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# PRESIDENCY UNIVERSITY, KOLKATA

## SYLLABUS FOR THREE-YEAR B.Sc. MATHEMATICS HONOURS COURSE

(With effect from Academic Session 2011-12)

Module
M111

M112

M121

M122

M211

M212

7
8
9
10

M213
M221
M222
M223

11
12

M311
M312

13

M313

14
15

M314
M315

16
17

M321
M322

18

M323

19

M324

20

M325

Topics
Classical Algebra
Modern Algebra - I
Calculus in R
Integration & Application of Calculus in R
Geometry of two dimensions
Geometry of Three dimensions
Linear Algebra - I
Differential Equations I
Linear Algebra - II
Differential Equations II
Vector Algebra
Vector Analysis
Real Analysis - I
Analytical Statics
Analytical Dynamics of a Particle
Functions of Several Variables
Computer Programming
Probability
Modern Algebra - II
Linear Programming
Dynamics of a rigid body
Game Theory
Real Analysis - II
Statistics
Numerical Analysis
MATLAB
Metric Spaces
Modern Algebra - III
Hydrostatics
Graph theory
Math Logic & Ordered Algebraic Systems
Theory of Numbers
Computer-based Numerical and Statistical
techniques

Marks
20
30
20
30
20
30
30
20
20
30
25
25
50
50
50
30
20
50
30
20
30
20
50
25
25
50
25
25
30
20
25
25
50

Second Year
(300 MARKS)

Paper
1

Semester

First Year
(200 MARKS)

## Modules of the Syllabus

Each module of 50 marks will be evaluated as follows: 40 marks (35 marks from 2013-14 session) by
end semester examination and 10 marks (15 amrks from 2013-14 session) by internal assesment (class
test / assignment / surprise quiz).

Detailed Syllabus
M111 (50 Marks)
Group - A (20 Marks)
(Classical Algebra)
1. Complex Numbers: arg(z), Arg(z), |z|, z. De-Moivres Theorem and its applications,
ez , sin(z), cos(z), Logz, log z, Sin1 z, Cos1 z and az .
2. Polynomials with complex co-efficients: Fundamental theorem of Algebra (statement only).
Polynomials with real co-efficients: Nature of roots of an equation (surd or complex roots occur
in pairs). Statements of Descartes rule of signs and of Sturms Theorem and their applications.
Multiple roots.
Relation between roots and coefficients. Symmetric functions of roots. Transformation of equations. Polynomial equations with real co-efficients : Reciprocal equations. Binomial equation.
Special roots.
Cardans method of solving a cubic equation. Nature of roots of a cubic equation. Ferraris
method of solving a biquadratic equation.
3. Integers: Statements of well ordering principle, Principles of mathematical induction, application
to ineualities.
Divisibility of integers. The division algorithm. g.c.d., h.c.f Relatively prime integers. Prime
integers. Euclids first theorem, Euclids second theorem. Unique factorisation theorem.
Group - B (30 Marks)
(Modern Algebra - I)
1. Set Theory : Sets(as collection of distinct well-defined objects), Subsets, Equality of sets, and
Operations on sets - Union, Intersection, Difference and Symmetric difference. Union and intersection of a collection of sets. Ordered pair.
Cartesian products: Binary relations. Equivalence relation and Partition. Mapping. Composition of mappings. Finite and infinte sets. Binary operation. Cayley Tables.
2. Introduction to Group Theory: Groupoid, Semi-group, Monoid, Group. Direct product of two
groups. Isomorphism of groups. Group of integers modulo n. Group of matrices. Kleins 4group. Integral powers of an element and laws of indices in a group. Order of a group and order
of an element of a group.
Subgroup: Intersection and Union of two subgroups.
Cosets and Lagranges theorem on a finite group. Normal subgroup. Intersection, union of
normal subgroups. Quotient group.
3. Introduction to Rings and Fields:
Ring. Multiplicative identity in a ring. Commutative ring. Divisors of zero. Integral Domain.
Division Ring.
Field. Subring and Subfield. Characteristic of a ring and of an integral domain. Quotient field.
M112 (50 Marks)
Group - A (20 Marks)
(Calculus in R)
1. f : E( R) R. Accumulation point. Bounded function. Step function. Monotone function.
Limit: Algebra of limits. Fundamental limits.

