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b',y

Mehdi A.min Razavi

Ie" IU 0'70'- ",~ I '.. . ..' r\.£...,' ., r~[

'Fint p'u'blbhed in 99..7 by Ourz,oll Press

S~..John'8 Srudios'~ ChuflCh :R.oad--j Ric:hOO:Il.0:nd Surr,e'y'; 'nVQ1 2QA

© l.ggtj .Mehd"1 A~in ~

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All righE ts r,e'se',rv,ed. Nn, parl.'Qf d:ds. bO(lk. :m.I3.' be' repti'n:ted I~I' reproduced or u;ti1r~~ in any' form or by a'Jly @lecIl.iIDrlll'iJc.~. meehanieal, 01' other means, now ·:tnQWIQ: or p.e[t-mer in~IU~'led"indudf ng P'hQitocopying. and reeo ,ding" or '~n :an~ worma:t1on sto·~.l~ -or retrieval :S:y8''OOi-U~, wi.tbont permission in w.r:hing .([Om th pll:;lbUsJbers~,

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U/ir(Jcry ,oj' ~;cS:$. -in PUl1li('Q.tiflB Data,

A iZawogue :~eooro for' this book has. been reqaested

rs:BN '0-100"~4!n~,5 (h,p,k)

ISBN &"'007=0412--4 ,(pbk)

To

M,ary].ynn; Mitra and Arya

Contents

~ i!!.I"-

xra

MY

1... The Life aDd Works, (Wf Subrawatdli .4 .. Life

B~, hlteBeetuaJ. C:~nt.eXf

Ci 'WDiib;: A Su:rver iof SUhrrawu_."s, Works 1. Tlie .l'n;~f!di,fj']M;

f:!'. -The IOpP'(J~'fe£

.81. Tfz~ P'aJhs and dir: Cofi"vm'a!$'om ·4. Tiu P:~los.l} Q/.lll'u,mi1mti_ 5. TrMwe ,OU lZlumi~;j¥ __ n

10- ,I' iII~'MlL;,1o,']\h'I'i'~' B"~,J,;D.o~·

!II L!ll4tln~~"~W-1J1 .up~

'r. TaNets vj1mad lttJ:h1t ,S" TTMw;e ,o/the' Bi~

9- TJ:. .. j"'iIl., ~it i"'"'...,.,I&~ lJI'lI' 1'~'1.'

I, s ,f~ '~~4~~ ~.J ·1l.nnr;,;ic'I< S 'r'r·t,,'

'10" ~-"'l.=D~,..J f'~,jIi~iP.:~",~j;

. _ "Ill ~ ";U;J ,~ .j!·I,~',I1C?~L-'!-

.I I, A. ~ ,AM~r .t'ne Sufis '120' ,O;n, It~' S"'M~, ,of CkilfJlmmJ.

1:3. I~ 11M' &aliftj " l.:crlJe

'i-i~. ~ aM, SutPieanom

'15,. C~~"chWoo

2. CeDlll'all'Th~lDes I,. o nt'OIOIg:¥'

'~L Existen ee ~d Essence

,3, On Nec,es.sary :wd, ~[ujn:p'ru; 'Bemp 4:. Limit. and Inll'fJfwty

,5" Goer's Exi5ten!ee-·

tl Self~·~0.,,1fV lJ)~-n-bl~-ml

_I. _ 'r'. - uV.u~- ,Ii iI' v .. ~\ __

1. 11. [5

1 '9J

]l

11 :I3 14 15 ]5 17 '2(t

21 22 23 24 25 25

31 31 33 35,

36 37 39

'.

IX

,suh~:waroi '~nd ~h,~ School e;f' I Ol!l1m,~na'ti()n 7" lJife' ,Mt-er :Deareb

I., Lo,girc

s. A.ngr:eloJ~ io. ,Physics

I" Psychology 12. ,ischB:wloU\l"

w \~l.J

IJS. aikmat w., Phil.osop,h,r

,9~ Pmd!ll'lIi SmlSlD,

1.., SuhFa~d~"s 'V:is.f.on

'2. On the N:a~u~e' '0:£ Moo)'

a On. me' Spruri.t:q(ud J Q'Umey ja:nd &fedSidsm 4. 'U'ni:t}rand the Flnal Abooe

4-;; Plil~S9phi~al Slili ..

1, -e On 'Ligh~ and lQ Va:dedelS~ 2" }\ng:elo1ogy

,3,~ Tb,e; Arther;yp,al World;' Mu,~ils' Imagjntilics 4. VisiGft

,5,. VisiQn, and En'~nelc:rio.n ·6,. Rnowl,ed__g:e and Presence'

A,., Ep_em.lolog

1." Kngwl,ed~~e b;f'DefinhioR

2~ ,KruJ.wl,edge by Sense '1l?~r-c'ep~.ruon s. 'Knowledge 'Th:rou:g'~ Innate Ideas

4~ ,g'!ll:hr.aw,anli ~ ,Ph ilooo,phy of E,pJlste'm'Qlogy

B lIl"i...~lIli1Ji..l!l1iP!:I-~ 'D....~_ - -~ _ ~ JIUl.IlV'R·~~U,t!f!~ 1U:1' ,c.'J~R~

1. ~ iH;gum,en,rs frem ~'EI IT~~' Dien'fJ1[;Qrtly

7l:" Argum,e;n.'ts from Pr'~O,gn,hiv;e M,(d,e of

:Kr:tuwled1ge -

3~ Ar-gu'me:o.'Cs from Atltrci'butea, ,4., IC'ooclusi!~1l

,[i., Practical C,c)nsequen~eSi ,o.f a Phnosophi£al, :Historica~, i\nal.ysis

16,. ,A, Crltici~ Ana~s, Qf'Kn,owled~,'e by 'Presell.'Ge

5~ 'Title lDfI.eMe .of .Suhtawanf:l roll .:I"'~. PlUl~

A~ T,1Ie Greater' ::Persia

1L :[~h.mqi Ph U!o8!Qp.:hy Before the $J~:h00:~, of lsfilhan 2" ScboQl of ]-,:taha,n

3., Suhrawardi md 'Multi Sadri,

" - • - - -- . - . -'Il -.,,-

4.. The Q~ja>r Perlod

'CionJtenu 5" 5,~ykhi"ab Smool

i6" Conkmporn:ry Period B~, lID,llia,

C .. S~d.l m, Spia and, AJlatola, D,~ 8'.~di in, the West

6", Ce:neb(ldiug Remm:b,

7" ,Appendix.: ,A, Translaeion of the T,~x[ and Go:mmentary of 'the' Cluuzl: fJl'~ j; \rVi~'

B,~bliog~phy

41 44 ,45,

4"7 ,48

49 6@

es 51 6~ 65 12

'8, '8, ~n fill' Sil' go.

rJO 91 g,~,

96, 00,

']0'0' ],@2

Jijf&

:ItO" lOB,

110

1111 11.3

12~I 122 12! 12:4

12'8 13{)

1 'L21;

IK'~

135. 137 la~l 140

146,

15'0' 1,6tl,

I. ~I, tEa]]S:l~:tiO'n;s; are miiu~ unless otherwise &tj![ood.

:2'. 'Di~CRti~ marks are ,~"H¥Jrr prnaced iOn t~'~Eol~o'WlTI(g: 'wor{Ws ,~~nce 'W~ are repealtt@d 'fi:rroug::htltu't th~ 'WoOf, It: Suh:f',ocwa~l} [S'hl',aq!. Sufi,. :DiafJ;i~c mal'h, ha~e' n'o~ been ffillac:ed on tbe name oi d.ti!e!i~ ;Q,.(fl~ifit'ties i:ilnd

d:yn;~sties., e-

3. ,A.U dates are give.[]! flrst i n I~lu:~ Islamic calendar year ,(oUQ,wed bJ tb~

(:.orr~moin -era,. .

I am ,~ndet.wdJ to P;no:fe'ssot Sg-Y,Ye-d H'Q!i~ebiJ N';3;Sr f.or h~_s ~~mmen H, aad .gu:ida~,ce and, Ms~ JacqueHnrg ,g:ralQve for .:r.eading the manu-

~ ,01 -. ..411 - ·d"' ,. li-.,..lli>·! .' . ~i "i l.l ... .'!II

,.,cnpt. ana p-mvl·-'mg m,,€ ~t.,! el:Jm:tQr,ru~1 :sugge~MriODS, ,J! wou "-IdJJJSO

like to express my app~ec~atitln roo Lee ,Joan n a. H'a~.r and Jasc.ft Cbipma:n for 'lihe:ir a$s~$Uflc:e' and Cindy To om~y and :Ha:t.rlet ·S:re11iDml fer their- ~d:minis;[r,a.d,w su.ppOl"t-.,

c

XUl

s

This 'wor.k discusses tbe mystical dimoo$Le,n of Sldbib al-,Din Ya~, Snhrawardi, the pniiosQ:pner",mystic ;a:n[d), 'th,e ~Qunde.r of the School of .Illumination (iihtafi) in th~ tta' ,-Ij,d'oll, of' Islamic philosoph¥~

SUhrawar.di is one ,Qf the m.'Qst b1dluendal flgures in the: b iswry of Islamic pftUo50pby- ~ because ,of the ,sig ifican,ce of his in teJlec1., tual con tri butlon s and. because of the :hn.pac t 'b e bad, o.n his SUO,C\CS--, sees, in :piU1ie~Iaf later I$~ami~ .phUasophy 'which €'llllminaJted in the

'"S 'h 1- if-' I .:r. 'L, ",

,~"cl ,~O() 01 _ 8:r,3J1j' n "

Desphe rhle existing' divemity ,f ,mteUeG:wa! inquiries, within ]s"Ja;mwhic'h, ran"ge from 'the ratilOnaJisuc philosophy OIf tiU!' peri-

oatencs (masIuJUj'if)1 and the' mtelectual intuition of 'the i Imn~' uationists, (isA~) Ul the :a.satic and in-n,er jaumey of the' Suti$~ .,e.~m have been few 'phitoso~he_(;S wito 'have made an, ,attempt to synthesize, these diverse' sChools' of thought i to a unified, phlo-, s'op: I lical patad;,fpll~,

.Armihllk'MUbam_mad ibn Slllibib ai-Din Suhmwud~., dle Penia:~ :phiosopher of the 6/12 [cenrury and, an advocate lof wbat. he e~Ued, tIiI'aJlQCfJl wlsdom jj (~I tJl.., ~atiq)~ made an attempt Ira tmiff variom sehools of M_sd.om io ,000,e'X' to demonstrate the unieersal uudl 'wat JFes, I!t the heart ofaJ1,divine'1'.' reveale.dreligiooi.. Unlike earlier Sufis

...:11 • ~ 1 ... '11 S' rdi ~ . d th hi:' h~ ~'iI

ane gnost!CS In ~.am_,u )'nl.'Wa!'- - mamtame" l ~n:at Pi -uosop [ iCw.

dlseeurse 'WaS ,3. necessary ttaming: for tl;:i,QSe s~ang 'to punue the path ,ofilluminartiollJ,. Thlswas qnite,revolDtio'na;ry since Sutl;s rejecEe(l radonalispc :phUosopbyas eKempufied by dl'@ Peripa:relics'wh,Q in turn :R!irocred SUfism. The s1_pdfiemre O'f Su'hm-wattli becomes, mare' clear whm be is vi'ewed as a gnos!tic who advocares born, phU6SO:pbicai] discourse an4 asce'ljj[c~~m as an essential part of 'the path of illu w •• H' I ., ~ '!] f . h 1 U;lmi:na'bon. ,,[If! ill Sf) mecrporates 'WIlOUS erements 'loom sue·

'trn.ruJtions, of wisoom, as the Egyptiians,. IG'f[eeks and P', rs:)a;gs in order'

Suibf3iWBlrdw and the School of I ~'h.lmuuuion

'to bring at rapprochement between rationa l,s:tic philesophy, ineellecmal in(lwdon and :practhcal 1YiJsddm.

The foremost dH~fi"ctd[y in wtidn_g on Slfhtawa,roi's school o.f inumln:~diDn~ as, 'with an Y 'v,isionary mystic.! philosopher ~ ,':8: 'to find t.he qualified :person whol can comment f170m a', , insider's point of vh~'w~ The heart nfthe visional."Y.,2's brand of mysti,cism" is rug have an, intuitive knowledge e:f or .an inner experience ot. trueh. '8y definition, then, commentators and authors of such a work would be. 'qualiJied, to. explain this, inner experience ~f th~y C~:A, relaee to this message an an experiential basis ,ana th refore can speak as an ~ ~'d

~nS1L- er ..

Tbe above poses. a. problem for this :a,UithtpT s.1o,ce' on one hand, I am to comment 0(0 a, philosopher /mysd>E whose though ts ha\f;€ drawn and, en:gaged me for.a number orrears., whUe on, the' o'theT' bmd I do not stand. M1!hin [be .iUuminado:n,wst. tnuHtion. of the' Ithnin,lo~ "\\f.orld ofl~hts , arngems" a:n:bl!types and th i~lercoftne~te .', web o:f idleas rhalt Subra'Watdi 'pU'm :fomrard. In, f~,et~ SWlrawaoo" goes 50' far as to tG'U us mat unless, one has ~ted for fo~' dtaYSJ' 'he Will n'o~ understand hIs m:aJor work, J:lik11tat ,(J./t.isli'tiiIJ (Tke PhiltJsopkJ l!! DJuminatWrt) + An insIght ·ofdle '~!Uminous'we'rld QfSuh~:i thereeore',-, is .no~ at ~r~ive' 'qpdoo,'~ for me, to use WdUamJal1mlteS~' term ..

This, vohime presents not so much a discussion ,conoerning the vaIidhy or soundness @I[ Suhrawardi s spe<:i, :IJC idleas. 'but an expesi'I1QD of dlt;. 'm~ticam d.imcnslOft; of Ids rather br-oad and wIi'ed Khoal of though.t As an outside m a, school 'of" thought whese ·thros,t lfe'maJns "the attairnnen[ (i):f truth th:roo,~h :Q. spe~ial motile 01 ,cognition, all an author can do. is to e-Jlrage' himself in a close t.extual analysis. and attempt to. put 'them. ~,R coherent and weU, deineo concepts. It is. toward_s this. aim Yihlcil '] have €Im'barked upen an exegesis 'of ~riQus\ symbo;~s 'used in Suhmward 's my,sti€al nalultiv.es as w~u as ~be decod'ing oflhe dense ~aDgua,l"e whi"cb, he uses tokeep the 'e50le;ric seeress :from those who are n'Qt a m,gog: tb.e "brothers in purity~i,

Tile pre.'~nl worl~, dl,erefQT'e" und~rta"k;es, a srutly of the m,ysd.cw dlMensio.n of S'uhrawa'rdi" S Ehaugh t. b. is ~:mper-ative to neee tha{t whUe my8d~1sm remai"1IJ}s () ·.'e. of rhe s~dien t features ,ofSu l raw,ard.i 's phnosop,:hica'~ scboolj he W,3SI not au'y' a Std.i nor W~$ 'His Bo'hoo! of th.oll__ght 'only tnys ti cal. Suhraward:i w--as, a (~yS(eJtl builder and, like' many stReln, of the same stamre (i.,6". Ibn ,sini)~ .hle co'm'ments on 'vminus. traditi,otJ;al phi~,0S0:ptnj'~caJ IOp~>aj i.,t,., merap,h.ysics'I' o.lltO:logy~, episle.mololY~ logtc" ,et,c.,

.

XVI

Introdu, a,on

'If h 'he L,,,;,,. d·' ,. .,;L, h 11

m recent rears t'" ere ,'- as neen a. ,,'~'ISCnS51:0n ;among me sci -oJars

of Su,hr-awa'['di as to the true nature of his ·teKhings an d tb:le nature'

f hi ·C' _.:a,;;.. I-'~I h '~I' h Th d~

0_ ; rs spec.l'~:~c 'COIll,tn'uUUOllS 10 I spml£ P' l.w,OSlOp"y~ ., ese _ - :~~

a h I d - theet f' h d~ ~~ ,.

cusstons . ave iec to t, e emerg,ence 0 t aree « istmct inter-

p,retaoons of Suhrawardian phi'~ooophy.. Bef,(,));\(: e'mha~kiQg' on. an, ,€x'potiOen ,and, an,alys.is of Submwardi's myst'l(:al ideas, it :~s n.e c essary to briefly'dbcuss, thes--e trends since' it ~rill en able us' to pi ace me mys:tlcall!bo'UghB, of Suh:rnwardi in an appropriate een text.

