamp

bulkhead fixed rotation type column

bulkhead

Fig.17 Installation of the revolving type wall lamp


6.9.4.2 Installation of incandescent ceiling light in ER
a) See Fig. 18 for the top installation of the incandescent lamp in ER.
Hull or construction

galvanized steel pipe

ceiling lamp

Fig.18

Top installation of the incandescent light in ER

b) See Fig. 19 for the wall installation of the incandescent light in ER.
1
L
2
3

bevel angle barL0.5m)

Fig.19

angle bar

ceiling lamp

Wall installation of the incandescent light in ER

6.9.4.3 Installation of the fluorescent light in ER


a) See Fig. 20 for the top installation of the fluorescent ceiling lamp.

160

Hull or construction
1

2
3
4

D e ta il s e e A
A

1
2
3

1
5

hanger 3
galvanized steel pipe 2
round stell L 0.5m only used

Fig. 20

hook 4

fluorescent lamp

Top installation of the fluorescent ceiling lamp

b) See Fig. 21 for the wall installation of the fluorescent ceiling lamp in ER.
1
2
3
5
4

galvanized steel pipe 2

round L 0.5m only used)

Fig. 21

hanger 3

hook 4

fluorescent lamp

Wall installation of the fluorescent ceiling lamp in ER

6.10 The fastening requirements of the equipment installation


6.10.1 The bracket, seat or foundation for the installation of equipment shall have enough strength.
6.10.2 The welding of the bracket, seat or foundation of the equipment shall be strong enough, and clear of slag
and coated with anti-corrosion paint.
6.10.3 The fastening piece shall have galvanized or plated with other metal.
6.10.4 The fastening of bolts and nuts shall be reliable and a measure of anti-loosening to be taken.
6.10.5 After fastening of bolts and nuts, the bolt shall be 2~3 threads at least out of the nut.

161

6.11 Inlet cable of the electrical equipment


6.11.1 The bend radius of the inlet cable into the electrical equipment shall not be less than the value stipulated
in Table 4.
Table 4 Bend Radius of the Inlet Cable into the Electrical Equipment
Unit: mm
Outer sheath of cable
Outside diameter of cable D
Min. bend radius
Metal sheath, armoring

Any value

6D

25

4D

25

6D

Other sheath

6.11.2 Cutting and stripping of the cable sheath


6.11.2.1 The cutting and stripping of the cable sheath shall not damage the insulation of the core. The core shall
have a necessary length after the cable led into the equipment. The length of spare core shall reach to the farthest
terminal.
6.11.2.2 The cutting location of the cable sheath
a) For the starter, control box, distribution box and so on, the cable sheath shall be stripped off at 3~5mm of
the inner wall of entrance;
b) For the equipment with bigger space inside, such as MSB and ESB, the cable sheath shall be stripped less
than 200mm of the terminal. If more than 200mm is stripped, the excessive part shall be protected with
thermal plastic sheath (see Fig. 26).
6.11.2.3 Cutting and stripping of the metallic braided sheath
a)The metallic braided sheath shall be cut and stripped at inner wall after the cable entering into the
equipment, and the stripped sheath shall be plaited for earthing;
b) For the waterproof equipment, the cable shall be entered into equipment through the gland box with the
stuffing pressed on the sheath. The metallic braided sheath shall be cut after the cable entering into the
equipment, and the stripped sheath shall be plaited for earthing.
6.11.2.4 After cutting of the metallic braided sheath, 2~3 layers of plastic tape shall be bound up in the cutting
area.
6.11.3 Treatment of core
6.11.3.1 If the cores are exposed to thermal radiation from heating elements such as incandescent lighting
fixture, resistance box (rock) and heater etc with insulation adaptor which shall generate high temperature, it shall
be protected in glass fiber sleeve pipe or glass fiber yellow wax tube. The glass fiber sleeve pipe shall be covered
until to the root of the core, and be tightened up by thin wire at the root (see Fig.22)
1

1--solderless connector
3--cable core

Fig.22

2--marked plastic pipe

4--cable

5--PVCadhersive tape

Treatment of cable core led into high temperature equipment

6.11.3.2 If the cable core is connected directly to the heating element of high temperature equipment, such as
resistance box (rack), heater etc. which generate high temperature, the insulation layer of the core shall be stripped
off, then slipped on with porcelain beads as insulation. The porcelain beads shall put on continuously to the end of
the conductor to prevent short circuit.
6.11.4 The fastening of cable at entrance of the equipment
6.11.4.1 The inlet cable to the equipment shall be fixed tightly at the entrance of the equipment. When the
equipment is provided with a gland box, the inlet cable can be fastened by means of the gland box. If no gland box,
the cable running plate (bracket) or other kind of cable fixing pieces shall be fitted.
6.11.4.2 When fastening the gland box, the stuffing shall be pressed tightly on sheath as much as possible. After
pressing the gland box, the sheath shall be 3~5mm out of the inner wall, and the nut shout be 2~3 threads out of
the gland box.
6.11.4.3 After the cable is fixed on the cable running plate, the sheath shall be 3~5mm out of the inner wall. The
opening size on the closing plate of the equipment shall be the same as the size of the cable bunch.
6.12 Wire connection of the electrical equipment
6.12.1 The end of the core shall have a connector generally. The cold-press connection can be used between the
connector and the core. The diameter of the connection hole shall be bigger than the diameter of the connection
terminal of the equipment. If the section area of the core is below 4mm2, and the terminal to the equipment is
insert-crushing type, pin type cold-press connectors shall be used.
6.12.2 Pressing and connection procedure of cold-press connector
162

