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The Palmer School of Chiropractic: Development of the Faculty

Rolf E. Peters and Mary Ann Chance

ABSTRACT: As many of the chiropractors practising in Australia prior to the end of World War II had attended
the Palmer School of Chiropractic, an attempt is made to trace the development of the Palmer Faculty during
the 40-year period of 1906-1945.
INDEX T E R M S : M e S H : C H I R O P R A C T I C ; H I S T O R I C A L

During the early years of chiropractic, D.D. Palmer tutored
individual students. When D.D. and B.J. formed a partnership,
they started teaching very small classes, first in the Ryan
building, and from May 1905, at 828 Brady Street.
The teaching load was shared, with D.D. taking responsibility for the clinic and the classes in Principles of
Chiropractic, Chiropractic Orthopedy and Anomalies.' In
1906 D.D. Palmer was convicted of practising medicine
without a licence and jailed, and after having been released
decided to leave Davenport.
The First Decade1906-1916
Upon D.D.'s departure, the entire teaching load would have
fallen on B.J. As Carver had suggested earlier that a medical
practitioner should take over the editorship of The
Chiropractor as a protective measure,-B.J. hired M.P. Brown,
MD, DC in May 1906 to take over that task, and also as
demonstrator and lecturer of Anatomy,' and later as Registrar
and Director of Clinics.* Martin Preston Brown was born on
13 July 1855 in West Liberty, Iowa. Having gained his degree
of Doctor of Medicine from the State University of Iowa in
1884 and his Doctor of Chiropractic degree in 1899, he had
7 years of experience in chiropractic and 22 years of medical
experience.^ While Brown covered all Anatomy subjects, as
well as supervising the clinic, B.J. Palmer "maintained the
burden of the active work formerly conducted and carried on
by his father."*" Brown remained with the Palmer School until
1912, when Alfred Baker Render, MD, became the new Editor
of The Chiropractor,'' and Brown established Brown's
Sanitarium at 1005-1011 Brady Street, just across from the
future Classroom Building.*' He passed away on 9 March
1922; he had gone to the tax collector's office to pay his taxes,
collapsed, and died of heart failure.'^

RoIfE. Peters, BSC. DC, F I C C

Mary Ann Chance, DC, F I C C
Editors, Chiropractic Journal of Australia
Wagga Wagga, New South Wales


Chiropr J Aust 2003; 33; 98-116

Increased enrolments during 1907 necessitated adding

another capable teacher on 1 January 1908H.M.
Lundberg, DC, a PSC graduate, who also maintained a
practice in Rock Island. '"She was chosen because of her great
ability and keen concepdon in anatomical studies." Later in
1908 she apparently married and left Rock Island for Galva,
Illinois, some 60 miles southeast of the Tri-Cities, where by
January 1909 she practised under the name of Hilda
Lundberg-Jones, DC, PhC.'Lundberg was apparently replaced by Juanita G . Shaw,
PhC, who started teaching Anatomy in either late 1908 or
early 1909. The Reverend R.J. Irwin, a PSC student, wrote
that "Dr. Shaw is not only appreciated and loved by every
PSC student for her excellence of character and attractive
nature, but for her splendid ability to disentangle the mystical
labyrinth of ligaments and mu.scles, tendons, articulations and
bone and all the 'wonderfully and fearfully made' anatomy
of man. We have never seen anatomy made so simple and
interesting as it is by Dr. Shaw's instructions."'' It appears
that she might have been replaced when Mabel Palmer started
teaching Anatomy in September 1909.'* Juanita Shaw started
to advertise her practice in Richmond, Virginia in November
B.J. had determined that teachers at the Palmer School
had to be Palmer graduates, and chose them for "their culture,
talent and genuine natural as well as cultivated ability in the
Hne of teaching."""
Joy M . Loban, PhC, a graduate of 1908, was hired in
January 1909 as Professor of Analysis and Faculty Adjuster."
Prior to graduation he had practised in Keota, Iowa, where
he learned to appreciate the effects of chiropractic on
patients.'After graduation he established a practice in Kansas
City, Missouri.''^ He had been called to the PSC because larger
classes demanded more teachers, and Loban was considered
to be an excellent teacher, too good to remain in the field as
a practitioner. The last 6 months of 1908 had increased the
load on B.J. to such an extent that he could no longer handle
the multitudinous duties, and Loban was expected to become
B.J.'s right hand man in many capacities.'^ Loban was also
the first faculty member to have papers published in The
Chiropractor}'-''-^ Loban left the Palmer School on 15

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February 1910 to enter private practice-* and located at 501

Commercial Bank Building, Waterloo, Iowa.-' When, in April
of 1910, a group of dissatisfied students walked out and
established another schoolthe Universal Chiropractic
Collegejust a few blocks south on Brady Street, they hired
Loban as their dean.-*"
In September 1909, Mabel Palmer joined the faculty as
Professor of Anatomy-^ after her return from studying
Anatomy under some of the best instructors in the United
States.-** She also acted as private faculty adjuster for ladies.-''
On 19 May 1914 Mabel founded the Sigma Phi Chi Sorority,
the first Greek letter Sorority in chiropractic'" with 14
members. In 1918 Mabel Palmer published the first edition
of Chiropractic Anatomy, which went through 5 editions''
and was used by most chiropractic schools. The book was
still in use during the mid-1940s.'- Among the first purchasers
of this book were Frank Boyd of Australia, and Martha Howey
of Canada, who would later practise in Adelaide, South
Australia.'-' Next to B.J., Mabel would be the longest serving
faculty member during the time period of this thesis, as she
was still on faculty in 1945. Due to her soft, feminine side,
she came to the aid of many students in a motherly fashion
and was generally known as "the Sweetheart of the PSC."'*
On 15 October 1909, C.R. McAdams, DC, who had
recently graduated, was added to the faculty and placed in
charge of Nerve Tracing. His lectures were based on the actual
cases he had traced that day, were stereoscopically illustrated,
and prints of each case were put on display for a week.'-' In
addition to teaching of nerve tracing, McAdams also acted
as a director of the student clinics"' and acted as an
intermediary between student doctors and the Spinography
Department, as he had to authorise all requests to have
spinographs taken.'' Later in 1911 he was placed in charge
of the Spinography Laboratory. He left the faculty in 1911
to establish a practice in Lake City, Iowa,"* where he was
indicted in mid-1912 for practising medicine without a
licence." Whether this came to trial was not recorded. He
designed a loose-leaf book system for keeping track of patient
records,*" and on 18 April 1914 became one of the foundation
members of the Iowa Chiropractic Association.*'

B.J. Palmer, DC, PhC

All photographs courtesy of Palmer College Archives

James Wishart, DC, a 1910 graduate, was added to the

faculty on 15 February 1910. He had been Dr Loban's
assistant in the palpation classes and Dr Palmer's right hand
assistant during the evening clinics.*- He was placed in charge
of Chiropractic Analysis.*^ In 1912 he added adjustment drills
to nerve tracing, palpation and clinic duties, concentrating
on small groups of students to give them the benefit of his
experience.** He remained with the Palmer School until 22
March 1920, having served more than 10 years.*'
T.J. Owens, DC, a Palmer graduate of 1906, and President
of the Universal Chiropractors' Association, was hired on 15
February 1910 to teach Symptomatology, and also act as
Business Manager, Assistant Editor of The Chiropractor and
Corresponding Secretary of the Palmer School.*'' Prior to
matriculating at Palmer he had been the owner and manager
of a large department store in Ottumwa, Iowa. When his health
became impaired, chiropractic saved his life.*' Prior to
accepting his position at Palmer, he had been in private
practice in Seattle, Washington.*** In August 1912 he was no
longer listed as Assistant Editor of The Chiropractor and

Martin Preston Brown, MD, DC

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Joy M. Loban, DC, PhC

Mabel H. Palmer, DC, PhC

seems to have left the PSC, probably due to ill health. He

passed away on Tuesday, 2 February 1914, at the age of 56
years, after a long illness involving bronchial asthma and
kidney trouble.*^
William L . Heath, Sr., DC, father of Mabel Palmer, joined
the faculty in June 1910.-' He was born in Elizabethtown,
Pennsylvania in 1849, and moved to Davenport in 1859,
where he completed his public school education. He attended
Cornell College and graduated in 1870, whereupon he taught
school for 3 years before establishing a grocery business.''"
Connected to the Palmer School by the marriage of his
daughter Mabel, he entered the PSC, graduated in 1907, and
practised in LaCrosse, Wisconsin, prior to joining the faculty,
where he served as faculty outside adjuster, making house
calls to patients requesting faculty service.''' Heath gained
his PhC in 1913^- and was placed in charge of final
examinations in 1920.^^ He passed away at his residence on
Sunday, 30 August 1925'* after having served 15 years on
the faculty.
Hugh D. Via, DC, another 1910 graduate, was hired to
supervise senior students in a private adjustment service,
where patients requesting to be adjusted in private paid for
their service, in contrast to the open clinic, which had a feefree service.-'-' He remained for about 2 years before leaving
for private practice at Mulden, Massachusetts.-"" When the
Massachusetts Chiropractors Association was formed on 12
February 1913, Hugh Via was elected President of the
Association." During World War 1 he served in the Armed
Forces in Company 6, Camp Jackson, Columbia, South
Carohna.'** After the war, in April 1919, he graduated from