- ~ S .... ~~:_A'\I'&f_"'n-r'lI "T"lL~ ._0'-. '-IGI'~- C' .T, .... 'k.T,F

I!I _!U,~·T".4ft.ILI .a..II"ILEI .L._ ,',_ , .Ln!£'!!11~

This view~ :primari ~' held ~y H,., Zii'~i!,;1 argUr~s that the sali1ent feanrre ofSuhrawa'rdii)s phHoli -,,;by is .his P'eri,piate:tic ~itin,g5 and inparticular h-isl eemmentaries on logic. 'and his icrithlue of rr;ll,e perip ale'~ic vi,ew of' d ~'nl dii"!l.n as a means of eo {lrft' d t-:iO'- 'Z' ~i li . ~~'I'ho

.. .,~ -w, ._- ._ ~~,l_,~. __ ,,,,_.., . --, - _ .... _ ~ ~., _~ '_" ~ 'lI'!J' , .'

considers the nen-Perie ,at.etic writ~ngs of S--u'hr.awa'ro,h to 'be of secondary value h~dly ever refers to his rnY$,tic::d t.ulrr:aLd~s\.

.... J<',. - j!'.~ '. • f e h dl·' th h - 'h

~Ia~, ,8 tDl,te.mrel:at~on 0 H,:)U rawan .IS, t OUOl'iI. ts miller narrow'

-'r t'Ji

and does ~no:t present the comprehensive nature of 8t-ihr~awaf.dr,s,

philosop hy 'of ,iUumina;tlo.ll as one' ~'~\ at ;~s :inchJs,1ve of latioa;alil~;-ti£

h ·'111 'ilhnr b '.. 1··..:1' ' icnhil h I d

P 1~6S0p~:Ii:, . ut IS, "Jot Imlteq_, to pe'r1p:~u:ebc P,l oso,py... ::.0' not

'wish to provide an e~tensl.'Ve response 00 the above vi,ew but this mnch should ~u___ffi£ie:, m,at everlil. a hri:ef !ex"aminatjon of the' corpus of Suhrawardi's w:Jdn,gs reveals tRe' extent to which he lV;enl b.eyo.;nd the f.;h-iQn3\bJe philosephleal school of his tlme, 'namely the sort of lofP,c~d, a,~udy&~s. that was carried out 'by 'the Per..ipateti'c.s~ Furthermore, to! ignor.~ the vast body ('If Suhr.awardi'~ ,my.;:tit:p} na'ITad~-s :am~ iguo\fi'es, the reason he wrote these mY-Sheil treatises, If SuhnlWmrd:i, did not oon$i~ them to be necessary, ae w·o:uld. not

'Ii _ ~_AII .,'t.. ... 'L. . .L. O. - ,~,...:Ii ., ~

nave c€)m.po~ uiemWlIUJ NUC-\JjJ!. care 'Or ,glV ]1 repeatea mstrucuons

to his companions to saiegu.ard, IChem.. The m'ysucaJ nar:ratives, OJf SNbra:w,3'f'di should be re,gard~d as :pa'ft and parcel of the dOClrlne OIf " Iluminaeicn and it Is m such treatises that be offers.' the second component of the iSkcmq,i school of dlough1t. :oamely PJ~eti(:~t'I wisdo,m, something that the above in,te1pJ'etB.tlon comp'ietely igllores.

D S··T'III'D.I,'1'&r.;.t,''illkhT THE, NE' I'~ A' '1nc- 'i~I1JIii.TNn'AU

... ' 'U~:''f;~J. ' I _- __:_ _ :_ ,~.u" ,,",Ill ~~ ",uti,"I~

The view :held. by 8-0 IDe of die prominent smolan. of f.slam~c phil'&-

'~h h M hd- H" -,_ t· ~ d S' '. d J 1.=..'11 'II D~' i·,""t,... - -

sop ,'y sue ,- Q ,': ,e ,',~, ~ ~ :tn an._ _ 'c, ayyI,-,' .:i;lm :all,- ,In ~u t~yanl,~

re,gar.qks Su.hr.a:w:al"d~ as a pbi1.osophe'r- who :re,ma~ns ,esse'- tiaJlly

,. ~

XV:lil

Suhrawa~di and he· &hooj Qf r uminatioil

wi.tbin tile Ibn Sinian phUosophl,ca.'l domain despite b.is, j nao-

wd.ons andl 4eviauons fflam the Peripa.tetk view -

A nee-Ibn S:i !l~nr'Clad:img of Suhrawartii takes a broader look at his phi~oPohy and considers, bOth Su,brarwardi!'s commentaries on logic aflI!d. me'~aphysic$ ;and h ls ishf'aq:i''Wl'i'liD(g~ to 'be' of great philowphical s:ignifiJcane,e+ Suhrawanii ae'co.min.,gly is :re,pm,ed 'as, OD,e who by d·favdnf'f~7o.m. varina.s scurees, inrerpn,'::ts-. bn S.ni from: ill, 'N,eoplatonic lIiew pomt, thereby s¥Qthesizing Aristotie, P']~lO~ ·Pythagoreans and. H'Nm.eticlsm~

The above vi,ew· i.n. my opinion is, 'mote wl"dtban the 'PM'eWous one but. it too ]atiks. emphasis, 00 '~be mysd.cal wr.itin.gs of Suhr;a~, 'wan:U. SU,··D notiens as th,_· au.aiJnment of knowledge lhro1:1,gh mystic1allex.pe~d€=n~e and 5uhraw,ardi' 8 expncit empba.sis on asceticism as a nee~s.s.a'((y c'Qmponent of punuin~g the 'wisd-omi of 11 umination is, too lotrlen :igno\red .by a; neo-Ibn Slnian in~JPrem.don of Suh~award'\. Propenents of this· interpre'latioft" too do not pay the . att·en tion ~haJt m.e Persian wridngs of Sub rawa.f(b deserve" <ofteR. regar-ding them. or ly- as fine works of llte·Ja[ur,e,. The mystical naNatives of Sttltrawardi presen.t in a mctaphDnc .. llan,lJ,uage ilha;t w11ri,Gh the' 1 a:ngua;ge' sf ra,tiiona is tic phn,Qsof"hy ,pflen fails to ach:ie·ve. 'EMD Ibn Sini himself re:Ues.. 011 'th,e. use of Ell ~ymbo lIe :!a.nm1J"a,~ in "his vtsioina:fI;V [~citals, to, p"rop .. orrate certain c·hUo-

,ClI'-'=' lltli--'- rr [0',

&oph'ical notione that ordinary language of p~l"~p,atelic philosophy

tan. Dot convey,

m S·'itrun.l·'l,1A.U'Q;lITHI· ~·O'-':S·;c·"O· p·tl'-n~~,

_~ .• ·._··ur.~·"~.. .. - L.I:'LEi ' .. ' .... ::_ .. ". _ ,J:I(IiJI'-I,'lIIr

This inwrp,n:~(adQn of Suhr:award:" as, a. theO$Opbst (~im) is allso adyocated by a, number of p,rom:"'nent Sull' .' warrtu. s<:holar& $0£0 as S£ryyed 'ij:~ein Nasr anell: Henry Corbin,. The thrust of this inter .. , :pretardo:n. is the multidimensional aspect of the Suhtawardian :phi['osophy. AOC0fuing to. this in~elJlreta'iJon ~ ratiana.Ustl,e philo,soph.y ~s prereqnsite t:o . he s'udy ,of' ls.hrsfi phil9SQph.y and. an integtal component of it,

Unlike the f.bnner two :i:nter.pretati!ons" however, Nra~r and, Corbin argue that the' 'f\o_ie of rabn:naii'tic phUoi,So-p"hy is a, Um:imdl 0:'- e aeeordiag to! Subra'Wa .di because it demonstrates the l:imit-aQ,o.ns ,pC re3!8.0R to ~bri c:(f. 300U:t :k:Rowledige' of an existential nature. Tile ID)te:n,e'G't that yearns towards the ;a~bsoJurel "tran~cendl reason an d thrrougb in~necit1!lal In:tuition r( tlaW!l) em braces the Divine trudt .. The fa~u_lty 0'£ in.w'l'ccruaitD.'w.ition w_.J.ch exists po'ten.daUy

'Dili

b:J:tr-oductilO'D

in. "man ,c~n be a-ctua]ill:ed .iI one is engaged in inner cleansing' a;Qd purilicad,on wh'~ch makes one receptive to divine wisdom. 'In o,nt of 'his lengthiest r.re~:tiseg~ Subtra~rdi ~~ID8e]f :aUud,es to tP,e .P1l'BJf;:ti.-cal as we]] as 'the theoreti cal dimension of hik.mak and states;

'He [Cod] is (pkm4I'i:n. truljt l,t·ikmak is. of t?io d:wi'i,o_nls~ one :irs. pun:; kno:wledgie and [h.,e other one is practical. Kn,owledg:e is tQ conceptualize the' t,ealir:y' of 'f;b,e ex is ten t beings but 'praxis is. the' structure of ac:do:n e.~~nating from the essen ce of the deer.'

, n nu me fO<U8, pbllc:es ~h'roughottt his treadses, SU~hfaW.afllllj explicitly addresses the role and place of the practical danension of the ·ish.'rtJ;rp; school. by diseus:s~ng :i.n grea:t demi~. spocwc Sufi. rituals, componenss of an ascetic path. and, ·die·', , ,sp'mutam 'OO8SC'" quenee for the siiBi <:be ·who. Is on the path).,

J adhere to the' Ehb:d. inteIplretatinR since it does, not negat;e, or exclude the first two a),t,em.atleve· ~nterpootaJtions but gives ,3'ppfDpriate credit to Suhrawardi's my.'stj.cal dimension as wen. Since t . ls itudy'win focus 0-0 the Sufi aSFH!CU, of Suhr.a~rzrll's, school of Illumination, ,emphasis is, placed 0"11 the mystleal elements of.his thoughts,

lt i'l abv-ioUlS 1th3.t. Suh:ralw~r,:' j has "written '30. Wtfi~ty of my.stic.a·narratives deUhera:tel¥ using the traditio,Ral Sufi symbolism· and metaphors, FurthermO\re·,~. the' n umber 0fmese treatises, the- use' JQ'f Sufi lan.guage and exFess~ons; as,~wen.aJ e·xplicit,empbasi.s.·o~ lU,cih notions, as the' s,phltuai path, toe need for a master and ascetic practices, all indicate one thingl namel, Suhraward:a'is. desire "to diselese the place and sig,nirfie.an(:e ,of' the Sufi compoaent of the' school of i.S:lwaq.,

t is therefore Qur view' that ,d,is:r:egarohl.:g the Sufi. elements of the Suhra"""3:rdian thuQghts leads to a .misinterpretation ,of the' ~hOO1~ of lskraq whleh is, o£teil1 :(oW~.owed l?Y' an attem:p(t it'O p~ace' Suh'rai'\~af;di in one o,ftbe tr.adblon.al scheo .s of Islamic ':p1biloSQphy i.e, peripatetics. It is "tile opinion of'thils, auth,oF that Suhrawardt did, not rely on ene methoo~logy fo'r the underseanding of tmth "bu't that he made full we of 'the' pos~d'biliJ'II~.es. that exist in tbe p1hUns~,,:phita:~ as we~ I as the 'pncti,c3'~ aspects of 1Wi.sdom.

A more cempreheasive ,study of Suhr.aw,aooi :i:r.u:·ludes. an extensive discussion,o.fhis Q;rttol!~gy" epistemo~egy, angeloJDgy and. ·~ogi£ .. Since tb ls study wi: 1 focus en ehe Sufi aspeet o.fSu:brnw,ardi and the' school of illum mati on; eur treatmen; oft Ie 'peri,pa;let~.c u:pects.of

xix

l

8bhrawardi, and the School of Il1u'm,ma,tion his,tbou'I'tns are necessarily m,ther brief, 'However, certain 3ls:pe(ts. of his ,ang'elglogy :and, O'ntology 'that, serve as the bacl~ground fo,r both pr.-acucal and ph~losoph;£aJ Sufism have been treated more extensively man others,

l'n the first chapter, fhe '~ifu and w'OJ.t"k,s of ,suhrawal'di have 'been discussed,. Both Sp,h.rawatdi's _philo'so'l,hica.l and Sufiwritinp are 'brien, a;~a~y.z~)dl,-, pantticularly th,e. stru,ctur,e of his, ph'~l(~,solph'ircal wo'rks., I I, the second chaprer, Ithe intellectual context of Suhra:o, wancli~s 'th.ou:ght ~1l his historical period. has been a:~lud6d '~O before a broad, survey' df",he' oentral memes and the esse uial components, of his $~'OO~ of ishYlJf are' dLis.cussedr. 'inally~. we have presented tbe dis'tin,G;ttc)n Suhrawardd make's between pbdosophy in its· tation.alis:dc sense ,aDd] ~mHMA" A'ih,oroug;b u:ndenlanding of this dis!tin_£:d,o:n is. crucial fo'r :phtd'ng the Su'brawardlal,n thought ,m its p'lfoper context,

n Idle third chapter, S.uhrawatdi's views. concerning p_rncticaI wisdom, are d:iscUJssed. Su,fjsm on a p~(tical, I'evel remains ,an inee-

J'-'

gral p,afl ofSUhraw~l'rdrs p,nnosopJl}l' and re describes the' 'w;n.ous,

e: emeats of tb,e sp~'rl.tua~ pa. th in grea't detaii.., 1n this chapter such 'fbQpics I.S, mys:tieal visions, the' nature ofman and carnal desires, the .roe of the Sufi, master and. the spir:kual journe,' of the soul as \V'eD as the role of' ascedeiml have been discussed. F:inaUy" uni'ty as.:the' 'ultimate goal of Sufis has been tT,eated as tl\e final stage' of the' ,spin JI.lal~th~

l_n mhe· for rth chapter, :phUoso')l,b ical .sufism, is exteos,ivel.y treated, The s,u~~'C:t of emanation and the' 'hiJ.enrchy of Imgh t and th,e:ir re:~ationship with one another as we,ll as angelo" ogy" a. deri'vative of Suhm:wardi's .ontology, have' been discussed. i\ngelology in Suhraw,artr '; -epresents an, implortallt aspect Qf his tho .Ighil: in 'lhaut,he intreduees various elemen ts 'from ether 'traditlons~ In, particular t, e Zar-oast'-','·'_D r!e'~i,gion.~ TlJrraugh :ang,elolQgyJ Suhrawa:rdi <iiSCUSKJ the af:'t::betypaJ 'wo'~'ld as well. as tbe 'ima,g:~rHd, 'world as realities that stand opposi:~· -10 the 'world. of ·'maglnation,. Subsequen tly ~ Subrawardi ~I ~eQry ,o,r risi.on in :ih p,hys~-cal and sPij:ri'tual sense as we;!II as 'the :relafons'hi'p' be1tlfeen kn,owledge~ p~sen(ie" Hght and se]if'b,alVt' been discussed.

At. the heart ·oF Suhrawardi's sen 001. gf :iUumin:3!t".o _. is a, partieular thoorY' of kD"owledge kn~ocwn, as "kNowledge by pl"-esenc'e ", To. offer' an exposition of this theo:ryi a cridgue of the more €:onvendonal Jlleories of knowled,ge such as kniowledget by de.fin];d~n.~ sense per~epbon and innate concepts has firsr be n . offered, in the

:p,

1M treduetion

second 'p~rt of this ,c'hap,ter'~ Having pfe~ented, Suhralward:i~s critique of the' inadequacies ofthese modes af'kn:(),wingj, his theory of knowled;ge~ 'by presence has, been discussed, The c'ba:pteJ" coneludes lV-itb a discussion. con,Qerning the practicaleonsequences of this thleo\rf and a cr· t'ique' of ku()wledge by presence.

