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Hydraulics Lab (ECIV

3122)

Islamic University
Gaza (IUG)

Experiment (3): Impact of jet


Introducti
on:
Impact of jets apparatus enables experiments to be carried out on the reaction
force produced on vanes when a jet of water impacts on to the vane. The study of
these reaction forces is an essential step in the subject of mechanics of fluids
which can be applied to hydraulic machinery such as the Pelton wheel and the
impulse turbine.

Purpos
e:
To investigate the reaction force produced by the impact of a jet of water on to
various target vanes.

Apparat
us:
1. Impact of jet apparatus (Figure
1).
2. Hydraulic bench.

Instructors : Dr. Khalil M.


Alastal

Eng. Mohammed Y.
Mousa

Hydraulics Lab (ECIV


3122)

Islamic University
Gaza (IUG)

Figure 1: Impact of jet apparatus

Instructors : Dr. Khalil M.


Alastal

Eng. Mohammed Y.
Mousa

Equipment set
up:
Set up the apparatus on top of the hydraulics bench with the left hand support
feet of the impact of jet apparatus located on the two left hand locating pegs
of the hydraulics bench so that the apparatus straddles the weir channel. Connect
the feed tube from the hydraulics bench to the boss on the rear of the base of the
impact of jet apparatus. Fit the 5mm nozzle and the normal fat target.

Figure 2: Illustrative figure of impact of jet apparatus

Theor
y:
When a jet of water fowing with a steady velocity strikes a solid surface the
water is deflected to fow along the surface. If friction is neglected by assuming
an inviscid fuid and it is also assumed that there are no losses due to shocks
then the magnitude of the water velocity is unchanged. The pressure exerted by
the water on the solid surface will everywhere be at right angles to the surface.
Consider a jet of water which impacts on to a target surface causing the direction

of the jet to be changed through an angle as shown in figure 2 below. In the


absence of friction the magnitude of the velocity across the surface is equal to the
incident velocity V i. The impulse force exerted on the target will be equal and
opposite to the force which acts on the water to impart the change in direction.

Applying Newtons second law in the direction of the incident jet

This is the resultant force acting on the fuid in the


direction of motion. This force is made up of three
components:
Force exerted in the given direction on the fuid by any solid body touching the
control volume.
Force exerted in the given direction on the fuid by body force (e.g. gravity).
Force exerted in the given direction on the fuid by fluid pressure outside the control
volume.
By Newtons third law, the fluid will exert an equal and opposite reaction on its
surroundings.
The force exerted by the fuid on the solid body touching the control volume is
equal and opposite to FR . So the reaction force R is given by:

Figure 3: Impact of a jet

Application to impact of jet apparatus


In each case it is assumed that there is no splashing or rebound of the water from
the surface so that the exist angle is parallel to the exit angle of the target.
The jet velocity can be calculated from the measured fow rate and the nozzle exit
area.

However, as the nozzle is below the target the impact velocity will be less than
the nozzle velocity due to interchanges between potential energy and kinetic
energy so that :

where
is the height of target above the
nozzle exit.
1. Impact

on

normal

plane

target For the normal plane


target = 90 Therefore

2. Impact on conical target


The cone semi-angle

= 45

Therefore

3. Impact on semi-spherical target


The target exit angle
Therefore

= 135

Figure 4: Interchangeable target vanes

Procedures:
1. Position the weight carrier on the weight platform and add weights until the top of
the target is clear of the stop and the weight platform is foating in mid position.
Move the pointer so that it is aligned with the weight platform. Record the value of
weights on the weight carrier.
2. Start the pump and establish the water fow by steadily opening the bench
regulating valve
until it is fully open.
3. The vane will now be defected by the impact of the jet. Place additional
weights onto the weight carrier until the weight platform is again foating in mid
position. Measure the fow rate and record the result on the test sheet, together
with the corresponding value of weight on the tray. Observe the form of the
defected jet and note its shape.
4. Reduce the weight on the weight carrier in steps and maintain balance of the
weight platform by regulating the fow rate in about three steps, each time
recording the value of the fow rate and weights on the weight carrier.
5. Close the control valve and switch of the pump. Allow the apparatus to drain.
6. Replace the 5mm nozzle with the 8mm diameter nozzle and repeat the tests.

7. Replace the normal vane with the 45 conical vane and repeat the test with both
the 5mm and 8mm nozzles.
8. Replace the 45 conical vane with the hemispherical vane and repeat the tests with
both the
5mm and 8mm nozzles.

Results:
1. Record the results on a copy of the results sheet provided.
2. Calculate for each result the fow rate and the nozzle exit velocity. Correct the
nozzle velocity for the height of the target above the nozzle to obtain the impact
velocity.
3. Calculate the impact momentum and plot graphs of impact force
momentum

against impact

and determine the slope of the graphs for each target. Compare with
the theoretical
values of 1, 0.2929 and 1.7071 for the normal plane target, conical target and
hemispherical
target respectively.
Target

Nozzl

Height of

Vanes

e Dia.

target

(degree

(mm)

above

s)

nozzle
30
5

Additional
Weights

Volume of
water
collected

(g)

Time
(sec)

(Liter)

30
30

Flat

30
8

30
30
25

25
25

Conical

25
8

25
25
30

30
30
30

30

Instructors : Dr. Khalil M.


Alastal

Eng. Mohammed Y.
Mousa

Se
misp

30

Instructors : Dr. Khalil M.


Alastal

Eng. Mohammed Y.
Mousa

Target

Nozzl

Vanes

(degree
s)

Dia.

(m3/s)

(m/s)

(m/s)

(N)

Slope

(mm)
5

(N)

Flat

1
8

Conical

0.2929
8

Semispherical

1.7071

Instructors : Dr. Khalil M.


Alastal

Eng. Mohammed Y.
Mousa