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CC607 WATER AND WASTE WATER ENGINEERING

CREDIT HOUR(S) : 2.0


COURSE TOPIC

COURSE ASSESSMENT

1.0 Water Resources And Quality


2.0 Usage And Demand Of Water
3.0 Water Treatment
4.0 Water Distribution System
5.0 Sewerage System
6.0 Sewage Treatment

CONTINUOUS ASSESSMENT 50%


a. 2 Quiz 10%
b. 2 Test 30%
c. 2 Other Assessment 20%
d. 2 Practical 40%
FINAL EXAMINATION 50%

EN. WAN AHMAD FAIZAL B. WAN ABDULLAH


ENVIRONTMENTAL LABORATORY (F8B)

1.0 WATER RESOURCES AND QUALITY

4 HOURS of
LECTURE = 2
WEEKS

1.1 the sources of water supply


the importance of water usage
the sources of water supply
a. surface water resources : rivers, lakes, reservoirs / dams
b. ground water resources : well/boring

1.2 water quality characteristics


physical characteristics: Turbidity, taste and odor, color, temperature
chemical characteristics: pH, acidity, alkalinity, hardness, chlorides,
sulphates, iron, solids and nitrates
biological characteristics: coliform, virus, bacteria and protozoa
1.3 the causes of water contaminant
human impact results in a fresh water reduction and water quality degradation.
1.4 legislative framework
legislative framework, regulatory bodies and company policies that
control abstraction licensing, recreation, farming and use of catchment area.

TOPIC 1 : WATER RESOURCES AND QUALITY


1.1 Sources Of Water Supply
a) water as part of important resource in the environment.
Water resource

Water disposal to
river/stream

Raw water treatment

Sewage water
treatment

Water distribution
system

Sanitation /
sewarage system

b ) the importance of water management in water supply system.


i. Health and diseases control (from water borne diseases)
ii. To achieve balance between demand and supply
iii. Safe, cheap, quality, efficient through technologies and
management
iv. Sustainable for future generation

c)

Water usage classification


i. basic uses: drinking, cooking, cleaning and washing
ii. general uses: Plantation and Agriculture, livestock. industries,
hydroelectric, domestic, commercial, public, Non Revenue Water
iii. Factors affecting domestic water use
1) climatic conditions
2) Socio-economic
3) Type of industry and commerce carried out
4) water quality and pressure in the pipe system
5) Cost of water meter installation and policy
6) The use of flushing toilets and sewerage systems
7) Public Awareness residents on waste

1.2 WATER CHARACTERISTIC


Why Important to know?
i. Raw water supply need to be treated before it can be
considered safe to be supplied to consumers.
ii. Produce clean water in terms of physical, chemical and
bacteria and safe for any use.
iii. Water supplied must be aesthetically acceptable, free of
suspended materials, smell & taste
iv. Processed for the supply of water must meet standards
set of Ministry of Health Malaysia.

1.2 WATER : PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS


i.

Taste and odor


Smelly/putrid considered contaminated
H2S come from decay of dead organisms and plants
Bad taste come from inorganic material and other organism

ii.

Color
Colorless considered clean
The colored water is considered dirty and harmful

iii. Turbidity
turbidity indicated the fine colloidal particulates that are
considered dangerous and there may be bacterial or viral
iv. Temperature
high temperature allows the existence of bacterial activity and can
affect water use
v.

Conductivity
shows the existence of dissolved solid
can reduce the aesthetic value of water

1.2 WATER : BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS


i.

Bacteria/germ/microbe
can cause fatal diseases
3 types aerobic, anaerobic, facultative
Aerobic use oxygen and reduce DO in water (increase BOD)

ii.

Algae
Very fine aquatic plants
Cause bad taste and odor to water
Reduce transparency of sun light
Too much alga indicates to many Carbon, Nitrogen, Phosphorus

iii. Virus
Parasite lives in the body
diseases polio, high fever, diarrhea, hepatitis
turbidity indicated the fine colloidal particulates that are considered
dangerous and there may be bacterial or viral (yes, they are hiding)
iv. Protozoa
Much bigger than bacteria and eat bacteria
Thus, reduce organic load
Too much, problems and too little, not efficient treatment

1.2 WATER : CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS


i.

pH

ii.

Affecting chemical process like chlorination


Affecting biological life like effectiveness of bacteria

Dissolved Oxygen

Bacteria need, to eat organic compound


Indicator low oxygen, high contamination

iii. Hardness

Because of ion Ca, Mg, Al, Fe, Mn


Problem like carbonate precipitate then clogging the pipe
Two types temporary and permanent
Temporary CO3-2 and HCO3-1, boiling and soda
Permanent SO4-2, Cl-1, NO3-2, soda

iv. Organic Compound

v.

Organism, plant, waste, sewage, dead, problems


Domestic, housing, feces,
Pesticides farm, health problems
THM chlorine + (humic + fulvic),

Nutrient
C,N,P industrial sewage, farm, detergent

NATIONAL STANDARD FOR WATER QUALITY


No.

