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11/18/13 (HIST133 LECTURE)

Islamic law wasnt as strictly enforced in Al-Andalus.

Medieval Iberia was a place for convivencia (living together, as the three religions
got along great, and contributed to a diverse and multi-cultural society.
The principles of convivencia was present in Christian Iberia too.
In Christian Iberia, Muslims and Jews were allowed to worship freely.
1212- King Alfonso VIII of Castile decided to mount a new, massive Crusade. He was
joined by other kings and they even went north to ask for help from the French.
Philip of Augustus refused because of his fight with England but Southern France
responded. Christian Iberian forces and forces from Southern France went on the
Crusade. They met against an army of Muslims (Almohad) in the battle of Las
Navas. Crusade army was massively outnumbered. Tide of battle shockingly turned
and the Christian forces won. Muslim power in Iberia is now in retreat (massive point
in Reconquista).
Fabric was considered a luxury and Christian royalty chose to be buried with Muslimmade items.
The Pope wanted to send the Crusade to the Holy Land.
1213- Innocent III told the forces in Southern France that you only get spiritual
benefits for fighting in the Holy Land.
1215- Major church council tried to persuade Innocent III to grant CRUSADE
PRIVELEDGE to Iberia, he refused, but said that it will be allowed only if youre
The Latin kingdom of Jerusalem is diminished.
Westerners are the only powers left standing against the Muslim East.
Pan Christian Alliance is now only filled with the Crusaders/Crusading states.
Iberia is the only success from Crusades.
In 13th Century, Iberia was running pretty high, and was filled with unprecedented
territorial gains.
1 reason Muslims didnt respond- Mongols.
Genghis Khan planned to conquer western Europe.
Mongols were looking at Middle East in 1250s.
Dreamed of converting Mongols to Christianity and working with them to overthrow
Muslims. (dream of Christians in Western Europe)
Because of Mongols rapid invasion of Asia, over in Iberia, Christian forces pressed
their advantage.

Jaimie is called the conqueror as he conquered several territories, and extended his
dominion to the Mediterranean coast of Iberia.
Fernando III embarked on major campaigns in Al-Andalus after uniting Castile and
Leon. 1236- conquered Cordoba. 1248- conquered Almohad capital of Seville.
Fernando III is now a saint for his efforts.
Al-Andalus is now reduced to small kingdom of Granada.
Pre-existing treaties among Christian Kingdoms prevented Aragon and Portugal to
conquer Granada. Only Castile and conquer Granada.
Granada isnt very dangerous at this point. A lot smaller than Castile. Paid tribute to
Castile for peace.
Aragon had to deal with Iberian conquest and the acquisition of kingdom of NAPLES,
southern Italy.
Definitely a decline of cultural toleration even though there is very little fighting in
14th century.
Iberia was one of the most culturally diverse and integrated regions of medieval
Europe. But the idea of convivencia, though beloved of tourism boards and popular
historians, tends to gloss over the tensions and inequalities that did exist. It also sits
uncomfortably with the rhetoric of the Reconquista as a whole.
The 1rth century was the Reconquistas hayday. After a long stalemate, the
Christian kingdoms suddenly acquired hide chunks of new territory. But once the
Reconquista stalled the groundwork was laid for serious problems.
11/25/13 (HIST133 LECTURE)
Ayyubids- Saladins dynasty.
In the West, after the 4th crusade, by around 1215, Pope Innocent III began calling
for another Crusade to the Holy Land.
Priest cant command military. Pope is a priest.
This second eastern crusade that was conceived by Innocent III, was known as the
5th crusade.
For the first time, French nobles and knights felt indifferent about going to a
This was probably because of their involvement in another crusade in France.
Leaders of 5th Crusade strategically want to attack Egypt.
18-month siege of Damietta.
Crusaders gained advantage because of political disarray in Egypt.