2. Functions defined on an interval: Derivative. Chain rule, Sign of derivative. Successive derivatives, Leibnitz theorem. Differential of a function. Theorems on derivatives: Darbouxs theorem,
Rolles theorem, Mean value theorem of Lagrange and Cauchy, Taylors theorem with SchlomilchRouches form of remainder, Lagranges and Cauchys form of remainder. Maclaurins series.
Expansions of (1 + x)m , sin x, cos x, ex , ax , ln(1 + x), with their ranges of validity.
3. Indeterminate forms: lH
opitals rule.
Group - B (30 Marks)
(Application of Differential Calculus and evaluation of integral in R )
1. Points of local extrema (maximum, minimum and saddle point). Sufficient condition for the
existence of a local maximum/minimum. Application of the principle of maximum/minimum in
geometrical and physical problems.
2. Concept of a plane curve: Closed curve, simple curve.
(a) Tangents and Normals: Angle of intersection of curves. Pedal equation of a curve.
(b) Rectilinear asymptotes of a curve (Cartesian, Parametric and polar form).
(c) Curvature Radius of curvature. Centre of curvature, Chord of curvature. Evolute and
Involute.
(d) Concavity and convexity with respect to a line, singular points: nodes, cusps, points of
inflexion, species of cusps of a curve.
(e) Envelopes of one-parameter and two-parameter families of curves. Envelope as locus of
singular point. Evolute.
(f) Curve tracing: familiarity with well-known curves.
3. Indefinite and suitable corresponding definite integrals for the functions.

1
1
,
,
(a + b cos x)n (x2 + a2 )n

a cos x + b sin x
, cosm x sinn x, cosm x sin nx etc. where m, n are integers. Problems on definite
p cos x + q sin x
integrals as the limit of a sum.
4. Working knowledge of Beta and Gamma functions (convergence to be assumed) and their interrelation (no proof). Use of the result (n)(l n) = sinn where 0 < n < 1. Computation of
R /2
R /2
R /2
R /2
the integrals 0 sinn xdx, 0 cosn xdx, 0 tann xdx, 0 sinm x cosn x dx, m, n are positive
integers.
5. Area: Area enclosed by a curve, area enclosed between a curve and a secant, between two curves,
between a curve and its asymptotes.
M121 (50 Marks)
Group - A (20 Marks)
(Analytical Geometry of Two Dimensions)
1. (a) Linear transformation of Rectangular axes: Orthogonal transformations. Invariants.
(b) General Equation of the second degree in two variables: Reduction into canonical forms.
Classification of conics.
2. Pair of lines: Condition that the general equation of the second degree in two variables may
represent two lines. Discussion on ax2 + 2hxy + by 2 = 0. Equation of two lines joining the origin
to the points in which a line meets a conic.
3. Polar equation of lines and circles. Polar equation of a conic referred to a focus as pole. Equations
of tangent, normal, chord of contact.

4. Conics: Interior and exterior points. Equations of pair of tangents from an external point.
Chord of contact. Poles and polars, Conjugate points and conjugate lines.
5. System of circles.
Group - B (30 Marks)
(Analytical Geometry of Three Dimensions)
1. Rectangular Cartesian co-ordinates in space. Concept of a geometric vector (directed line segment). Projection of a vector on a co-ordinate axis. Inclination of a vector with an axis.
Coordinates of a vector. Direction cosines of a vector. Distance between two points. Division
of a directed line segment in a given ratio.
2. Planes: Equation of a Plane : The sides of a plane. Signed distance of a point from a plane.
Equation of a plane passing through the intersection of two planes. Angle between two intersecting planes. Bisectors of angles between two intersecting planes. Parallelism and perpendicularity
of two planes.
3. Lines in space: Equations of a line. Rays or half lines. Direction cosines of a ray. Angle between
two rays. Distance of a point from a line. Condition of coplanarity of two lines. Skew-lines.
Shortest distance.
4. Surface of revolution:
Sphere Tangent. Normal, Circular Section.
Cone, Condition for three perpendicular generators. Reciprocal cone.
Cylinder.
5. Linear transformations of rectangular axes.
6. General equation of second degree in three variables: Quadrics: Reduction to canonical forms.
7. Ellipsoid, Hyperboloid, Paraboloid: Canonical equations and the study of their shapes. Tangent
planes. Normals. Enveloping cone, Enveloping cylinders.
8. Ruled surface: Generating lines of hyperboloid of one sheet and hyperbolic paraboloid.
9. Cylindrical, Polar and Spherical polar co-ordinates.
M122 (50 Marks)
Group - A (30 Marks)
(Linear Algebra - I)
1. Matrices: Algebra of matrices. Hermitian matrix. Orthogonal matrix.
2. Determinants: Basic Properties. Laplaces method. Cramers Rule.
3. Adjoint of a matrix. Inverse of a non-singular matrix.
Elementary operations. Echelon matrix. Rank of a matrix.
4. Elementary matrices: The normal form and equivalence of matrices. Congruence of matrices.
Real Quadratic form. Reduction to Normal Form.
5. Vector (Linear) space over a field. Subspaces. Linear combinations. Linear dependence and
independence of a set of vectors. Linear span. Finite dimensional vector space.
Basis. Dimension. Replacement Theorem. Extension theorem. Deletion theorem.
6. Row Space and Column Space of a Matrix. Rank of a matrix. Rank(AB) min(RankA, RankB).