In lh,ec fifth chapter, the' influence @f Suhmw'3.'rol on Islamic phnos~hy in wrious. parts 0{ tbe Islami€ wQlrld, M well .:5 rue West has, been pres en ted. Amou:g the topics discussed 2.Te the influence 'ofSuhraWru'di~s is.h:raqithougbt:ia bringin,g aboiu such uhooRls of philosophy 'as the '~S,'hool of Isfahan", Wie have noted. Suhra-

rdi' · fl · I' dl d p ..... l .. : ' .- - '" - b·

wa' _ 108 m , u,ence ~n , n.' .l~ ill -~.stan and the extent to wb J,ch "_ .~s

ideas were inssrumental in malciing' the mtelleetual mUieu of this. region receptive 'to the :philosophy of MuUa $acim., Finany~, dl,e

·'iL·l '. fl f S 'II.., ,rl· ,. L' ,~, d

,passl,u e m r: ence 0' " "u nrawa ·u.l to sU'C'~1 regionsas ~:} ria all . I

Turkey have been aUuded, to and me Umlted influence of Suhrawardi in the west, in particular in France, was bdefly discussed,

I: ha¥e brou,g'hlr the vti ume 00' at eonclusion by examining a POSSF ""b'l~ relationship 'between Suhrawardi and, the P, -rslan n8!ltiona]~s:tic

.' .. - ,-. . iii" k' ,.,- ., ,- - . -, Sb- -ra '-:"L.'~ ah

movemem known as 'II U, UUl;r:f:3.I,1 ,.

10 the appendix, my translatton into English of a partial eommentary of a, 7/1 ,31nd:ian aum,or on T1M..Clu.:~.nt' o/G1:llniel ~ \1!i7~,. on .. e of the messt irm.portant ewteric works of 8~hrnrw-ardi has been in.,duded,. This, trans arion is. importan t~ firstJ if. represents a sam ple of Suhrawardi' S esoteric 'writing; second the commentary elabora ·08 on some of the more complex sy,m:bo,litsm in. this 'Ere,altSe; and finally:;, it s:ignm,es, '(be biJ.storieal imporfa;nce' gf Su'hm- 'wa.rdj as, it. demonstrates '-lOW' his writings, '~ ave uave1ed from Syri.a to India 'Only two een turies alter him,

1

-. "'R' '. E···· L' 11i?E;Al\..TD: W'<O':-·.'.IRKS-" ::,",1 ,O:',F>-:

~ . ,- -,' . - . - r "i=li'~. ",", ," ,_'. _:___", - ......:... ~

S'U. 'H,I' :~A,~W······ ·An.:,~1

. ~ ~-

&. l' 'I"E'£Ic. 4,. JLdir..,Ej

S'.'Jh~aWaTdi 'was 'born wn a vn~~ge near Zanjau; a nart'l' ern Iranian ci:t~" His f~l name is. ShUli:b al":Dl'fi 'Y?'~ri ibn Habash 'mbn i\mirak

1 ~. m

A ..... , - "') lIZ. 'i, _, 'iii-;, S-' h- di h . 'II .' dl ~'k. - , ... 1 j,IlS~ -b o'Ilrh-

uU"~",yt_-vu arawarc 1_ W.'·IO a,IJSO recerven me uue :~;'L.;ay.~

al .. ishra'q.~- (tb.eM:,st,er of Illumination) and "aJ~'Maqtul» (the Ma:rt;yr)}' The da'l';e of his birth is not certaln but h'is m1081t not~b~e

b' _, h Sh~ 'L.. - - :1!: ".lI,' i; ",,",AI th 'l., b · ~ .iii C!/ "ill t:::a: ,mograp ",er, .. ', . Wlrazun,:; ; :tn,wcaioo ,- - at iw.e was c.-Ofin In. .u":l~ ..•. ..1, ' '00'

or 550/] 1 71 while S.H. Nasir,' a notable sebo'btr: of Suh.rawar:;d~:!F bas,

sta .. ed the d o.::Ii*'- '~O' '~~ r;:::·A1;O/··~ 11 '70 .'~~ . IJ~ ~!~- L . ~ ~~~ [L _"_ ~

At an early aBe Suhrarwardi went to the ,ciqr- of'Ma;raghahJ wher'€: he studied lzikmat 'Nith M~jd al-Dln. ji[l, and he then trave' eel. II()

I ... .c. 'IL. h '-h ..;iIi=; . ..a 'L ·'1 h' h '7: 1Il... .• , 1i D'~' - -1.:i:"l5' - ..:I

~aI!lWlan, 'W ieee ne stu'u'~,el.W, :P',U,ru osoP'Ywl;t, ~al!l1H a;ji.,;; Ul. at ~;U.n ana

'The. Obsmv(J'i'6'nJ (at:B~ti'w) of "Umar ibn $ali,g. aJ~~wi,4' He

Joutneye d, through the Isl~mjc lands te meet 'me Sufi. masters 'whUf!;

., '. s- '" d ~ illi..·d· '" C'J....'~ '~1II

pra€t~~ln§ as.cet~,c~s:m an ~ WiJI!._w:~"· _rawnlg ror iLong' ,sp(~n.'wlit, retreats ..

lie te,mts us, that he.' had kioked for a eompanion mth spiri ual ins],ght e\quaJ Ito his, but he' failed to find one, s

,"',;a~:llg' 'wande.red throug'h &a;\loUa and S¥rla on. one of his j ournejs from Damascus to Allep~po~ he met Mru~k ~a~hir ~ the son

f ",Ilk. Eo C lah 1 'D- A'· - b- ,le ] ~ dli ' 'V.;;;' -. ib ":A- bd 1111~'=: t..

0' 'u~e ramous ~aHl:' a ... l, In·yyu. _iJJ ,\,?a a J ,n..{.I.8qu i In : _; ~ .a~ ~_j

al-H.ama,1!ri.I60 p',ut the date ,of this J"ioumev 00 S~ia ;I[ ~-7g/1'200,.

IIJ, ' '~l ~ .• ~i

Shahraziiei, his consemperaryand bibUogra : her, 'Writ.e'5<~

'. lfk 'mll'!!'~I. d ... 1... Sh kh AI 'I).. -l'-k d hi "T"h .,' 11 f- C'! ' •

. '. ans ,WilKe> Ju,~e~,·. ay . an~ _~~e 1 ea mm '·.I·,'-.e 'UiJama 0 ~yrul.

gadJe:red, around d~,e Sh:aylkh a:mld heard his, w'o,rds" in di"" cuss~,on8 heclarified the f i lough ts of the ~Ult.tJmi' and 111 elr

l"A'I~' ,.lll 1,.~. d ... ,'1... ,. f ",'IJ, " f-'"

'V'aL)}Ullty an!~ wea:.Kene::-, 'Ulif! o,Rlnl·on o I,$l,e opponents Oi it __ e

kii1ttMniJ ': '1

I!f --

1

S~bn,wa.rrd;l :31nd the Schoo,} o·f 1~1ulDin3lt~i.iDo:n

I t. is not knovm whethel' Suhmwardi did tt:lin. a n umber o:fsltudents. or not, b ~,t it. is, known au\,[, he .had a ciiF€'~e' of close friends, and

'~:m?aniO?~lOn ~~~.ose_ re~?e9t he composed TfM,PhilOJbp~, of l.ll'umr 1/1MJ'iOtl (1j1'2imat al~lTikJ),. Towards the end of this book, ~ he refers ~o h ls companions as. "his brothers" :an.d asks them 1::0 p,re-serve 'the boo," :from ·the enemies of w~sdorm. TbwSl again aUud~~ to the' existence of a cerwn 8TOU:P' (J£'fri,end$ or lo[.owe.rs who knew him personally.

P'e'rh2ps, for 'po~iti,c-a~ reaeons S'lll!hnrwiFdi 's friends found 'it dif6-, cult to w~i'te his bi'9gr-aphy.9 ,ShahmrZuTI ~s the only one who speaks of h'~m in 'a manner that suggests he' had mer him personally ~ [Ul"if~gh th.i~ ls :h i,gJdy u:r:dikely because neither Siutp:awamu nor ,any other bwog,rapher or! b im makes reference eo Uds. poin 11.. It is pOS$i~1 e ':~: at Shah'roUud came to kn,ow 0-( Suh,rawafdi through some i.ndivid.ual 'who 'k_flI!ew the master personal if.

Suhrawardi's keen ~ntlenig~ncej' 'h~s vast iUld profolllld 'know~~ edge and: InaUy jis op_enn,ess, to other tradidons of'Wisdom as wen as his esoteric ,o~ri.en.tmdQn.; brought ~bout :lu,stjlity :a,n.dl :antagon= ,mz', d me decters of law' ;at Malik. Zih.IT's dOQrt.Yis,lif ibn T:aq.hri~

'b"rd-· hi 'k...... '~I. ,~ Al~,., '''= ' L.' .

'(~.:1 In. ~' - IUUO.!L 6H"I"llJUm ,al:-;d,i,';tTa,h ft m~ulilk muY' "tOO f-qalliTB.h,]O

de. scribes, a meeting 'between hlmse]f and Suhra~rd,i in whicti 111,e calls him. a "man wid), y,ast kno.w'~edge' and a. small mind"."

~'n CO'ffi,p'aDsO", to othe:r Mus'~im, ,phUosophe'rs~ especiaU1 U1U $ini., he ranked himself as, equa~1 and. $t~ted~

In discursive sciences I am equal, if not superior, but In intellect'ual intuidan. .( dkawq) :1 31m superl,o .. 12 ~

Har.ving' adVocated a, tfpe ofwisd.om 'w:hicb w-as, '~DCOl1J8is.le'nl if. 'wit .the 'views of the omodoxjurists, thq'flnaUy asked M,a_:ik'~ah~rto,' 'Utt Suhraw,ariii to death for be]jevi:ng in ber,etjcru ideas, When he refused the·y sjgru~d. a. peti'uon .an d. sent it to $3Jlidin, who ordered his son to have him killed" = '/ alik ~; ::' iF' reluetandy carried out hits fadler"s order and Suhra:waid~ was, ki lied j'n. '[he yea'f 513,'/1208,. Taq hr~birt1rj i:nd:k;ated.lfj; th~t Sub'nlw:ardi 's de:a'dl. t'Ool. place ron the F'iday of'the month of July (Dhu' .l}ajaJ,~)m According '~O Sliah~ FMuri, there are difie:rent aecotmts 'Of how be' died, Shahrazuri writes;

.. "' ie 'was ~browD. in jail and eadng and d'rinldn,g 'was denied to him 'Uutil he died, Som!e say he :fasted. until heJ(l~.n.ed with his 'O:rigiR+ Some' are of the' opinion rh84t be was 8'mfucat,ed

21

'Tb.1: Life and WorD 0' Sultrawa'rdj

and yet @the~ be!i;eve he was killed by' the $,WOni3;ft,d there are those who 8ay he was dropped from the wall of the ftm'U:'eM and then burned, MI

Su~r~wardijs death w,w;' as, mys:terious as hls :nfe, .. 'I!x~oept for a n~.m.~r ~f w'~ir.~~ he did Il,Qit, leave 'much behind to shed light Ion hl,S ~~fe, J:I.e.' shied away from pe~p1l.e and only ,so.ugh t the C~~ panionship of learned men. His. manner ofd.rf!ss,wg is, saie ~ tc have V'ar~ed from. aa,y to' day~ One day he 'would dress in. "court sty:le and tbe 'very' next day he' would dress m.odlest~·.

~~ ~rde.,r ~ understand Suh.mwMdi.'s phi~os~pby~ the sociopobncaiIJ ,condkh)1ns, under whIch he lived must be understood .: Jns is nOI t'D say fhat hits phillnmp:b.y is, su ~ject to hl.sito(ficity~ 'but that some of th~ ,~s~es involve in his death as weU as, certain philosophical trends in his Ideas may 'be' f!1II1h.ler ,clarifl,~dl if the' circumstances under which be 'lived are bette known ... & S~H:". N'~r states;

Th~ ~us~~ for. Suh~~(fi?s _dearth If an not 'be' ttUlY' disoo, ered until d1e' Sll"-U~t1on of the :regicn~~, 'historicaU" reUgj;o'Usly ~ phil ,0- sophicmJy ,and. ,soclaUy is, th,oroughly inves.tipred .'I!5t.

Suhrawardi ltved d.uring a turb, lent period, when northern S¢a was n:Ddergoblg -a ,major change from be/ins a s.tfJon:g Shi"irt(: center to a Sunni derninated .r.e,g;"'.ou .. He came ~o Aleppo at :a 'time' when. this tmnsfo.rmaf.lon wa;; taki~c ~p'~ace ana, when Saladin wa,s me ,. as Idle .la,sm-. ~hope fM Muslims as the SUQtlg man who could (lon·front the Crusaders. In a sitnation such as this the' more exoteric jurisc[s were = in :afty ;01000 to a Iowa youn'g' p,.hnosopher; perhaps with ;S:Ome Shi'it,¢ temdenc[es\J to ~'!C,o,rrupt 'rsa~adln ',8 SiD. . ,; :MiJIk Zabir'~ in,

whose eourt 8'-tl!hraw,asrdJ , irved:. .,

In light of the above factors", one can riew Suhrawardi as ,I;, Persian who :in, ., erieed :3 rich cultme '\,ftth Zorcastrian el~em,ent~s· I'll b,._ a _ phU.ooopher. well. ve~. in Pe.ri.pa.lf.etic ph ]losQp:hr~l', and a mystie who tried ito demenstraeethat atthe heart of' all the divtnely :reyeal,ed 'w.adidons of wllsdom theE,£, is, one universa'l forum. IP"erhanq

1 ~ --. "'!l -!!!' _,. r-'--

:h'~s. ~e~.i'fe ~o ~~monsU'a.~ ~uch a 'Unity bad to do wit)} the 3!ppa'rent

~();8tllny ot diffe'Fenl religtons to, one ~.othe. ~~, j;n, pardcnlar Ch:risdan-it.,. and '(s1a:m~ A:t a tim.e w'hen Christians and MusU'ms W>f:'re en;pged in a blcnndy' war~ Suhr;awa:r.di~s. message ef 'unity w,u p'erc·e'lved to' be a d,angerons, and even a heretical doctrine.

_ Ther-e. are' s.evenl possible lexp1anations. for Suh'r;lwardijt dealb. whu:h can 'bel fonuulated. as foUows::

S b -..I" d' h' 'O\""ili.. ~ .f:' ['ll-' ., '.

u " m.waJ.'~t :an, It· e ~UOOIll OJ, " :u,mU1i3lUon:

1,. Suhrawardi 'was advocadng a. form of Persian nauooaUsm'l.iS

'h ~ .' I'll • ...ll db' ., h

"'11 ': icn Ui g,e n e fa, ~y CO'= j~:J·,ute:re ,. ·"0 '~a eact I,Q,n to, It: e

dOri"dna:ti.0~, of Arabs over Persia, ThIs; view:~ whi.lch is often supported by the p~sen ce of Zoroas:triJan e emen 1:5 ~n hws.

d ,. ..' .,.,. ~ '.. .... 'L..

octrme , ,IS to m.f' op.m ~on ~'I, eorrect smee It IS, con.tC3.Q to me

sp:irit. of his philosoph]? and becaase Su.hraw-a.vd'w ,must ha:ve un derstood that t:he cours of Malik Zahili ~ the een ter of the Arab

I. '-

world, 'wa~, not tW::' best pla£,e' 00 advocal'e IP'e~r5ian na).~ional~lm,.

2,., In, his article, '~The' Sou'r,ce and 'Nature ,of' ~QUtical, Authority in

(:', e h· I' ,_..l,.~.' 'j))I'h,,·1 ' . > h- , , 'f' ''fnl . '" "~', ,_'" "Mil'! -H- z,,~- 'ii"!' '.' . ,.,;'11.." .

,~U : ~raw,allJ.al s r Jl'to~op', I, ,y. Q, ,JJ,~.lIlum"~nal.Uon:li - ,', ~a.]j ,argt\l€'S ut,laf.

Suhmw,aroi advocated a poUdcal doctrine' which c'onsiderOO,· the '~king' philosopher" to be the rightfll], ruler, This m'Ust halVe~ been offensiye te both the' Calip:.:h. in BaG'. ;hdad aD,d_· :(.1!ali'h. alDin

.1, ,~ ~.