6.12.2.1 All the cold-press connectors shall be made by using special tools. The pressing mold of the special
tool shall be chosen according to the size of the connector.
6.12.2.2 The cutting of the core insulation shall not damage the conductor. The cut shall be flat and smooth. Its
cutting length shall be equal to 2~3mm plus the length L of the conductor inserting the connector sleeve.
6.12.2.3 The core conductor shall be free of insulation skin, dregs and oily dust from before its pressing and
connection of the connector.
6.12.2.4 The connection pipe shall have no defect, such as crack and slack of cable after pressing and
connection of connector.
6.12.3 Binding of cores
6.12.3.1 The cores inside the equipment shall be bound up in order to prevent slack.
6.12.3.2 The cores shall usually be bound up by plastic cable duct and small nylon strip. If there are plastic cable
ducts in the equipment, the cables in ducts may not be bound.
6.12.3.3 The material of plastic cable duct and small nylon strip shall be strong, flame-retard and free from
moisture-absorption.
6.12.3.4 The cable cores entering the equipment normally shall be bound into three bunches separately, i.e.
power line, signal and control line and spare line.
6.12.4 Wire connection
6.12.4.1 The cores shall be connected to the terminals of the equipment correctly according to the terminal
number in the drawing.
6.12.4.2 The connection shall be strong and clean, and shall have anti-loosening spring washer or locking nut.
The flat washer shall be fitted at both sides of the connector.
6.12.4.3 The nut fixing the terminal shall not be allowed to fix the core connector. The correct form of
connection is shown in Fig. 23.
4

6
2
1

1--cable core
2--marked pipe
3--nut
4--terminal board
5--connection terminal
6--solderless connector

Fig.23 Correct wire connection of terminal


6.12.5 Mark of cores
6.12.5.1 The cable cores entering into the equipment shall be checked one by one and confirmed the mark on
every core as per the drawing, and shall be checked with the mark on the terminal of the equipment.
6.12.5.2 The letter and number on cores shall be clear, orderly and durable in color. It shall conform to the
principle diagram of the equipment. If the mark on the terminal of the equipment is not the same as the principle
diagram, the mark of the equipment terminal shall be written on the principal diagram with brackets marked.
6.12.5.3 The mark of the cores usually uses plastic tube. Put the mark tube on the core insulation before pressing,
and move the tube to the end of the core after pressing of the connector.
6.12.5.4 The marking tubes of cores for one piece of the equipment shall be arranged in the same direction. And
the letters and numbers shall not be turned upside down.
6.12.6 Connection illustration
a) Connection of the generator (electric motor) (see Fig. 24);
1
2

1--solderless connector
3--connection box

2--PVCadhesive tape
4--cable cores

5--marked pipe

6--connection terminal

Fig.24

Connection of the generator (electric motor)


163

b) Connection of the waterproof distribution box (see Fig. 25);


4

1
3

1--nylon band

2--PVCadhesive tape

3--cable gland

4--distribution box

Fig.25 Connection of the waterproof distribution box


c) Connection of the switchboard (see Fig.26);

6
1--cable cores(strip sheath of cable 200mm)
3--stainless steel band with plastic cover(flame-resist)
5--cable band

Fig. 26

2--PVCsheath cable(strip armour


4--metal armour braid for earthing
6--nylon band

Connection of the switchboard

d) Connection of the drop-proof starter (control box) (see Fig.27).

1
2

1--nylon band
4--stainless steel band with plastic cover
5--marked plastic pipe

Fig.27

2--seal plate
3--cable support bracket

Connections of the drop-proof motor starter (controller box)


164

7 INSPECTION
7.1 Check if the model and size of the equipment conforms to the drawing. The equipment and its parts and
accessories shall be in good condition, and have necessary nameplates and circuit diagrams.
7.2 Check if the installation area and the procedures meet the requirements of this standard.
7.3 Check if the installation position, direction and height meet the requirements in 6.8.
7.4 Check if the equipment installation and welding of bracket are strong and flat.
7.5 Check if the earthing of the equipment is good and reliable. If necessary, the earthing resistance shall be
random checked and it shall not be bigger than 0.02
7.6 Check if the insulation of the core entering into equipment is damaged. The length of core and treatment
shall meet the requirements in 6.11.
7.7 Check if the connection of the equipment is strong and tidy, the mark is clear and durable and the
technology of the connection meets the requirement in 6.12.

165

SWSPROCEDURE FOR SAFETY EARTHING OF MARINE ELECTRICAL


EQUIPMENT AND CABLES
Reference StandardQ/SWS46-003-2007
1

SCOPE
This standard specifies preparation before working, personnel qualification, technical requirements, working
technical procedure and inspection for safety earthing of electrical equipment and cables on board the steel ship.
This standard is applicable to safety earthing work of electrical equipment and cables except for navigation
and communication equipment on board a ship to be built or ship repaired, excluding earthing of the equipment
with special requirements.
2 TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
The following terms and definitions are applied to this standard.
2.1. Safety earthing
The metal shell enclosures of the electrical equipments should be connected to the hull to eliminate
electricity on shell caused by electricity prevent them alive due to leakage or induction and to ensure , to protect
the personal safety of human.
2.2. Grounded conductor
Be made of copper or other anti-erosion, low resistivity metal
2.3. Grounded lead
Metal lead to connect electrical equipment with grounded conductor
2.4. Electrical continuity
To keep non-charged current-carrying metal parts equipotential
3 PREPARATION BEFORE EARTHING WORK
3.1 It is necessary to well know the area cable pallet table. Check whether the earthing poles or boards for
electrical equipment and cables are correctly arranged on board or not. If lack of such conductors on site, it should
be replenished accordingly.
3.2. Prepare all kinds of earthing leads, silver paper gasket and fastening bolts etc.
4 PERSONNEL QUALIFICATION
The personnel who are to be engaged in the work should be trained in and tested for the knowledge of safety
earthing of marine electrical equipment and cables, electrical earthing technics and safety in production and
trained in practical operation. They can not be engaged in their jobs until passing the examination concerned.
5 TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS
5.1 For the electrical equipment and cables when supplied with working voltage is over 50V, and their brackets
and protective metal casings, safety earthing should be carried out, and given on the above-mentioned equipments
cable tray and metal shell. The safety earthing system of electrical equipment and cables is as shown in Fig. 1.
GENERATOR

