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Block Diagram of Micro processor based Digital multi meter:

A Digital

Multimeter (DMM) is a precision

analog instrument used to measure AC and DC voltage, AC and DC
current, capacitance, and resistance.
Five system level blocks are common to bench DMM designs:
Signal Conditioning and A/D conversion of the input signal
Control and Data Processing
Memory/Peripheral devices
Power Management
Analog Front-End
Signals are initially passed through a signal conditioning subsystem which amplifies
or attenuates the analog signal in preparation for further conditioning, depending on whether
the measurement is AC volts, DC volts, current, or resistance. Precision amplifiers and analog
to digital converters are used to facilitate resolutions from 5 1/2 to 8 1/2 digits on modern

Bench DMMs offer dual, 7 segment displays. The PC is typically used to provide a
full-featured graphical user interface for bench DMMs.
Control and Data Processing
Executes measuring processes and controls interface with memory and peripheral
devices. The Digital Signal Processor (DSP) is used to linearize data from the ADC and
perform calibration. It also performs real-time analysis of acquired signals such as min/max,
averaging, and conversion to engineering units. Modern DMMs allow users to directly
measure temperature using a variety of sensors.
Memory/Peripheral Devices
Measurement results are stored in EEPROM or FLASH memory and can be uploaded
to a PC via USB, Ethernet, RS-232, or IEEE-488 (GPIB) interfaces.
Power Management and Conversion
Converts the input battery power to run various functional blocks. TI has a wide range
of products like amplifiers, ADCs, Power, Interface, and Processors to meet the requirements
of bench Digital Multimeter designers.
DMM measures AC, Voltage up to 20kHz which is a combination of a 5 digit
Multimeter, 10 Digit Counter and a Function Generator. The 5 digit, 80000 counts Multimeter
comes with an accuracy of 0.05% and a backlit multi-display. Auto Data Hold/Peak Hold,
auto/manual range setting, 23-segment bar graph updated 40 times per second, 36 hours
dynamic recording (Max/Min/Avg), timer for measurement and auto power off are few of its
features. Besides the measurements listed below, the diode and continuity tests are also
possible with the 81K. The device has the optional RS 232 port for communication and
recording capabilities.
The 81K comes with wide measuring options:
DC Voltage : 80mV to 1000V DC
AC Voltage (TRMS) :80mV to 750V AC
AC Voltage (Avg) : 80mV to 750V AC
DC Current : 80mA to 10A DC
AC Current (TRMS) :80mA to 10A AC
AC Current (Avg) : 80mA to 10A AC
Resistance : 800 Ohms to 80 MOhms
Frequency : 999.99 Hz to 1000.0 MHz
Capacitance : 1 nF to 100 uF
Decibel : -80.00 dBm to +80.0 dBm
Temperature :-50C to 1372

The 10-digit Counter generator can be set-up for time measurement from 1 second to 10
The in built Function Generator generates square waves of selectable frequencies and duty
cycles to assist users in circuit simulation.

Keyboard 2 may comprise a number of pushable or slidable buttons or switches which

correspond to various functions to be tested or various ranges within which the test ought to
be performed. Instead of a number of push buttons, toggle switches or pressure sensitive or
heat sensitive switches may be used. For example, the buttons or switches on the keyboard 2
may be individually marked with the particular function they control, such as VDC, for the
button or control which actuates the function of testing DC voltage; VAC for the button
which controls the function of testing for AC voltage, OHMS for the function which controls
the measurement of resistance of a device under test; CAP for the button which controls the