A -})- A~ '~, ... "'- iiiyyu. ' ;]..' ru, w u; ;,taj~es:

Vlhile Sf(dlra(\~af\di"s, (:a:regg,ries of Djwne~ p,l}ihosoph:ers-sarges. inc lude I w,~de r"ange of types~ the most general being composed 01 the 'type rc:aUed Brethren. ot Ah8trnct~Qn ikhwan

.ill' ...~:.J\ hi 111.... ~ 'al d' 11-'11... ' .4:.:... 't.. '·'111 h ,~ d'

pr;.,,:t;a.f'iu.1. W,', lCw.w. ~:DCjJU- es 'U:I.€ pe'cn,~C~ P~lllo;sOP , !el" reterrer , itO

as Cod,~s vicegerene (hkali/at Alliii) who ,may be the' a,ctual

,- 'J ' { ' ... -;;;.<\ £ ., _ - 1,8 ru er IIl..r.a'-~i O..w. an era.»

Such an idea As advocaJted in the be.-ainnin,o/ of a.mal; ,a~h/I/bJ.'

Q 0 ~ '"-=10"'1

must have been tather' a1atming to, the more orthodox elements ~ M rk '7ih· j

l:D.\ ,R:I ,~:. ur s court.

3~ :b, has 'been argued 'by some; including Shah,rn~uri, that some of Suhrawardi' s compa~i,ous called him "a prophet ()I 'God'j{j' ,(Abif1l..FulUQ Rasi'U AJlih) ~ 1:9 If the above is true; then it may have been the Uke:~' cause of S\lhrawardi~ s exeeutien, One can. makea case fOF 'this by arrgtdng that smce Suhrawardi believed. that be ,v,as ehe "n~fief of tw0' b:r:;a:n·cb es ofwisdom, he must ,- I_ave

~I 1 ,e,!!..." 1'it:' '&..., h 'I:.;;- ~~,~ d b ..JII 11.:. -*

assnmen a n::hi,e ]to;!' rnmse '.111' W!l~'i£:· was aoeve. a~ ,"'.: "eynnu 1~~a( ~Jl;

a pldlQsopher and mysulc. 'The ar:gllIDlent becemes ,stronger 'when Suh"Ealmrni tells lWS, that '~dom as, SO'GD 'began by the pF'op;h:et Hermes and 'mien was divided, in'to t\Ya' branches, Suhrawardi tbenim:plicidy. arguied that he was at least 3t the :Same mn'i;, :as H6r.mes.,

B 1nii.:~' .... "D'C-' TV!,,,, 'I' C' . 0" . '1io:~ ~ .Jr,.,.Il~,,· ~I • ..' ~I ,'.' "1-, iL~Ja.

Subrawa'r-di IDived lata £i,me 'wh~n ,the influence- and pow,er of l.h't, MU"&lZilite,:is theol]ogy had 'be~n subslandally currailed by . he

4

T.he: :Life -and W.or.ksor SUhr,awam'i

Ash'rites, The result of tho Mg'tazilitft's ratioludization was the Ash'~.arh:e ,KaMm" wbich paved tie 'way .for a more UtemlJ': and e~o,1jeric inrerpretau.,on of slam, VibUe the de,baJte a:mong' 'f!b,e advceates of mre'l!lectual sciences continued" philosophita] and theological schools were also chane'nged by tbJ€ more exped,endal school of iht'; S,ufis~, 'WhOSff ~p,:irs:b,em,o,logical metbodol,ogy q~oes. tioned she very foundation iUPOR 'which inteUectuaUY oriented schools had established th.eir theories of knowled,ge. Such Sufi sage~ as Bi~~:i.d, a1nd l;:IalUlj, who lnfluenced Suhr.,a~[.dij' wertE: insrrum,fjla] in the deve:1op:meuI of 'his ,m'fStical thoughe, Their reliance upon :p'utrifilc.don and. a8£leticism was an. :a1:tJer:nat~,ve to' the more :phUoB.ofJ,h:icaUy @denlled eplsremol,ogit:ai pamdi,gmsl'

At 'this histmia juncture, Gbazzili., as the' I~$t -p,resugious 'mast€:r ,of ,K4lam and learned man in. me rer,gious sciences" ~fnac'ked the' p ~ilosophen, For their reliance solely upon reason mr drue attainment of ,cenain.ty,. Ghaua.ljj!'s attem:pt 'to, demonstrate, ·the al')(~ve as, exemp'mOO ,in dl,e TahaJiit ~faliisifaJIfJ paved the way for Sufism, to ,chal= Ienge the m,OR P:tl~~fOSOphieaUy ,orie.-n:tedl schools of thou,g;ht. Sufism" as, a,l"f$ultof Gbauii1i",s attack on phitiosophy.~ came' to be vi,e.H.ed in a d;··;'laenlt light as, it sehool wbose i- teltectual, merit had to he ,recognlzed and, was, not limbed to o'UtbuJ'JltS of ,emmio.ns, embodeed in lyrif~paetry. and the pmctice of asceticism, Consideri~g the.apparent polarization. between the Piefl,pa:tletics and Sufis; the qu,esbon on tile

,. '1111 al L." f h ,~ h L. ..... ~ h til·, "'- -

Inle'J1l!ectu _ lu,onz.on 0\ . t ,·tt tune, may, lave ~n w ~ e,-, L er lit was, possible-

to bring about a mppFodlem€Dt betlYeen these 'tl~ft"D'ppqBiing' sch6(}ls~ Suhm~di~ as we' will see, demonstrased dlat such a SJ'll'thests was Rot only possible but .necessary and. mat a rhoroulh fam:itiaritY' 'with m,e l'e-riJPl'wti,e phiJosophy was the ,prereqrui$blie (or the understanding 'Of the. pbilosophy' of iUumination. This ,auempot ~o creak ·a. bri,dge 'between the rationaJJstic ttad.irdon in lSl'amic philoSQphy and a, gnostic. view ,ot kno.w~e.dg-e oominated ph.Hosopblad 'activities in Persia tor rsevernm cenmnes,

At the center of these ,eontrovers",e,s stood, Ibn Sini with h~~s all= ,en.camp,ass,ip-I p;J.I!'~l('lsophlcal system~ Ibn S,ina ~ s phr~los-op\hy by' the time' ofS ~b~r'.i had been interpreted in diffe'rE,ntYlaiYS and this· bl(Qught about a nu.mber of schools which 'were ,essentially 11m, Sinian bot ,eacb ,one' empb,as..ised ce.na.in asp~ct:s ,of b is ide,as.

F]r5t~, mereW'ere 'those seclions of Ibn Sini!<s. p,niloso.phy whie:b w~:re; pure'lf Air:is'totelian in n:atnre and can be cate,g:orized QS, Peri=, 'pat~tic: pbi~05,O·p.hy, The' :pe,ripalt.eu,c tmd.1don :f1,olJ!ris,bed and it was this, interp,retabon ,of . bn Sma. which 'was. :ma,inly oppOSied to

5

Suhra,wardi and t\:t'e Schoo,1 of Il1U'm'kR~u>iO!n

,- TL. 'JI ... L. t.. 11-1:... f' F" ~,.r.:: ''I!..

SufismJ.' . nere we're also tnose ,SUC;JJ~, as 'Ull'€ Je~p6nents 0,' Au;~m wuo,

found Ibn S'~n:i~s "o.gic and metaphysics to 'be' a useful means '0£ anailysis. and therefere mdopt,ed. 'themll,. Such a, lre'nd, re~(;I:i.ed its elimax in the works of Fakhr al-Din 'Rizi: who applied , hn Si man lo,g~"c and metap~y.s~ics· 'to. s0lve 'W rious pro blems 'in -]{aJiim:. Pin aUy ~ there Ynl!~ the' mystru£~J ,aspe,C't of' Ibn Si.ni whi'cb .F'Bce~iv'€d 'W,es8, au:en don than 'his rationallsdc writinl'" In tb ese t)'pets of Viritjll,g's, such as J;14" ibn :Yaq~ji:l and the finalchapter Qt th., .1,sluimt, tbe Neop'W:!Hlrt,on:ic aspect of Ibn Sina",s philo~o:pby is mesr apparent, Suhrawatdi, 'was we'U mwate' .0' such writings. Fot example, in h'Ws work ,al",'!Gkurbae a,,",kubi,,ah, ,The Occid8'1lt:41 E~'li), he centin ues Ib,n Sini\~ s,tory-usin:g seme of'the same meta:phorr.s.

Suh1:'1l1W,aroi there ;o,re' appe,ared, on the~n tellectual scene at a time when various W· - '~et'l:erta.dons -of' Ibn Sina had resulted in f:J€ emergence of dDiffe;rent ~dl.goJls wbi!ch oft!en 'were ante,gnostic to one an0di,er"

'To [be e'Xisti~g djt{eren.e,es, between various interpretations of Ibn S.lni must be add,ed 'thee w,nflux, of foreign ide:a~ and ph~lo~phies.., Thisintellectual di¥ersity 'Was the result of 'the translatien .of [Gr· ek texts and, the interaction of the learned masters ef ,s[W)ch tradltiens :38 'N'erop],ato'~nism,~ PylhagoreansJ ltenn,eticism, aJ)Jdl Gree,:t phtlo.,sop'hy wim:.hin t.he, Muslim intellectual circles. Sullr3r,Wardt, who saw himself as me' reviver of Saphia Rermft.isj abo. SJP. thesized llltjonalisth:: p:hl'~osopby of t~he P,edptu.edcs~ me' prac ... · deal w;i~dom of the' S~fis and iute'B_ecluallntl1iuoJ], Q'f the isJirf •.

Subrnward~" Ideas permeated the tra,dlitu}o of Islamic philosop:hy' and pr«vid,ed 'the Shi"'it,e phi' "~phen 'with, the' means to o:B~r I, more 'mn~eU.ecru;aUy jus,tilla.hW.e explanatioiR fo,t me more esoterie aspects of Islam, in con trast ~O the mor-e scripeual 0([ exoteric inlerpr:eta,tion, ',of Isiam,. Suh rnw.ardi, asa thi.'ld~er who was ro. reconcile :mdon,aUsm 'and m.ysticism within one si.fIj;g~,e philesop'hieal ;Sf8le'RlI" bridged, the' deep divis,~,on beltW1een 191'0 interp'~etauon$ or ap'proaches, 1,0 the m~.ssage .01 Islam. Th,e' type of wisd.om, that Suhra:wardi developed, 'known, as (l~1filmult ,aJ~illj'hiY.J.~ (transcenden tal theosop ,.1)1 ~ encempasses radpnal~sm aDd 'yet l'ooS beyond it by b.M[ng :i:r:se'lf on a, direct visi,an o.f the truth.

Suiu'awudi carried out an ecumenieal analyms'Wi'h Zgroasman :re']igion; Pyuhagooanism and, Rermedeism on' an existential and esoteric level, Perhaps :~,~~ :rnajor achievement ,~s' 'thaI. he.pioneered whaJ,t H" ·CiO'rmn caUs uSpirilual HenD€DelllO[c.s/' wh.ic majntains,

6

The Lm-c:' and Works, of' iubrawa;r.IiI:i

ecumenical 'wor.k bas to be, carried out ~y those 'who. s.,¢ak fr,om, whJ~~:n a 'tmd~tJon and that, their ve:1'7 being has, become' the' mani:re:sUldon of the'truth, of the 't];,a,didon fn ques,ttioin.

Su:hrnw,ardi'- s ·WF.idng~ are d,tv'e1rse ~and,. dynam ~<; and, 'he' [often moves from the exposition of a purely p .lUosorphjcal :ar-gument 'tQ a pro,~ilundly ,mysd~al \DarradYe~, HIs wnr:b are 'wrh,t,j!n .in dwffe.ren.t ~les,~, i,e, Peripatetic, m')'sdcal; and irhrtlqi., In t'h:e last few decades, ,although. m,any of Snhr,awardi~s woilks 'were' introduced to the pu hJ.:i!: by S. H~ N a,r and, :H,. Cnrbi.D; 2J a number of Suhra:wQ:Fd·;' s -Qrb .remain unpublished .. A.nroft~g the unpublished 'wo,rKs of Subraw,afdl we "can mendon his writings on the natural sciences, m3J;rhemati,cs and ~o,gic fua.t are inehided in the bv.o major boob ,abMu;matlat. (TIM' ,Book ,(J/' Co.n:venr~liomj, and aI=M'Uq:aWlJ;n,j~ (The' Book ,o/f):pposite:s) as we I as a~TtJltuif.tit (The' Boa.k ojl'nb,:mati,(J'RS)., Amo~ d1~ ,co;mp:~ete Arabie texts of Alwaf! ~mjd1: (The Tableh ,()f ~llmdd ,tJl:.rh:nJ ~ al;...Lonna./liJ (Tlu: ,Fl'(I;f.h..e:$ of' Lf'g'htJ an d, ,a.J;.Wtwidat' wQ,tJ,.,T04Jdisa', (I1iv,oeatitnz;s' ti'M Pra:;ers) are' not available ..

'H ~ Cor'Dj'flI, in, his, l'~fC~ e:mptm.1fR'" bas, uan,slarood lar,gc sections 10:£ t~,e :Persbrn works, of S.ub mwanii., All 0' [Go:rbin' s 'tta'fl.t~ Iation of all 'but the logic of dle /:lilmwt at·isltJ"(afb ~ a,' ong 'with mu,(b orQ.iitb a~-Di.n Shiraz] and 'MuJli ,:$'addts cammen't21ry upon the fJMmtlt ;a~f;q,qj provides an excellent soarce f'Or tbe IlUudents of Suhrawardi. W.M. Thaickstoo~3 in theM,s1ical and VUlon,lIry Tt:8lJmes of Shihldi1u4din yata,'.;. SUbr.-a.·UJactdi has, ,a180 trnnslaJte4 sorne efthe Persian mrysu>cal na;rr-adves, of SU:ln:-aw81'd:i .,24

Sev'le'ral a:{temp,ts, have been made to offer a ,c:l~,m(:atioi'~ 1 Oi-' Suhtawardi's works., L. Massignon 's ,dMsificaluon of Suhr.awardr~s w[Qtks based, QO t:'~.e period whe.n be ,m,mposcd them is as fftU[ows::2-!

'W'" .. . f S'h rdi i hi "''L.. (' 1 .111." )

~ . :'r~un:g.s 0' .: .. U , ra'N'a '" 1 10. .'15, 'fOUt,n 't · ear Y w;or~.c;,,' ~

'2 Perip~tef c wrhing&.,

,3 W:riUI11g1 whIch :represeRt a. qrn.t.hesjs. [of Ibn SiDi. and Plotinus,

The problem w)· ich 'this c: assmcadon poses is, that Suhrm-war.di. did not :~ive a lo.ng J.i&, and, mOBil of his woi~ we;re. composed When }l,e was, qui'~e Y.OU1).g\~, Al\so, how,' 0 we account for 5DC'i:JJ, works, as ti,l~ 'inuid'4 wbic'b, is, o~_[e of.hM early Wtinn,g" and yet contains, st[\ong i:ih:rtllJ.i ,el,emenbr' This, work. JS d,edi,eated to Prlnce i lIBid, whe ruled in 581/1IBIt. and con_s~ide~rin_g tbat, Suhrawa:rdl was. killed in 587/

7

SU~W_alfd:i. mId ill.,e' SChool of 'IUu:~ in:at~O:Ii.

1181 he n.r~f.t haw' wri.'f.J)en. this hoo·k 3l!t r'cnJ.:g;bly the same time H T~ P1ditJlsftp'hl ()lll~ll.Min(f~'irrn.