Sultan al-Kamil of Egypt nephew of Saladin and led defense of Damietta. He was
weakened and offered crusaders peace and give all of Latin kingdom of Jerusalem.
Crusaders say no, trying to gain more,
Crusaders take Damietta by force, but fail to press advantage for two years, as
Egypt regrouped.
Crusaders try to advance again, but the 5th Crusade was defeated and forced out of
An 8-year truce and return of true cross (never returned).
5th Crusade lacked strong, central leadership.
The 6th Crusade was led by Emperor Frederick II.
Frederick II- right of inheritance from Mother, he was King of Sicily (all of Southern
Italy), his father was Henry VI and he became Holy Roman Emperor.
Isabella II- acquired the kingdom on her mothers death. On 1223, she was only 11,
but was engaged to Frederick II.
Planned departure was delayed for another two years.
King and queen got married.
1227- 6th Crusade. Frederick II got ill and didnt accompany crusaders.
Pope believed it was an excuse and was trying to delay it.
Frederick II left for Holy Land on 1228, but still excommunicated.
He had very little military strength, many crusaders went home and many didnt
want to associate with someone who was excommunicated.
Isabella died on 1228, but left a son.
Frederick II kept title.
Frederick II had been negotiating with sultan al-Kamil for a couple of years. Al-Kamil
was trying to buy Egypt safety, unaware of Fredericks military weakness.
February of 1229, al-Kamil agreed to surrender Jerusalem and other cities to
He said Muslims would keep temple area and city wont be fortified.
In return, Frederick II would protect al-Kamil in a 10-year truce.
Frederick II managed to do by diplomacy what Christians have struggled to take by
He has taken Jerusalem back for Christians.
The restriction on fortifying Jerusalem means that it has no defense.

Pope was invading Southern Italy and Frederick II was forced to go back to protect
his lands.
Frederick IIs succession as Holy Roman Emperor gave him control over Northern
Italy and Southern Italy (Sicily). In the middle of that is the Papal States.
Only two main powers, Frederick and Pope.
When Papal States were surrounded by empire that was hostile to the Church, it
could be said that the Church was in danger.
Pope justified his invasion of Sicily as defense of the Church against someone who
was excommunicated, etc.
People who attacked Sicily got spiritual benefits.
People who participated wore the keys of St. Peter, not the cross.
They dont get full Crusade indulgence.
After 10-year truce, Turks capture Jerusalem.
This prompted King of France to take the cross, King Louis IX.
He was committed to the idea of Crusading.
This was mid-1240s. 7th Crusade.
Hes not given much help from western Europe.
Pope had called a real crusade against Frederick II in Germany and Italy. Another
one in Iberia.
Louis is alone on this crusade.
Following example of 5th Crusade, Louis headed for Egypt.
He landed with massive force and reconquered Damietta.
But like 5th Crusade, Louis suffers delay. 6 months until he advanced.
And when he did advance, bad tactics by his brother Robert got people killed.
Christian army was forced to surrender and Louis himself got captured for ransom.
Louis went home devastated believing that the failure of 7 th crusade was the
consequence of his sins.
7th Crusade- able to overthrow Ayyubid dynasty.
Ayyubid Sultan had died and heir was in northern Iraq and had travelled from there
to Egypt.
Mamluks (slave warriors)
After Louis was defeated, Sultan tried to reduce the Mamluks role.