G
A

GROUP STARTER PENAL

B
MOTOR

GP

M
A

MSB

FINAL BRANCH
STARTER

POWER DIST BOX

MOTOR

ST

B
SWITCH

LIGHTING DIST BOX


Lamp
A

RECEPTACLE

L
B

B
FINAL BRANCH
CONNECTION BOX
Lamp

B
A

B
B

Lamp
B

SWITCH

ACable earthing B equipment earthing Ccable earth-continuity


Dtwo core + E

Fig.1

Earthing system of electrical equipment and cables


166

5.2 No matter using earthing conductor or earthing by equipment seat (or support), the contact surface should be
clean, flat, free of dusted and be linered with the tin foil, and to ensure good contact. Measures of loosening-proof
and anti-corrosion shall also be taken.
5.3 The earthing of equipment and cables fixed on aluminum or composite rock wool wall should be connected
to the steel parts of hull..
6. WORKING TECHNOLOGICAL REQUIREMENTS
6.1 Safety earthing of electrical equipment
6.1.1 Safety earthing shall be carried out for electrical equipment other than those supplied with the voltage of
less than 50V or with double insulation.
6.1.2 The position of earthing of the Electrical equipment should be earthed to permanent hull structures, or to
seats and supports which are welded to the hull.
6.1.3 The safety earthing can not share earthing conductors and/or bolts with other safety earthing systems.
6.1.4 Generally, earthing lead is used for the safety earthing of electrical equipment. Alternatively, use the
earthing lead of the cable connecte with a separately fixed special earth conductor.
6.1.5 If the earthing pole is used as the earthing conductor for safety earthing and working earthing of the
electrical equipment, the diameter of its threaded rod should not be less than 6mm. The electric conductivity of
special earthing pole or earthing board should be good enough comparing that of special earthing conductor, and
should have enough mechanical strength.
6.1.6 When the electrical equipment are directly fixed on hull metal structure or seats (supports) which are
reliably earthed, it is unnecessary to fit with an additional earthing conductor.
6.1.7 Selection of earthing lead for safety earthing of fixed electrical equipment
6.1.7.1 The material of Safety earthing lead is generally made of tined red copper or other good conditivity and
anti-corrosion metal.
6.1.7.2 The safety earthing lead shall normally be of multi-strand cords with yellow green insulation sheath and
with cold-pressed connectors at two ends.
6.1.7.3 The safety earthing lead should be as short as possible, and fixed it up if it is too long.
6.1.7.4 The cross-section area of safety earthing lead should not be less than that stipulated in Table 1.
Table1
Selection of cross-section area of safety earthing lead
for the electrical equipment
Unit: mm2
Cross-section area S of associated
Min. cross-section area Q for
Type of earthing lead
current-carrying conductor
copper earthing-conductor
Earthing lead of flexible cable or
cord

Earthing lead of fixed cable

Separately-fixed earthing type

S16

Q=S

16S32

Q=16

S32

Q=S/2

S1.5

Q=1.5

1.5S16

Q=S

16S32

Q=16

S32

Q=S/2

S2.5

Q=S, not less than 1.5

2.5S8

Q=4

8S120

Q=S/2

S120

Q=70

6.1.8 The metal enclosure of moveable or portable equipments should be connected with earthing lead of power
cable and which is earthed through the plug and socket in another terminal of the cable. The cross-section area of
earthing lead should meet the requirements as shown in Table 1.
6.1.9 Requirements for safety earthing through the legs of equipment.
6.1.9.1 Silver paper gasket / tin foil gasket which size is equal to interface, the area of the gasket shall be same as
the contact surface and its thickness shall be not less than 0.5mm.
6.1.9.2 When earthing through legs of equipment, select one of the legs of the equipment with 3 or less than 3
legs for earthing, and select two legs in diagonal of the equipment with more than 3 legs for earthing.
6.1.10 Types of safety earthing of equipment.
a) Types of earthing through electrical equipments legs, see Fig 2.
167

7
8

1--hull structure or metal parts 2--equipment support(seat support)


3--silver paper gasket
5--even gasket

Fig.2

4--electrical equipment base seat

6--screw bolt

7--spring gasket

8--nut

Using Earthing through legs of electrical equipment

b) Types of using yellow-green special earthing lead, earthing conductor (earthing board or earthing pole),
see Fig 3.
2

1-3-6-7-8--

Fig.3

10

deck 2-- electrical equipments(motor,transformer etc.)


bolt 4-- even gasket 5-- spring gasket
cold-pressed cable connector
yellow-green professinal earthing lead
earthing board 9-- screw bolt 10- nut

Using yellow-green special earthing lead, earthing conductor(earthing board or earthing pole)

c) Earthing types of equipments fixed on non-conductor material, see Fig. 4.


1

3 4

5 6 7 8

5 6 7 8

10

11

1-- hull structure 2-- earthing coppery cable 3-- cold-pressed cable connector
4-- earthing pole 5-- silver paper gasket 6-- bolt 7-- even gasket
8-- spring gasket 9-- wall(non-conductor) 10-- cable 11-- feet of equipments

Fig. 4

Earthing types of equipments fixed on non-conductor material


168

d) Earthing types of equipments fixed on wooden gasket, see Fig. 5.


5

4
3

6 7 8 9 10

2
6 7 8 9 10
1
5

1--deck

2--wooden gasket

3-- electrical equipments

4--yellow-green professional earthing lead 5--earthing pole


6--cold-pressed cable connector 7--silver paper gasket 8-- bolt
9--even gasket 10--spring gasket

Fig. 5

Earthing types of equipments fixed on wooden gasket

e) Lighting system earthing type of using special earthing lead in cables(two core+E), see Fig. 6.
1

9
10
11
12
13
14

S
3

3
2

LTG
3

LTG
3

10

11

12

13

R
14

1-- lighting distribution box 2-- earthing terminal 3-- professional earthing lead
4--cable with professional earthing lead (two core+E) 5-- switch 6-- lamps
7-- receptacle

8-- yellow-green professional earthing lead

9-- earthing pole

10-- cold-pressed cable connector 11-- silver paper gasket 12-- bolt
13-- even gasket 14-- spring gasket

Fig. 6

Lighting system earthing type of using special earthing lead in cables(two core+E)

6.2 Cable safety earthing


6.2.1 Except for cables with the working voltage not more than 50V or those connected to electrical equipment
with double insulation, cables should be reliably earthed at both ends. But final cable is allowed to be earthed only
at power end.
6.2.2 For the cable of control and instrument equipment, due to reasoning, if it is better to have earthing at one
end in view of technology, it is unnecessary to have earthing at two ends of the cable.
6.2.3 Ensure that the cables whole length of the metal sheath jacket or outer metal jacket covering of a cable ,
especially in the way of connection and branch keep electrical continuity.
6.2.4 The correlation between the cross-section area Q of earthing lead and the cross-section area S of cable lead
should meet the requirements given in Table 2. If a bunch of cables use earthing through a common earthing lead,
the cross-section area of the earthing lead should be selected according to the cross-section area of the maximum
current-carrying conductor in the bunch of cables.
Table 2 Selection of cross-section area of cable earthing lead
Unit : mm2
Cross-section area S of cable conductor
Cross-section area Q of earthing conductor
S25
Q1.5
S25
Q4
169