$,." .. 'N3JSf and H, Corbin ~fl,av.e' by and large' agreedl otQ a structural d~.Mfiea;tio:n @r Su~hl'3!.m:rd.i~ s W(),rk8!. which. is, as IOnOM::~

1.., Suhrawa:rol 'wrote :ro'!1U' bu~,e tre~rliSgi that 'w'e're ,eI doctrinal :o;aluI1e: e~ rmtut~at ,fTke Jj()oj df ,lfd!i~{Iot~)~ ~,"M~'wum.i~j {Tie Ij'oo~,f Opyj~), d-Mu,'ir.d<a$· (The .1J'Mi of' Conlfflr~u~tW?l,S) and finally {/ikmaJ,' aUsh:riiq (The Phl'hijJJ!h;y, r,/llhtmi.rion) i The fin.t fhFee ef ehese wQrks, an written in ,th,€, 'tmdition of -ale Peripaifetics ;altboug:b there are criti.cimis· of !CenaJn ,concepts of tbe PIeri.pat,encs in. them~

2,. Th~re are shorter ~Fk;sJi some ,of 'whi,eb are also . of a. ,dJocuin~d s~G'"n~rlcaDce bu~ !j·h@uld, be vi'e'wed as furdl,er .e"iP~~nalion~ ~'~ the la~ge':f' do~trin:al t['ea·[~~'e!". These 'b(loks are: H_aJilr.il ,i:d~@'I"

. . :rJ!;~ _J' ,~ Al' -:.~. 'J:' _.3~ {.T'l..~ ~z:.lI'_,~ 'i:f iif' ~..l .:r :n .... f\ CLumin~ .ouam)'l c ~ ~wa:J;t;c ~'m~f; ~.Ii 1~' .f't!~~. A}lna~ ~~,.,LJi·n./:,

:m' -,:r." /'T'.' • l'u '. ".. ~ l ,~., ,=~' :{;;I'~, ... ,. iI\.... ~ t·n...., tflm J:~ ,amw fl;{.tMQJ!'.C ~ _.I "~'M:e.on . tt-um;ln41;,'Wn./~· i ~,~uu j"~ ~{~~m.fl (V'l,{< ,'.' ... '

lai'fA of tft.e The()/Sop~), ,(JI=La~a.t (TIM Flt1s1w (JfZtg~t~.~ f:ozda::n tAi~iJ;At rK~lt:~o o!,tM~mneJ;1t la,iUl 1itw,tj:n ,a~p~ji (Tie Gt1\rdtn oj tic ,Heart). ~'}llie of mege 'works, are in Amble .an,d, some hl Persian, His woFiksln. Persian ar(f am,olljg the :fIn,est lit~!mrr w.ritin,p in the Persian langua.~. ,Suht~wa;oo1 himse~.f milJ halve limn:;laled ,some' 9f 'tDe,se tr~at~s~ fram AiaJb,i,c hlJ.fO :P~r8~3!D •. ~.~

3~ S~:hnrw~ar-di wr::ote' anum bet of lreavtiiS.if:'r$ of a esoteric nature in Persian. These: in.ida,tory narra'tive:s con t.ain 'h igb:ly s:rmbon~ l;arlklllla~geand incorpamtie ZOl'Outrian alB.d, I~elrm,e~ti~ sym'bo,ms .3;$. well ,as.,tslam:~c o(oes. The$e~ u-e!3;'dses ~nclllde:

7,lfU mtk~. rBwJ~lntdk\~t9~ ·~W8t.~p,tJ:f:.iflwli~'l' (The CM~t of" Galfrkl"~s 'tWng1Jl~ cmsm; ~~gkutbat ~gA(lo'llJi,,,d .(St~ of .the. Otxi4'mtal E~;'~ LugkfEH mW\rm (Lanp.a,-e @/ ,[be T;fJrnflite1l'!, Bf;Mlaj fl' ~ii,ltl1 a(..,~ufoli:nd IrTr«l~' ,an ,&e SttfM.· IJ! C~ilithoml)" R,ii,t)i- 1M J~ 'aH mfljaw~ (ii. D,~y tbwGng' tlu SUfts):; l~fir-i: ,nwi1K (Tie. SkM ,of' ~UUJ Gii.lfln) j- Rii,ilah pJkm!'?r.4j ~~ 'On. tlW ,Notktrrujl':A:st'fm-~)l Parl'(I/UJe. nam.ah~ (T~~e' o~n 1l1~m~Mli·M). These tteat1~es are intended to de:[Q'(;)Ds;trate the jou'[{n.,ey qf the seul toward unity w.idl. Ged, and 'iili~ in.h.e:mnl y1€amlng €i'ma:n wward :iJnos~~· (ma ~nla./lt) ~

,4., There are also, a. ~JLm.m·ber IJar treadses. of ':1 phU.ol§Op,:hic and .~ni tia1i.c. nature. These' jn(;ln:Jd.~ .~i~s, tr.anS:~3!,dQn of' ,Ris({;Mt alf$ayr (~nedtue uJ tie oBi-nisi or Ibn ,Si Ita and :r]1J'e ().omli"H:=fl'tazy ill F~rsi1UJ.

~- :1....'1t.=.. TIl 1 h" ~.

upon. Ibn 5ina ~'s IsJJir,~ 'we 'l--fja~(li-ldU;,. _ .. ~., ,e.re ar,t ;llSO': 1£ O"eat~~

fli_$lilak fi ,&r«Jiq,at ,at. 'i$hq (Tr~aw~ ,n r1uJ' .RMdWj ()j Lov:/f)." which. is

'·TL. .- s- .. , .. ,,;.;p. ,.! ~'J""""f,~ . ,;£ 'e', fLr. : :""'''''''1' "' ..... , ~,,-_ .. ~ ·~··t6, the e· tracts

nese .nnpO;.II,ba(llit n\l"h .. "ogS. 01[ o,JIguJ'a:"~[lJJl,~ '~es.,p!l,~. _it',lJ~ 'J'L~ .. 'III,;o.S

, .. 'I;,..t, 'III,.,. "·'1' ,.' . o' • • ',. I': . 1·. ') ,:;' .; .. ', .' ·l: 'H' ,r-.., .1).;. .• , !I: l'i~, .:1"" .•.. " enl;/]' . ~~;f.

W.u1 e.mlIII, :i),ppear In if.irans ai[:~o:n 0,1" .... yOTlIV'm s· _ . .n. rc~;~ _. --rW~,y""~'

have rt:;Oeiveo the' least amQUR t}~[f' attentio·ft,.

In :yJh,at' foUow;s~ '1 have o&:Ef'eid. a. bFie1" discus,si,on of Suhraw,lrdi.j,s work~t EmpbM~s ha~t;een pla,c~d. on Subra'Wardi's m~rtJ.cal n:arra'tives~ cJl.eir sj;gnl"canc~e· itl1d. place 'in the seheolcf uhfC4~ slnee Lh.is volume undertakes a diseeusioh 'qf Silllllra~tdi~,s Suij, and m~d,ea'~ v.m.ews :andl not his ·P,er.ipa:tetic writings.,

' .. i, and l~j b~f.'o:n~ 'Wrilin:1 this 100,ok (lJikUU1.l a~~\iftdtJ) amd whi[~ dOI~ng thh;'~ wbeJl ~ib.sUll',clle$ :p,re'ven:ted, Q)e .fi;um prot)~etling with tnts, wrote beoks {l)if' ',OD in. th.e· tradition m P,eripatcucs~ ',~d the~Lr pbUQiopbtcal prin.ciples, have been sum'ma;lf!JZed in ih:04e Mob. Ainong ·th~w there is a shar~ work 'known. H ,~T~llli2r~a~: ~.~1),~,yak al~,~J,!!»eh1j wbm,ch !QO'l1$iSb ,af)nanr .prin;ciples, and, despi't'E=:itt$ ~maU ~~.\nllle, aU the p~h.u(:)<so.phi.,eal Ilrin€~pl~s of fbe Pef~pa;tetiGs> ha~e been s.um,m~ri;red~ a:nd iJu th~ order of ranks it comea :titer t'h,e boo,k ,~L4_iit.!:'

In thll wnr1k~ Suhrnwa:rdi u'inle'r.p,feb the ,cate,I'0des· .of Aitsmre'~ian logl!c \)y redl.uftlng th.em fro,m t~n. to f~ru;r ,aJDd intt:odUCies modon M iii new €al1egory wn'il.ie ~rg~,~.n:g that. :~l was, D:€tt At'".wstod.e who, diseQ¥.en~d fhem but, a Pytil.a,g):::{rea:1l. named JUh utas t(A.n;byt~) i$~ Argum,.g tbat 'qu:MltillJty (tam be redaced to quaU:-ry:" (te'. a gbort nne i'5, "w~:a~e'r~D than 3 lqng one);! $uhr-aWil:rdi redtQoes' ,quand mdi.ve' differences into qua6tadve Olrn.e'i. !~\

10:

The Lif~ and WOr'ks of' Suh:M:waml

explanarlen 0'f i;s,ht:-rtrp i:ij,e,as., In [lru~ rur9Jtroduction to t:be atltl:Ui'iwo.M4t $~hrawardi S~aJl€$.;

This' is fb,e 8ll,mmary' gil a, b~;k kn01Nfi as a't'T~'w'l1)iit and m lr:fuJ.~s~ necessary' correcelons have been made in re,gard [0 ¥!iha:t :the ,an,£:~e8,m h a:ve ~~,d. The '~p~s~1:ion of di!ese mtateI'warus,,~, due' t6 tile n.eoe9~lo/ 'IJ~ 'be bri,ef" ~~ not done run Utis bo o'k and 'we haVe decw~, ,(,.n m:be mlnhn"ilm, ~mQ:un rb of' d:~scourse ~ ~ ~ :an~, for dds reasoo we' ha~ called rut a~MttqdwtJcm8~ and OIl, JGod I: l1ely,aoo seek bel,.4l:

,(d..Mq~;,~~~~mjt ,shQiYld, 'be' reg,~:u'-dedl a~ an addendum eo the ,o,l,.. Ta.~·{;.it atlt'hough. lit ls less ~:PO<s~ t~ory ,h1l, ha;tllf,e ~,nd mere atggmentaytive. Suhm:wardi aUude,s 00 f.hr~ fsct mat ,al-Muqawtnnit ,~s a guid,e tQ ,a better un-dersmn.d(i:F9J( of ,(It.'Talrm?Ja'4~2' ;~n.d d~J~ Periparetk: doctrines are :a![1Jal~ed more fu:ny therein,

"

Stlhn~fdi anCi the" sthWi()~ '0,t ' lIDumllnauQn

A;rriung ather t~p{~eS, nf discussion in the' at.TmMIjUjt. aile ~ni~ ve~i1ls and, p~u:ti(ular~l' ~,e: real and the conceptual, and !!4beim:g~~' Ie TJJ:Ujili!) and "essence" (m,DW(lh). Instead of s;u:pptjrr~~ng d\.e prlna,paUty of exj;s~nce' as Ibn, Sina ,rll1fd~ Sj,tihmw.ami suppoets the' prblCrpa,Ucy dl' ~eisre.n'OOn,'8~ Alsl1j, UJe exirst.en'Pf!' Q(," necessary ooings *P'ld Ibn g,i:ni,'~, pr,oQ[s fOIF. dl,€ e~$lel'l~e ~:f' t'b.e Nece~sruy Bei'~g

(' ~ •• Cl,_ \J' • -'..,J\ u 1111 «~l t~~, - ...:a.' £'.' II

t1mJ1>u~a~f;Mtlu~,,' " ,ru;, wej , as ~Herm:g' ':afi ;~fr.(JJJt, f'f:\iflg ~ng t) , Ar.~stot.w:e

a:re ,amOinl tlh e wp',cs, discussed.

l;n the ;€Jt.Tal~fuj~), Snb ra:watdi ,Ofi'er$ an ~a,¢JOOJU'n~ of his vis:~,Oin qf 'wb~,m 'be :pe1reeived, 1'0 h~ the' first teacher ~ luis:tbdeJ, and, his

• '·ilfb ;b- ss TL," 'r- ~..... rdi 'Ilk,· h

,c:@!nvel's·alt~(jr1S, Wl~j, uIm,.'" ' ~.Jl,~S encounter "Ct ~lb,~,mwal n- :iii' WI,r~][C' ,',

t~@k. p:~ace' in ,~ ~ta:te' be~eli dr'EiJ.n]{ing and beiqg a~e'~ had :g,ooa;t ,wnflu,ence on m,e ,a,evel'O'pme;nt ~r 'his theo1ry of m,e hist'flry' o!f ph'i}otop'hy iil{Jd. the dws;dn~t~on, that he makes ben1f~en ,lHi11'Mjt. and ,pb iloso"b, in ',tS d'(scul'sive form"

The' ArirS~o,dec eo wh~m S'll'ht~w'atd:~, alludes eo m dle" ,ru:-is;oode' of rbJe nf}f!J,~a;, who :i~ acibJalLy' P'l,gtin.U8. SuI1m~,nH asked i\ristomle if tb:,e' Pe:dp:ar:ed,es, like' F:5;ri.b~, and Ibn Sini were 'the true

h3'1~ h " .....:: ,0.,1 jim ",J

p .UOB'OPl ers, ~~.w$ltoQUe: replf~,e~::;

'Nat a de{tooe' in, a thousand, 'Ra,lih,ler ~ rfh@ Sufis ~8u~j. and

Tustari are the' r-eaJ "hU@ooph~rs~~7

Suhrawar,4i fheRdirs~Siies hQW ltikmq;~ and (h,e ~Se~en~e o:fLlgbt.~' (;'itm aJ;·jskriiq) ori,g:ina'ted with Hernles a:~.d, ,p~~ed OD. to SUCl £1~utt's :tn [be 'West as Pnha~oras~ :Emp~do;(l~~ P~ato,~, Ala,llli:a=, dalmO!n~~ ABcl,ep:~:us and so on, uad] it reached :h,~m~~ 'In the East 'this ~eieDC~ ~s tra:nsmit'lred. th,J10ug~' MO ,main chan~lell, . am",ely the' anc:i1!ll't, Persian, pri'est "ldng";'s; sIu!clw, as :K.aJillnl~U1:'h, F,ar~dii~l,. Kay :W1,USR,Wj and ,gum SUfis, as, Abu Yaz'ldl at.Bas~mi~ Ablll, 'llaBan aID~Khi\ITa~,mi and 1'D~aJlIy Man~fir al':Jilall~J. 'who' deeply influen(led Su.hmwanl~,.~

;0 ,A, J":trif' A ~~ I' D'W D?!AI .... iF' ,",;,I'I'":l"'rA DloJI, :LJ' ,i'!T!I IT'.Ulf :O)j, 'T1;u\('A, 1i::~ T'U't;;' "1i:J1,~, ~~,~r~rilrHU:' F-r.a ~.;d}P''-t-·I~~ It~0~- ~~nJ!:~~-TP' ~il~~·

1i"V'\!.'iIT~.D:CAl "'I"I'I'n!ui('!f~

bU~" r·;~·.&./It11J~¥~:I

This is one ,of" tlw,e more Important works of I,u.hral,~:rdi, and Thlb~ ~e;rwgth lieSt Wf)i[kj; ~~'b]reh co,ntains a m:i.i~tt.ufie of diseursise and, ~Uum,~m1-ZlUOrd.s1 ,a~1JUmgnt~. In the' ~n'tl:odJllC:LO:ry ~ect!:ion:f he rn\t~Ill'fnends this book t'(.) ~n those who have i],O'E a'tlra:in~dl ma;ste'ry of m e dis,c,ld,Bw:e' 8c~~n~.s, and therefure hil\Ve rh~ir ~ath to;w,a;lids, under'-

. r'

~tan!dl1ng' of the' hlghe:r: wlsd,o.m ~fjJlb,;a]m~:n;ilt'rugn obstructed,

'T~ In'troducti~n tib t'lti.is 'book, is, of gteat importance ;&i:n,ce lit explains the, pnrp.ose' :a:nd, ttl€' pl~e'ot thiS,W1ork ;amQ,Wlg ClIDer ~rks of Su:hrnwal'di and also aUudes to, ~,~ ,exi8~en0e Qif a circle of spiritual companions to Suhtawa'rdt ,As he st~UJ~S~:

Thi~ boo'"k, o_',nsJ;st:s 0.( three sciences that I: h3!.Ye writte:n in a;~oo..rdan~e ~lth the liequesli. of' you brothers and 1: have :pJat:ed in, d1j,e:m ,a(gUmre~nrs,~md cliref.ia .. These aFlum .. en. tiS and, erlterla cannot 'be found in odlJer' '~exJts ,and, are truly bene:fiejal and ~ut They' are: d1re MSldt of the irJ'tet-e'noes, and j~~pe:rieft(les 6f mry ,own. :run telleet, However, in these' ,0 rileda:, ] Tdlid, not deVialt€ from 'th,e sources of the P'eripaketocs", and J£ E ,had ,PU E, ,(me :poin.~ and li~al1ie~ in 'the:m" 'they ax,e u,o>m the 'honprnble :princip'ie,$ of iis1't'ftJ4i Msd.om wh,i'Gh und,Q:I~,;dD~dly is snperio'f t,€) 'what th,e Perip.~te:d,if.S' ha:;ve hl'ou,ghl. A.n,one who 'would, &tri'~ ,and "be' uJ.'}1)las.ed", ruftel'" tnedim,.ung '~P~,fl Jt:ne'

..