7. System of Linear homogeneous equations: Solution space of a homogeneous system and its
dimension.
System of linear non-homogeneous equations: Necessary and sufficient condition for the consistency of the system. Method of solution of the system of equations.
Group - B (20 Marks)
(Differential Equation I)
1. Differential equations: ODE and PDE. A solution of ordinary differential equation. Geometric
significance. Concept of linear and non-linear differential equations. Order of an ODE. Degree
of some ODEs. Formation of an ODE. Primitive.
2. Equations of order one and degree one: Statement of Existence and uniqueness theorem. Exact
equations. Integrating factor. (Statement of relevant results only)
3. First order linear equations: Integrating factor Bernoullis Equation. Reducible to first order
linear equations.
4. Equations of first order but not of first degree. Line element. Singular line element. Singular
solution. Clairauts equation.
5. Applications: Orthogonal trajectories and other applications on natural problems.
6. Higher order linear equations with constant co-efficients: Complementary Function. Particular
Integral. Method of undetermined co-efficients, Use of symbolic operator D. Method of variation
of parameters.
M211 (50 Marks)
Group - A (20 Marks)
(Linear Algebra - II)
1. Linear Transformation (L.T.) on Vector Spaces: Null space. Range space. Rank and Nullity,
Sylvesters law of Nullity. Inverse of Linear Transformation. Non-singular Linear Transformation. Change of basis by Linear Transformation. Vector spaces of Linear Transformation.
2. Linear Transformation (L.T.) and Matrices: Matrix of a linear transformation relative to ordered
bases of finite-dimensional vector spaces. Rank of L.T. = Rank of the corresponding matrix.
3. Characteristic equation of a square matrix. Eigen-value and Eigen-vector. Invariant subspace.
Cayley-Hamilton Theorem. Simple properties of Eigen value and Eigen vector.
4. Inner Product Space: Definition and examples. Norm. Euclidean vector spaces (EVS) Rn , Triangle Inequality and Cauchy-Schwarz Inequality in EVS. Orthogonality of vectors. Orthonormal
basis, Gram-Schmidt process of orthonormalisation. Least square method for approximate solution of inconsistent non-homogeneous equation.
Group - B (30 Marks)
(Differential Equations - II)
1. Second order linear equations with variable co-efficients: Reduction of order when one solution
of the homogeneous part is known. Complete solution. Method of variation of parameters.
Reduction to Normal form. Change of independent variable. Use of differential operator f (D),
where f is a polynomial function of its arguments, and its factorization.
2. Eigenvalue problems: Sturm-Liouville differential equation(simple form).
3. Simultaneous linear differential equations. Total differential equation: Condition of integrability.
4. Partial differential equation (PDE) : Introduction. Formation of P.D.E. Solution of PDE by
Lagranges method and Charpits method.
5