6.2.5 The types of safety earthing form of cables


a) Using earthing gland, see fig. 7
1

10

1--insulation of cable lead 2--wall of equipments 3--wire-mesh jacket


4--cable
6--even gasket
5--earthing gland
7--rubber band
8--outer earthing tapered gasket 9--inner earthing tapered gasket
10--P.V.C adhesive tape

Fig. 7 Using earthing gland


b) Using a rope of braided wire-mesh jacket, see Fig. 8.
1

1--cable
2--P.V.C outer jacket
3--wire-mesh jacket
4--braided wire-mesh jacket 5--cold-pressed cable connector

Fig. 8 Using a rope of braided wire-mesh jacket


c) Several cables earthing through metal clamped and earthing copper, see Fig.9.
1
2

7
8
9
10

1--control box 2--seat of equipment 3--earthing pole of equipments'seat


7--earthing copper
6--spring gasket
4--screw bolt 5--even gasket
8--cable bracket 9--metal clamped 10--metal armoured cable

Fig. 9

Several cables earthing through metal clamped and earthing copper

7 INSPECTION
7.1 Check that the equipment and cable have been earthed properly whether the earthing meet the requirement
and is good and reliably.
7.2 Check that the tin foil has been put on earthing leg of the equipment whether laid and bolts have been
tightened.
7.3 Check the electrical continuity of metal sheath and metal cable tube.
7.4 Check whether the earthing of cable metal sheath meets the technological requirements of technics.
7.5 Check the earthing resistance of electrical equipment and cable earthing point to earth, its value should not
be bigger than 0.02 ohm.
170

SWSINSTALLATION PROCEDURES OF MARINE NAVIGATION


EQUIPMENT
Reference StandardQ/SWS46-004-2007
1

SCOPE
This Rule Specifies The Preparation Prior To Installation, Personnel, Technological Requirements, Technical
Procedures And Inspection Of Navigation Equipment And Accessories, Including Compass, Doppler Speed Log,
Echo Sounder, Radars, Etc.
This Rule Is Applicable To Installation Of Navigation Equipment Of All Classes Of Vessels, But Excluding
The Ships With Special Requirements.
2 NORMATIVE REFERENCE
When reference,the items in following files can be in part of this standard.If only the reference files noted
date,the following re-edit papers or revised editions are meet this standard.Although, The discussion whether these
filess latest edition can be use or not is encouraged based on this standard.If only the reference files not noted
date,the latest edition is fit for this standard.
Q/SWS 46-001-2007
Technological Requirements for Installation of Electric Cables on Ships
Q/SWS 46-002-2007
Installation Procedures of Marine Electrical Equipment
Q/SWS 46-003-2007
Procedures for Safety Earthing of Marine Electrical Equipment and Cables
3 PREPARATIONS BEFORE EQUIPMENT INSTALLATION
3.1 Technical material
Before installation read carefully about the drawings about navigation equipment ,suchas system
diagram,arrangement drawing,wiring diagram,installation diagram ,etc.
3.2 Installation material
Know information about the navigation equipment ,bracket and seat should arrived.Make sure the product
conformity certificates from the makers. So they can be fixed on time.
3.3 Installation tools
Prepare screwdriver, multimeter, bolt spanner,earth wiring, bushing, silver paper,earth block and material for
installation of the navigation equipment .
4 PERSONNEL
Before carrying out installation, the personnel shall be trained in technological and safety knowledge and
actual operation and pass the examination concerned.
5 TECHNOLOGICAL REQUIREMENTS
5.1 The Appearance Of The Navigation Equipment Shall Remain In Good Condition.
5.2 The Installation Location Of The Navigation Equipment Shall Be In Accordance With The Requirements Of
The Arrangement Plan.
5.3
The Cable Laying Of The Navigation Equipment Shall Comply With The Regulations Of
Q/Sws46-001-2007, Procedures For Cable Laying.
5.4 The Installation Of The Navigation Equipment Shall Comply With The Regulations Of Q/SWS46-002-2007,
Procedures For Electrical Equipment Installation,
5.5 The Earthing Of The Navigation Equipment Shall Comply With The Regulations Of Q/SWS46-003-2007,
Procedures For Earthing Of Marine Electrical Equipment And Cable.
6 TECHNOLOGICAL PROCEDURES
6.1 Operational Procedures
6.1.1 Check The Packing List Of The Equipment.
6.1.2 Take Out The Accessories Packed With The Equipment.
6.1.3 Install The Equipment And Lay Cables According To The Technical Requirements Of Installation
Drawings.
6.2 Technological Processes
6.2.1 Magnetic Compass
6.2.1.1 The Magnetic Compass Shall Be Installed As Far As Possible Away From Magnetic Field And Magnetic
Material On The Vessel.
6.2.1.2 In Case The Magnetic Compass Is Installed On The Compass Deck, It Shall Be Installed On The
Centerline Of The Ship As Much As Possible With Its Azimuth Reference Line Aligned With The Fwd.
6.2.1.3 In Case The Magnetic Compass Is Installed On The Compass Deck, The Field Of View Shall Not Be
Interrupted. The Magnetic Compass Shall Be Waterproof And The Waterproof Cover Shall Be Applied While The
Magnetic Compasses DonT Work.
6.2.1.4 In The Wheelhouse, The Height Of The Magnetic Compass Observer Window From The Floor Is
1700mm-1800mm.
6.2.2 Gyro Compass
6.2.2.1 Course Repeaters Shall Be Installed, As Necessary, In The Cabins Such As The Wheelhouse, Steering
Gear Room. The Bearing Repeater Shall Be Installed On Each Bridge Wing.
171

6.2.2.2 The Master Gyro Compass Shall Be Installed On The Centerline Or Its Parallel Line Of The Vessel With
Its Installation Datum Line Aligned With The Fwd.
6.2.2.3 The Cables To Be Penetrated Into The Steering Stand With The Master Gyro Compass Installed Shall Be
Laid To Both Sides As Much As Possible To Provide Enough Space For The Installation Of The Master Gyro
Compass.
6.2.2.4 Components Of The Gyro Compass Shall Be Cleaned, Liquid-Added, Located, Tightened And Wired In
Accordance With The Documents Supplied By The Manufactory.
6.2.2.5 The Fwd-Fore Datum Line Of The Bearing Repeater Gyro Compass Shall Be Paralleled To The
Centerline Of The Vessel And Ensured The Distance To The Centerline Of The Vessel (D1D2) Is Equal (As
Shown In Fig. 1). The Surroundings Of The Bearing Repeater Gyro Compass Shall Be Ensured That The Field Of
Vision Shall Be More Than 180 As Much As Practicable.