,A~ perLsan, wl1J,O needs, :it Ql~a" find it nelCessa'f)f t'G ~orw ,p:~io:r to The: ,Pkiwr.1!Jihj QI Ill:u~itnt1.4,!~ i:n, th,e l:nti.at~{)'fi.$ wber-e. :r have .sta.t,ed the' pfljnts on which ,I d~f. (110m til€: Mas'~e1'" gf dis.--

, '.,- 'L,~Ll, - - '-h - i\,~,", .. 11 ' 4~

curswe plJ~~uOSDp . 'y" ~;.d1'1jOtl. . re,

1J

Subr:awardi and. the Scbo.o~. or Illumirr.t3"twn

WOF.ks. of the Peripsteties, wir~ arrive at the same conclusion th~t othe:n h;av;e reached. Anyon w'tu;) has. not attained tb. .mastery lor discursive scien ces, 'hms path to the undentandhlg of ishrafi w4·om is blocked and it ~_s necessajy that this, book 'be studied bel-ore ThB Philosophy of lU11llnination and, aft[er a ~hort wo':rk [called . .l'lttimat~Qm~ 'It'Should, be kO.o1\.n that: I; ~:n ,this book, have n,(;)TL compiled (she issues) ,mrono'mogicaIWy,-, but 'the in [('nuon in this work is argume' tatiQn :altbough we: may end up. w.ith '(du~ d:~scumion ofmisceflaneous) sciences, Vib.'e.n. the _ person who desires di:scursru¥€ phltO$op'hy has properly understood this section and e,stabUs,hed hls knewled,ge in this regavd,,.the:Q it rnJS perm.ruM~bl£ fo[ him to set. fQOrlr, .~n ascetic practice,s and en ter 'iskmq so he can see certain principles of iJ.umi,~na'lon",:he .th·re·e' forms of illuminatlonist wisdom are as .follows,; If' D! f and k.n.Qwted,ge of them comes ()[D~Y afteif ~llum"n:atio'n! The: be.girn:ring of il nminanon is detachment from the' ·\vorld;· the m.~.ddl[e w~y is. the observ[a;[ion olf divine' Ug;bt;, and me- [end 18 limitle.'ss~ I bav-ecalled 'this book Tlut Pm'k .o;'fVJ the CtHlrJe1l:a.t-i01lS,ct13

F:rom the above; it is a:pp:atent that this wQ,rk of Su·h·r.awa_rd·m is not oocrdy wt,~uen in the ·tr'"doitiQD of th.e P'e:ripat.elticsj, 'but tb,at it also contains some of his m~ti(al experiences.

In secnel' seven. of this work,"" he Ieaves the d~scursWe method

...

'to. elaborate o[n such. tQpk~· as. life aire'r death, ni!c·ep1ary be~ngs,~. etc,

The metaphysical and epistemo:~;QgicaW issues which he.' deals. with are elaborated on 00 a great e·XJ!eo·t in his,Ma:gnum [Opus~, the I;li~t al-'-is.k'4q. 'On the sign:LficanGe of the' '4~M\Ufawlt~ he states:

I lie-commend t'O you my br-others U) detach yourselves from 'everyt~l~ng ,3;Dd rneditat e upo~n. 'God ,continuQusly ~ ~d th.e key to 'lthliSi idea is, in The Phi.Wi'ophtj' qf1ilumi.natWu. These issues wt1:wchwe have :mentioned have n.1O [ been discussed elsewhere and to set foot on thics path we have: prescribed a. p'~m ~thout ([ev.e:altrw U:' the sec:f'et,:45.

~ [~

,al-Mlt!flianif waY-mupirabit is one of the 'e'W' places wbere Su:h'mward.i 'treat-s ehe ~ubj.ect of rue ~m:gllage OIf illuminatlon, :and. ls crucial for the understanding olf The PhiJo'SO/Jk, t1J 11l1lminatioo and "die '_angu,age of ]lumiDat~~n,jj (lisiitn. (J.~i;shriif) ,.t~' In light of ,su[en an:~d;ysi9 wh'i~b .~:s carried out wiUlin. dl.,e ~oDte'X.t of '~ig,ht and. dark:oess),Suhram:rdi g'Qes so' far as to e'valuate b:is. mystical e'xpe'rierlU~:e8,"

1:2

,

Ai :D!"I'J:j\!"]jI..l' AT'AlII' ·1'·r.o~J"D"'a f'F.UD D'UII'rnC':I"U)l~·a:-iP R,J' iln"iII'.f,A,"I"iF.n~,'r1 .11Ii QJ-tull':le.I. ,.~&l~,~ \Jm~ E-E~~·V.ll-"7.I~~',' .··r' ~Ul.:1LiF¥n,~,J!:U'~f"l

Thts hi, the fourth doctrinal work and the .Magnum ~ [of Subraw"'ru'dw, if!: brinp, oogeth[er differen.'£ el.eDllen·(S, of iskr~i trddi=· don and 'was €:om.posed. in the period O1f ilL Few' mon dis in 58,2/ 11.82,. Suhrawardi maintains '01at the Qlntent of this. book was revealed 00, him by the diviD!!: spirit. "These truths .and, secrets were revealed to me at once ilryr du~' spirit on, ;Q. Stt,a.nge d.ay . " " in. o;n:~y a £e'w days. l~;'l

The p[h,Uo!8ophiLa~ and tbJecosO'p:hjca] do(,u"n[es, tru.lat ,a;n~ discussed In this book laid, ·dle·.f;·.·.undatio,[ for future developments in the field of }l:nilosophi.cal gnosu, " not tomenaon their prof()und influence upon the {onnulation of rthe esoteric ,aspeet of Sb:i '181]1,. 49:

Despite numerous commentaries 0;" the The Phil".JOiph, ,oj 1ll1tmi1UJ.ticDtl, such. as those of Q"ttb al .. ,Din Sh hri.zl and Al;unad Ibn :aJ-HJ:a:raM.;~9. Stdirawnd:i t:s 'Own :m:trOO uctlon to his ·woi.t is p"erhaps; (he most elucidating one, There he s,mtes::

.A;nd this book of ours belongs teO those wb() s1!ek 'mQwledg1e [of bath an inhlade and discursive nature, Those 'who on:ly seek dlilscu;rslVie reasonlng and are neither divin!.;: nor desire to. 'be ~ have' no ,pblce in this. book, We ·s'hs.U not discuss this book or j:rs secrets e'wep[ mID th.Qse whol are' theosop.hists, or seek divine' kD6Wledp .50

T'J'tg Pki.kis&jJ'h:y. 0/ nlfumi~ti{)n can :ruughll' be dlv.id,ed inJo t'VIO' pa'm~ tb.e first be'm,g a dis(us~lb'n of Peripa.letic p'biloso,h}.r" logic and other related tss:u.es wb.i£h hare been regarded 'O)f many as less, .significaot than the second Fa,l'1t~ The second part ~eo:n8~sts. of .I:ds islraq~ ~wri'lti:np WIlicb are 'wriUe'n in a peculiar. language and. are unique in the hisfOry of slamic philoslophy~ In this work Suhrawardi p1OO'lvides,. a \Pih'ilosophical~ ~po.sitlon of the jOllnuey of d~lJe 901111 begi~n~ng"with purilIca.tioln and ending with. 'illuminatlon, This part of· the book 'which is, nevertheless djsc:lIrs~ve; d,iisKUls.,es many of the tmditi .. onal problems of phUosophy in a langua,g'e other than, th~t em:ph'Jyed 'by pe.ripa,e~~.~s;.

Suhrawardl begins the second pa'rr of The, .Ph·i.losIJ/JlJ, fIj l/~~m~~ ,ation ~l'h'b .3 d~scription of the uio[;matic nature of ligh t and the clMlSitlardon of difIe:ren:t being$. in tern ~s of til eir nansparen,cry and the div.m&u~n. of I~ght Into many ~diJfe17en.t types,. i.e, neeessary and, contlngen t. Suhra~i also ~lls us' in this secaion about the ,source Qf msd,pm, as dlat ligh' whie I .. , ha.s tlluminated varieus 't,r.a~

13

S.uhm:war-dii. and the Sch;ool o:f IllunlwultiQO

tions 0'£ t'ii,sd()m. and wh ~ch an clen t Persians [GaLed Bab man. .Hal!li'n:g discussed dle'longtitud~ -1.a1 and Iatltudinal angeUc orders, Snt. rawaFd~. then offen an ishraqi analfsb. of 'Vision and sigllt1 die role of li.ght.a; I . "_,meWr rela.rJo.n&h.·'p to illummanon.

In The P12,ilru€ijJky of lllutmM'ion, Suhrawardi is not consistent in. thaJt :he [often ,goes. frem su~ ee r to su,1bject wearting the same '~-op~c ~n. m~nmy places, For instance, differ[ n't types [of n~h'l:'8 and ,their re·rua.ti·ooddps to one another o'fte'n are elaborated Up~!D .. in nu merous places ~h:roug'bout the book, ·U:s~.ng an imu~m.runaJtionisJ, scheme, Suh:ra,ward.i discusses cosmology, in partlcular, movemen ~ of the' heavenly bodies. and. their relationship to' '~'igh t, sense per,ception. :a:nd the [acul,,~e, (hat make up the h~man p\$1cThle~

.AJnong the' mest :nnportant issues disscussed in ilij_s section are the, ~rtMJi epiSlemQJ,ogy known ,308 know]e.dg~ 'by pres enee !. ~:nn~1I purHi-cadon and ascetieism, Sull raw,ardi; who dhro:~sses 'ml~s in numerous places! o,ffen, an analysl+s, of how it is tbat the se f GO' :1,6,$ to know of itself and how we [can account for rIl,e direct and unmediated nature of this knowledge .. Towards ltl.e end of this book, S, '_btawardi reminds us that ·beoom:in.g' recipiem of this ·tnow~edgt, requires p.m,ctLccing uoeitic:'fs,m.

We shaU now tum. to a. summary treatment of h ·'5, works in Persian dl.a,[ are noe only eruci.al to the understanding of Stdlra.'WaJ,l"d:~ 's my.s~icis,m b'ut also are :a:moufj!' t'h,e finest examples of Persian Sufi Hterntdr-e'.,

It: ,.' ". ~;r.ii,.JlD' ''YID'~Ai' .' ", -,- - - .- , ..

~,.. PJ1R7AW ~:~r:ik.:C:I (.i':~TlSE ON IU,UM1NADON)

This 'wo,rk encompasses a, cempleee survey Df mJaj€t([' p'OiloS0:pbicaJ . b ~. ""'L. h bi , ~ dmoti d' ls:;ues,egmnln.gWIui sue' sU-!:Je.-;.ts'.as ume, 'Spoc·e'" 1.:0.'_' monon an

ofteR an aTg-om,[en t which is, striking'],· simllar ~tc)' Descartes '" ClJg$t'(r .or Ibn SiD:a.ts ~u~pend~d man.~]

Suhtaward~'s, 'ph,~lloso~p'hjca1 view~ in ParllJ/U} niiman are ge'lleraUy' analo,gon8 to:th.os.~· of Ibn Sini. Ha'ring arguJedfoF. the ,e:ttils,tence of the Nece&Sary Being and die bie:r-a.r'Chlaal structure· of existence 'and ~be rela ~6nS;b1p be;twee-n. ,olltolo_gy' and t re moral wortn of 'belng1't Suhr.a~rdi, goes on to discuss 'the. pro,b~e;m ·of evil" free 'will

dd-' + '" "..,;1..,'" ·',iL·

an .- eter;p"un:~sm W~u'lIJl[} an U'R.'fra,:~ ognw:J{'~.

S·'nee the Necessar:y Bei n.g is Pure Qoodn.ess and its, nature :is the most c.o,m,p'.et,e and most inle~ligen t of all. bc:dng5t therefore, f-r{)lm Him. emanates on~y pPare' beneeolenee. I! there occurs evil its good exceeds its ev.il.!l2

14

Th·· Life an.d 'Wark,s of Subr:a~rdi

Subraw~roi ar,gues 'fQ[[ the imm,onaliW of the soul, pleasure and pain, and their relatienshh w~th me state of the, s0.ul after it departs the bQd.y. F(trJ.ally ~ Part'ar~mah: deals w:tth p(oophets. and propbeey ~ mirac·les. an dl even~s ,of an un usual nature. This section is written in (he style· of'hi.s, ish'T-aq~'Wtit~ngs, and i.s different from the ome'r chapters run that 'he makes, ,exrensirve usc' of Zoroastrlan symbolism.

,£: HA"" vJ'DYir ,""111' iIi'WFD (:J' rn;'-iI']\,:r;O··I"If11"'B .'., 'E!2I['!!!li!ii1 VI! ,.,,',' l.i1UliJL&"" . .i'U:.rJ:'''·un. ' Li<Villf.u:J! V.I . " vil" 'ODl~ r .

This is one ;ID'f his. most important. and weU known tteaJ!1ises in. Persian, Some of Su hrawardi '5, commen tators h:av>€ S'Qgg;ested -rl at

. f"' ;;,.'Ik ;,'I lioffi'li,r~~J' ,. • d· . ',e. '

ex:fJenS1ve use Ot. 'YWe 'wO'r~ ~:~j,~t I: 'an In: ]rtatJlOn mait oUJll'ratwar~j

h Ilk. .-,~. d'b I -":-·l~ ~

:rnay ave oeen lu:l'IUence'. _ :,. sma l [510 ,,-

In the ,first section 'Of flo/JaJill' ,a[..lnft,r~F}S he offe-rs 'a, d,efill.iuo. I. of wha' an o1bject is, In the second chapter he discussesthe mindbody problem, their in,k:'rarCt~on and dl,e natnre of ~~!!' 'which is. distinct ffom the' body., He also pays attention to the problem of ~~·pers.ona1.idetrtit,." and alJ11es as to what it is ehat constimtes t'h~ id.en.ti'ty of a p£:r8on. In dl.e tbird map![,e'f he discusses eU'ffefen t concepts of Be~ng, such . '$ necessary and contingent. It is, in the fourth. cbaplet";; however, that Suhta'W3Jidi~'S, phUoso.pbi,[eal viewsare discussed with a much greater depth, and :lengLili.