William L. Heath, Sr., DC, PhC

the Palmer School post-graduate course for veterans" prior

to moving to Portsmouth, Virginia, his home state.*
R . E . McNamara, DC, another 1910 graduate, also joined
the faculty for a short time to teach Physiology and supervise
the Open Clinic.*'' He left for private practice soon after,
establishing a practice at 530 Brady Street, Davenport,'^ and
taught at the Universal College of Chiropractic temporarily'"-'
before moving to Quincy, Illinois."*
During 1911 the faculty was further enlarged. A final
examination form, dated 27 March 1911, indicates that the
following were the examiners at that time: B.J, Palmer, DC,
PhC; Mabel H. Palmer, DC, PhC; E. Duval, DC; H.E. Vedder,
DC, PhC; R McGinnis, DC; J.C. Wishart, DC; J.N. Firth,
DC, PhC; and A.B. Hender, MD.*"'
E . Duval, DC, was on faculty in March 1911 and taught
Hygiene, Orthopedy, Gynecology, Cycles (a part of
Chiropractic Philosophy), and Obstetrics."' No actual dates
of joining or leaving the faculty have been established. He
was expected to take over B.J. Palmer's subjects during B.J.'s
absence."" In June 1913 he went to his home in Canada on
holidays,"' and might not have returned, as no further reference
to him was made. While on faculty he published 2 papers, on
"Ectopic Pregnancy""** and "Self Limited Diseases.""' He later
acted as President of the Canadian Chiropractic College'" and
later still as President of the Ortho Chiropractic College of
James N. Firth, DC, PhC, graduated in 1910. He was
born on 16 September 1886 in Sterling, Michigan, and
attended public schools in Sterling and Standish, Michigan.
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James N. Firth, DC, PhC

James R McGinnis, DC

After a course in Normal Training School, he taught school

for one year, then attended the Ferris Institute in Grand
Rapids, Michigan, and became Principal of the Public Schools
of Sagining, Michigan, from 1907 to 1909. He enrolled at
the PSC in July 1909. After graduation he practised in
Manistique, Michigan, for approximately one year.'" While
it is stated that he started teaching at the PSC in August 1911,"'
he was already hsted as an examiner in Symptomatology and
Pathology on a final examination form dated 27 March 1911."'
During 1912 he was not only in charge of the Department of
Symptomatology, which included Pathology, but also taught
Palpation and Nerve Tracing to the Junior class and assisted
in the afternoon clinic.-" He was a prolific writer and published
many papers in The Chiropractor dealing with individual
disease processes. In 1914 he published A Textbook on
Chiropractic Symptomatology as Volume 7 of the Palmer
Green Book series. The book saw 2 editions, one supplement
and 6 printings during Firth's time at the PSC." Firth became
one of the most respected and appreciated teachers at the
Palmer School. After 14 years of teaching he resigned,
effective 1 August 1925 to enter private practice'- establishing
a practice at 108 N . State Street, Chicago."

Harry E. Vedder, DC, PhC, officially became a member

of the faculty in September 1911,-' but was already listed as
an examiner in Physiology in March 1911."' He was born on
26 March 1891 at Hudson, Michigan, and received his public
school education in Tacoma. Washington. He enrolled at the
Palmer School in January 1911, started teaching while still
an undergraduate, and graduated in January 1912.'" He
resigned from the faculty on 1 March 1913 to take over

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Franl< W. Elliott, DC, PhC

management of his father's business in Tacoma,'" but returned

to his teaching position in August of the same year.'' Like
Firth, Vedder was a prolific writer on many chiropractic
subjects as published in The Chiropractor. In 1916 he
published A Textbook on Chiropractic Physiology, as Volume
8 of the Palmer Green Book Series, which saw 2 editions
and 5 printings.'' This was followed in 1919 with Textbook
on Chiropractic Gynecology, published as Volume 12 of the
Palmer series. It saw 2 editions and 4 printings." In 1924 he
published, as Volume 16, Chiropractic Advertising, which
saw one edition and one print run." Being a well-liked and
capable teacher, he was considered an authority on
Chiropractic Physiology and Gynecology.'" On 19 July 1924
he predicted that ''Chiropractic is facing a period of storm,
which will last for the next three to five years" and that ''the
Chiropractic profession has been flooded with practitioners
who look at Chiropractic as a business rather than a
profession."'''' He also noted, "Ido not always agree with my
co-workers in the decision of matters of policy pertaining to
the Pcdmer School, and in sessions with my co-workers I fight
for the principles which I believe to be right. Yet, if the majority
is against me I realize that for the ultimate success of the
institution, I must cooperate with them."''^ Harry Vedder
resigned from the faculty effective 15 May 1926, after 13
years as Professor of Physiology, apparently due to a conflict
of opinion with B.J. Palmer.
James F. McGinnis was in charge of the Spinography
Department and also acted as school photographer in 1911.
As early as March 1911 he examined in Darkroom Work,
Spinograph Negative Reading and Technique of
Spinography."' McGinnis had been a photographer at Rock




Island Arsenal. He had entered the Palmer School evening

clinic in mid-1910, having extreme indigestion and severe
headaches, also constipation and anorexia, which were
completely resolved within 2 weeks. This resulted in his
matriculation at the PSC.*'" About 1913 he established a
practice in Rockwell City, Iowa, which was soon thriving. In
March 1914 the Grand Jury called nearly all his patients to
testify in an investigation that lasted a day-and-a-half, and
found "no bill.'"*' He sold this practice in 1915 and relocated
to Maquoketa, Iowa, where, on 11 January 1916, he was
indicted for practising medicine without a licence. He was
found guilty on 14 January, and was advised by Fred Hartwell,
attorney for the Universal Chiropractors' Association to
continue practising.*^ On 23 March 1917, he was indicted
again on the same charge, tried before a jury, which returned
a hung verdict after 17 hours and 45 minutes deliberation.**^
In the early 1920s, he moved to Santa Barbara, California,
where he was arrested in early April 1922. He posted bail of
$100 and was listed as "awaiting trial" until mid-July. Whether
the case ever came to trial is unknown, as in November of
that year the Chiropractic Act of California was passed by
popular vote.**"
In February 1911 F.L. Carey, formerly of Marion, Indiana,
accepted a position as instructor in the Palmer School. A
graduate of the Palmer School, he had sold his large practice
to his former partner, F.D. Waschka.**' As this was the only
reference, Carey obviously did not last long at the PSC.
A new department was established at the PSC in 1911,
the Ethics Department. It was placed in charge of Mittie P.
Hall,*" who left in 1913 and established a practice in Sac
City, Iowa.*' Upon formation of the Iowa Chiropractic
Association in 1914, she was elected to the Permanent
Organization."' On 7 July 1914, Mittie R Hall, DC, and Billy
Grigg, DC, were married in the Palmer Mansion by the
Reverend James Craven, prior to moving to Chicago to
establish a practice there.**
Frank W. Elliott, DC, a graduate of 1911, became a
member of the faculty on I I August 1911, when he was
installed as Registrar of Students and Patients and Director
of the evening clinic. Frank, a first cousin of Mabel Palmer
their mothers were sisterswas born in Conway Springs,
Kansas, on 15 February 1887. He received his higher
education at Southwestern College, Winfield, Kansas, where
he met Hazel Johnson, his future wife. Hazel was a first cousin
of Edna May Johnson, wife of Hugh Chester Chance. After
graduation Frank moved to Los Angeles, California, where
he opened a practice at 4200 South Grand Avenue in early
May 1911, advertising the practice with a neat little sign on
the lawn. Soon after, D.D. Palmer rented the adjoining
apartment, and put up a big sign in front of his apartment,
reading: "Old Dad Chiro, Discoverer and Developer of
Chiropractic, D.D. Palmer." During June 1911, while B.J.
and Mabel Palmer were on a lecture trip through California,
Frank and Hazel were married at the home of her
grandparents, with Hazel's parents and B.J. and Mabel in
attendance. While still in Los Angeles, B.J. received news
from the school which prompted him to ask Frank Elliott to
join him at the PSC.*"'* EUiott gained his PhC in 1914" and
was named Business Manager of the PSC.'^ After B.J. Palmer
established Radio Station WOC, Frank became one of the
early announcers and Business Manager, a position he held


until about 1931, when he was replaced by Dave Palmer.

Frank Elliott served in the Iowa State Legislature,'" where he
rendered invaluable service in securing chiropractic
legislation. He also served a term as President of the National
Association of Broadcasters.'"
Harry Hoy had been a short-term instructor prior to May
1912, when he established a practice in Belle Plains, Iowa.''
In May a Dr. 'Vale took charge of the Junior Clinic. He
apparently also did not last long.'"
Alfred Baker Hender, M D , was one of the examiners on
Technique Of Obstetrics, Home Deliveries, Minor Surgery,
Toxicology and Gynecology during 1911."' He was born in
Davenport in 1874. After his early education in Davenport
he studied civil engineering at Cornell College, Mt Vernon,
Iowa. After 2 years he changed his plans and studied medicine
at the University of Iowa, where he received his MD in 1900.
While in general practice in Davenport, he became acquainted
with D.D. and B.J. Palmer and was induced to give 20 lectures
on general anatomy and 10 lectures on the central nervous
system.'" He gained his DC in 1912, and PhC in 1915." He
joined the faculty in September 1912,-' teaching Obstetrics
and Gynecology. By 1920 he had been named Dean of the
Palmer School, a position he held until his death in 1943.'"
He maintained a practice in medicine and chiropractic in
Davenport and became a well known obstetrician. By 1927
he had delivered 3,500 babies.'" After the departure of Firth,
he took over the Department of Symptomatology."
Steven J . Burich, DC, PhC, joined the faculty on 1 January
1913, while still a senior student. He was born in Brilhon,
Wisconsin, on 15 August 1887, attended common schools in
Rockland Township and Milwaukee and graduated from the
Whitewater High School in 1907. He attended Beloit
College'" and taught Chemistry in Milwaukee for a year before
attending Palmer.'** As head of the Chemistry Department,
he estabhshed the laboratory in March 1913,"and was listed
as Professor of Chemistry and Microscopy, also teaching
Histology and Psychology.'"" A frequent contributor to The
Chiropractor, he wrote A Textboolc of Chiropractic Chemistry
as Volume 11 of the Palmer Green Books in 1919. The book
was reprinted 3 times." In 1922 Burich was placed in charge
of the Department of Neurology.'"' He resigned from the
Palmer faculty effective 15 May 1926.'"As of 1 April 1913, Abraham Abbey Finkelstein, a 1909
graduate, filled the Chair of Physiology, vacated when Harry
Vedder left to manage his father's business in Tacoma,
Washington. For the previous 3 years Finkelstein had held
the position of Secretary of the Employment Department of
the Young Men's Hebrew Association in New York, where
he also acted as an unpaid volunteer chiropractor.'"' It appears
that B.J. Palmer had kept his eye on Finkelstein, considering
him to be excellent teaching material.'"" One year later, on
15 March 1914, he resigned to return to New York City to
get married and establish a private practice. He was apparently
very well liked, as a big reception was given in the auditorium
prior to his departure.'"'
James Steele, DC, PhC, was placed in charge of the
Spinograph Department in early 1913. During his time the
department made a record in the amount and quality of the
work performed. He took a leave of absence in March 1914
and established a practice in Auburn, New York.'""'"'
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Volume 33 Number 3 September 2003



