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Review the bones of the ankle and foot
region.
Correlate the different anatomical structures
of the ankle and foot with its anatomical and
clinical significance.
Describe the joints of the ankle and foot as
to:
◦ Articulating surfaces
◦ Type of joint
◦ Movement

Describe the attachments and functions of
the ligaments of the ankle and foot.


Discuss the origin, insertion, action and nerve
supply of the muscles of the ankle and foot.
Discuss the different arches of the foot.
Integrate the radiographic appearance of the ankle
and foot with the knowledge of basic anatomy.

   Medial malleolus Articular facet for talus Fibular notch .

  Lateral malleolus Articular facet for talus .

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  Talus Calcaneus .

    Trochlear surface Head Neck Medial and lateral tubercles .

    Calcaneal tuberosity Lateral and medial processes **sinus tarsi Sustentaculum tali .

   Navicular Cuboid 3 cuneiforms .

   Proximal surface Distal surface Tuberosity .

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  Metatarsals Phalanges .

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   Articulating surfaces Type of joint Motions .

   Articulating surfaces Type of joint Motions .

   Articulating surfaces Type of joint Motions .

   Articulating surfaces Type of joint Motions .

  Talocalcaneonavicular Calcaneocuboid ◦ Articulating surfaces ◦ Type ◦ Motions .

   Articulating surfaces Type Motions .

   Articulating surfaces Type Motions .

   Articulating surfaces Type Motions .

   Articulating surfaces Type Motions .

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  Interosseus ligament Anterior and posterior distal tibiofibular ligaments .

 MCL/ deltoid ligament ◦ Tibionavicular ◦ Tibiotalar ◦ tibiocalcaneal .

LCL  Anterior talofibular  Calcaneofibular  Posterior talofibular .

   Medial Talocalcaneal ligament Lateral Talocalcaneal ligament Interosseous Talocalcaneal ligament .

  Plantar calcaneonavicular ligament (spring ligament) Long and short plantar ligaments .

Ankle sprain .

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MUSCLES OF THE ANTERIOR COMPARTMENT OF THE LEG .

TIBIALIS ANTERIOR Lateral surface of shaft of tibia and interosseous membrane Medial cuneiform and base of first metatarsal bone Deep peroneal nerve Extends foot at ankle joint. inverts foot at subtalar and transverse tarsal joints. holds up medial longitudinal arch of foot TIBIALIS ANTERIOR .

everts foot at subtalar joint and transverse tarsal joints PERONEUS TERTIUS .PERONEUS TERTIUS Anterior surface Base of fifth of shaft of fibula metatarsal bone Deep peroneal nerve Extends foot at ankle joint.

extends foot at ankle joint EXTENSOR DIGITORUM LONGUS .EXTENSOR DIGITORUM LONGUS Anterior surface of the shaft of fibula Extensor expansion of lateral four toes Deep peroneal nerve Extends toes.

and fourth toes Deep peroneal nerve Extends toes EXTENSOR DIGITORUM BREVIS .EXTENSOR DIGITORUM BREVIS Calcaneum By four tendons into the proximal phalanx of big toe and long extensor tendons to second. third.

inverts foot at subtalar and transverse tarsal joints EXTENSOR HALLUCIS LONGUS . extends foot at ankle joint.EXTENSOR Anterior surface HALLUCIS LONGUS of shaft of fibula Base of distal phalanx of great toe Deep peroneal nerve Extends big toe.

MUSCLES OF THE POSTERIOR COMPARTMENT OF THE LEG .

SUPERFICIAL GROUP Gastrocnemius Soleus Plantaris . 3. 2. 1.

GASTROCNEMI US Lateral head from lateral condyle of femur and medial head from above medial condyle Via tendo calcaneus into posterior surface of calcaneum Tibial nerve Plantarflexes foot at ankle joint. flexes knee joint GASTROCNEMIUS .

provides main propulsive force in walking and running .SOLEUS Shafts of tibia and fibula Via tendo calcaneus into posterior surface of calcaneum Tibial nerve SOLEUS Together with gastrocnemius and plantaris is powerful plantarflexor of ankle joint.

flexes knee joint PLANTARIS .Posterior PLANTARIS Lateral supracondy surface of lar ridge of calcaneum femur Tibial nerve Plantarflexe s foot at ankle joint.