Mamluks felt it was a slap in the face. Instead of being rewarded, they were
demoted, and assassinated the Sultan.
Became the Mamluk dynasty of Egypt.
This Crusade prevented Frederick from conquering Rome but didnt have much
Frederick II died in 1250.
Popes decision to call crusade within western Europe, prompted hostility from
Louis formidable mother and regent, forbid anyone to go to Crusade.
Threatened to confiscate peoples lands.
Latin rulers in crusader states couldnt agree on how to deal with Mongols.
Some allied with Mongols.
Some refused to ally with Mongols or Mamluks.
Mamluks defeated Mongols in Egypt.
Allowed Mamluks to occupy Syria and clear out Ayyubid rulers who were there.
The Mamluk sultan was assassinated and was replaced by Baibars, he became ruler
of a united Syria and Egypt.
Something that they didnt have since Saladin died.
Later Ayyubid Sultans had been flexible on their stance. Had no sense of urgency
against crusader states. Mamluks didnt feel the same. They were much more
devoted to jihad. Baibars refused any alliance with crusader states. He began
military campaigns that attacked crusader states piece by piece. Their conquest of
latin cities were accompanied by slaughter. Destroy fortifications or entire city.
Louis IX took the cross against the Mamluks. Original goal was Holy Land but decide
to aim Northern Africa. Disease spread and Louis IX died on 1270. (8 th Crusade).
Prince Edward went to Holy Land with small group but didnt achieve much.
Interests on crusades remain high. Kings keep saying they plan to go. But it proved
difficult due to expense and internal and external conflicts within Europe.
Baibars goal to crusader states wasnt realized.
Remaining latin lordships in holy land decide to be ruled by Mamluks, some got
slaughtered and conquered.
1291- acre (last latin crusader state) got conquered by Ashraf Khalil. Khalil refused
negotiations. When city fell, remaining population tried to flee. Those who couldnt
flee were enslaved or killed. (End of Crusader States).

Plenty of resistance against Italian crusades.

Some historians argue that political crusades were different against eastern
Despite what we might consider a diversion of the crusading effort into internal
Western conflict in the later thirteenth century, crusade ideology remains strong
and major campaigns to the East are launched under the influence of powerful
rulers. Nevertheless, Latin possessions in the East are lost one by one.
The rise of the new Mamluk dynasty provides a powerful incentive for Mamluk rulers
to legitimize their power by claiming to be leaders of Jihad which spells doom for
the crusader states.
12/2/13 (HIST133 Lecture) The Ottoman Empire and the Fall of Constantinople
There were new Muslims in the East that Christians had to deal with.
14th Century in general- really bad century for western Europe.
1305- French Bishop was elected as Pope.
French Cardinals and Kings talked Pope into not going to Rome, saying its not safe.
Pope instead sets up shop in Avignon.
Babylonian Captivity- period where papacy is in Avignon, not Rome (1305-1378).
Not all of policies of Avignon papacy was pro-French.
All of popes and most cardinals were French during this period.
This caused problems between pope and King of England, leading to the Hundred
Years War.
Dominated middle of 14th century to the middle of the 15th.
Isnt constant warfare of 100 years, but sporadic conflict, with some peace in
Succession dispute with French and England.
French king died without heir.
King of England said he is closest relative and should be also King of France.
French rallied with another candidate, who isnt English.
Kings of England and France both faced financial struggle for this war.
Kings found themselves making political concessions to get money they need
Whatever money was raised went to the war.

Meant that nobody was in position to go to a Crusade in Holy Land.

War affects all of western Europe.
Other kingdoms allied with either England or France.
Fight battles as prophets of England/France.
Consequences for other kingdoms were the same as the two countries.
Black Death.outbreak of bubonic plague which devastates Europe 1347-1349.
Spread through trade routes.
Had devastating effect on major commercial centers and on shipping.
Weakened western Europes ability to mount a Crusade, since CRUSADE to Holy
Land needed transport by sea.
Estimated 1/3 to of Europes population died from epidemic.
The plague returns every 10 years, deaths lessen.
Plague prompted dissolution with the church, since churchs spiritual remedies did
not work.
Papacy was still not doing well.
Result of Babylonian Captivity was popes trying to raise money because they want
to return to Rome.
They cant return to Rome without militarily securing Rome, to hire mercenaries.
The money comes from increasing amount of spiritual privileges that were just
being sold, including indulgence.
With this focus, the papacy was seen as corrupt.
Internal warfare distracted Kings from Crusade and dismantle ability to have a
Papacy becomes increasingly worldly, and drawn into War, as it was seen as being
New Muslim power rising in East.
Situation in Holy Land wasnt encouraging for Christians in start of 1300s.
Byzantine Empire still exists, but way smaller than before.
Crusader states are gone by 1300.
First half of 14th century, Crusades was meant for recovery of Jerusalem, and to
conquer Egypt.
Resources had to come from western Europe.