## M212 (50 Marks)

Group - A (20 Marks)
(Vector Algebra)
1. Vectors: addition of vectors and multiplication by a scalar. Position vector of a point in space,
section, ratio formula. collinearity of three points and coplanerity of four points.
2. Scalar and vector products, Scalar triple products and Vector triple products. Product of four
vectors.
3. Application of Vector Algebra in Geometry and Trigonometry.
4. Vector equations of straight lines, planes and circles. Equation of bisectors of angles. Volume of
a tetrahedron. Shortest distance between two skew lines.
Group - B (30 Marks)
(Vector Analysis)
1. Vector function, limit, derivative.
2. Gradient, Divergence and Curl. Directional derivative.
3. Line, surface and volume elements. Line, surface and volume integral. Theorems of Gauss,
Green and Stokes.
4. Curvillinear coordinates, Gradient, Divergence and Curl in curvillinear coordinates.
M213 (50 Marks)
(Real Analysis I)
1. Construction ofR as Dedekinds section: Completeness. Archimedean and density property.
Decimal representation. Extended real number system.
2. Concept of countability and uncountability: Elementary results. Q is countable. R is uncountable. If X is infinite P (X), the power set of X, is uncountable.
3. Topology of R: Neighbourhood of a point. Interior point. Accumulation point and isolated
point of a subset of R. Bolzano-Weierstrass Theorem. Derived set. Open set and closed set.
Union, Intersection, Complement of open and closed sets in R. No non-empty proper subset of
R is both open and closed in R. Closure. Interior and boundary of a set. Deduction of basic
properties of interior of a set and closure of a set.
4. Real sequence: f : N R. Convergence and non convergence, Operations on limits, Sandwich
rule. Monotone sequences and their convergence. Cauchys general principle of convergence.
Cauchy sequence. Nested interval theorem.
Subsequence: Subsequential limits. Cluster points.
Limit of some important sequences with special reference to
second limit theorems.

1+


1 n
.
n
n

## Cauchys first and

Upper limit and Lower limit as the L.U.B. and G.L.B. respectively of a set containing all the
subsequential limits-other equivalent definitions. Inequalities and equalities with upper and
lower limits.
5. Compactness in R: Covering by open intervals. Subcovering. Cantors intersection theorem.
Lindel
of-covering lemma. Compact sets. Heine-Borel Theorem and its converse. Sequential
compactness.
6. Continuity of a function at a point and on a set: Piecewise continuous functions. Discontinuity
of function at a point types of discontinuity. Points of discontinuities of monotonic functions.
6

7. Functions defined on subsets of R. Limit and continuity. Uniform continuity. Lipschitz condition
and uniform continuity. Continuity on compact set. Properties of continuous functions on closed
intervals. Bolzanos theorem. Intermediate-value property and allied results.
Inverse function of a strictly monotone function.
8. Infinite series of real numbers: Convergence, divergence. Cauchys criterion of convergence.
Abel-Pringsheims Test.
Series of non-negative real numbers: Tests of convergence Cauchys condensation test. Upper
limit and lower limit criteria for (i) Comparison test. (ii) Ratio test, (iii) Root test, (iv) Raabes
test, (v) Logarithmic test and (vi) Gauss test.
Series of arbitrary terms: Absolutely convergent and conditionally convergent series.
Alternating series: Leibnitz test. Abels and Dirichlets test.
Rearrangement of series through examples. Riemanns re-arrangement theorem (statement) and
simple examples: Rearrangement of absolutely convergent series.
M221 (50 Marks)
(Analytical Statics)
1. General principles of statics. Moment of a force. Varignons theorem. Couples. Axis of a couple.
Composition of couples. Reduction of copalner forces, condition of equilibrium, line of action of
resolution. Astatic equilibrium. Positions of equilibrium of a particle lying on a smooth plane
curve under the action of given forces. Action at a joint in a framework.
2. Friction: To find the positions of equilibrium of a particle lying on a (i) rough plane curve, (ii)
rough surface under the action of any given forces. Instanteous motion of rods and laminas in
contact with rough planes. Tumbling, rolling and slipping of bodies under gradually increasing
forces.
3. Centre of Gravity: General formula for the determination of C.G. Determination of position of
C. G. of any arc, Surface area and volume of a solid of known shape.
4. Equilibrium of flexible heavy string. Common and parabolic catenary. Catenary of uniform
strength.
5. Bending moment and shearing force of a beam under transverse load.
6. Variational Principle of virtual work. Deduction of the conditions of equilibrium of a rigid body
under coplanar forces. Application to common cetenary. Application to connected system of
bodies.
7. Stability of equilibrium. Dirichlets and Kelvins theorems. Rocking stones.
8. Forces in three dimensions. Moment of a force about an axis. Couples acting on a body.
Poinsots central axis. Wrench. Conditions of equilibrium of a system of forces acting on a
body. Deductions of the conditions of equilibrium of a system of forces acting on a rigid body
from the principle of virtual work.
M222 (50 Marks)
(Analytical Dynamics)
1. General equation of motion of a particle. Work, Power and Energy. The energy integral.
2. Impulsive motion of a particle. Elastic and inelastic impact. Direct and oblique impact. Elastic
impact of a sphere with a (i) smooth plane and (ii) another sphere.
3. Rectilinear motion of a particle. Simple harmonic motion. Motion of particle attached to elastic
spring. Motion under inverse square law. Motion in resisting medium. Damped simple harmonic
motion.
7