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DEEP GROUP
Tibialis Posterior
Flexor Digitorum
Longus
Flexor Hallucis Longus

TIBIALIS POSTERIOR

Posterior surface of
shafts of tibia and
fibula and
interosseus
membrane

Tuberosity of
navicular bone and
other neighboring
bones

Tibial nerve

Plantarflexes foot at
ankle joint; inverts
foot at subtalar and
transverse tarsal
joints; supports
medial longitudinal
arch of foot

TIBIALIS POSTERIOR

FLEXOR
DIGITORUM
LONGUS

Posterior surface
of shaft of tibia

Bases of distal
phalanges of
lateral four toes

Tibial nerve

Flexes distal
phalanges of
lateral four toes;
plantarflexes foot
at ankle joint;
supports medial
and lateral
longitudinal
arches of foot

FLEXOR
DIGITORUM LONGUS

FLEXOR HALLUCIS
LONGUS

Posterior surface of Base of distal
shaft of fibula
phalanx of big toe

Tibial nerve

Flexes distal
phalanx of big toe;
plantar flexes foot
at ankle joint;
supports medial
longitudinal arch
of foot

FLEXOR
HALLUCIS LONGUS

MUSCLES OF THE LATERAL COMPARTMENT OF THE LEG .

PERONEUS LONGUS Lateral surface of shaft of fibula Base of first metatarsal and the medial cuneiform Superficial peroneal nerve Plantarflexes foot at ankle joint. supports lateral longitudinal and transverse arches of foot PERONEUS LONGUS . everts foot at subtalar and transverse tarsal joints.

PERONEUS BREVIS Lateral surface of Base of fifth shaft of fibula metatarsal bone Superficial peroneal nerve Plantarflexes foot at ankle joint. supports lateral longitudinal arch of foot PERONEUS BREVIS . everts foot at subtalar and transverse tarsal joint.

MUSCLES OF THE SOLE OF THE FOOT .

FIRST LAYER Abductor hallucis Flexor digitorum brevis Abductor digiti minimi . 2. 1. 3.

Flexion of the big toe Abduction of the big toe ABDUCTOR HALLUCIS .

Flexion of the lateral 4 toes FLEXOR DIGITORUM BREVIS .

Flexion th 5 toe of the Abduction th the 5 toe of ABDUCTOR DIGITI MINIMI .

SECOND LAYER 1. Lumbricals 2. Quadratus Plantae  .

Extension toes at IP joints of LUMBRICALS .

Assists FDL in flexing lateral 4 toes QUADRATUS PLANTAE .

 1. 2. 3. THIRD LAYER Flexor Hallucis brevis Adductor hallucis Flexor digiti minimi .

Flexion of MTP joint of the big toe FLEXOR HALLUCIS BREVIS .

Flexion of MTP joint of big toe ADDUCTOR HALLUCIS .

Flexion of MTP joint of little toe FLEXOR DIGITI MINIMI BREVIS .

Interossei (dorsal and plantar)  .FOURTH LAYER 1.

•Abduction of toes •Flexion of MTP jts •Extension of IP jts DORSAL INTEROSSEI .

•Adduction of toes •Flexion of MTP jts •Extension of IP jts PLANTAR INTEROSSEI .

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•Medial longitudinal arch •Lateral longitudinal arch •Transverse arch .

talus. the three cuneiforms. and the first three metatarsal bones Talus . navicular bone.BONES KEYSTONE Calcaneus.

BONES KEYSTONE Calcaneus. cuboid. and the fourth and fifth metatarsal bones Cuboid .

BONES Bases of the metatarsal bones and the cuboid and the three cuneiforms KEYSTONE The marked wedge shaping of the cuneiform bones and the bases of the metatarsal bones .

Pes Planus .

Santiago. MD .Topic Organizer: Nestor Don N.