FWD

AFT

Fig. 1 Bearing Repeater Gyro Compass Installation Drawing


6.2.2.6 Ensure That The Bearing Repeater Gyro Compass Is Installed Horizontally.
6.2.3 Radar
6.2.3.1 In The Precondition Of The Hull Structure And Maintenance, Install The Antenna As High As Possible.
6.2.3.2 In Order To Reduce The False Targets, Radar Antenna Shall Not Be In The Same Plane With The
Masthead Crossyard. The Radar Antenna Shall Be Higher Or Lower Than The Crossyard. In Case The Radar
Antenna Is Lower Than The Masthead Crossyard, The Vertical Angle From The Antenna To The Masthead
Crossyard Shall Be At Least 5. In Case The Radar Antenna Is Higher Than The Masthead Crossyard, The
Depression Angle From The Antenna To The Masthead Crossyard Shall Be At Least 5.
6.2.3.3 The Radar Antenna Shall Be Installed As Far As Possible Away From Other Radio Equipment. It Shall
Be Avoided That The Dominant Waves Of The Antenna Directly Irradiate The Active Region And Dangerous
Area.
6.2.3.4 When The Radar Mast Is Manufactured, Make Sure That The Erection Platform Of The Radar Antenna
In The Radar Mast Keeps Horizontal And Enough Space Is Left For Installation And Maintenance Of The
Antenna.
6.2.3.5 The S Wave Band Radar Antenna Shall Be Installed Higher Than The X Wave Band Radar Antenna
With Its Fwd Mark Aligned With The Fwd Direction.
6.2.3.5.1 Tighten The Seat Of The Radar Antenna And The Installation Seat With Stainless Steel Double Nuts.
6.2.3.5.2 The Interface Between The Radar Antenna Seat And The Radar Antenna Unit Shall Be Painted With
Silicide Or Relevant Measure Shall Be Taken To Prevent Different Metals From Electrochemical Erosion. In
Order To Prevent Sensitivity From Decline, The Performance Monitor Opener Shall Not Be Painted.
6.2.3.6 The Length Of Radar Waveguide Feedline Shall Be As Short As Possible. Try Not To Use The
Connectors Or Elbows Unless It Is Inevitable. Use The Components Supplied By The Manufactory. In Case The
Radar Waveguide Feedline Must Be Bent, Ensure That The Bending Radius Is Larger Than 200mm And That The
Waveguide Keeps Downward When Bending It Horizontally To Prevent The Water Accumulation From Affecting
The Microwave Transmission.
6.2.3.6.1 The Radar Waveguide Is Airproof Ex Works With Pressure Inside To Prevent It From Deformation.
The Airtightness Shall Not Be Damaged Prior To Its Joint Machining.
6.2.3.6.2 Lay The Radar Waveguide Feedline Top Down Starting From The Radar Antenna According To Its
Natural Tendency Without Being Distorted Or Twisted, Set Fixing Parts For The Feedline On The Waveguide In A
Range Of 0.4m To 0.7m To Its Connection Ends, And Others Should Be Fixed In Spacing Of 1m To 1.5m. While
Fixing The Waveguide Feedline, Filling Up A Rubber Liner Between The Lashing Band And The Waveguide
Feedline To Protect The Latter From Damage Caused By Ship Shake.
6.2.3.6.3 Process The Waveguide Feedline According To The Technological Requirements Of The Manufactory.
6.2.3.6.4 Check If All Components Of The Radar Are Assembled Securely.
6.2.3.7 The Radar Transceiver Shall Be Installed, As Far As Possible Away From The Steam Pipes And The
Heating Elements, In A Space With Good Ventilation And Enough Room For The Waveguide Feedline To Bend
Naturally.
6.2.3.8 The Outer Metal Jackets Of The Signal Cables Which Connect The Radar Monitors And The Transceiver
Shall Be Earthed Reliably.
6.2.4 Echo Sounder
172

6.2.4.1 Locating, Marking, Opening And Flange-Welding On The Bottom Plates Shall Be Carried Out
According To The Arrangement Drawing Of The Echo Sounder Transducer And The Installation Instructions
Provided By The Manufactory.
6.2.4.2 Echo Sounder Transducer Shall Be Mounted As Near As To The Centerline. It Shall Be Wide Open In
The Front Without Protrusion. The Transducer, There Is No Requirements For Its Installation Location, Can Be
Installed At A Position Where It Is Needed.
6.2.4.3 Before Installing The Echo Sounder Transducer, Weld A Temporary Fixed Bracket To Fix The
Transducer On The Installation Opening. The Purpose Is To Ensure That The Transducer Flange Keeps Flush With
The Ship Bottom Surface.
6.2.4.4 The Echo Sounder Transducer Flange Shall Be Tack-Welded Uniformly And Rectified Horizontally. The
Gradient Angle Shall Be Less Than 3. Finally It Shall Be Double Girth Welded With The Weld And Ground
Flush. A Reinforcement Flange May Be Provided And Welded On The Bottom Plate If Necessary.
6.2.4.5 Put The Transducer Into The Seat From The Hull Exterior, Install The Flange With Airproof Ring,
Tighten Bolts, And Apply The Sealing Epoxide Resin Around The Bolts And The Flange As Shown In Fig. 2.