## 4. Motion in a plane. Components of velocity and acceleration in different systems. Motion of

simple pendulum.
5. Motion under inverse square law. Elliptic harmonic motion. Motion of a projectile in a resisting
medium.
6. Motion under a central force. Dynamical stability of a circular orbit under a central force.
Planetry motion. Keplers law. Application to artificial satellites and ballistic missiles.
7. Constrained motion. Motion on smooth and rough curve. The Brachistochrone problem.
8. Motion of a body of varying mass, Mescherskys equation. Motion of a rocket.
M223 (50 Marks)
Group-A (30 Marks)
(Functions of several variables)
1. Real values functions of two and three variables: Limit, iterated limit and simultaneous limit.
Continuity. Sufficient condition for continuity. Partial derivatives.
2. Topology of Rn : Distance function. Concept of neighbourhood of a point. Interior point.
Accumulation point. Open set. Closed set. Bolzano-Weierstrass theorem.
3. Functions Rn R: Differentiability and its sufficient condition, differential as a linear map,
Chain rule. Eulers theorem on homogeneous functions and its converse. Commutativity of the
order of partial derivatives - Theorem of Schwarz.
4. Mean value theorem and Taylors theorem for functions of two and three variables.
5. Extremum of functions of two and three variables: Lagranges Method of undetermined multipliers.
6. Jacobian for functions from E Rm to Rn , m, n N, E open. Inverse and implicit function
theorems.
Group - B (20 Marks)
(Computer Programming)
1. Character set. Datatypes(character, integer, floating point etc.). Constants. Variables. Operators(arithmetic, assignment, relational logical increment etc.). Expressions. Data input and
output(the functions like prinf, scanf etc.). Header files.
2. Branching and looping(the statement like if-else, while. do-while. for, switch, break, continue
etc.).
3. User-defined functions.
4. Arrays. Strings. Pointers. Structures and Unions.
5. Running simple C programs.
M311 (50 Marks)
(Probability)
1. Random experiment and events. Event space. Classical definition and its drawbacks. Statistical regularity. Frequency definition and its drawbacks. Axioms of Probability. Conditional
probability. Multiplication rule. Bayes theorem. Independent events.
2. Independent random experiments. Independent trials. Bernoulis trials and binomial law. Poisson trials.
8

## 3. Random variables. Probability distribution. Discrete distributions. Binomial and Poisson,

distribution. Continuous distribution. Uniform, Normal, Gamma and 2 -distribution. Poisson
Process. Transformation of random variables. Marginal distrinution.
4. Two dimensional probability distributions. Discrete and continuous distributions in two dimensions. Uniform distribution and two dimensional normal distribution. Conditional distributions.
Transformation of random variables in two dimensions.
5. Mathematical expectation. Mean, variance, moments, central moments. Skewness and kurtosis.
Median, mode, quantiles. Moment-generating function. Characteristic function.
6. Two dimensional expectation. Covariance, Correlation co-efficient, Joint characteristic function.
Conditional expectation. Multiplication rule. Regression curves, least square regression lines
and parabolas.
7. Tchebycheffs inequality. Convergenece in probability. Bernoullis limit theorem, law of large
numbers.
8. Poissons approximation to binomial distribution and normal approximation to binomial distribution. Asymptotically normal distribution. Central limit theorem for equal components. Limit
theorem for characteristic functions.
M312 (50 Marks)
Group - A (30 Marks)
(Modern Algebra - II)
1. Permutations: Cycle, Transposition. Even and odd permutations. Permutation group. Symmetric group. Alternating group: Order of the alternating group.
2. Cyclic group: Subgroups of a cyclic group, Generator. Necessary and sufficient condition for a
finite group to be cyclic.
3. Homomorphism and Isomorphism of Groups. Kernel of a Homomorphism. Automorphisms.
Normaliszer. Centralizer. Cayleys Theorem. First, Second and Third Isomorphism Theorems.
Properties deducible from definition of homomorphism. Correspondence Theorem. An infinite
cyclic group is isomorphic to (Z, +) and a finite cyclic group of order n is isomorphic to the
group of residue classes modulo n.
4. The groups D4 and Q8 . There are only two non-commutative non-isomorphic groups of order
8. Number of isomorphic groups of order less than or equal to 8.
Group - B (20 Marks)
(Linear Programming)
1. L.P. models e.g., product mix model and diet model. Standard form of LP. Geometry of LP.
Geometrical solution in case of two dimensional variables. Feasible region, feasible solution and
basic feasible solution.
2. Hyperplanes and half spaces. Convex set, polyhedral sets, boundary points and extreme points,
convex hull, simplex and related theorems. Reduction of a F.S. to a B.F.S.
3. Theory of simplex method. Feasibility and optimal.ity conditions. Simplex algorithm. Artificial
variable, big-M method.
4. Two phase method, Degeneracy in L.P.P. and its resolution. revised simplex method.
5. Duality Theory.
6. Transportation and Assignment problems. Mathematical justification for optimality criterion.
Hungarian method.
9