James H. Craven, DD, DC, PhC, a graduate of 1912,

started teaching in June 1913.-' He was born in 1880 in
Kansas, received his higher education at the Kansas Wesleyan
University, was ordained in the ministry of the Methodist
Church, and spent 11 years as a pastor. He became the Head
of the Department of Chiropractic Philosophy, and also acted
as Faculty Secretary and School Chaplain. He is said to have
collaborated with B.J. Palmer in writing Volume V,
Chiropractic Philosophy.''^ In 1921 he published A Textbook
on Chiropractic Orthopedy as Volume 15, which saw one
reprint." In 1924/4 Textbook on Hygiene and Pediatrics from
a Chiropractic Standpoint was published as Volume 3." He
was a frequent contributor to The Chiropractor and published
over 20 papers on chiropractic philosophy, as well as a series
on hygiene and public health. While we have no proof, it is
our belief that Craven's writings laid the basis for
Stephenson's Chiropractic Textbook. On 27 May 1926 John
Craven resigned his position effective 1 July 1926. For some
years he had felt the urge to practise in the State of
Washington,""* and had planned to leave the Palmer School
prior to the introduction of the Neurocalometer in 1924, but
had realised that all strength was necessary at the PSC then,
and afterwards, when B.J. travelled around the world in 19241925."'"
Ernest Archibald Thompson, DC, a February 1914
graduate, was placed in charge of the Spinograph Department
upon the departure of James Steele in March 1914. He had
been an associate faculty member in Steele's department.""'
Thompson was born in 1891 in Chattanooga, Tennessee.''"
He later lived in Rochester, New York, where he had been
employed by the Mercury Manufacturing Company as a
salesman. His assignment was to travel the Western territory.
When he reached Davenport, he decided to change position
and obtained a clerkship with a chain of cigar stores, which
brought him into contact with chiropractic. He enrolled at
Palmer and worked his way through school, working as a
janitor and in a restaurant."" Thompson became a prolific
writer on spinography and gained his PhC in 1916."' He
severed his connection with the Palmer School on 1
September 1917, joining Dr C.B. Johnson in Salt Lake City,
Utah, "-but returned on 1 April 1918 and resumed his previous
position."' In 1919 he published Text on Chiropractic
Spinography as Volume 10 of the Palmer Green Books. The
text saw 4 editions and 4 printings." The fourth edition,
published in 1923, was 4 times the size of the first edition."*
On 1 September 1922, under his directorship, Spinography
was made a required subject in the curriculum.'" He left the
PSC on 1 August 1925 to enter private practice'" in Baltimore,
Maryland. He practised for over 50 years until his death in
October 1970.""
Otis E . Cronk, DC, was elected to the faculty on 20
September 1914. He had been in private practice for 3'/2 years,
practising in Viroqua, Wisconsin. His assignment was to
create a Department of Clinical Statistics."' Later he was
also placed in charge of the Department of Hygiene and Public
Health. By 1916 he had been awarded the PhC."* Cronk
resigned effective 15 September 1919 to pioneer chiropractic
in Louisiana, which had only one chiropractor in the state."''
During the early 1920s he was charged and convicted of
practising medicine without a licence, as the high court's
ruling became that "applied physical force for corrective
measures constitutes the practice of medicine.""" Cronk

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Volume 33 Number 3 September 2003

returned to the faculty in November 1929, when his son

Kenneth enrolled at the PSC.'-" He remained on faculty until
1932, when he returned to Louisiana.""
As previously mentioned, the first decade saw a
tremendous growth, not only in student enrollment and
building activity, but also in faculty recruitment. Including
B.J. and Mabel Palmer, a total of 28 chiropractors, all Palmer
graduates, became members of the faculty, of whom 8 served
a year or lessLundberg, Shaw, McNamara, Hoy, Carey,
Vale, Finkelstein and Steeleand one served 13 months
The Second Decade1917-1925
At the beginning of the year 1917 the faculty consisted of
12 members: B.J. Palmer, Mabel Palmer, James Wishart,
William L. Heath, James N. Firth, Harry E. Vedder, Alfred B.
Hender, Frank W. Elliott, Steven J. Burich, John H. Craven,
Ernest A. Thompson and Otis E. Cronk.
Warren L . Sausser, DC, PhC, graduated 23 November
1917, became a member of the faculty on 28 November 1917
and was placed in charge of the Department o f
Roentgenology, where for several months he had been a
special assistant to Dr. E.A. Thompson.'-' He resigned in April
1918 to enlist in the U.S. Army.'" Sausser received training
at the School of Military Roentgenology, Cornell Medical
College, New York.'-' After discharge from military service
he practised for a short time with Drs Reynolds and Reynolds
in Passaic and Paterson, New Jersey before establishing, in
1920, the Metropolitan X-Ray Laboratory at 200 West 72"''
Street, corner Broadway, in Manhattan.'-*
Erick Florman, DC, a recent Palmer graduate, was also
working as an assistant in the X-Ray Department in November
Clyde C. Hall, DC, PhC, was born in Red Oak, Iowa, on
25 August 1887. He received his elementary and high school
education in Boise, Idaho, and enrolled in the Pharmacy
Department of the University of Michigan, graduating with
the degree of Pharmaceutical Chemist in 1910. After
practising pharmacy for several years he became interested
in chiropractic and enrolled at the P S C " He became a
member of the faculty on 1 January 1919, first in the
Spinograph Department,'-' then in the Chemistry
Department,'-" and later in the Department of Anatomy.'" He
left the faculty during 1932.'-*
Henri L . Gaddis, DC, PhC, became a member of the
faculty in July 1919, as an assistant to Dr Wishart in the
Department of Technique. Gaddis was born on 28 October
1884 in Seymour, Iowa. At the age of 17 he became half
owner of The Seymour Press, and after 6 months, sole
proprietor, with the distinction of being the youngest
newspaper publisher in the State of Iowa. He sold his
newspaper in 1906 and established The Lovilia (Iowa) Press
in March 1907, which he owned until November 1916. He
became a student at the PSC on 1 January 1917, having
enrolled in the 3-year (18 months) course. On 1 November
1917, when the manager of the Palmer Printery, Dr Myers,
resigned, Gaddis was persuaded to take over as manager of
the printery while pursuing his studies. He filled this position
until October 1919. He graduated with the degrees of DC
and PhC on 30 June 1918.'"''" In May 1919 Gaddis had




Alfred Baker Hender, MD, DC, PhC

James H. Craven, DD, DC, PhC

been appointed Director of the night clinic, and in June was

elected as a member of the faculty on the usual 6 months
probation. In April 1920 he was unanimously chosen as head
of the Analysis and Adjusting Department to succeed James
Wishart, who left the PSC on 22 March 1920.'" Gaddis
resigned from the faculty in November 1925 to enter private
practice"- and became associated with the Chiropractic
Psychopathic Hospital in Davenport'" before establishing a
practice in Fullerton, California, then Redlands, and later San

M. Belle Larson, DC, PhC, a 1919 graduate with x-ray

qualifications, was added to the faculty in July 1919'"'as an
assistant to James Wishart.'" In 1920 she joined Craven's
department and taught Chiropractic Orthopedy, Hygiene and
Chiropractic Philosophy.'-'* She appears to have left the faculty
during 1922.
In September 1919 the PSC put out a call for an additional
6 faculty members, as with 1,200 students, a new building
and more classrooms, more teachers were required."'
The first of these new instructors was Louis DeArmand,
DDS, the first non-PSC graduate. He was born in Davenport,
the son of a practising physician, but decided not to follow in
his father's footsteps. Instead he studied dentistry at the State
University of Iowa. Failing in practice after being talked out
of advertising his skills by his "ethical" colleagues, he quit
dentistry and studied the art of advertising and salesmanship,
and became Davenport's leading ad writer and sales master.
He was hired in November 1919 to teach a course in
"Salesmanship,"'-*" later renamed "Personal Efficiency,'""'


Ernest A.Thompson, DC, PhC

which would become the first "Business Procedures" course

in chiropractic. Though DeArmand left in 1925, his course
would remain active to prepare the students for the realities
of private practice. Eventually it became a part of the course
in Jurisprudence and Professional Ethics.'*On 14 November 1919 the Davenport Daily Times
published that Dr. T.J. Boner, a 1912 Palmer graduate, had
returned to the institution as a member of the faculty.
Following his graduation he had practised in Princeton,
Illinois, until enlisting in the U.S. Navy during World War
I.'"-' He first served as a Pharmacist Mate at the US Naval
Training Station in San Francisco,'"" later at the submarine
base in San Pedro, California,'"'and finally on the transport,
USS Northern Pacific.'"" He resigned on 29 February 1920
to enter private practice.'"'
January 1920 saw the addition of 5 new faculty members:
Kriedemann, Maybach, Stephan, Frutiger and Venter.
Conrad Kriedemann, DC, PhC, became a short-term
instructor in the Department of Spinography, serving only
during 1920."* Prior to studying chiropractic, he had been a
concert pianist at the State University of Nebraska.'"*
Roy G . Maybach, DC, PhC, a Palmer graduate of 1916,
was born in Buffalo, New York, on 30 April 1883. Upon
graduation from high school he entered the structural
engineering department of a Buffalo architectural firm. After
graduation from Palmer he practised for a few years and was
invited by the PSC to join the faculty in the Department of
Anatomy. He also taught Hygiene, Public Health, Orthopedy,
Histology, Salesmanship, Physiology and Symptomatology.^"