welding by yard

welding by yard

1-Cable

Fig. 2

2-Flange

3-Transducer

Installation Drawing Of Echo Sounder Transducer

6.2.4.6 After The Installation Of The Echo Sounder Transducer, The Tightness Test Shall Be Carried Out,
Keeping 30 Minutes Under 0.2mpa Negative Pressure. If It Has Air Leakage, Install The Transducer Again.
6.2.4.7 In Case The Length Of The Cables Which Are Supplied By The Maker Is More Than 30m Long, A
Matching Box Shall Be Provided And Installed Above The Hull Waterline.
6.2.4.8 The Surface Of The Echo Sounder Transducer Shall Not Be Abraded, Scratched Or Painted And The
Metal Jacket Of The Cables Which Are Supplied By The Maker Shall Be Earthed Securely.
6.2.5 Doppler Speed Log
6.2.5.1 Locating, Marking, Opening And Flange-Welding On The Bottom Plates Shall Be Carried Out
According To The Arrangement Drawing Of The Doppler Speed Log And The Installation Instructions Provided
By The Manufactory. It Shall Be Mounted As Near As Possible To The Centerline On The Flat Area Of The
Bottom.
6.2.5.2 The Front Of The Doppler Speed Log Transducer Shall Keep Wide Open Without Protrusion.
6.2.5.3 After The Mounting Flange Of The Doppler Speed Log Transducer Is Welded, Install The Maintenance
Seawater Valve On The Flange, And While Keeping The Seawater Valve Open Insert The Transducer From Top
Side Until The Transducer Surface Keeps Flush With The Bottom Plate. Push Down The Flange, Set In The
Airproof Ring And Gasket, Tighten The Bolts, And Seal Them With The Epoxide Resin As Show In Fig. 3.
173

ship bottom

1-Bottom Flange2- Airproof Ring 13- Airproof Ring 24-Transducer5-Upper Flange6-Join Pipe7-Bolt
8- Screw Cap9-Seawater Valve10- Aligning Pin11-Zn Ring12-Conductor Ring13-Bolt

Fig. 3

Installation Structure Of Doppler Speed Log Transducer

6.2.5.4 After The Installation Of Doppler Speed Log Transducer, The Air Test Shall Be Carried Out, Keeping 30
Min Under 0.2mpa Negative Pressure. If It Has Air Leakage, Install The Transducer Again.
6.2.5.5 Align The Doppler Speed Log TransducerS Fwd Mark With The Fwd Direction And Parallel Its
Centerline With The Centerline Of The Vessel. The Degree Of Parallelism Shall Be Less Than 1.
6.2.5.6 In Case The Cables Supplied By The Maker Have To Penetrate Water Tanks, They Shall Be Laid
Through Cable Pipes Independently Provided. The Outer Shield Of Each Signal Cable Cores Shall Be Earthed
Securely. Its Earthing Terminal Shall Be Isolated From The Protection Earthing Terminals.
6.2.5.7 The Surface Of The Transducer Shall Not Be Abraded, Scratched And Painted.
7 INSPECTION
7.1 check if the appearance of the navigation equipment in good condition and meet the requirements in 5.1.
7.2 check if the installation position meet the requirements in 5.2.
7.3 check if route and procedures of installation of the navigation equipments cables meet the requirements in 5.3.
7.4 check if the installation of the navigation equipment meet the requirements in 5.4.
7.5 Check if the navigation equipment have been earthed properly meet the requirements in 5.5.

174

SWSINSTALLATION PROCEDURES OF MARINE RADIO


EQUIPMENT
Reference StandardQ/SWS46-005-2007
1

SCOPE
This standard specifies the preparation before installation, personnel, technological requirements and
technological processes and inspection of marine radio-communication and distress alert equipment (including
MF/HF radio equipment, VHF radiotelephone, NAVTEX, INMARSAT equipment, etc.)
This standard is applicable to installation of a variety of radio equipment of all classes of ships but excluding
the vessels with special requirements.
2 NORMATIVE REFERENCE
When reference,the items in following files can be in part of this standard.If only the reference files noted
date,the following re-edit papers or revised editions are meet this standard.Although, The discussion whether these
filess latest edition can be use or not is encouraged based on this standard.If only the reference files not noted
date,the latest edition is fit for this standard.
Q/SWS 46-001-2007
Technological Requirements for Installation of Electric Cables on Ships
Q/SWS 46-002-2007
Installation Procedures of Marine Electrical Equipment
Q/SWS 46-003-2007
Procedures for Safety Earthing of Marine Electrical Equipment and Cables
3 PREPARATIONS BEFORE EQUIPMENT INSTALLATION
3.1 Technical material
Before installation read carefully about the drawings about radio equipment ,such as system
diagram,arrangement drawing,wiring diagram,installation diagram ,etc.
3.2 Installation material
Know information about the radio equipment ,bracket and seat should arrived.Make sure the product
conformity certificates from the makers. So they can be fixed on time.
3.3 Installation tools
Prepare screwdriver, multimeter, bolt spanner,earth wiring, bushing, silver paper,earth block and material for
installation of the navigation equipment .
4 PERSONNEL
Before carrying out installation, the personnel shall be trained in technological and safety knowledge and
actual operation and pass the examination concerned.
5 TECHNOLOGICAL REQUIREMENTS
5.1 After the installation of radio equipment, the surface shall be well protected.
5.2 The installation position of the radio equipment shall be in accordance with the arrangement plan.
5.3 Cable laying
5.3.1 The cable laying of the radio equipment shall be in accordance with Q/SWS46-001-2007, Procedures for
Cable Laying.
5.3.2 The RF cable in the radio system shall be separated from the power and lighting cables, and cables and
piping irrelevant to the radio equipment shall not pass through the radio room.
5.3.3 Suitable margin shall be left during the cable laying of the radio antenna for maintenance convenience.
5.4 Equipment installation
5.4.1 The radio equipment installation shall accord with Q/SWS46-002-2007
Procedures for Electrical Equipment
Installation.
5.4.2 The radio equipment shall not be welded with its base bracket. The base bracket shall be welded first and
the equipment be mounted after derusted and coated.
5.4.3 The radio equipment installed outside shall be watertight. Any operationwhich has the possibility to
destroy the watertight performance, such as drilling and opening, is forbidden. The suitable watertight measures
shall be taken for the cable entrance.
5.4.4 The emergency battery dedicated for the radio equipment shall be installed in the battery room, and the
explosion-proof measures shall be taken. The measures shall be taken to prevent the battery from moving and
bumping.
5.4.5 The RF cable pin and soldering point welded with soft soldering shall be depurated. No acidic solder shall
be used, and the soldering point must be smooth and no burr, and absolute alcohol shall be used to clean out the
solder.
5.5 Equipment earthing
5.5.1 Protective earthing
5.5.1.1 The protective earthing of the radio equipment shall accord with Q/SWS46-003-2007Procedures for
Protective Earthing of Marine Electrical Equipment and Cable.
175