## M313 (50 Marks)

Group - A (30 Marks)
(Dynamics of a Rigid Body)
1. Moment and product of inertia. Principal axes. Momental ellipsoid. Determination of moments
and products of inertia of simple bodies, composite bodies.
2. Motion of a rigid body. Momentum equation. Motion of centre of mass and motion about centre
of mass. Energy and momentum integrals.
3. Equation of motion of a rigid body about a fixed axis. Energy and momentum integrals under
finite and impulsive force. Compound pendulum.
4. Equations of motion of a rigid body moving in two dimensions. Expression for kinetic energy
and angular momentum about the origin of rigid Motion of rods and circular disck.
5. Two dimensional impulsive motion. Carnots theorems. Fixture problem. Ballistic pendulum.
Group - B (20 Marks)
(Game Theory)
1. Decision making and conflict. Rectangular games. Two-person and zero-sum game. Pure
strategy and Mixed strategy. Saddle point and its existence. Optimal strategy and value of the
gane. Maximum and minimax solution. Necessary and sufficient condition for a given strategy
to be optimal in a game. Concept of Dominance. Fundamental Theorem of Rectangular games.
Algebraic method. Graphical method and Dominance method of solving Rectangular games.
Inter-relation between the theory of Games and L.P.P.
M314 (50 Marks)
Group-A (50 Marks)
(Real Analysis- II)
1. Riemann Integration for bounded functions: Partition of an interval and refinement of a partition. Upper Darboux sum and Lower Darboux sum and associated results. Upper Riemann
(Darboux) integral and Lower Riemann (Darboux) integral. Darbouxs theorem. Necessary
and sufficient conditions of R-integrability. Classes of Riemann Integrable functions. Riemann
Sum: Alternative definition of integrability. Equivalence of two definitions. Integrability of sum,
product, quotient, modulus of R-integrable functions. Sufficient condition for integrability of
composition of R-integrable functions.
Z x
Function defined by definite integral
f (t) dt and its properties. Primitive or Indefinite
a

Integral. Properties of definite integral. Definition of ln x(x > 0) as an integral and deduction
of simple properties including its range. Definition of e and its simple properties. Fundamental
theorem of Calculus. First Mean Value Theorem of Integral Calculus. Second Mean Value
Theorem of Integral Calculus (both Bonnetts form and Weierstrass form). Theorems on method
of substitution for continuous functions.
2. Sequence and series of functions defined on a set ( R): Pointwise and uniform convergence.
Cauchy criterion of uniform convergence. Dinis theorem on uniform convergence. Weierstrass
M-test. Boundedness. Continuity, Integrability and differentiability of the limit and Sum functions in case of uniform convergence.
3. Power Series: Fundamental theorem of Power Series. Cauchy Hadamard theorem. Uniform
and absolute convergence of Power Series. Properties of sum function. Abels limit theorem.
Uniqueness of power series having same sum function. Exponential, logarithmic and trigonometric functions defined by Power Series and deduction of their salient properties.