measurement of capacitance of a device under test, etc. In addition, buttons may be marked
with a series of numbers corresponding to the range within which measurements are taken.
The keyboard or keypad communicates with a programmable controller in the form of
a microprocessor through a communication line 4 (which may be a serial or parallel
connection well known in the art) to microprocessor 6. The microprocessor, which may be of
any suitable design, performs two main functions. Its first function is to display the results of
measurements taken using the multimeter on a display, communicated to display through a
communication line. Communication line may be a conventional parallel or a serial
connection, as desired and appropriate. Display which may be a liquid crystal display, or
another suitable display, or a printer of suitable design, which will display or print the results
of the measurements taken by the digital multimeter of the device under test. The display may
also be used to display error codes, low battery condition, faulty connection of leads to the
device under test, etc. Time of day and date may also be displayed on the display, if desired.
Microprocessor 6 performs a second function, and that is to receive information
through means to be described below from the device under test and to then display those
results. A connection or interface 12 connects the microprocessor 6 to a digital multimeter
circuit 14 which may be in the form of discrete circuit elements or of an integrated circuit.
The interface may be a parallel or serial connection, as desired and appropriate. The digital
multimeter circuit 14 performs the functions of receiving information in the form of data
corresponding to magnitude of a parameter (AC voltage level, for example) from a plurality
of test leads 15 and processing the data which are usually in analog form, and converting it
into digital form to be processed by the microprocessor 6. Thus, the magnitudes measured by
the digital multimeter circuit 14 are forwarded in a digital form over link 12 to the
microprocessor for processing. A power supply provides power to the
When a user pushes one or more of the buttons or keys on the keyboard, the
microprocessor will send an instruction word through the interface device 22 over line 12,
which may be 14 bit long word. Seven of the bits in the instruction word stored in latch 28
define the function which the digital multimeter is instructed to perform, such as taking a
voltage or a current measurement. The remaining seven bits of the instruction word contained
in latch 30 define the range within which the function is to be determined by the first seven
bits. The 14 bit word and the latches shown are for purposes of illustration only, and other
instruction words of different bit lengths are considered equivalent to the arrangement shown
and disclosed in this specification.
An Integrated Circuit tester (IC tester) is used to test Integrated Circuits (ICs). We can
easily test any digital IC using this kind of an IC tester. For testing an IC, we need to use
different hardware circuits for different ICs; like we need a particular kind of tester for testing
a logic gate and another for testing flip flops or shift register.

tester is
constructed using 8951 microcontroller along with a keyboard and a display unit. It can test
digital ICs having a maximum of 24 pins. Since it is programmable, any number of ICs can
be tested within the constraint of the memory available. This IC tester can be used to test a
wide variety of ICs which includes simple logic gates and also sequential and combinational
ICs like flip-flops, counters, shift registers etc. It is portable and easy to use.
The block diagram of the programmable digital IC tester consists of two 8951
microcontroller ICs, a 24-pin IC socket, a keyboard unit, a display unit and indicators.

To test a particular digital IC, one needs to insert the IC into the IC socket and enter
the IC number using the keyboard and then press the ENTER key. The IC number gets
displayed in the 7-segment display unit.