5.5.1.2 The length of earthing copper or core to be used for equipment protecting earth shall be as short as
possible, not exceeding 150mm, and reliable earthing shall be ensured with the earthing resistance less than
0.01.
5.5.2 Working earthing
The RF cable earthing of the radio console shall use separate earthing copper bar and its length shall be as
short as possible, not exceeding 1m. 0.3mm thick or above silver paper shall be used between the diagonal corner
of the equipment shell or its base and the hull, to ensure reliable electrical connection. The RF earthing method is
as shown in the following Drawing 1 & Table 1.
The RF earthing use components impacted with two pieces of galvanized earthing steel plate as shown in
Figure 1 and the sizes of the earthing plates and earthing copper sheet shall be configured as per the transmitter
power of the vessel as shown in Table 1.
2

m8

1
3

b
c

e e

1-Earthing Plate, 2- Impaction Cover, 3- Earthing Copper Sheet, 4- Hull Component

Figure 1 RF Cable Earthing Groupware of Radio Equipment


Table 1 Specification of Earthing Plate and Earthing Copper Sheet

Transmitter power
b

Earthing copper Sheet


mm
d
a

Earthing plate
mm
d

50

60

80

0.5

110

80

12

51500

100

100

0.5

170

100

16

5011000

150

120

0.5

220

120

18

1000

200

120

0.5

270

120

20

6 TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESSES
6.1 Operation procedures
6.1.1 Check the packing list of the equipment.
6.1.2 Take out the accessories packed with the equipment such as RF plugs etc.
6.1.3 Install the equipment and lay cables according to the technological requirements of installation drawings.
6.2 Technological processes
6.2.1 Installation of the radio transmitter
6.2.1.1 The radio transmitter shall be fixedly installed in the radio room or communication room near the wheel
house. In case of ship inclination, vibration or impaction, the equipment shall not have displacement or distortion,
and shall work normally.
6.2.1.2 The installation of the radio transmitter shall be convenient for tuning, operation, recording and
maintenance.
6.2.1.3 The feed line between the radio transmitter and the antenna lead in or the tuner units shall be as short as
possible..

176

6.2.1.4 The radio transmitters bracket shall be well earthed with a copper sheet in width of 30mm plus or a
naked copper twisted wire, which one end is connected to the hull and the other end, connected to the brackets
earthing terminal.
6.2.1.5 The heat-removal measures shall be taken for high-power radio transmitter, such as adopting exhaust
ducts or installed the transmitter in the places with good ventilation.
6.2.2 Installation of the radio antenna
6.2.2.1 The antenna tuner shall be installed near the transmitting antenna, usually at the heel end of the antenna
and the feed line between the antenna tuner and the antenna shall be no more than 0.5m, and the DC resistance of
the connection point shall be no more than 0.001.
6.2.2.2 Guardrail shall be installed around the high-power transmitting antenna post with HIGH VOLTAGE
DANGER! warning plate placed to ensure the personal safety.
6.2.2.3 The antenna tuners shell shall be well earthed, and the earthing resistance shall be no more than 0.01.
6.2.2.4 The whip antenna post shall be installed perpendicular to the horizontal plane.
6.2.2.5 The self-supporting antenna base shall be installed horizontally with the error angle less than 1.5. In
case the base is collapsible, the installation location and the collapsible direction of the self-supporting antenna
shall be convenient for the installation and maintenance, and there shall be no obstacles in the collapsible
direction.
6.2.2.6 The radio whip antenna shall be far away from metal structures such as funnel, ventilation mast and
superstructures as much as possible with the distance not less than 1m.
6.2.2.7 The installed radio antenna shall be strong enough to resist 11 grade wind and outside force without
snap.
6.2.2.8 When the radio antenna is installed on the support post, the dedicated clamps supplied by the maker shall
be used to fasten it fixedly and reliably.
6.2.2.9 The insulation resistance of the radio antenna to the hull shall be not less than 20M at dry climate, and
not less than 2M at high humidity.
6.2.2.10 Generally, the inmarsat antenna shall be installed on the mast in the open air or on the inmarsat antenna
platform with no obstacles within the range of elevation -5 to abstain from affecting normal operation or reducing
the equipments performance.
6.2.2.11 On installing the inmarsat antenna, it shall be ensured that the bow sign on inmarsat antenna base is
paralleled to the ship bow direction.
6.2.2.12 The cable supplied with the inmarsat system shall be laid fixedly with its length being reserved and it
shall not be truncated.
7 INSPECTION
7.1 check if the appearance of the radio equipment in good condition and meet the requirements in 5.1.
7.2 check if the installation position meet the requirements in 5.2.
7.3 check if route and procedures of installation of the radio equipments cables meet the requirements in 5.3.
7.4 check if the installation of the radio equipment meet the requirements in 5.4.
7.5 Check if the radio equipment have been earthed properly meet the requirements in 5.5.

177

SWSPROCEDURES FOR ANTENNA INSTALLATION


Reference StandardQ/SWS46-013-2006
1

SCOPE
This Standard Specifies The Preparation, Personnel, Technological Requirements, Installation Types,
Technical Processes And Inspection For The Installation Of Ship Antenna.
This Standard Is Applicable To The Antenna Installation Of Communication And Navigation Equipment.
2 PREPARATIONS BEFORE EQUIPMENT INSTALLATION
2.1 Know well about arrangement drawing for antenna,the requirement of the installation of antenna,hull
structure diagram, the defence magnetism area..
2.2 According to the requirement of the antennas installation,.Prepare for accessories,such as bracket, flat
bar,etc.
2.3 Check if the model and size of the equipment conforms to the drawing. The equipment and its parts and
accessories shall meet with the drawing.
3 PERSONNEL
3.1 Before carrying out installation, the personnel shall be trained in technological and safety knowledge and
actual operation and pass the examination concerned.
3.2 The welder must wear welding card before working.
4 TECHNOLOGICAL REQUIREMENTS
4.1 Make Sure That The Antenna Types And Positions Are In Consistent With Its Arrangement Plan.
4.2 The Height Of Antenna Base Is Normally 1.5m. When The Height Of Antenna Base Is More Than 2m, Steps
Shall Be Installed. However, The Bottom Of The Antenna Shall Be Higher Than Adjacent Hull Structure
(Bulwark).
4.3 Guarantee That Antenna And Antenna Base Is Reliably Connected And The Antenna Is Convenient And
Safe For Installation And Dismantlement .
4.4 Full Welding Shall Be Adopted When Welding The Antenna Base To The Hull Structure. The Welding Of
Antenna Base Shall Be Reliable And The Lead-In Wire Shall Be Correct.
4.5 The Strength Of The Deck And The Integrity Of The Bulkhead Shall Be Ensured When Antenna Penetrates
The Bulkhead And Deck.
4.6 The Wave-Guide Pipe Shall Be Installed As Straightly As Possible.
4.7 The Insulation Resistance Shall Be More Than 1m After The Antenna Is Installed.
4.8 The Curve Radius Of Cable Shall Be 4~6 Times Larger Than The Diameter Of The Cable.
5 TYPES OF ANTENNA INSTALLATION
See Table 1 For The Types Of Antenna Installation.
Table 1 Types Of Antenna Installation
Antenna Types
Figure
Self-Supporting Antenna