10

4. Improper Integral: Range of integration, finite or infinite. Necessary and sufficient condition for
convergence of Improper Integral in both cases. Tests of convergence: Comparison and -Test.
Absolute and nonabsolute convergence - Corresponding Tests. Beta and Gamma functions
their convergence and inter-relations. Statement of Abels and Dirichlets Tests for convergence
of the integral of a product. Uniform convergence of Improper Integral by M-Test.
5. Definite Integral as a function of a parameter: Differentiation and Integration with respect to the
parameter under the integral sign Statements of some relevant theorems and simple problems.
6. Fourier Series: Trigonometric Series. Fourier co-efficients. Statement of Dirichlets conditions
of convergence. Half-range series, sine and cosine series.
7. Double Integral: Concept of Upper sum, Lower sum, Upper Integral, Lower Integral and Double Integral. Statement of Existence Theorem for continuous functions. Change of order of
integration. Triple integral. Transformation of double and triple Integrals (Problems only).
8. (a) Function of Bounded Variation (BV): Examples of functions of BV which are not continuous
and continuous functions not of BV. Statement of a necessary and sufficient condition for
a function to be of BV on [a, b].
(b) Rectification of Plane Curves: Definition of Rectifiable Curve. A plane curve = (f, g)
is rectifiable if and only if f and g be both of bounded variation. Simple examples on
determination of length of curves. Intrinsic equation of a curve.
M315 (50 Marks)
Group - A (25 Marks)
(Mathematical Statistics)
1. Population and sample. Cumulative graph and histogram. Sample characteristics. Sampling
distribution. 2 , t and F distribution.
2. Statistical Estimation. Maximum like;yhood function. Interval estimation.
3. Bivariate samples. Sample correlation co-efficient. Least square curve fitting, regression lines.
4. Gaussian theory of errors.
5. Hypothesis testing. Neyman-Pearson theorem. Likelihood ratio testing.
Group - B (25 Marks)
(Numerical Analysis)
1. Introduction to elements of Fortran 2003.
2. Numerical solution of equations: Determination of real roots: Bisection method. Regula-Falsi
method and modification, Secant method, Newton-Raphson methods, their geometrical significance. Fixed point iteration method.
Complex roots: M
ullers method.
3. Errors in Numerical computation: Approximational and errors in numerical computation.
4. Interpolation: Problems of interpolation, Weierstrass approximation theorem (only statement).
Polynomial interpolation. Equispaced arguments. Difference table. Deduction of Newtons
forward and backward interpolation formulae. Statements of Stirlings and Bessels interpolation
formulae. Error terms. General interpolation formulae: Deduction of Lagranges interpolation
formula. Divided difference. Newtons General Interpolation formula (only statement). Inverse
interpolation.
5. Interpolation formulae using the values of both f (x) and its derivative f (x): Idea of Hermite
interpolation formula (only the basic concepts).
11

6. Numerical Differentiation based on Newtons forward & backward and Lagranges formulae.
7. Numerical Integration: Integration of Newtons interpolation formula. Newton-Cotes formula.
Basic Trapezoidal and Simpsons 1/3 rd. formulae. Their composite forms. Weddles rule (only
statement). Statement of the error terms associated with these formulae. Degree of precision
(only definition).
8. Numerical solution of a system of linear equations: Gauss elimination method. Iterative method
- Gauss-Seidal method. Matrix inversion by Gauss elimination method (only problems - up to
3 x3 order).
9. Numerical solution of Ordinary Differential Equation: Basic ideas, nature of the problem. Picard, Euler and Runge-Kutta (4th order) methods (emphasis on the problems only).
M321 (50 Marks)
Introduction to MATLAB
1. Constants, Variables, Operators, Functions, Relationals expressions, Data input and output,
Matrices and Matrix operations, In-built functions.
2. Looping, User defined functions.
3. Handling systems of linear equations and eigensystems.
4. Solution of non-linear equations.
5. Differentiation and Integration.
6. Solutions of ODEs.
7. Graphics (2D and 3D).
8. Curve fitting.
9. Handling optimization problems.
10. Applications of symbolic toolboxes.
M322 (50 Marks)
Group-A (25 Marks)
(Metric Space)
1. Definition and examples of Metric Space. Neighbourhoods. Limit points. Interior points. Open
and closed sets. Closure and Interior. Boundary points. Subspace of a Metric Space.
2. Suquences and their convergence. Cauchy Sequences. Completeness. Cantor Intersection Theorem. Construction of real number as the completion of the incomplete metric spaces of rationals.
3. Functions from a metric space to another one, their continuity. Some necessary and sufficient
condition for continuity. Uniform continuity.
4. Compactness in metric space. Continuous functions on compact metric spaces.
5. Concept of connectedness. Connectedness is preserved by continuity.
Group - B (25)
(Modern Algebra - III)
1. Simple Group: Definition and Examples. Theorems related to simple group.