;"e then goes on to discuss, the problem ofee.mity ([qUlam) and the cre'atiQ'fl (.puaiiJh) or me' w'Qrld.in dme: and Cod.'",s mWa:tion.lQ it. Also", he in¥estigates the rela ":onship 'b~[tween ·the movement. 0,£ 'the eelesttal bodies, IDe' [quaUties_ he attrib nes to them" and t. Ie process of n~.um:ina.tioniO In lh~ :Wa·t.et' part 'Of H,,:,6kil e.l--n.u:r;. he invesdg.a:res such issues as the imm"ottaJi ty ,of the (soul and Its uDifi.cadon ·M.th the angelic w'orld att'ct '~t departs the human 'body. .

ii",p.' .AI '1' 'lI'\I'1' AU (,iI!'iI ... ·..i' ni' (\'1"1' . .4. :D':' ~ a-:; iD ,I" .... ,i' n ,oIi:r nlN·, "~ I': i! ,~"c";.i~UJII: :IJ:Y~..;I .!I~~:J!. _}S' .;1.~'_~'. J'

In the' .in'tuod.ucti<oll. '[0' this, w'Ork_ Suh.tawanii iQ.dilcat(r$ that this book. has, been wJ:·'tt.ell in the style ,of :h.e ish!ftlfJisJj& He begjns,~ however, by a discussion P.D, semaJl'Ucs, and then moves 00. to consider such issnes as thesoul, its pOrwers, and :i't'i elado.olShip.· w~Jth the :n,ght ofr-ghm., The :nrst p,ij\'rt of. the boo[:k discnues a number of philosophical issues such as the " '_,eo€ssa:ry Be~ng and hs aTitF.3~buJtes~ the prob'_em of ,cr.e~ted,DeSSJand ,ete'mi-cy of th}e world and motion .. In, so doing, be makes extensive' refereneesto fiJtm-nic¥erses and

15

51l~l1raw,ardi and ·(h,e School) of: n~uminatwon

1fJaditk. In ~h:e later part of the' book 'Suh~awudi .~;s I~nl,aged. in an ,e~,eges~s Ictthe. ancient Persian. m¥tbo'~ogy and, makes interp:-e:natiJens that are' essen lial in the' fo'rmuladon of his" tJieos(Jiphica] epistemol,ogy., ",_ his is especiaUy ,ap:parent~vard.8 the end, of this 'work where the faute of the 'h,umiU}, soul is discuss'ed in such a 'way thaa the simi~arity of Islamic eschatology and Zoro!tllcdanism ~8 demenstrated, Subr&l~a.rd~ here ,a:rgues d18t purific:ado'n dlroug:h. asceticism is-the neeessarv condition for illumination" As be' states:

. R , ,

~ntOe the soul is purified, l"'t 'Win 'be illuminated 'by diVin,e Ught. ~5,7

Su'brawardi then tells us' til,at aseetlcism and purification are Iike -fire wbi,ch", once applied to iron, ·,iDumina:D.es. the 'i:mn" The j'r~n.~ in this, case, being the soul or (h!e "I", can beccme jjlb.l'mmate,d not 'Only because of the do'mJna-n t character of the lilh t IQf Ugh ts but 30]'0 because 'of 'the' inner yearning of the human soul for perfeetiorr, The light that wn.cd6ins M tbe iUu:mm,ator of the body ~~d [,"I" soul. for Sub'ral\lardi is the' incorporeal jig,htwbich he calls I(k:(f'('f:a/i., It is, the presence of this light hI the human. soul that enables man to have 'ih,e ~uflJreryeaJ1ling whitb is necessary for the' pursuit ,of the spbitual path, Suhrawardi.de!sadbes'(b,e bum,aD sou' , as, I, tree whose fruit is ,cet~inty" or' 3\ niche mat; through d.Mne' fire, becomes, U~u>minll'()ed,,~' In h:is, writings SURraw;::ul\di sees 'the' enconnter of . oses and 'd'\€ burni,if);g bush in this cont~t and. uses the ~roWY' to su bstantiaee 'his ish:rlt,l claim thai it is GO Iy' tbe divine fire that can ilb:urrmna,te me human. Sou . Su'hraw4rdi 'tells us' mat the reasen for wr~ting this book is to ~pose t.he "'Or:dgi:n ~ 'and des.tination of man, He. descrjbes the oti~n .,!

• Iil)'"""

The :p-rincipl,e;s whic:h are lli~€,eSS,arUy the' case wi:~h r,egard. to the knowledge of the or~.n of man s na,I;UI'e" are ofeschata'~ogIcal :nature., This. is in aecordanee with t;he creed af the tbeosophis'ts and the" prtnciples (laid d.own by) the learned men of theosophy.:t19

,At the end Sl:~bC\1Naf ,'. off'€:lS an esol!en.c :readmg of a st,ory by' JilliCbrVlSl. tb,eersilwl poet ·whose mo,tlIIumental wor:kj The B'ook f/ Kic~, is an ,e,nlcye'~opedia, of' Persian mYt'bology. ,A ccmplete d,isc.ussion of Suhra~l~~ re~ing of such '6gures as Ja:rid!iiulJ ~ak and. Kay I{h,USn1w IS such tilaJt be' sees them. as die ID3Jl'/ leSlations, of o'fvine' Ught On the s,~,gnifb:a~ce' of "tins WOrr~ S.H~ Nar,lf states:

it l-w:j(i. ~mii4iis, one of'th,e most brtlliant wor'b or S1..1hrnwardi in which [he tales of ancient Persia and, the wlsdom of gnosis

The Lif'e 'and 'Workli or Suh'm~.rdi

o£ antiqui~ 'in the Q9:n text of the' esoteric ml~w rung of the Qurn.n have been synthesized. Suhra.,ard~ has made an interpre1f;aC;.on. of die de.stln.r Qf the witd l'ifhi,ch IslaJIl'lk theosophy and :gnos'is are in agreeme.n:t with.60.

8- - 'D"-~.i\4ri'T-·:: ,AI' T,.t''UD ~n'Jiiil,A~it",1i'i O· .'r£!'~1DB,!:rB,n,,~ !! x.u~ ~~n.":8 Il·.~:.I,"'l.>.n ' F .J..C:1.6 .~/'

This work w,HoriginallY\\frirtten, by Ibn Sini and was translated and res~.a~d by S'Uhraw;a'ocli into Persl.a'R.:flB, It d:is~lQ8e:s a number of esoteric doctrines It!hrough abe langua,ge ot the birds w'hicb Su:hraw.a;rni~, ~ Attar and A;bm1\d GbuziU had also used befo:p" him. The' story ,".s about the' fate of a grou,p of birds, who;!c ha,ving fallen into th,e trap Q hunters, de$~rl,he ho,w' thelr :atte-mpt to, free t . e.~;., selves. .is ra,c.~, 'wi th a number of serbacks and, 'how the m'mil ,ove!,..· come such ,obstades~ This, 'work depicrs the spiritua] jour.ney of mall from his ,originaJ abode mto the world IOf' ferm ,andl how the' auaC:hmen~ ,of the marerial 'world can 0 bslAict one 's desire -to reunite w.i:Lh his s,piri jual orlgmn.

In tblscwork; SnbralVardi alludesl to bow human faculties that are dlrected to me sensible ''W'odd Q'bstruct th e- soo:m, from its spbi'tu~d J~'u'fney and ~he attainment of illuminanon. Snh:raward~, describes

the' dangers. of the mystica] padl as foUows:

O'~" '~'IrA,Lp'r""" ';1" iIt-'II+,h shed ''Vnlill'!Ii'!iI"'' S' kin 'r,JiiC ':!Ii snak ... , d ees and ,IJ\IIJ., UIAj 'VIL~~t;L1Ir ~ .~It'~ Y YJL,_, ,~~ Q .. "_. J' -~-I~JIJ. ~.", ri&.WJ' 19. ~ Igj.~ ¥- _ ~ ·a... _.1

'walt as, an ant ''Walks so the sound of your footsteps eannot he' heaRt Be as a ~9rpi.o1l whose weapon is erl®! :td~ b3if!k since Satan. comes fro~ll behind a- D'rink poison 180 you ma.y 'be born. Fly co,ndnu.ously and do net IchOrO'SIe a nest, fhr all bi:ms are' taken from ,:heir nests", and if you 'heave' n Q' wi,ngs 'CEilwl on the' gr()und~ ,i ,. i lJe ll'k,e an OSltdcb 'who eats wa:nn, sand and vu~'ttll'res., who. eat 'bard bones. Like salamander, be in the middle of fire so 0,0 haun can come np,pn you to'morf.O~. ,. Be like' a moth who r-emains, htd,d.eD by dary so he may 'remain, safe from the enemy.:S2:

Suhrawalidi uses 'm,t above symboms to affer at set of .pracf'caJ, :llls!f;mc,ti@iDS for iliO'Sl€ who. are on the Sufi pa:t~h, .. F,or example,,", the sh edding of one' s s.kin. refers to the abandoning af one's leg'6, and walking Iike an ant alludes to rhe 'w,ay one Qught ta' walk 'On the pa1'b of tnl:th so that no Q _,e wiU kn,ow It Drinking poison syrn,boUreally indi,ca,te~ 'the endurance of the 'paIns and {rusJtra.t[.."ps whi,ch ene ;~1 'to experience on ·the ,sptth. 1.'·.1d path, By usir. ,g' the

]7

,Sub:~a.warcdi and the 'khoo.:l o:f I Uuminaligf[l.

prophetic hadith "love death S~;) you mJay ltv,- ~ Suhrawudi refers, 'to ilie sp'il:rhua~ death The' Sufi' ,oon,ae-p[t 6f an nfhllation is. the death

..:aI ...... ':. '11).,,' S 'L. d ~ '11... ~ I£. d' ~l".w....' .'

-an!.:.!l. re w'rtu. that u u:~war' .. ~. mmse ':1:' '"C I~e~lc:n ~,$. III a poe.m:

If thou die before death,

_ hou hast placed thys€'~f in. eternal bliss, .' 'hou who didst not ret leo, 'Oft ,:hts path ..

Shame 'be up an 'thee that 'brougbt.eaot sufferin:g upon thyse,-r,. M

Su.hraIW3.f[Qi illustrates various bar,dmip~ ,of tlu:~·,a.th by' alb;mdill~g 00 them as tbe ead~.g of 'bot sana by dle ostrich or the ,ea .':'ng of sharp bones by the vultures, Endufmg such pain is, ne)~ssary if one is VQ p r()lgfe;~.u~ an d ~,~ h i e:v e an y s'[a;( io rr o n 'th'e ,sp i"r:i tu,a] p ath, SUhr:'3lf:ilt:r;d'i"s, use of a salamander has. different meve'ms Qf interpretation, TIiLe Salamander is the IYmb,c~ll of gold in .a),ehc'myan.d

. -

gQld ls the symbol of D'w,vine' In te: leer, He oo:u~di be' r'efeR'iJ.\g Dot

enly to Abraharn 'who wars thrown into fire j b~l also t~· the' fire wjdl:ln man, The popular mytJh mainmns that ira salamande goes tbl(fu,g:b fip.ej! and '4:oe:s no't burn, ~t becomes res "stant to everj,.,'IJ.... y' "h C' .. L t, d 'hu .AO' ~ I hi ;1;.;,. luw~lIl:g;+ ' . ,c ,er,eA'@re" iU,I,ose W.Il~O :are consume· Iq.i tl:l'V1ne IOV~;. W' , leJ ~

bums 'l'ke' fire~ have cut rih.eir imp '_ritles, inro the' fire, The,' harve· SVlaUerwed th.ls, fire and, become purilled .. ,

·:Finalffi)". Suhrawardi tens. us 'I!halt 'we ought to 'be :like a-moth that Hi,es, at night and remains h~dden. by da.¥~ Night represents the

· b ' ..... ·dd d ..:mIl ... :L: . ,. I ..!II!...,

esotene, 't!, e rnc aen aspect, ani YJay Ule' exotene. n llIJ!lJ18 way

Su'bmwa~rdi UJes thJ€ 5ymOO~8. qf tmdition,al S~ Ulteratl,J,re with

. 'h 11.., '1m" h d ,j,L •• 'iII "'11' "'dO.

n~g ,'t symuolZKlg' L e ,eS'OIJel~lC anc !LUe' spmtua~ rmneu, prow ~lng

'h d 'IJ...~ L. I'] . D'

t' e sac Fe , spa¢e w.~.~ l~.u a .ows man 1.0 ,. y.

In the Ri$iilt1J\al1~~ Su~h mwardi describes, dle ,s!pbrttual jou:rn1tf· of man by ·~.e~gun.dng' the tale 0;' a nUi I ber of bir.ds. 'WDQ were ""flying freely~ but :fieD .in. the trap of the hunters. "Flyiu:1 :freely~;' here Jy.mbolhes 'rh'[e ·,oond·~'tioJl in which. man lived in .,!be: eternal stare prior Ito creation, and falling i'nto the trap denotes cominJ

., 'h ,~II ~ f' ·']1· Tb" ~ 1.. .'::.1': L:

:~n to t .~.'e ,twom~]'n 0 . materia ~s!~enee~ . . .. :i8, w.iange s~lnhl,es the

transidon from. me' formless to. the woIdd, of forms. 'Having become prisoners of fhem~te. 'iaJ world, o£t'enl i.d,entiiied i I PeRji.an literature as the ~pris'Dn of ·th,e body," those who are cam)Z;iOllS of thjls, 1Jlm'p,riJon'm,en't can be,g~n theirjo.u~n.el 'liIuwavds t:'heir ,origin~

The- bini who finds himreH" a p.nsaner s.ymbo.lbles the' world.1y m.an. Howeverl! 'because:· of tbe' forg~etf(dnes:8. of h.uman nature: he. ·k."'"'"t1I~m:- P~ u'~\ed t' :0 ,,,'h'" ,o!!ii, ?.!(tiO:'Ji···~··;Ii..· m: A'iII"I' 1Ii';t! .nr'· tb,e 'm3iienal W' O,'P'II~.. T. 'h·;i'il.

IU'G!I!r.'U 1Iir~ _~. _ _ .' L I L U1QL.IIl,W. 'l!i.z'jIj.~f~ ~" _" _. . k .JI,.L~I" ,JII~

T-h.e: Lif~ and Works 'Of S'Ubraw~n'\~U

:aclapm't10n and the acceptanee of c.hec_9Ddidan is the grea£esl dange,r in. 0 ne's spJirmtoaljourney" according to Suh'm:wardL In the lIiangu3,ge of th.e birds~ Suhrawardi states: .

W:€£ocused (lUra.tlen.t~on on boww,r:;' could free ourselves .. We wefie,:in :tb_at condidon ·fOlf a whUe until our first pri.nlCiP.'h~· was, :folrgoUen (freed~):m) and. 5elJded. with these ch.alD$1 g.m~vin.,g in to the tighlness of the cage~ 6B,

Suhra:wardr:s descripti,6~ of the spW:ri'tualjourn .. ey in the "Treatise of the Birds" continues w"th the flight '0'( il]:lle' bmrd8 ·whe.n ·they free' tbemsellives from some of the tM)ndages~ TOo translate this into Sufi lan:guag':e" it lean be said that men who. have ranen b:u.a the world of forms. [can. -part]fy free' t.bemselves tllfough the~rwU'~prOw·er"; ·ho·'\f'evt:Fj. to remove ,aD the ,chains of af:fae,-.' menrs they WOQ,.d need the guid~nc,e of :3. maseer, WhUe' 'the- po ~en.tiarlY' for man. ,~, beeomeilluminated esises, the proeess wn~ not m.}lrje pl:~ace"wi theut the w-O'f:JJer yearrring and tbe 'win tQ make 'the journ -.1' .• This pomt becomes clear wben. me. mam ,(llm.acter of the st()ry ·begs. me' other birds to snow hi m :hgw·th~ freed themselees e.

Havlng pursued the path of asce _. cismand endure [ hardships, the blrds. arrive 8<t diflevenc sta,,;tes and stad,OJUi of me '[plath 'where the,y think it ~~ time 00) r-est. Suhra-wa.mi."'Wams '!l11 :aphls.t the desire to rest ir [one place, ;;;dthoug;h the b 'aua.es, of-the 'path, w'hi':h he dfes.cribes as the ~aUnict~ ODS J1'hat remove the mind I( ~q'~1 from. th.e 'body'~ are e,xtreme~Jr temp1cimg .. ~ finally ~ their- iJes,ire .1.0 8'my is. overcome by diwne graoej 'e'xe'm·pJified. .as :=:1 VOi(!f:' ea/Un,g upon them to, oontlnue. SubrawarA:i then describe" dle~r encounter with God~, w'hos~ presence he ,describes' as. a. blindi.n.g ~ightm The light of U~llm tells jhe birds. ·that he' who has placed the chains must remove ~ilie:m ~s ·we·ll and God "$ends a m,essenger to oversee the .r: 'mwal of these chains,

The fo:n:Qwlngprineiples. can be inferred from the' Risdia,t ,al-$~ayr. (is

I, The earthly human state is ,it, prison for the human soul,

2:., . ,h.,ere is a ntctg~lty f~,r the soul to. journey :rowards the Ught of :Lightim

3., T.b,e grac~ '(hat is attained.. lthltoug'lll sqc.h ,an experience, 'belpJ8 dle.

S4liA: too r~mov,e dle fmaJ a'ttachm.ents. to ,this world,.

4,,~. be ,ex.per.~ence Qf the l~ht of Ugh'rs can. Qe achieved if one is :abh~,: ·~o free :hbmelf f~Qm the .prison of'th.e malerial world.