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Warren L. Sausser, DC, PhC

Clyde C. Hall, DC, PhC

A prolific writer for The Chiropractor, he remained with the

faculty until at least 1927.'*'' A paucity of records of the late
1920s through the 1940s makes further research very difficult.
Karl G. Stephan, DC, PhC, a Palmer graduate of the 3year program, graduated in August 1917."" Stephan was born
on 17 June 1895 in Shelbyville, Indiana, where he received
his primary and secondary education before attending Culver
Military Academy in Culver, Indiana, and Purdue University
in Lafayette, Indiana. After graduating from Palmer he
practised in Mathews County, Virginia. During World War 1
he was among the first to enlist in the United States Navy,
was commissioned Ensign and commanded the U.S.
Subchaser No. 202. After discharge he practised for a short
time in South Bend, Indiana, prior to becoming a faculty
member in the Department of Gynecology,'" which he headed
in 1926.'" He also served in the Department of Physiology
and was a frequent contributor to The Chiropractor. He left
the faculty about 1929 to enter private practice in San Antonio,
E G . Frutiger, DC, served on the faculty, in the faculty
home adjusting service, only during 1920."- He was no longer
listed in the 1921 faculty team. He founded the Chiropractic
Psychopathic Sanatorium in Davenport, which he presided
over until 6 October 1924, when he established Frutiger's
Chiropractic Sanatorium (for the nervous and mentally
afflicted) at the Whitaker Building, Third and Brady Streets,
H.L. Vinkemeyer. DC, PhC, was the last of the January
1920 faculty members. He served in the Department of Private

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Volume 33 Number 3 September 2003

M. Belle Larson, DC, PhC

Faculty Adjusting."" He left during 1925, as he was no longer

listed in the 1926 Announcement.
J . G . Venter, DC, joined the faculty in February 1920 after
some years of private practice."" His appointment was one
of the shortest of any faculty member, as he left the faculty
on 17 May 1920 for Idaho Falls, where apparently family
business awaited him."'
May 1, 1920, saw the addition of the following to the
faculty: Chas. S. Kramer, B.H. Johnson, Arthur G. Hinrichs,
Joe Gibney, H.H. Hunter and Chas. T. Fewell."*
C . S . Kramer, DC, PhC, a recent graduate, taught
symptomatology from May 1920 until December 1923, when
he left for private practice in Kansas City, Missouri."'"
Drs B.H. Johnson, Joe Gibney, and H.H. Hunter were
only short-term appointees, as they were no longer listed as
faculty the following year.'"
Charles T. Fewell, DC, PhC, had had years of experience
in teaching advanced classes in the public schools. He served
in the Department of Philosophy from 1 May 1920 till June
1921, when he entered private practice in Baltimore,
A.G. Hinrichs, DC, PhC, was born at Sterling, Illinois,
on 30 August 1894. After completing his primary and
secondary education, he completed a course in business
administration in 1914 and held appointments as assistant
chief clerk with the Northwestern Railroad at Clinton, Iowa,
and with the Ford Motor Company as cashier for the Des
Moines Branch. During World War 1 he served in the U.S.




Navy and was stationed at tlie Ensign School in Chicago

as Chief of the Regimental Commanders Staff. He was
discharged in December 1918 and enrolled at the Palmer
School on 26 April 1919. In May 1920 he accepted a position
on the faculty and taught Orthopedy, Gynecology and
Anatomy, until specialising in Symptomatology. He resigned
after 5 years of service on 1 August 1925 to pursue business
interests in F l o r i d a . ' " ' " "
By September 1920 another 2 had been elected to faculty:
W.H. Lotz and Ernest Tegen."'
Walter R. Lotz, DC, PhC, was born in New Britain,
Connecticut, on 13 January 1898. During World War I he
was in Tufts College Student Army Training Corps during
1918-1919, thereafter studied at Palmer and was added to
the Spinograph Department during mid-1920, remaining on
the faculty for 1921.""'"
Ernest R.F. Tegen, DC, PhC, taught Symptomatology
during the latter part of 1920 through 1923, when he left for
private practice, first in Newark, New Jersey,'"" then in
Asheville, North Carolina, before returning to New Jersey,
where he practised in Irvington in 1931.'"'
At the beginning of 1921 3 new faculty members were
added: W.P. Brownell, H.T. Dickson and Ray Richardson.

member of the faculty on 1 August 1921, teaching

Gynecology and conducting the coccygeal clinic. He
remained with the Palmer faculty until 1925.'"'
D.G. Buckingham, DC, was placed in charge of the
Hygiene class in December 1921 and was a member of the
faculty during 1922.""
H . E . Miner, DC, PhC, taught Chemistry and Technique.
He left Palmer on 30 August 1922 to practise in Indiana.'"
Clyde G. Kern, BPEd, DC, PhC, was born in Adamsville,
Ohio, in 1876. After graduating from high school, he taught
school in his home town. After the first year of teaching he
became a student at Valparaiso University, Indiana, later
continuing to teach and attend college at Ohio Northern
University, receiving a Bachelor of Primary Education in
1909. He also did post-graduate studies at Ohio State
University. Kern was associated with Ohio schools for 26
years, and for 15 of these years in the double capacity of
teacher and superintendent in Zanesville. He attended the
Palmer School and simultaneously taught Mathematics at
Davenport High School. He taught Organic Chemistry at the
PSC from 1922 to 1925 .'""^ After leaving the faculty in 1925
he worked for the Medical Records Department of the State
of Ohio at Columbus, while conducting a joint practice with
his son Donald, who had graduated in 1921.'^'

William Palmer Brownell, DC, served on the faculty only

during 1921.'" Bill, a nephew of B.J. Palmerhe was the
son of Mae Palmer and Niles Brownellhad seen military
service as aLieutenant in the 147* Field Artillery in France,'"and also along the Mexican border.'"' By October 1921 he
was in practice with his father and his brother Don in
Georgetown, Texas,'"" prior to establishing a practice of his
own in Washington, DC.'"'

Elmer Arestadt, DC, PhC, taught Chiropractic Philosophy

until 1924, when he resigned to establish a practice in
Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota.'"

H.T. Dickson, DC, PhC, served in the Department of

Analysis only during the year 1921.'"

The faculty list of the year 1922 showed another group of

new members: P.A. Remier, R.W. Stephenson, W.D. Fowler,
J.K. Hawkins, L . V Willes, R.A. Buder, N.A. Gohnvaux, H.L.
Poole, S.M. Innes and C.A. Russell.""

Ray B. Richardson, DC, PhC, was born in Richland

County, Wisconsin, where he attended and graduated from
the common schools. He attended Richland County Normal
School and after graduation taught for 3 years.'" He
matriculated in the PSC in April 1918 and became a member
of the faculty immediately after graduation. He collaborated
with Dr Ernest Thompson in the production of The Textbook
on Spinography J"" When Thompson resigned in August 1925,
Ray Richardson became Head of the Department of
Spinography.'" In April 1934 Richardson resigned to enter
private practice.'""
By September 1921 another group of chiropractors had
been added to assist as clinic directors and lecturing: M.B.
Lawson, H.E. Borgerson, E.I. Nott, D.G. Buckingham, H.E.
Miner, C.G. Kern, E. Arestadt and C.C. Chandler.'"'
M.B. Lawson acted as a clinic director only during the
latter part of 1921, as he was not named on later faculty lists.
Harry E . Borgerson, DC, PhC, taught Histology and
Chiropractic Technique, and after marrying a young graduate
on 19 September 1923, resigned to open a practice in
MinneapoUs on 15 October 1923.'"*
Earl I. Nott, DC, PhC, was born in Batavia, New York in
1897. After completing his course at the PSC, he became a

C . C . Chandler, DC, PhC, was with the Department of

Chemistry, but also taught Philosophy and Freshman
Technique. He left in 1923 to practise in Terre Haute,

R.A. Butler, DC, PhC, taught only a short time in 1922.

No details could be located.
Percy A. Remier, DC, was born on 20 May 1891 in
Galesburg, Illinois, of French parents. He began his high
school education in 1905 and became a machinist's apprentice
in railroad shops in 1908. In 1910 he started work at Rock
Island Arsenal, where eventually he rose to Assistant
Foreman. During World War I he worked primarily on 75mm
French guns and 3-inch American guns. He started work in
the PSC Spinography Department on 7 December 1919,
enrolled at Palmer to study chiropractic, and upon graduation
started to teach Spinography."^ Remier resigned in 1924 to
establish the Remier X-Ray Laboratory in Baltimore,
Ralph Waldo Stephenson, DC, PhC, was bom in Lincoln,
Illinois, on 6 December 1879. He was raised at Seward,
Nebraska, where he received his elementary schooling. He
attended Highland Park College at Des Moines and Iowa State
College at Ames, Iowa and thereafter taught school in Alberta,
Canada. He matriculated at Palmer in 1920, and after
completing his studies in July 1921 accepted a position as
Philosophy instructor.'" Upon the resignation of Henri Gaddis

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in November 1925, Stephenson was placed in charge of the