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2. Sylow Theorems: Conjugacy class. Class equation. Class equation for the group S3 . Cauchys
theorem. pgroups. psubgroups. First, Second and Third Sylow Theorems. Applications of
Sylow Theorems.
3. Ideals and Quotient Rings: Proper ideal. Principal ideal. Quotient ring. Nil ideal. Nilpotent
ideal.
Maximal, Prime and Primary ideal: Definitions and Examples. Related theorems.
M323 (50 Marks)
Group - A (30 Marks)
(Hydrostatics)
1. Fluid, perfect fluid. Density and specific gravity.
2. Fluid pressure. General equations of equilibrium. equipressure surfaces. Uniformly rotating
heavy fluid.
3. Equilibrium under gravity. Thrust of heavy homogeneous fluid on a rigid plane surface and on
a rigid curved surface. Thrust of heavy hetrogeneous fluid.
4. Centre of pressure. Examples of circle, ellipse, rectangle and triangle.
5. Equilibrium of a floating body. Centre of buoyency. Stability of equilibriuim. Metacentre.
6. Equilibrium of gaseous bodies.
Group - B (20 Marks)
(Graph Theory)
1. Graph. Vertex. Edge. Finite and Infinite Graphs. Isolated Vertex. Pendant Vertex. Null
Graph.
2. Isonlorphism. Subgraphs. A Puzzle With Multicolored Cubes. Walks, Paths, and Circuits.
Connected Graphs, Disconnected Graphs, and Components.
3. Euler Gtaphs. Hamiltonian Paths and Circuits. The Traveling Salesman Problem.
M324 (50 Marks)
Group - A (25 Marks)
(Math Logic and Ordered Algebraic Systems)
1. Partial order relation. Lattice. Lattice of subgroups of a group. Distributive lattice. Modular
lattice.
Boolean Algebra: Complemented distributive lattice. Examples(the set of positive divisors of a
positive number etc.). Equivalnce with Huntington Postulates for Boolean Algebra. Algebra of
sets and Switching Algebra as examples of Boolean Algebra.
Statement of principle of duality. Disjunctive normal and Conjunctive normal fonns of Boolean
Expressions. Design of simple switching circuits.
2. Formal logics: Statements. Symbolic representation.
Axiomatic System. Classical propositional logic. Theorems. Proofs. Truth tables. Tautologies.
Contradictions. Algebraic completeness theorem for classical propositional logic.
Group - B (25 Marks)
(Theory of Numbers)
1. Congruences, Linear Congruences. Statement of Chinese Remainder Theorem and simple problems, Theorem of Fermat. Muitiplicative function (n).
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## 2. Prime power moduli, Prime modulus.

3. Primitive roots and power residues.
4. Congruences of degree two, prime modulus.
5. Diophantine Equations: solution of equations of the form ax + by = c.
M325 (50 Marks)
(Computer-based Numerical and Statistical Computing)
Numerical Analysis:
1. Numerical Solution of Equations: Algorithms and C-programs for finding a real root of an
equation by Bolzano bisection method, Regula falsi method, Fixed point iteration method,
Newton Raphson method.
2. Numerical Solution of a System of Linear Equations: Algorithms and C-programs for solution
of a system of linear equations by Gauss elimination method, Gauss-Seidel method
3. Interpolation: Algorithms and C-programs for computing a difference table. Algorithms and
C-programs for interpolation by Newtons forward interpolation formula, Newtons backward
interpolation formula, Stirlings interpolation formula, Bessels interpolation formula, Lagranges
interpolation formula, Newtons divided difference interpolation formula.
4. Numerical Differentiation: Algorithms and C-programs for numerical differentiation using Newtons forward and backward formula.
5. Numerical Integration: Algorithms and C-programs for numerical integration by Trapezoidal
rule and Simpsons 13 rule.
6. Numerical Solution of ODE: Algorithms and C-programs for numerical solution of an ODE by
4th order Runge-Kutta method.
Statistics:
1. Sample Characteristics: Algorithms and C-programs for finding different sample characteristics
like mean, variance, coefficient of skewness, etc.
2. Bivariate Samples: Algorithms and C-programs for correlation coefficient and regression lines.
3. Curve Fitting: Algorithms and C-programs for fitting a straight line and a parabola to a bivariate
data by least-square method.

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