Four LEDs are provided as indicators. If the IC being tested is a logic gate, then each
of the 4 indicator LEDs correspond to the 4 gates of the IC. In any other case wherein the
inserted IC is not a logic gate, all the 4 LEDs work as a single indicator.
The programmable digital IC tester consists of two 8951 microcontroller. One is
called master and the other slave. The master controls the slave and the working of the
display and keyboard units. The slave IC is used for testing the IC inserted into the IC socket.
Out of the four ports available in the 8951, three ports port 0, port 1(Not all pins), port 2 are
connected to the 24 pins of the IC socket. Port 3 is used for parallel communication between
the slave and the master.
The keyboard and display units are interfaced with the master IC. Four indicators are
also connected to the master IC. When we feed the number of the IC being tested, the number
gets stored in the memory of the master IC and also gets displayed in the in the 7-segment
display. The display unit is connected to the lower pins of port 0 of the master IC. The
keyboard is connected to port 1 and the four indicators are connected to the port 1 of Slave
Parallel communication is used between the master and the slave. There are four data
lines and three control lines for transfer and control of data between the master and the slave.
Port 3 of the slave IC and port 2 of the master IC are used for parallel communication.
To test a particular digital IC, one needs to insert the IC into the IC socket and enter
the IC number using the keyboard and then press the ENTER key. The IC number gets
displayed in the 7-segment display unit. The IC number gets transferred to the slave using
parallel communication.
The process of parallel communication is as follows:
1. The slave sends a ready bit to the master IC when it is ready to receive data.
2. If the slave is ready, the master places the data on the data lines.
3. A control bit gets set as soon the master transmits the data.
4. The slave checks whether the bit is set, and then receives the data.
5. Another control bit gets set as soon as the slave receives the data.
6. A third control bit gets set whenever the slave is ready to accept another set of data.
As soon as the slave gets the IC number, it compares the IC number with the stored list and
then goes to the corresponding service routine. The service routine checks the particular IC.
Depending to the IC, it assigns some ports as input ports and some as output ports. It gives
the corresponding inputs and checks for the output according to the IC logic. If the output is
according to the IC logic, the slave sends the data to the master IC. If the IC is a logic gate,
then the data will consist of 4 bits, where each bit corresponds to each gate of the IC. In case
the IC is not a logic gate, the data consists of a single bit, which may be a 0 or a 1.
Corresponding to these four bits, the master sets or resets the lower port of P3, which is
connected to the indicators. Four LEDs are interfaced to the master IC as indicators. If the IC

is being tested is a logic gate, then each of the 4 indicator LEDs correspond to the 4 gates of
the IC. In any other case wherein the inserted IC is not a logic gate, all the 4 LEDs work as a
single indicator.
Using this IC tester, any digital IC can be tested provided its program is written. For a
particular IC, the corresponding program must be written in the slave. The total number of
ICs that can be tested using this IC tester, depends on the memory available in the slave. The
8951 microcontroller consists of a 4k ROM, using which around 150 ICs can be tested. To
test more number of ICs, a microcontroller with an 8k ROM can be used.
The keyboard is provided with a RESET button, which when pressed resets both the
microcontrollers and the 4 shift registers.
Display Unit:
The display unit is used to display the IC number. This unit consists of five common
anode 7-segment displays, five 7447 ICs(BCD to 7-segment converter) and four 74194
ICs(4-bit bidirectional universal shift register).
Here, the shift registers are used in parallel load (parallel in parallel out) mode. These
shift registers are used to shift the digits of the IC number. When the first digit is pressed, the
master recognizes it and places it in the lower pins of port 0. These four bits are connected to
the input of the first shift register and also to the input of the first 7447 IC. The 7447 is a
BCD to 7-segment converter, which converts the four input bits (BCD) to their corresponding
7-segment codes.
The outputs of the 7447 are connected to the 7-segment displays. Hence the first digit
gets displayed in the right-most 7-segment display. As the next number is typed in, the master
gives a clock pulse to the shift registers to shift the data. Then the master places the second
digit on the lower pins of port 0. Hence the new digit gets displayed in the right-most 7segment display and the previous digit gets shifted to the left.
IC Tester Types:
Digital IC tester
Linear IC tester
Universal IC tester
Digital IC tester:
Can test more than 300+ ICs
Tests wide range of Digital IC's such as 74 Series, 40/45 Series
24 pin DIP ZIF sockets.
Linear IC tester:
can test more than 600+ ICs
Tests a wide range of Analog IC's such as Op-amps, Timers, Transistor Arrays,
Analog switches, Opto- couplers, ADC, DAC, Voltage Regulator, etc
40 pin DIP ZIF socket.
Universal IC tester:
Can test more than 1500+ ICs

Tests a wide range of Digital IC's such as 74 Series, 40/45 Series, 8085, 8086,
Z80 ,8255, 8279, 8253, 8259, 8251, 8155, 6264, 62256, 8288, 8284
Tests a wide range of Analog IC's such as Op-amps, Timers, Transistor Arrays,
Analog switches, Opto- couplers, ADC, DAC, Voltage Regulator, etc
Tests 7- Segment display of common cathode & common anode type
Auto search facility of all Digital ICs