Department of Technique, as well as acting as a Director of
Clinics.'* In 1927 he published the Chiropractic Text Book
as Volume 14 of the Palmer Green Book Series. Based on the
writings of B.J. and Mabel Palmer and of John Craven, he
categorised philosophical matters into 411 articles to be used
as a study guide for students."* Stephenson resigned in 1929
after 8 years of service to take a 2-year rest in sunny
Warren D. Fowler, DC, PhC, was born in Seattle,
Washington, where he received his education. During World
War I he served in the U.S. Navy with distinction. Upon
discharge he entered the Palmer School, graduating in June
1921, whereupon he became a member of the faculty in the
Department of Philosophy. He left the faculty in 1924 to
practise in Bloomfield, New Jersey.'"
J . Karl Hawkins, DC, PhC, was a native of Utah. After
completing his studies at the PSC he taught Physiology and
Gynecology until early in 1924, when he returned to Utah
for private practice.'"
Leon V. Willes, DC, PhC, was born in Salem, Utah, on 13
February 1894. After completing public and high schools at
Salt Lake City he attended the University of Utah. During
the war he enlisted in the U.S. Army and was in charge of
moving the freight and equipment of the 91" Division from
Camp Lewis. After graduating from the PSC he became a
member of the faculty in October 1921, teaching Orthopedy
and Symptomatology.'" During 1924 he became very illat
times he almost diedbut he returned to teach Freshman
classes. He resigned in 1925 to practise in California, where
he passed away in August 1925."''
N.A. Golinvaux, DC, PhC, was attached to the
Departments of Anatomy and Symptomatology to assist
Ernest Tegen. He invented "The Speeder," a device for
practising adjustive thrusts that would ring a bell if the thrust
was not properly performed. He was attached to the faculty
only during 1922.'"
H.L. Poole, DC, PhC, had held a very responsible position
with the Securities Trust Co. of Detroit, and later served as
auditor for the Maxwell-Chalmers Corporation before
studying chiropractic. Upon graduation he taught Philosophy
and Gynecology.'" He left late in 1923 to practise in Kansas
City, Missouri.'
Stanley Innes, DC, PhC, hailed from San Jose, California,
where he had managed one of the largest theatres. After
graduation he taught physiology for a short time before
returning to San Jose to practise.' '*"
Carlton A. Russell, DC, PhC, was born in Joliet, Illinois,
in 1893. He received his primary and secondary education in
JoHet, then studied Municipal and Sanitary Engineering at
the University of Illinois at Champaign, where he graduated
in Advanced Chemistry. In charge of the Water Purification
Plant at the Chicago Stock Yards, he pioneered work in water
purification using chlorine compounds. During the influenza
epidemic he became very i l l but recovered, thanks to
chiropractic. He entered the PSC in August 1920 and upon
graduation joined the faculty, teaching Chemistry, Physiology,
Hygiene and Gynecology. He remained on the faculty until
1928, when he left to practise in California.'"'"'*'

Chiropractic Journal o f Australia

Volume 33 Number 3 September 2003

During 1922 B.B. Bryant, C.C. Flanagan, W.L. Heath Jr,

H.C. Walker, and A.L. Willis were added to the faculty.
B. B. Bryant, DC, joined the faculty in the Department of
Spinography during 1922. He left during 1924 for private
William L . Heath, Jr., DC, PhC, son of W.L. Heath and
brother of Mabel Palmer, was born in Milan, Illinois in 1897.
After graduating from Davenport High School in February
1916, he finished the 12-month course at the PSC in 1917,
before enrolling at the Mathematics Department of
Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois. He served with
the U.S. Navy during World War I and was released from
service in the spring of 1919. He returned to the PSC to
continue his studies to graduate from the 3-year course. After
practising in Homestead, Pennsylvania for a short time with
his brother-in-law, William J. Quigley, he returned to Palmer
for post-graduate studies. He became a member of the faculty
on 1 June 1922 as an instructor in the Spinography
Department.'" In 1924 he became Chief Technician in the
Neurocalometer Department,'*^ and also taught Hygiene and
Histology.'** He resigned from the faculty in 1938 to establish
a practice in Tucson, Arizona.'*'
F.C. Walker, DC, PhC, became a member of the faculty
upon his graduation in 1921, and taught Salesmanship and
Physiology to the Junior classes, also teaching in clinic
classes, where he related his experience with tarsal
adjustments, based on his own research and experimentation.
He left the faculty in early 1924 to enter private practice.'"
Arleigh L . Willis, DC, PhC, was born in the State of
Kansas in 1895. After completing high school he matriculated
in the Kansas State Agricultural College at Manhattan,
Kansas. During World War 1 he served for 28 months as a
First Lieutenant in the 12"' Division of the U.S. Army. He
graduated from the PSC in June 1922 and joined the faculty
in the Department of Hygiene and Public Health,'" remaining
with the faculty until May 1925."''
C. C. Flanagan, DC, PhC, was born on 11 April 1893 at
Clinton, Iowa, where he received his primary and secondary
education before attending and graduating from Grinnell
College at Grinnell, Iowa. During World War I he served 2
years with the Medical Department of the 132"" Infantry. He
served one year in France and received one divisional and
one general headquarters citation for bravery in action. Upon
discharge he entered the PSC, graduating in 1922. He became
a member of the faculty on 1 November 1922, teaching in
the Department of Philosophy.'" He left the faculty during
During 1923 Daniel K. Kirk, Cyrus F Stoddard and C.E.
Wilent joined the faculty.
Daniel K . Kirk, DC, PhC, was on faculty for only a short
time during 1923, teaching Symptomatology and Pathology.
He left in November 1923, when he acted as locum in several
offices whose principals were being persecuted for practising
chiropractic, thus keeping their practices operating, prior to
locating his own practice in Marlborough, Massachusetts.'"'*'
Cyrus F. Stoddard, DC, PhC, was born in New England.
At the age of 10 his family moved to Iowa. He graduated
from Wesleyan College at Mt. Pleasant, Iowa in 1902, and




Ray B. Richardson, DC, PhC

Clyde G. Kern, BPEd, DC, PhC

worked as a reporter for the Davenport Times and the Daily

Leader for about a year before deciding to study osteopathy.
After 4 months of study he returned to newspaper reporting.
During 1906 and 1908 he visited Europe and Africa and then
became private secretary to Hon. N.E. Kendall, member of
Congress for Iowa. From 1915 to 1921 he acted as Assistant
Editor of the Labor Review, published by the Department of
Labor in Washington, DC. He graduated from the PSC in
1922 and in 1923 accepted a position on the faculty instructing
in Physiology and Histology.'" He was a frequent contributor
to the chiropractic hterature. On 1 November 1925 he resigned
to enter private practice in California.*
C.E. Wilent, DC, PhC, graduated in November 1922 and
accepted a position in the Department of Symptomatology
and Pathology in 1923. He also taught Philosophy to the
Sophomore classes. Ill health caused him to resign his position
in 1924, and he moved to California to recuperate'" and
establish a practice in Los Angeles, which he had to give up
in 1926 due to a nervous breakdown. After recovery he was
looking forward to re-opening his office in another part of
the city.""
In 1924,3 were admitted to the faculty: Herbert C. Hender,
Don Kern and Claude Phillips.
Herbert C. Hender, DC, PhC, son of A.B. Hender, was
born in Davenport in 1899. After graduating from Davenport
High School he attended Grinnell College and studied liberal
arts and business administration prior to enrolling at Palmer.
He graduated in February 1924, joined the faculty and taught

Percy A. Remier, DC, PhC

Spinography.-'"'" He also substituted for James Firth, teaching

Symptomatology,'** and after Firth's resignation in 1925
became head of the Department of Symptomatology.'*
Donald O'Neill Kern, DC, PhC, was born in Windom,
Ohio, in 1903. He moved to Davenport in 1916, when his
father, Clyde Kern, enrolled at the Palmer School. Donald
completed his high school education in Davenport before
studying at Palmer, where he graduated in 1921. After
practising in Zanesvile, Ohio, for about 3 years, he joined
the PSC faculty in March 1924 and was assigned to the
Spinography Department. He also taught Anatomy during
any absence of Mabel Palmer. He left the faculty in 1926 and
joined his father in Columbus, Ohio, where both were
employed by the State Medical Records Department, while
simultaneously conducting a joint practice. He rejoined the
Palmer faculty in 1946, where he continued until his death in
Claude C . Phillips, DC, PhC, was born at Peabody,
Kansas, attended the grade schools there before attending
the Wentworth Military Academy at Lexington, Missouri, in
1918. He graduated from Peabody High School in 1920 and
thereafter managed a large motor supply company in the heart
of the Kansas oil fields. He enrolled at Palmer in 1922 and
while a senior student helped out in the Spinography
Department. He left the PSC in March 1924 to start a practice
in Kentucky, but was recalled to the PSC to help instructing
in Neurocalometer (NCM) work. In November 1924 he was
elected to the faculty to serve in the N C M Research
Department."' He resigned on 1 October 1927 to enter private
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In 1925 only one new faculty member was admitted: Hugh

Chester Chance.
Hugh Chester Chance, DC, PhC, was born on 18 October
1884 in Winfield, Kansas, where he received his early
education. He took one year of electrical study at the
Oklahoma State College and completed a 5-year course in
Electrical Engineering at Scranton, Pennsylvania, in 1909.
He married Edna Mary Johnson in 1910. Edna Mary was a
first cousin of Hazel Johnson, who had married Frank Elliott
in 1911. Chet, as he was known, was a sufferer of severe
migraines, and was being cajoled by the Johnson family
there were several chiropractors in the familyto try
chiropractic. He finally relented, stating, " I f chiropractic
works, I ' l l go to Davenport and take the damn course." He
graduated in March 1924 and was employed on the N C M
staff. In November 1925 he was elected to the faculty in the
Department of Neurocalometer Research.'""'
During this decade there was a total of 65 faculty members,
of whom 15 served only one year or less and another 7 served
2 years or less. Many of these were hired as assistants during
the tumultuous growth after the end of the war. Ten of these
faculty members were recorded as having seen active service
during World War I.
Reduction in student numbers due to the end of the intake
of government-assisted veterans and defection of supporters
after the introduction of the Neurocalometer called for a
reduction of teaching staff. By the end of 1925 the faculty
had been reduced to 18.
Chiropractic Journal of Australia
Volume 33 Number 3 September 2003

The 1926-1945 Era

The reduced faculty of 1926 started with 18 members, of
whom 4Steve Burich, John Craven, Don Kern and Harry
Vedder resigned during 1926.
The remaining faculty members, their starting dates and
assignments were:
Palmer, B.J.



Palmer, Mabel H.



Elliott, Frank W.


Registrar, Ethics and


Hender, A.B.


Dean, Symptomatology

Hall, C.C.



Stephan, K.G.



Maybach, R.G.


Neurology and Orthopedy

Stephenson, Ralph W. 1921


Richardson, Ray



Russell, C.A.


Physiology and Chemistry

Heath, W.L. Jr.


Histology and

Phillips, Claude


Histology and Neurology

Hender, H.C.



Chance, H.C.