Military orders have changed dramatically.

Existence of military orders did not depend on existence of crusader states.
Rather than providing health care, they instead defend Christian settlements in East
by sea (Hospitalers)
1314- King of France was short of cash, but didnt want to raise through taxes, but
seize wealth of Templars saying that theyre heretics or homosexuals.
King destroyed the order and got rid of the Templars.
Templars also were undone after they failed to protect Holy Land/Crusader states.
The Turks were defeated by Mongols in 1240s.
Turks were replaced by multiple Turkish colonies in Asia Minor, border lands of
Mongols and Byzantine Empire.
Frontier in Asia Minor were dominated by warriors called gazi.
Gazi- warriors who fought usually against Christians on behalf of Islam. Attracted
followers on amount of loot they acquired.
Gazi ideology is not the same as Jihad, since gazi ideology only went with frontier
raiding (not existential conflict).
Multiple competing gazi warriors, led to Ottomans.
The Ottoman principality had effective military power, organized state.
Positioned inland, keeping it off radar of western Europeans, who were more
concerned with gazi
Ottomans were expanding through Asia Minor, eventually taking first steps into
They are in Eastern Europes radars.
Emperor shows up in person in west to ask for help against Ottomans.
Goal of Crusades became to stop Ottomans from conquering western Europe.
1389-battle gave Ottomans control of Balkans.
Alarmed western Europe enough and unite for a Crusade in 1396.
This crusade was conceived to defend, not an offensive war.
Ottomans were unsuccessful in siege of Constantinople.
No response to another call for Crusade in 1444.
Pope sent small fleet to help Christian Hungarians in fight against Turks, but they do
very little to participate.
Ottomans in power in Eastern Europe and Asia Minor.

Sultan Mehmed II- planned another siege of Constantinople.

Pope did best to raise his defense and unite the churches.
Accomplished nothing but internal division, with questions of union.
1453- Mehmed II conquered Constantinople, with assistance of canon, fall of
classical Roman empire.
Last Byzantine Emperor died fighting.
Fall of Constantinople prompted redefinition of Crusade ideology- getting
Constantinople back.
Western Europeans are still fixated with their own conflicts to join for Crusade.
Pope Pius II- call for Crusade is suspicious.
Ottoman Empire sieged Hospitalers and landed forces in Italy, and took Otranto.
Mehmed II died shortly after, and Ottomans withdrew.
Otranto surrendered to Christians a few months later.
Ottoman conquest was no disaster at all for eastern Europeans and former
Byzantine subjects, since they restored Constantinoples economy and political
policies. They also didnt practice religious persecutions.
Christian populations remained large, with Jewish population increased with
Western Europe was indifferent, more concerned with internal affairs. 14 th and 15th
century. France and Spain were fighting over Southern Italy.
Nobody ever wanted to Crusade against Ottomans since it wasnt a holy war for
either side.
Ottomans expansion were accompanied with secular interest.
Ottomans tried to establish themselves as New Rome, and adapt self-Classical
concept of Europe and make it their own.
Not a clear cut religious conflict.
1516-1517 Ottomans conquer Syrian and Egypt from Monlooks.
Western Europe get scared and called Crusade.
But Sultan died, and interest waned.
Areas farthest from Ottoman threat were strongest.
1520- reformation.
Crusading went down some more in Protestant Europe.
Early 16th Century, King of Spain was holy Roman emperor.

1541- Spain took half of Budapest.