PARAMETERS

UNIT

TREATED WATER QUALITY


GUIDELINE

RAW WATER

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

GROUP I
Total Coliform
E.Coli
Turbidity
Colour
pH
Residue Chlorine
Total Chlorine

MPN
NTU
TCU
unit
mg/L
mg/L

Absent
Absent
5
15
6.5 - 9.0
0.2 - 5.0
1

5000
1000
300
5.5 - 9.0
-

8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

GROUP II
Total Dissolved Solids
Biological Oxygen Demand
Chemical Oxygen Demand
Total Organic Carbon
Chloride
Anionic Detergent
Ammonia
Nitrate
Iron
Fluoride
Hardness
Aluminium
Manganese

mg/L
mg/L
mg/L
mg/L
mg/L
mg/L
mg/L
mg/L
mg/L
mg/L
mg/L
mg/L
mg/L

1000
250
1.5
10
0.3
0.4 - 0.6
500
0.2
0.1

1500
6
10
250
1
1.5
10
1
1.5
500
0.2

NATIONAL STANDARD FOR WATER QUALITY


No.

PARAMETERS

UNIT

TREATED WATER QUALITY


GUIDELINE

RAW WATER

21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

GROUP III
Mercury
Cadmium
Arsenic
Cyanide
Lead
Chromium
Copper
Zinc
Sodium
Sulphate

mg/L
mg/L
mg/L
mg/L
mg/L
mg/L
mg/L
mg/L
mg/L
mg/L

0.001
0.003
0.01
0.07
0.01
0.05
1
3
200
250

0.001
0.003
0.01
0.07
0.05
0.05
1
3
200
250

31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41

TRIHALOMETHANE
Chloroform
Bromoform
Dibromochloromethane
Bromodichloromethane
Selenium
Silver
Magnesium
Boron
Nickel
Mineral Oil
Phenol

mg/L
mg/L
mg/L
mg/L
mg/L
mg/L
mg/L
mg/L
mg/L
mg/L
mg/L

0.2
0.1
0.1
0.06
0.01
0.05
150
0.5
0.02
0.3
0.002

0.01
0.05
150
0.3
0.002

NATIONAL STANDARD FOR WATER QUALITY


No.

42
43
44
45
46
47
48

PARAMETERS

GROUP IV
Aldrin/Dieldrin
DDT
Heptachlor & Heptachlor Epoxide
Methoxychlor
Lindane (BHC)
Chlordane
Hexachlorobenzene

UNIT

TREATED WATER QUALITY


GUIDELINE

RAW WATER

mg/L
mg/L
mg/L
mg/L
mg/L
mg/L
mg/L

0.00003
0.002
0.00003
0.02
0.002
0.0002
0.001

0.00003
0.002
0.00003
0.02
0.002
0.0002
0.001

NATIONAL STANDARD FOR WATER QUALITY

1.3 The Causes Of Water Contaminant

Point Sources

the source of pollution can be detected.

It is easy to control.

For example, the discharge of sewage, effluent and


toxic waste into the water from residential, industrial
and farm animals.

1.3 The Causes Of Water Contaminant


Non Point Sources
the sources of pollution cannot be determined.

For example, pollution resulting from the opening of new


cities, agriculture, logging, construction and road building,
mining and disposal of solid and liquid waste.
Common sources of pollution are:
Surface runoff.
The transfer process of pollutants caused by rain.
Pollutants are carried from the natural state (decaying
plants), from farming activity (especially fertilizers which
contain phosphate) and livestock feces.

1.4 LEGISLATIVE FRAMEWORK


In Malaysia, there is a need to enhance understanding on the concept of water
governance.
This includes finding best practice in water management to achieve sustainable
water management.
The Federal agencies are responsible for the planning, research and
development of water resources,
State agencies are responsible for water supply infrastructure development
including financing, operation and maintenance.
The National Water Services Industry Commission (SPAN) was established to
enforce the Water Services Industry Act, 2006 to regulate the national water
services industry in terms of licensing, supervision and monitoring.
Offences
Land use violation
Littering /
Unauthorized Solid waste Disposal
Unlicensed blockages and diversions
Effluent discharge violations
Unauthorized discharge and abstraction

Enforcement Authority
Land Administrator / Local Authority
Local Authority
Land Administrator / Local Authority
Department of Environment / Local Authority
Land Administrator

The Importance In Predicting The Future Demand.


i. Efficient use and allocation of water

economic, ratio of output to input, meet demand

ii. Water provider benefits of demand reduction

a. energy saving for distribution, collection, treatment, expenditures


b. increase the availability of water for stream, wetlands, river
c. Save money both providers and users

iii. Legislative framework

a. Water conservation is a good policy for water resource management


b. Water agencies must have some water conservation responsibilities
c. However, it depend on an understanding of the national water resource
situation