Figure 1

6m Whip Antenna

Figure 2

Vhf Antenna

Figure 3

Dgps Antenna

Figure4 And Figure5

Tv Antenna

Figure 6

Inmarsat F Antenna

Figure 7

Radar Antenna

Figure 8

6 TECHNICAL PROCESSES
6.1 Installation Of Antenna Base
6.1.1 Antenna Base Shall Be Installed According To The Location Dimension In The Installation Drawing And
Shall Be Installed Where Support Plates Are Located As Much As Possible.
6.1.2 Cable Penetration Connected With The Antenna Cable Shall Be Installed Close To Antenna Base.
6.1.3 Normally Goose-Neck Pipe Or Module Cable Penetration Is Used For Penetrating Compass Deck.
6.1.4 The Base Of The Vertical Antenna Installed On The Compass Deck Shall Be Installed Where Deck
Transverses Are Located.
6.2 Fastening Of The Antenna
6.2.1 The Specifications Of The Fastenings Shall Meet The Installation Requirements Of The Antenna.
6.2.2 The Position And Spacing Of The Fastenings Shall Meet The Installation Instructions Of The Antenna.
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6.2.3 In Case The Antenna Is Fastened With More Than Two Bolts, The Bolts Shall Be Fastened In Turn. The
Method Of Fastening One Bolt Then Other Bolts Shall Not Be Adopted.
6.3 Installation Of Self-Supporting Antenna
6.3.1 Assemble Self-Supporting Antenna, Its Lead-In Wire And Attachment In Place.
6.3.2 Install The Antenna Into Its Seat And Fasten The Bolts To Set Up The Antenna. See Figure 1.

85

130

1
3

bow
800

1-Antenna Base 2-Antenna Installation Seat


3-Double Plate 4-Antenna Tuner 5-Antenna

Figure 1 Self-Supporting Antenna Installation


6.4

See Figure 2 For The Installation Of 6m Whip Antenna.


In Case A 6m-Plus Whip Antenna Is Composed By Two Or More Lengths, These Lengths Shall Be
Pre-Assembled Into A Whole According To The MakerS Requirement Before The Antenna Is Installed. The
Connection Between The Lengths Of The Antenna Shall Be Firm Without Loosening Or Falloff.

179

=4
4
5

compass deck

1-Antenna

2-Antenna Base

Figure2
6.5

3-Flat Bar 4-Earthing Column 5-Stuffing

6m Whip Antenna Installation

See Figure 3 For Vhf Antenna Installation.

2
3

4
compass deck

1-Antenna

2-Antenna Base

3-Flat Bar 4-Stuffing

Figure 3 Vhf Antenna Installation


180

6.6 Dgps Antenna Installation


6.6.1 Screwed Type Dgps Antenna
6.6.1.1 Tighten The Antenna Attachment On The Antenna Base As Shown In Figure 4, And The Distance
Between The Clips Shall Meet The MakerS Requirement.
6.6.1.2 Screw Tightly The Dgps Antenna Into Dgps Antenna Attachment.
6.6.1.3 Screw Tightly The Plug Of High Frequency Cable Into The Dgps Antenna. See Fig. 4.
1
2
3

radar mast

1-Antenna

Figure 4

2-Cable

3-Clip

4-Antenna Base

Screwed Type Dgps Antenna Installation

6.6.2 Clip Type Dgps Antenna


Fasten The Dgps Antenna Attachment Onto The Antenna Base With Clips, And The Space Between The
Clips Shall Meet The MakerS Requirements. See Figure 5.
1
2

radar mast

1-Antenna

Figure 5
6.7

2-Clip

3-Antenna Base

Clip Type Dgps Antenna Installation

See Figure 6 For Tv Antenna Installation.


1
2

4
compsaa deck

1-Antenna

2-Clip

3-Antenna Base

4-Stuffing

Figure 6 Tv Antenna Installation


6.8

Inmarsat F Antenna Installation


Install The Inmarsat F Antenna Onto The Antenna Base According To Installation Direction. See Figure 7.

181

1
2

compass deck

1-Antenna

2-Antenna Base

3-Antenna Platform

Figure 7 Inmarsat F Antenna Installation


6.9 Radar Antenna Installation
6.9.1 Install Radar Antenna Onto The Antenna Base According To Its Installation Direction. See Figure 8.
1

1-Antenna

2-Antenna Base

3-Fastener 4- Coaxial Cable Or Wave-Guide Pipe

Figure 8 Radar Antenna Installation


6.10.2 Antenna Shall Turn Freely After The Radar Antenna Is Mounted On The Base. No Obstacle Shall Have
In The Working Area Of The Radar Antenna.
7 INSPECTION
7.1 Check If The Antenna Position And The Height Of Antenna Base Meet The Requirements Of 4.1 And 4.2.
7.2 Check If The Integrity Of The Antenna And Fasteners Meet The Requirement Of 4.3.
7.3 Check If The Welding Of Antenna Base Meets The Requirement Of 4.4.
7.4 Check If The Deck Intensity And Bulkhead Integrity Penetrated By The Antenna Meet The Requirement Of 4.5.
7.5 Check If The Installation Quality Of The Antenna Meets The Requirements Of 4.6 And 4.8.
7.6 Check If Insulation Resistance Of The Antenna To The Hull Meets The Requirement Of 4.7.

182