Siege of Vienna.
King/Emperor fought a defensive war, to hold Ottomans off.
Taking a Holy Land was impractical.
Spain was committed to Crusade ideology, conquering some North African cities,
but it drained again after conquest to Americas.
In the fourteenth century, Western Europe was badly weakened by war and plague
and unable to mount full-scale crusades. But the declining prestige of the papacy
made the idea far less appealing anyway.
Eventually, crusade ideology is so divorced from practice that even the rise of the
Ottoman Empire-which is a much more direct threat to Western Europe than any of
its predecessors-fails to inspire new CRUSADING FARVOR. Recovery of the Holy Land
is an increasingly impractical dream.
12/4/13 The Catholic Monarchs
By end of 13th century, economic problems and political problems in Christian
Kingdoms, from raids of al-Andalus.
The 14th century was bad for everywhere in Europe. 100 year warblack death
Black death attacked Aragon
Castilemajor civil war. Kings death and enthronement of his illegitimate brother.
How Iberia went from convivencia from 12th and 13th centuries to something else in
the 14th and 15th
Jews become victims.
Jews were seen as especially under the Kings protection.
14th Century Castile, Jews association went against them. Civil war in Castile, King
is overthrown. Association of Jews with King, means they wind up in wrong side of
political equation.
All over Europe, people are desperate about what is causing the black death.
In times of social crisis, it is common to look for scape goats. Jews were the scape
goat in Europe.
RUMORS Spread that Jews were causing them by poisoning wells.
Based on nothing.
Jews were dying from black death too.

Iberia-peninsula-wide series of pogroms at end of 14 th century with force

^More visible in Iberia than anywhere in Europe.
Force conversions are not good according to church doctrines.
By elite levels, they start saying that there is no such thing as force conversions.
Conversion or death.
Because pogroms and force conversions are so widespread and reoccurring, there
are a lot of Jews that became Christians.
They are known as conversos, literally means converts. Not all have converted
Anti-Jewish sentiment has led to Anti-Jewish legislation.
Converting has its pros.
If you convert, more economic and political opportunities become available.
In 14th and 15th, Iberia has large Jewish and Muslim populations.
Muslims have powerful rulers elsewhere in World, and those rulers can get hostile of
Christians attack their subjects, thats why they dont get attacked like Jews since
Jews dont have that type of political protection.
In middle of 15th century, pogroms start to change. No longer just directed to Jews,
but also conversos.
Even if you convert to Christianity, youre still somewhat a Jew.
Jewish blood, children of Conversos that were never Jewish are still conversos.
Church says if you convert, youre a Christian.
Some conversos are secretly practicing Judaism, crypto-Jews (hidden Jews)
Most historians believe that thats true, but how many is an open question.
Some considered themselves Christians but continued to do some Jewish things.
Large Converso and Jewish population in Iberia.
Iberia underwent major political change.
Throne of Castile was inherited by Queen Isabel of Castile I, she marries heir of
Aragon, Fernando II.
Later, Fernandos dad died and he became King.
Aragon and Castile become politically united.
Campaigns or Reconquista were neglected.

Rhetoric though never went away.

From turmoil of 14th century, pursuing the Reconquista didnt make sense.
After Aragon and Castile establishes themselves, they set out to conquer Granada.
War against Granada 1482.
Letter- Holy catholic faith would increase. And infidels of Granada, would be ejected
from Spain. Reminds them that Pope said that this was no different than crusades to
Holy Land.
Solution to problem to heresy, Spanish Inquisition.
Spanish Inquisition, subject to a lot of hype.
Controlled by Spanish Monarchs, not papacy.
Its focus were on crypto-Jews.
Initially, it didnt have jurisdiction about true Jews.
As time goes on, inquisition tries to persecute Jews.
Isabel and Fernando believe they were doing Gods work. Heretics, crypto-Jews, bad
Spanish crown needed money for war against Granada.
Property of heretics gets confiscated and used for war against Granada.
Indicates a profound link to Crusades and other forms of religious anxiety.
All of these impulses, come together in 1492.
End of 1491- conquest of Granada is completed.
New years day of 1492- Isabel and Fernando go to Capital.
Treaty gave Muslims freedom of religion.
Next few years, lots of riots in Granada.
Ill-conceive attempts to encourage conversion.
Because of unrest, Isabel and Fernando gave option of Christianity or leave 7 years
3 years later, same thing happened to Castile.
Isabel and Fernando got called Catholic Monarchs.
1492- end of Reconquista.
All Jews in Spain better leave or die- Edict of Expulsion (1492)