Neurocalometer Research




Claude C. Phillips, DC, PhC, left the faculty in October


Roy G . Maybach, DC, PhC, left the faculty in 1927 or

1928. No further information has been discovered.
Carlton A. Russell, DC, PhC, remained with the faculty
until 1928, when he left for practice in California.'*'
Karl G . Stephan, DC, PhC, remained with the faculty
until about 1929-1930. By January 1931 he had established
a practice at 1027 Main Avenue, San Antonio, Texas.'"
Otis E . Cronk, DC, a former faculty member, returned to
the PSC when his son Ken enrolled at the PSC in 1929, and
was employed to teach Technique.'-" He was .still on faculty
in 1934,""but did not appear on the faculty list for 1936.'"
Ralph Waldo Stephenson, DC, PhC, was head of the
Technique Department and started to assist in the Philosophy
Department in 1926. Besides writing Chiropractic Text Book
in 1927, he also wrote The Art OfClziropractica small book
of 88 pages dealing with the principles of adjusting the
spinein 1927."'- He left the faculty in 1929 after 8 years of
service, primarily to take a rest from his teaching duties and
to enjoy some sunshine in California."' He may not have
reached California, as he estabhshed a practice in Boulder,

Donald O'Neill Kern, DC, PhC

Hugh Chester Chance, DC, PhC


Kenneth H . Cronk, DC, PhC, MS, graduated from the

PSC in 1930 and gained a Master of Science from the State
University of Iowa. He became a member of the Palmer
faculty in 1931, teaching Chemistry and acting as Athletic
Director. During World War 11 he served 18 months in the
US Navy."'-'-"'
In 1931 Frank W. Elliott, DC, PhC, was made redundant
at the Palmer School and the radio stations to make room for
Dave Palmer.''"' He had been introduced to chiropractic by
his cousin William D. Litde, DC, of Conway Springs, Kansas,
a 1908 Palmer man, after Elliott had injured his back lifting
hay racks onto a wagon.''" During his dme on the faculty he
had served as Registrar and Business Manager, had taught
Ethics and Jurisprudence, and acted as Vice-President of the
Palmer School of Chiropractic. He served 4 terms in the State
Legislature of Iowa, where he introduced and secured passage
of the Chiropractic Act. In the Palmer Enterprises he served
as General Manager of Radio Station WOC in Davenport
and Radio Station WHO, Des Moines and was President of
the Central Broadcasting Company. He was one of the
founders of the National Association of Broadcasters and
elected as their second President. He was awarded a Doctor
of Chiropractic Humanities (h.c.) by the Palmer School in
1931 and again later, during Dave Palmer's presidency in
1968. In a recent interview (26 July 2003). Ann Nissen
Chance, now aged 98, former private secretary to Elliott,
stated that after her return to Davenport in 1931, after having
worked in Washington, DC, as a congressional secretary for
several years, visited Frank Elliott in his business office at
226 West 3"' Street. He had stated that he had no more
connections with the Palmer enterprises. He was then still
serving his fourth term as a Republican member of the House
of Representatives in the Iowa legislature, but he did not stand
for re-election in the November 1932 elections. '''*''''' He
remained in Davenport, located in the Whitaker Building at
228 Brady Street, acting as business consultant and real estate

Chiropractic Journal of Australia

Volume 33 Number 3 September 2003



agent,-"" until moving to Denver, where he established a

practice in 1937 and served the Colorado Chiropractic
Association as a Director for 27 years. Treasurer for 9 years
and one term as President. He was named Colorado's
Chiropractor of the Year in 1966 and 1974. He passed away
on 13 August 1976 at the age of 89, after 63 years of service
to chiropractic.'"
Clyde C. Hall, DC, PhC, remained with the faculty until
1932 while also conducting a private practice in Davenport.
He started practice in Oakland, California, in 1933. He was
elected to Fellowship in the International College of
Chiropractic in 1966 and was still in practice in 1980.'-**
In September 1933 H.C. Chance was placed in charge of
the Department of Neurology and appointed as Director of
the Student Clinic. Cognizant that the students were practising
on his own personal licence, he completely reorganized the
student clinic.-"' He was considered an authority on the
nervous system and as a specialist in child psychology, a skill
honed in his long-term private practice of pediatrics."*'
The 1934 class composite photograph also included Henry
W. Bruhn, who acted as Assistant Treasurer and Assistant
Registrar; Ralph Evans, at the time personal secretary to
B.J., also taught Ethics and Jurisprudence; William M .
Brandon, Financial Controller, as well as A.R. Rickensrud,
BA, and J.F. Brewer, DC, whose positions could not be
Ray Richardson, DC. PhC, Head of the Spinograph
Department, who had been a faculty member since 1921,
resigned in April 1934 to enter private practice.'"" He was
replaced by Percy Remier, DC, who was recalled to the
faculty to take over the recently vacated position. In 1936
Remier published a small book of 64 pages. The Chiropractic
Stereoscope,'^- to be followed in 1938 by Modern X-Ray
Practice and Cliiropractic Spinograpliy, Volume 21 of the
Palmer Green Books. Revised editions appeared in 1947 and
1957. He remained on faculty until the early 1960s.

Kenneth H. Cronk, DC, PhC, MS

With the departure of Phillips in 1927, Maybach in 1927

or 1928, Russell in 1928, Stephenson in 1929, Stephan in
1929 or 1930, Elliott in 1931 and Richardson in 1934, and
the addition of Otis Cronk, Kenneth Cronk, Percy Remier
and Ralph Evans, the faculty had been reduced to 15. With
the crash of the stockmarket in 1929, the great depression
looming and subsequentiy an even lower student intake, this
number appeared to have been more than adequate.
Ralph Evans became private secretary to B.J. in 1925
after having served at the Capitol in Washington, DC, in a
secretarial capacity to Democrat and Republican legislators
for a period of 10 years.-"' He was first listed on faculty
teaching Ethics And Jurisprudence on a class composite of
1934. He was also in charge of the Correspondence
Department and the promotion and marketing of the Palmer
By 1935 the only members of the 1926 faculty that had
remained were B.J. Palmer, Mabel Palmer, Alfred B. Hender,
William L. Heath, Herbert C. Hender and H. Chester Chance.

Cliiropractic Journal o f Australia

Volume 33 Number 3 September 2003

Galen R. Price, DC, PhC




A mid-1930s School Announcement indicated the

following faculty:
Palmer, B.J., DC, PhC


Palmer, Mabel, DC, PhC


Hender, Alfred B., MD, DC, PhC


Palmer, David D.

Business Manager

Heath, William L., DC, PhC

Hygiene, Histology,

Hender, Herbert C , DC, PhC


Chance, H. Chester, DC, PhC


Cronk, Kenneth, MS, DC, PhC

Physiology, Athletic

Remier, Percy A., DC


Evans, Ralph

Ethics and

Brandon, William M .


William Heath Quigley, BS, DC, PhC

Rueffel, C M . Jr

Student Welfare

Bruhn, Henry W.


After practising in Colorado for some 6 years, Stephenson

returned to the PSC in 1935 to study HIO Technique, and
was again attached to the faculty. He planned to prepare a
second edition of his Chiropractic Text Booli, by replacing
old applications with the new, while keeping the neverchanging principles of chiropractic."^ Unfortunately he was
not able to conclude this project, as in March 1936 he was
hit by a bus, which tore loose his right kidney, and he passed
away on 5 April 1936, less than 2 weeks after the accident, at
the young age of 56.^"'
During 1936 an otherwise unknown R.C. Hartong, DC,
PhC, graced the August 1936 class composite photograph as
a faculty member. Other new faculty members during 1936
were Galen R. Price and Lyle W. Sherman.

Donald Otis Pharaoh, AA, DC, PhC

Galen R. Price, DC, PhC, was born in Earned, Kansas,

on 25 March 1912. He earned a pre-med certificate at Clark
University in Worchester Massachusetts in 1934. Upon
graduation from the PSC in 1936 he was called to the faculty,
teaching Physiology and Anatomy. In 1938 he gained his PhC
and taught Principles and Philosophy. Upon the death of
Stephenson he revised The Chiropractic Text Book for its
second edition in 1938. After the departure of Victor Coxon,

Chiropractic Journal of Australia


Volume 33 Number 3 September 2003



who had served as Assistant Director of the B.J. Palmer Clinic

from 1938 to 1941,-* Price became Assistant Director and
maintained that position until World War 11, when he served
as a lieutenant in the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers with
General McArthur's forces in the South Pacific and
Australia.-"' He returned to teaching at the PSC in January
1944,-"* and remained on faculty and in administration of the
PSC until 1979. He received a Doctor of Chiropractic
Humanities (h.c.) from Palmer College in 1968, and was
named a Fellow in the Palmer Academy of Chiropractic in

William L . Heath, Jr, DC, PhC, became Assistant Director

of the B.J. Palmer Chiropractic Clinic in addition to his
teaching duties, which he performed until 1938, when he
resigned to enter private practice in Tucson, Arizona.'*'

Lyle W. Sherman, DC, PhC, was added to the faculty in

1936, teaching Orthopedy, Spinal Abnormalities and X-Ray
Technique. After Galen Price's departure for military
service, Sherman became Assistant Director of the B.J. Palmer
Clinic, a position he held until the early 1950s.