Having Jews around encouraged conversos to lapse outside of Christianity through

encouragement or influences. Expulsing them got rid of this problem.
Most Jews left.
Expulsion was not an original idea, common in England, France, Germany, etc.
When they left, Jews went to Muslim lands, including Ottoman Empire.
Some convert.
Most of property of those who left got taken by crown.
Spanish expulsion happened two months later after Reconquista.
Jews of Portugal be expelled too, as daughter married to Portugal.
Got rid of Jews in all of Iberia.
Iberia still had plenty of problems.
Crypto-Muslims (moriscos)
All Muslims were expelled out of Castile in 16 th century
1520s Muslims got expelled out of Aragon.
Moriscos became much less of a target until middle of 16 th century, alien to Spanish
Early 17th century, Moriscos get expelled from Spain.
Spanish government revoke Edict of Expulsion in 1992.
Spain is mostly deeply marked by Crusades.
Spain thought of itself as universally Christian.
Francisco Franco, dictator of Spain. Ideology was nationalist. Catholic religion.
Singled out Isabel and Fernando as ideals.
Jews and Muslims tried to destroy the Christian faith and they helped each other
to destroy Christian churches Cartoon.
Jews who left hate Jews who stayed, and hate Spain- Cartoon
Hostility towards Muslims again spills over into hostility towards Jews. Anti-Jewish
and anti-converso sentiment in Iberia find their supreme expression in the Spanish
Inquisition and the expulsion of the Jews, which happen around the same time as
the end of Reconquista. This is not a coincidence.
Ideas of National and religious unity take firm hold of Spain, well into the 20 th and
21st centuries. This is a case where the memory of the crusade is very potent and
can be marshaled very effectively to political ends.

12/9/13 Modern Meanings of the Crusader States

Romans had providence in eastern Mediterranean Coast called Palestina.
Palestine area in Holy Land the size of Palestina.
1516 & 1517 Ottomans get Syria and Palestine and hold Palestine until end of
their time.
By 19th century, Ottoman Empire was politically and economically weakened.
Western Europe was in full imperialist swing.
Northern Africa was attractive for trade routes to European colonies in East and
Southern Asia.
Napoleon III demanded that Ottomans recognize the French as sovereign authority
in Holy Land.
That claim by French challenged Russias claim of protection of Orthodox Christians.
Ottomans first supported Russia.
Combination of diplomacy, financial incentives, and force, Ottomans name France
and Catholic Church supreme authority in Holy Land, and to give them control of the
Holy Christian places there.
This involved Catholic Church taking control over sites from Greek Churches.
This conflict sparked the Primian war
Napoleon III deliberately pointed out that it was similar to the Crusades.
Napoleon III believed that Crusades were fundamentally French in nature.
This establishment of authority was to them a simple restoration of things from the
Napoleon IIIs reign ended after creation of French republic.
Ottoman Empire came in World War I at the side of Germany and their allies.
Britain captured Jerusalem at the end of WWI
2 days after Jerusalem surrendered (December 11, 1917), General Allenby walked to
in foot out of respect. BRITAIN controls Palestine (British Mandate).
December 19, 1917, cartoon featuring Richard the Leonhart: My dream comes
true. He came close to capturing Jerusalem, 3 rd Crusade, against Saladin.
Britains grip on imperial domain was weakening.
Following WWII, Britain declared that its Mandate would end in 1948.
Officially withdrawn on May of 1948.
State of Israel was created after mandate ended.

Arab-Israeli war: Arab sought claim to territory now owned by Israel.

Arab dont win.
Departure of Palestinian Arabs Palestinian refugees.
Others refuses right of Israels existence as a nation.
Historiography- the writing of history, the history of how history is done.
French historians of 19th century- Latins start crusades and assimilate with people
who were there.
1950s- Historians attitude has changed significantly. Earlier emphasis on
assimilation was colonialists wishful thinking.
Imperial powers want to see that it was beneficial to conqueror and conquered.
Western scholars in 20th century- mid 20th century: West is confronting legacy in
North Africa and Asia. (Emphasizes conflict, not assimilation).
Double-Judicial system.
Parallel- Crusader states and Israel
Similarities- governed by European descent and immigrants, surrounded by Muslims
that could be violent. Questions of whether to assimilate non-Jewish population.
Historiography- multiculturalism, desire that multicultural societies could succeed
makes us look extra hard for historical facts that it succeeds.
Muslim Historiography- in regard to crusader states, approach is changing.
The Muslim World comes to its own. Muslim world gives West a lot in terms of
knowledge and culture.
The Holy Land was the site of repeated European interventions in the nineteenth
and twentieth centuries. These interventions have tended to color modern
historians interpretations of the Crusades.
Historical arguments often reflect the political and cultural context in which theyre
written even when historians are trying to stay objective.
12/11/13 From the Age of Crusade to the Modern Age?
Historical memory is not static. Events depend on culture and ideology of that time.
Even when trying to be objective, we are shaped by our own ideology.
Early Modern Period- Crusades had really bad press (16 th-18th century)
Protestant reformation- Crusades rep went down.
Enlightenment- holy wars are for barbarians.

16th-18th- Crusades dont look so good.

19th- Image of Crusades got rehabilitated. Europeans were at a safe distance from
later middle ages. World of heroic knights and gracious ladies.
Instead of seeing them as something that was barbaric, they saw something
romantic and inspiring. Done for glory and for the love of God.
Europe is in grip of Orientalism.
Europe romanticized the East as exotic and mysterious.
Orientalism encouraged two different views of Muslims.
Thought of Muslims as backwards, lazy, uncivilized, and deceitful.
Simultaneously saw Muslims as wise, generous, and even virtuous, but misguided in
terms of religion.
Europeans also made heroes of great Muslim leaders like Saladin.
Crusaders also admired Saladin.
Muslims under European rule were educated by Europeans, and learned of the
The Middle East had been under Ottoman rule
Ottomans had a fairly secular outlook. Dont use jihad. Ethnically not common with
Muslims from Crusades.
No advantage for Ottomans in adopting people like Saladin as heroes.
Muslims who were learning about the West took those ideas to heart.
Muslims overcame crusaders once, and we can do it again. Free ourselves from
colonial occupation.
Ottomans eventually gloss over ethnic differences to form unified Muslim history.
The Reconquista was cherished in national memory.
Franco called for a Spain that is united and great. And imperialistic and catholic.
Modern Spain does not like the Franco era.
2007 Spanish Prime Minister- struggle with Islam in 8 th Century. Al-QUAEDA train
bombing in 2004.
Uncomfortable memory, immigration from North Africa (Morocco).
Crusades were a major economic drain- recent scholars.
No matter how distant past is, it tells us a lot about ourselves.

Used to be memorizing dates and battles (history), but most of what historians do
isnt a search for a single universal truth (what happened) but find multiple
historical truths, narratives, and perspectives that define the past and the present.
Some historical narratives arent morally acceptable.
Some historians argue that objectivity isnt possible.
Dont try to be objective, but acknowledge that there is existing biases, and not all
of those biases are bad.
Not just talking about facts, but also interpretation. They way events are
remembered/imagined. The more distant events are, the more layers there are.