Ivan H. Sheeler, MD, DC, was on faculty in 1941 teaching

diagnosis. He was a Palmer graduate of 1916 and entered
military service during World War I I . - ' ' While he is shown in
the Palmer yearbook. Torque 1944, and also on the 1944
composite of the Delta Sigma Chi Fraternity, no evidence of
his return to teaching after his military service could be

Donald Otis Pharaoh, A A , DC, PhC, was born in

Worchester, Massachusetts on 27 August 1914. He grew up
in Riverside, California, graduated from Riverside Junior
College and attended the University of California at Los
Angeles. Playing semi-professional football, he sustained a
back injury, which led him to chiropractic. He graduated from
the PSC in 1936, practised for a short time in California before
moving to Sydney, Australia, where he purchased the practice
of Lucille Muir, DC, located at 155 King Street, and operated
the practice as Scientific Chiropractic Health Service in
partnership with Cloy Lee Francis, DC. He practised there
for about a year before returning to Palmer for post-graduate
studies on 7 December 1937, having sold his practice to
William Hyde, DC. Pharaoh became a member of the faculty
in 1938, teaching Anatomy, Histology, and acting as Athletic
Director. He authored 2 books. Correlative Chiropractic
Hygiene in 1946 and Chiropractic Orthopedy in 1956 as
Volume 34 of the Palmer Green Books. In 1957 he became
the founder and faculty advisor of Pi Tau Delta, a national
chiropractic honor society, of which one of the authors (REP)
was one of the first inductees in the same year. Pharaoh was
named Dean of Basic Sciences and remained on the faculty
until his premature death on 30 September 1967, at the age
of 53.""
William Heath Quigley, BS, DC, was born in Pittsburgh,
Pennsylvania on 27 June 1915. He received his Bachelor of
Science in Biology from the University of Pittsburgh in 1936
and his DC from Palmer in 1938, the same year he became a
member of the faculty, teaching Symptomatology, Physiology
and Technique.'*"'*' In 1943 he enlisted in military service
in the United States Army Air Corps and served in the ChinaIndia-Burma theater of operations. He returned to the faculty
after his military service. In 1951 he became Director of the
Clear View Sanitariuma chiropractic mental institution
where he served until 1961, when after B.J. Palmer's death
this facihty was closed by Dave Palmer. In 1971 Quigley
was awarded the Doctor of Chiropractic Humanities (he)
degree by Palmer College, where he remained until 1976,
serving the last few years as Chief Administrator. From 1976
to 1979 he served as President of the Los Angeles College of
Chiropractic, thereafter as Director of External Affairs at
Cleveland College of Chiropractic at Los Angeles.-"'
Currently he is enjoying retirement in Florida.

Chiropractic Journal o f Australia

Volume 33 Number 3 September 2003

During 1940 new faculty members were added: William

B. Grant, DC, teaching Technique; Virginia Irene Schroff,
DC, Physiology and Chemistry; William H . Snyder, DC,
Chemistry. Clyde G . Kern, DC, PhC, former faculty
member, also returned as Registrar and Student Welfare
Officer. No additional material on Grant, Schroff or Snyder
has been located within the time period of this paper.

Alfred Baker Hender, MD, DC, PhC, remained on the

faculty until 1943. He had been on the faculty for 31 years
and served as Dean for most of that time. Prior to studying
medicine and chiropractic he had seen military service in the
Spanish-American War of 1898 as First Lieutenant of
Company B, the Davenport Infantry Company. During his
entire time on the faculty he had maintained his medical
practice, speciahsing in obstetrics, and delivered more than
3,700 babies. Because of his dual qualifications, he appeared
in many of the American states as well as in British Columbia
before their legislatures and was instrumental in procuring
chiropractic legislation. A.B. Hender passed away on 26
September 1943 at the age of 69 years, after an illness of 6
Herbert C. Hender was appointed Dean upon the death
of his father in 1943. In addition to his teaching of
Symptomatology and Psychology he also served as
psychologist at the Clear View Sanitarium.^'^
During 1945 one more faculty member was added, Albert
L . Ackerly, DC.^"
Of the original 1926 team only 5 were left in 1945: B.J.
Palmer, Mabel Palmer, Herbert Hender, H.C. Chance and
Ralph Evans, the last 3 being B.J.'s closest friends and
advisers, who would remain with him. H . C . Chance
remained on faculty until shortly before his death on 24 April
1958, having served on the faculty some 33 years. Herbert
Hender and Ralph Evans survived B.J.'s death in 1961,
having served 37 and 36 years respectively. Upon B.J.'s death
they were expected to resign, as their philosophical attitude,
honed in a lifetime of service to B.J., did not mesh with the
philosophy of Dave Palmer, the new President.-'"
Those chiropractors who, during the Palmer School's
darkest days, had agreed to suffer financially the same as the
School, took a major reduction in their salaries and accepted
WOC shares as part of their income, to be resold at market
prices to WOC upon their leaving the faculty, did not really
expect any financial gain from this. Their loyalty was royally
rewarded, however, as their shares had appreciated greatly,
leaving them very comfortable for the rest of their lives.'*'






McAdams CR. Letter to B.J. Palmer, 24 October 1911. The

Chiropractor 1911; 7(11):48-51.

Annual Announcement of the Palmer School and Infirmary of

Chiropractic, 1904.


The Chiropractor 1912; 8(6/7); 14.


CarverW. History of Chiropractic. Unpublished manuscript, 1930:49.


Another book worthwhile. Fountain Head News 1913; 2(34):4.


Palmer DD, Palmer BJ. The Science of Chiropractic. Davenport l A :

Palmer School of Chiropractic. 1906: frontispiece.


Great meeting held at Des Moines, Iowa. The Chiropractor 1914;



The Chiropractor 1909; 5(5):5.


The Chiropractor 1910; 6(2);52-3.


Dr M.P. Brown falls dead as he pays taxes. Davenport Democrat and

Leader, 9 March 1922:15.


The Chiropractor 1910; 6(2);54


Improving. Fountain Head News 1912; (8 May):3.


Advancement! Progress! Achievement! The Chiropractor 1906; 2(56):67.


Jim Wishart no longer with the PSC. Fountain Head News 1920;
9(29): 14-5.


Masthead, The Chiropractor 1912; 8(8): 1.


The Chiropractor 1910; 6(2):52-3.


Advertisement. The Chiropractor 1913; 9(3):inside cover.


The Chiropractor 1910; 6(3); 17-8.


Physician drops dead as he pays his county taxes. Davenport Democrat

and Leader, 9 March 1922:1.


UCA Directory. The Chiropractor 1909; 5(6):90.


Founder of UCA dies. The Chiropractor 1914; 10(3):20.



UCA Directory. The Chiropractor 1908; 4(7-8);112.

Success. The Chiropractor 1908; 4(1);27.


Faulty. Recoil IV; June 1924:21 -5.


Annual School Announcement for Chiropractic Fountain Head



UCA Directory. The Chiropractor 1909; 5(l-2):64.


Irvin RJ. Letter to B.J., undated. The Chiropractor 1909; 5(3):8-10.


1916-1917 Tenth Annual Announcement of the Palmer School:25.


Palmer School Announcement 1918:35.


Announcement 1920:14.


The Chiropractor 1909; 5(12);16.


Recoil V I I I (February-June) 1926:12-26.


A word about PSC teachers. Annual Announcement of the Palmer

School 1908:17.


Annual School Announcement for Chiropractic Fountain Head



Success. The Chiropractor 1909; 5(1);8.


Advertisement. The Chiropractor 1913; 9(2):46.


Loban JM. Letter to B.J.. 31 March 1908. The Chiropractor 1908;



The Chiropractor 1913; 9(4):63.


Fountain Head News 1918; 7(34):6.


UCA Directory. The Chiropractor 1908; 4(7-8);l 13.


Loban J M . The completeness of chiropractic philosophy. The

Chiropractor 1908; 4(7-8):30-6.


Service men graduate. Fountain Head News 1919; 8(34):4.


Via H D . Letter to B.J., 26 May 1920. Fountain Head News 1920.



Chiropractic physiology. Annual School Announcement for

Chiropractic Fountain Head 1911: 199.


Loban JM. Man as microcosm.The Chiropractor 1909; 5( 1 );58-60.


Loban JM. Wordology. The Chiropractor 1909; 5(8);52-4


Loban JM. The price of peace. The Chiropractor 1908; 5(8);54-7.


Advertisement. The Chiropractor I 9 I 4 ; 10(6):41.


Progress again. The Chiropractor 1910; 6(2):52-3.


Another PSC wedding. Fountain Head News 1915; 4(5);2.


The Chiropractor 1910; 6:3);123.


Another new booklet. Fountain Head News 1915; 4(20):2.


Gibbons RW. Joy Loban and Andrew P. Davis: Itinerant healers and
schoolmen, 1910-1923. Chiropr Hist 1991; l l ( l ) ; 2 2 - 8 .


Final examination form. Frank W. Elliott. 27 March 1911. PetersChance collection.


Remarkable growth. Twelfth Annual Announcement of the Palmer

School, 1918:35.


Improving. Fountain Head News 1913; 8 May 1913:3.


Chiros gathered from the fountain. The Chiropractor 1913; 9(7):32.


Anatomy. The Palmer School Announcement, 1910:151.


Duval E. Ectopic pregnancy: its results, cause and prevention by

chiropractic. The Chiropractor 1913; 9(2);24-9.


Faculty composite. Annual School Announcement for Chiropractic

Fountain Head, 1912:222.


The Chiropractor and Clin J 1924; 20 (8): 36,48.


Wiese G, Lykins MR. A bibliography of the Palmer Green Books in

print, 1906-1985. Chiropr Hist 1986; 6(l);65-74.


Personal communication. John W. Heyer. New York.


Purchasers of Mrs Palmer's Text of Anatomy. Fountain Head News

1919; 8(27):9.


Duval E. Self limited diseases. The Chiropractor 1913; 9(4);29-45.


Duval E. Letter to Mabel Palmer, 10 October 1918. Fountain Head

News 1919; 8(27):l-7.


Duval E. Letter to Americal Collge of Chiropractors. January 1928.

Fountain Head News 1928; 16(2):10-11.


Palmer BJ. Jim Firth leaves us. Fountain Head News 1925; 14(17);14..


Directory, The Chiropractor 1925; 21(9);59.


Ferguson A. The Sweetheart of the PSCMabel Heath Palmer: the

early years. Chiropr Hist 1985; 4(l):25-8.


H.E. Vedder leaves the PSC. The Chiropractor 1913; 9(4):52.


The Chiropractor 1910; 6(l);25-6.


The Chiropractor 1913; 9(8):41.


Is a large clinic of value. Palmer School Announcement. 1911: 245.


The Fountain Head News 1922; 11 (39): 16.


Science club to investigate work. The Chiropractor 1911; 7(1):17.


Vedder HE. Troubled waters. Fountain Head News 1924; 13(24): 1-2.


Chiropractic Journal of Australia

Volume 33 Number 3 September 2003




Vedder HE. Factionalism. Fountain Head News 1924; 13(24);2.

115. Fountain Head News 1922; 11 (47): 13.


Palmer BJ.Harry and Steve leave us. Fountain Head News 1926;


Peterson M B . Clinical report. The Chiropractor 1911; 7(9):13.

116. Rhem WS. Who was who in chiropractic. In: Lints-Dzaman F, Scheiner
S. Schwartz L. Who's who in chiropractic international. Who's Who
in Chiropractic International Publishing Co, Littleton, CO., 1980:271 335.


McGinnis got 'em again. Fountain Head News 1914;3(10);6.

117. The Chiropractor 1914; 10(12):5.


McGinnis JF. Letter to B.J. Palmer, 14 January 1916. Fountain Head

News 1916; 5(8);5-6.

118. The Chiropractor 1916; 12(12);4-7.


The situation in Iowa. Fountain Head News 1917; 6(30);8.

119. Davenport Democrat and Leader, 26 August 1919; quoted in Fountain

Head News 1919; 8(49-51):12.


Keating JC. James F. McGinnis. Chiropr Hist 1998; 18{2);63-79.

120. "Otie's Back." Fountain Head News 1929; 17( 1): 13.


The Chiropractor 1911; 7(2):4-5.

121. Joins the faculty. Fountain Head News 1917; 7( 14);9.


Ethics. Annual School Announcement for the Chiropractic Fountain

Head 1912; 182-3.

122. Sausser retires and Thompson returns. Fountain Head News 1918;
7(30): 15


The Chiropractor 1913; 9(8);56.


Many matches. Fountain Head News 1914; 3(29):3.

123. Sausser W L . Letter to BJ. May 1918. Fountain Head News 1918;


Elliott FW. M y impressions of D.D. Palmer. In: Palmer BJ. Fight to

climb. Chiropractic Fountain Head, Davenport.Iowa, 1950:50-1.

124. Sausser, W L . Letter to J.W. Healey, 23 November 1920. Fountain

Head News 1921; 12(16):6.


Elliott-Johnson wedding. Newspaper clipping, reprinted in The

Chiropractor 1911; 7(7);3.

125. Fountain Head News 1919; 8(44);7.


Registration. Tenth Annual Announcement 1916-1917:34.

127. Chiropr & Clin J 1924; 20(10):31-4.


Faculty of the Palmer School. Eighth Annual Catalog of the Palmer

School of Chiropractic 1914-1915:2.


Can it B?.No? Fountain Head News 8 May 1912:4-5

128. Lints-Dzaman F, Scheiner S, Schwartz L . Who's who in chiropractic

international. Who's Who in Chiropractic International Publishing Co;
Littleton, CO; 1980:111.


Improving. Fountain Head News 1912; 8 May :3


Tenth Annual Announcement of the Palmer School 1916-1917:15.


The Torque 1944:17.


The Fountain Head News 1925; 14( 17); 14.


Gibbons RW. "The ignorant instructing the uneducated..." Who were

those "uneducated louts." Chiropr Hist 1993; 13(1);10-1.


The Chiropractor 1913; 9(4);73-4.

100. Eighth Annual catalog of the Palmer School of Chiropractic 19141915; frontispiece, 28.

126. Fountain Head News 1920; 9(48): 11.

129. Henry L. Gaddis to remain with the PSC. Fountain Head News 1918;
130. Fountain Head News 1919; 8(44):7.
131. Dr Henri Gaddis at head of analysis and adjusting department. Fountain
Head News 1920; 9(30):22.
132. The Chiropractor 1925; 21(11);25.
133. Fountain Head News 1927; 15(27):7.
134. Gaddis HL. Letter to BJ. 26 January 1928. Fountain Head News 1928;
135. Fountain Head News 1936; 23(7):2.

101. Announcement of the Palmer School 1927:7.

136. Annual Announcement of the Palmer School, 1920:12-20.
102. Palmer BJ. Harry and Steve leave us. Fountain Head News 1926;

137. Fountain Head News 1919; 8(44):7.

103. The Chiropractor 1913; 9(5): 18.

138. Annual Announcement of the Palmer School 1920:30-1.

104. Fountain Head News 1913; 2(14):5-6.

139. Palmer BJ. Do you hear me calling you? Fountain Head News 1919;

105. The Chiropractor 1914; 10(4);33.

106. James Steele DC. PhC. On leave of absence. The Chiropractor 1914;

140. Louis DeArmand. Fountain Head News 1919; 9(11);9.

141. Fountain Head News 1921. 11(13);16.

107. The Chiropractor 1915; 11(2);34.

142. Announcement of the Palmer School 193?: 16-7.

108. Dr John H Craven leaves faculty of Palmer School. Will move to

Seattle, Washington. Davenport Democrat and Leader, 27 May 1926;
quoted in The Chiropractor 1926; 22(7): 14.

143. New member of PSC staff Daily Times, 14 November 1919, quoted
in Fountain Head News 1920; 9( 18);9.
144. Fountain Head News 1917; 6(44):2

109. Craven JH. Letter to BJ, dated 1 July 1926. Fountain Head News
1926; 15(18);4.
110. Rochester man gets a professorship in chiropractic school. The
Rochester, (N.Y.) Herald, 29 March 1914; quoted in The Chiropractor
1914; 10(5):30.

145. Fountain Head News 1918; 7(19);5.

146. Fountain Head News 1918; 8(12/13); 4.
147. Students have farewell party for Dr Boner. FountainHead News 1920;

111. Palmer School Announcement 1920:31.

148. Fountain Head News 1920; 9(35):7.
112. The Chiropractor 1917; 13(10);13.
113. Sausser retires and Thompson returns. Fountain Head News 1918;
114. Fountain Head News 1923; 12(49);2.

Chiropractic Journal o f Australia

Volume 33 Number 3 September 2003

149. July 1927 class composite. Palmer College Archives.

150. Fountain Head News 1917; 6(51 -2):9.
151. Directory, Chiropractic Health Bureau 1931.




152. Fountain Head News 1924; 14(9); 16.

184. Student Daze; February 1938.

153. Fountain Head News 1920; 9(37);11.

185. Student Daze I I I ; February 1939:8.

154. PSC faculty as of May 1920. Fountain Head News 1920; 9(32):14.

186. Palmer School Faculty. Announcement of the Palmer School 1926.

155. The Chiropractor and Clinical Journal 1923; 19(12);51.

187. U-Tell-Em 1923; 2(48);1.

156. Fountain Head News 1924; 13(15);29.

188. Recoil V I I ; June 1925:22

157. Palmer School Announcement 1921;4-21.

189. Chance M A . Personal recollections.

158. Fountain Head News 1921; 10(40);31.

190. Class composite, 1934

159. Class composite, September 1920. Palmer College Archives.

191. Announcement 1936: 3-5.

160. Fountain Head News 1923; 13(8);9.

192. Advertisement. The Chiropractor 1927; 23(6);57.

161. Fountain Head News 1931; 18(11);15.

193. Stephenson, RW. Letter to Dr Northam, 22 March 1935. Fountain

Head News 1935; 22(5):3.

162. Fountain Head News 1918; 7(34):5.

194. Fountain Head News 1933; 20(9):7.
163. Fountain Head News 1918; 8(5);5.
195. Adas 1953:98.
164. Fountain Head News 1921; 10(35);2.
196. Quigley W H . The Palmer saga. Unpubhshed manuscript: 166
165. Fountain Head News 1922; 12(16);15.
166. Fountain Head News 1934; 21(5):1.
167. Fountain Head News 1921; 11 (11 );26.
168. U-Tell-Em 1923; 2(41):1.
169. Palmer School Faculty. Announcement of the Palmer school 1926.
170. Faculty of the PSC in 1922. Announcement of the Palmer School
171. U-Tell-Em 1922; 1(37).
172. Faculty list of 1925. Announcement 1925:8-10.
173. Mendy P. About the author. In Remier PA: Modern x-ray practice and
chiropractic spinography. Palmer School of Chiropractic, Davenport.
l A , 1957:5

197. Dzaman.FL. Who's who in chiropractic international 1976-78. Who's

Who in Chiropractic International Publishing: Littleton.CO; 1977:345.
198. Iowa Official Register, 44"' Session, 1930-1932.
199. Iowa Official Register, 45'" Session, 1932-1934.
200. Davenport City Directory, 1935:147.
201. StokeJ. The clinic has changed. The Virginia Newsletter 1938; 14(9);
quoted in Fountain Head News 1938; 25(7);1.
202. Advertisement. Fountain Head News 1936; 23(7):4.
203. Evans R. Political subluxations and mental impulses in Washington,
DC. The Chiropractor 1926; 22(l):21-2, 47.
204. Faculty. Wivern 1941:4-11.

174. Stephenson RW. Chiropractic text book. Palmer School o f

Chiropractic, Davenport,IA:1927.

205. Fountain Head News 1936; 23(6);2.

175. Recoil X I I I , 1929.

206. Hart J. Victor Coxon, member, B.J.'s black tie club at Palmer, 19361941. Chiropr Hist 1998; 18(2);25-31.

176. Stoddard CF. From Iowa to California behind a steering wheel. The
Chiropractor 1926; 22(3): 13-4. 54-9.

207. Chance, M A . In raemoriam: Galen R. Price. Chiropr J Aust 2000;


177. U-Tell-Em 1922; 1(6);7.

208. Torque 1944:18.

178. The Chiropractor and Clin J 1923; 19(12):51.

209. Lintz-Dzaman F L . ' p g s 200-1.

179. U-Tell-Em 1922; 1(6);7.

210. In Memoriam. The Chiropractor 1943; 39(10):4.

180. Fountain Head News 1924; 13(15):20.

211. Fraternity News. The Chiropractor 1943;39(4);30.

181. Recoil X I I ; 1928:10.

212. The Chiropractor 1943; 39(7):5.

182. Faculty. Pisiform I ; October 1922; unpaginated.

213. Fiftieth Anniversary Yearbook, August 1945.

183. Recoil V; October 1924.

214. Quigley W H . The Palmer saga. Unpublished manuscript:253.


Chiropractic Journal o f Australia

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