19

Suhmward~ and the Sdt~,'oo. ,or, J~,I' iDinl:tWD

It. is importan t to treat Suh:raw,at-di ',5, narratives and til' ~ if' peculiar litera'ry ,sqi~e as. pa'rt, and parce[ 0!the I1liraqi doctrine .. Wbefeas in TIM, Plt.il()&,f1ft.h, of Jlt.umi4tatM». 'be ,oWe'A Lne' ~octrinai analysis. af ishra.qi thou,g;h.t" in his Persian wrldn,g~ be is cUsclosmg the practical aspect of his ish7'aq,i doctrine, 'without which bis theosophica' sy. tern. wnuld not be C{)l~p;~et,e., Su,'hJ~rawardru,!l,1 epi$tt:m'ololic.al sys;~'m ultimately relies 0:,' [h,!e qrpe' of Msdo(m that is, atla,inedl 'th,rou;,g'h practicin,g the isAr-tttjldoclJ"ine and that is precise'l~'what he is DJing to dem,'il)Instra~ im his, ,mystical na.muives. In factj ilis i'D~rru£;tlcns, for the atutinment of truth in some of bis other works are even 'more' dh',ect and :seclfic.

~j A"'I'.I7~"1" U!.A,I):..I' DIlrl,Z".' ('T,U~ CIlANFOpr:!·,A-DQPt:i2j·,~S U.JNC).

kfl ·,,·r':~;j·~~-J'~~-~ .~'~ '-- ~ -, r . ," ,"

This, hi,g;tdy esoteric work is, about ~a seeker 0", truth 'whd goes to a ,lika.'1Wqtik (Sufi heuse) which has twO doers, one -f3(ll.ng 'the city and the othec one ~ne desert. H.aving gone. to the desert, he meets ten spmtua] "masters, and. qu,es.ti®s them 'with :reg;ard 'to me mystery 'Qf Icreation ~ the ~taJtio,m of the' 'partth",~nd the d~ft:gen therein,

'_"b,e,oonv:ersatlon which follows reveals rhe,essellrtial elements of' the khr:aqi doctrine and Jth,e blr~tiatioft r~'te w:~.d£h '~, necessary tf one' is n,o understand me' esoteric k.nowle.d,~ 6f the Qtlran .. , ., In the ,Awm-'i pa'1"~ifiln:1J. Vi ~ whi€:'h has romeo, be' mo;W11 as at 1€,I~Siica~ 'worK ofP'e.niao litenl1tuF,e,,69 Suhr.a~'ar(U discusses itD,e esse;n,tlal el em e: it:S of 'his theosophical ,epi$temo~0gy. There 'be s.tates: ~~M;o5t t~ings. that }f,gOT sense percepnon observes are all from the Ghant of Gabriel?s wings~ ~?D

In this mest ,~wtericany orieneed treatise, he makes. full use Oil' 'the "tradido.nal s.ym'bolmm .of gn osis tic ism and a number of oth:e.r sytllbols which are unl'qll!ely emplo-yed 'by him and cannot be found in the G~as\Sical PersIan $.'00 li t.efature. "" 'he t'hrust of tb~~ ,qo!r1k is, stait d in the ooginning,;

~ i' ~ Abu,'I'AU 1?:armadi, peace be.upon :I'dm" was,askt;d~ '~How isc ~t rhat those \!fho, are clothed in black call certain sounds d1i:f! sound of Gabriel ,~s 'lwng~Ji' He 'f-ep,Ued, ~Knaw' ~h.at 'most th.mngs that your fawl ties 0 ~IVe are feern the SO]J;Ul.d. of 'G~br:tel 's

~,", '","Ii

WlWg.c ,~

On,e can. :say that SuhraWardi's th@ory '0£ knowledgle is dis1cwsed in this my~~ca~ tale~ In 'memph{ni:ca] ~an5guagTe Suhmwartlw ,pl;t19vides USc wi'(lh a m,ap for deve; opcng a, fiKu ty within us that is capable of

2'U

Tnt!' Life and Worb, of Slthraw~utU

gainin,g' 'tn~'ledg'C directly ,I , 10 ~-withou.t mediatio,n ~ &elylng O'D the traditional S}lm.bol:~sm >of Sufi poetry ;and prose', Suhrawardi elabo-

,. th .. iI,., • b . " . ,. ~.,'I'

rates on ' ·~.e: CPf.llent.ton tnat ,e~sts .' .elYleen ,e:m:p\lru:lsm~ raaenat-

· d .. 'II!", ~ ~,...J f ...

1,5m all, tne gn,OS:tI!C moue Oi cogmnon,

In TJu Red JlntelledJ,'72' we story begms with the ,quti:s.tign Qlf whether birds understand each other's language, The e~gle" whp initlaUy says yes; is, '13teI captured by hun ters and her eyes. are closed, on~f to be 6, pened gtadllaUY+ The JCagle meets a red-faeed man wb,. I claims ~o· 'be the first man Wh0 w,a,s cre!ated. He is Q;~d. since he represents the perfect man who e'xi$led, in the' state ,0£ perfection before the creation '1$ the archetype of man , and he :is,YQung since onto'~e,gi(aHy he is :fa', r.ern.oved from God who ls the eternal and

t" he re fore th ~ """ AI' ..:I1'6"'t lib.. Li<~'i"'iI'g' I: '. Jll"J.'~' _ _""' ~~ ul rtlI,,....:Jj . ltl~t..I!-~. ~ •

Suhraward:i tl en uses, the Zoroastrian. sym,ooUsm, of the. Qaf mountain, the story of :Z'il!, Rustam and other epic heroes as ex,empUfl,e(i, in 'the 8Mlwnd'mah. 71~ Qif iJ)' the name ,of the mountain on whose peak Griffin (,Simiirgk)). the symbol ,of divine esseace

',.,1 7"::;"11 he .... , . h' 'I.. • h" . ~ ... ..J

resmes, Lm;! 'w, ~O was uOI"D. 'Wl'U wnue r :aw:r 'rep(Jesen.un~ WI~Qm

amd, 'purity '- was 'left at the' bottom of Qaf moun rain. Slmurg:h teok Za\W to 'ms, nest and raised :him until he ,grew up and married Tahmtnah from whom ,Rusmm W,i\S born. Ruseam, the hero of'

S:J.·.riO L ~ ....... = ik h A. ~ - ~II .,'1., 'III f' ,. P' . ,.

,~~t.;."1~~g! W e r 1,0 (ll .. ern, ~8 :pelrce.lf\\feu, :8.S, me SOUl ,0, "e:,Plc"enJia) IS a

h 11..· lrl 1 .' Wb" '1';,';:',;41-

man W. ' 0 nas U nmare y overcome . 'IS own e,go,. .,' ereas rJt'UlaWSl"

'iI' he "lIiruth' 'or of' '('i'.iI!. .;:n: .. ,-,..ii __ cn I. ii!1I!mph' Q ,,;:'·z- th~ ~ .~ - m - and- hi . tori .,..~,11 L ' ... ,j, '.', ':', ~'lH;",l--'Itu.I"~"~ 'G' I,' Ik:;..;J:e",S, I e e:pus '~Jj::, ,I SI~_!"',,,i!i,,;!l!ilLJ

a~p}ects of the. Persian 'm}flih g,)ogy ~ Suhrawardi fo,cuset on its, m:ys:tical and eseee ,'. c connetadens

'In this w'Ork Suhrawardi' s theQlJ of kn-01wl,ed,ge is eX,pressed in a

'L, 1,·' 1 ., ~'~ !Ii":Il,., ... ,to'.j ... '. a, ,FJ'c.l.-= -:I':ir U -

sy,mv.o\l~t 'an~guale' s.Jml~a'!r to ~~at;~ nWtn-~ fJM4 .J~uft:t t~. ,I Sing' aj,new

set ofsymbols, SuhraW3rdi brblgs fOlnh some of the elassieal issues of IsJamic ph ~loso':plhy and. mr&dC~8m" such as the distinction

b;Q.iIf'WQ'PD the '1Iii"~ tional f,~~ .... ';"l~!ltv 'W' IlL:}' .... '1... 'IL;iI;i! calls the '{ .. , JIiI~ ul

!Gil:" "!!U;,"';' '. IL' 9 ~'-"",i!l.J.v ,A I , •• 'II,;.'!;,cL.:llj,./~ "u,._;n nl!<:;' I"';,g ~.,,''''' ,pa]:"uc· far

inrellect", I( "€uJ'lri j1J% '~l) and the In.te:;~ec't 'which he calls "universal intellect, H' I( ~aq,t",.i hull!} ~ In doing 80' he' Tel:ies b,eavHyon ZoooWitrian sym'bolism mnd. SOU'fces from "Q.cient P,ersia., h. ,~s pn.~~cisely th,e int,e~mct-ion ootwee-n die millof and, major m tellecu that is th,~ basi~ upon whi.ch on,~ can, Jpin knO¥{le"'~ ge., Like o'th¢.[ w'Qrks of a ·tbe~ sopld:£al naw:re~ ,Suhrawalldi 'b.ides his: tbe1nry ()f'lm.owledge behind

The ~fJn~ ~g:iJls in a M'fLflttfa'ft: wh~r,e :$.ev~m:~ dils~iprues spe~ k oE the spiritual Sm.,tRS ef their masters and, th,e:ir 'yie'\MS, '~,~'fdini' the cr:e:a,tiQn,.'7~ Suhraw.ar-di, who ~p.e~s, as 3: master, o;o:j€Cb, 'to' such questions wh ich m€:'re,IDy seek W e:xplai n the nature ,~f 'the unwe'rse~ and d~e structure of the' fti€tlIVens., SUlbmW'a'rdl (;)onsiJders them to be shallow an cll main tains that there are those who :se~ 'the i.pp~a:,_r:an~ and d1jJ~)~e wh:o undetsta;nd W~ s£ie:n.,ee' ()f the heavens, FifH,'~ly~ tb€:f1€ are thooe 'w'ho attain dl.e m~te~ ,of tl1e 1Celestial wlorld~ 'th.\! tfl,le! men ~f know'led.ge., Suhra.w;a.-rtii then gQ~·s~ on (0, give s;pe(dfl,G in~JltrucdQlns w'hJ'~cb an2~ easential in act\laH:dng the pgw,e:r of the faculr~ which en ables men eo gain cogni.tto"1ll MthOl1tt. J:iBedia!t~«n. ,~ h.'e states;

,AJ\~ (glt is, .de~r '(:)0 rort;altp(iOpeFty':~ furniture and woddly pleasures Md, sueh th~nB' ., .1 ,. (throw' tbem :a,,,ay) '" ; ~ if this p,roscripJt:ion is, folruowe1d,~ 'then rhe4 visiQn \-""in be iUu,mh~,alted.,~'

Amidst:a mixture o[tltfrt:h~, symooHsm and. tI3tdid(}.na~, I,slamie·metaphysics!; Sn.hrawardi ,¢o'nd:nm~s to put ~'mpfuu~iB Oft the u;latiQn.~p beMeeJl. p~l"Slrin,1 ~he a,tI!ainm.@nt ,of esetedc knowledge and the prti~ dci:ng ~f 3$~ett£isln. :P,~tjcmg aseencism win open. Qu::' inner eye,.. 'witi,ch fQS Suhraw,ardi u tbe 'm~de of cognition mart is, essen diU if' one is eo pin, knowlerlJse' of' the -eso£.e;ric dime'rhshlin of Islam, ~ccolrd.in,g lEO Su:b,ra,ward,i" tlru,e know~,edl;e ~$ ,ossi ble w hen empjriejsrr~ ~an.dl rariill'fl~dis.m ead, AB, he ~mJte$;

'Or.f~e' 'thre inner e¥,e· iQ:pen~!, dl~ exterier eye ought ttl) be closed, CJps, must 'be sealed, ,and the 'avc; ex'ternal senses ,$h,o:u~d he sileneed. Inrerlof sen ses ~'hould begin to fanction ~o the pe:rs6]l~ if n€ ,3ttain.s, a!nythiQ.,~i dees so mlh the'inft'er b~~ng (A1't1,~),~ and if' he sees, h,e' sees with. the hrner e'~'~ and if he' 'h_iea:ES:~, b.B beats vri:th die' .i~.ner e'lr" , ., .. T11en~:fdre ~ when ~~k~dlwh.al.. one· w6(W]d ~ee'~ (the: ftIlSW€:t or thel inner ,self is< tna't) ~.t Re1es what it. seel, :and whalt it Gught to 5ee~71

Thieref'Qre'" e16gu~ of ·(h'e f-we' ~~rJerfial 'Senses :for Suh:mw;ardi is a De~,essa~ oonditi.'mn fDr tbe Q,ening of '&he' '~nterr:Ht1 se:nJSeS 'which :Me ,esse.fid:~d £br- d'.u~: a;tmm-n1en"t ,of tJ],€" tnll.th" This work. ~anud,es 10

'22'

dWfe:r€nt .s~'tei and ~n"Btio:ns of . '(be ,spirim:u=ll ,p~ttb and h~fW the s,pirhua~, e,:nte can a,ci~1e~~ purIty ,e.f heart :at~d clarity- p,r 'V,~$j6n ~ In th~s, 'work" ,S-ohnl\v~rd1 detlalhoo$ '~~r~s, (;()n1!fe'fsa.t~gn,s 'Mtll a ,gr'oop of S1t]rfls, and ~lba t their Mas:ters have ~,~d tb'~m. reprdb~,g the attainment 'Cit truttt an·d 'how' Su'J:lrawa:rdlr~ visio.n .compares wiiThl, dleh'1.

This bT:id worik contains-seme ~mporlant, r,e:ferefi~es, t~ a:n~g().ri_tal

.,..H,...:i ' ·d"· 'h, ', .... '11 .. '.>. .c. , . ,. 'd-I h' ,- d:i:l:r. - - . '. . '.' ." tf <ii.\.. .. ~'-..'!'"-l

ana m~.tap:. qn,c:,AW OO'ncepts anc , , ,tOW" i!llerent stages, '01, ·~;~,e 51lrnl1tlHIL

.. ,..'1-.., c"" ~.~.~, •• i' "IIJ..A "':iIir' ;, '1,,'~,.oi;L '. 11', ,;0;'1: ;'~ '~< I~rl' . . 'b~"",,'~I'!. r,.; , :Ii>

pa;11U can ue;: u~a:nw.;u~,u Y.W roug,IIJIJ tnem, m tms ,~d,B'cu f sym~tnlC wo,r\li!!.~

the n::)~tiDmhi.p betweeB . .orID,els pud, Qr heart and. the degr~ !O whi(:'h. O'nl~ om gain kn6wled~~ as well as, ['he re"~3do'l1sh;_~p '~e'~en

Qil!\rdU'·,£'"·l·clIiYIi eG .... ·d ;ilii!ni,~.,;a;,-1n"i-1Io·0"V is discussed ilbffllg' ~1'!Ii.,.:.j'lriIfO' ('.,.,.£ ~~;Lol'~m

~~ 'I!.r. ~IIIJ.'.L _tJII,' - '!!i:;,[r,l'(,Jt!""'.J"-L.L-'UI'.II}'oj". >!Ii U.JI~!IA~,. u) I~~ ~~o, .:~lU~.U;l. "'j ~.~.) Ii) _ ~illil_' '"

I Q D:r~j' ill' ~ #-o!II"D'UA:I':;_liII,"1\"'i A :r~rf'F :J"I:f'AL'I';'I" i"Li~lit'r "'f"il'-iIi':E' ~ATz:;. :A:C' ,"iII!ii-i1 .ftI~: Elljj; '--~.I' ~.J UI'-U;;lid',I:~: VI'" .I~, ~J!:a,.iI£ UF'

- .. . .

. .

.Ff.l:.ftl' _ 'HIUnnFli; 1 :is 'LrI"DL:.U:£.Z~"" J,

b:ru dlr~$·w~~kJ Suhrawardi describes· 'ba~~ing meta m$telr 'who re.¥ea~S! me' ~llVhle. secr-et 'EO him and °be in tum disci,oo~s, it to men ~f e~oteri~e natl)re"

The- nUl~t;e:r :Pllt1:w~Jl,et him fot ~~tin,g p ~l;d befi):re i!l\e $wirt~,U'~ Su'Jn~wardi :also allllld,it'$ to the diffiC,Ull,' Oil com mlln-i:ca;tin,g' the ~so-mdc :m,eMag"e' te mlose wb.'Q s'mn4. oUMid~ of rhe tradition. S,in,oe So;k.iQl :P~niJ.' ,~~ ~ttal'neci rh rough !@idl,er mesns Th,an. sense' per£e.pti!p[lJ it ~~. dl1fficult w, ,t:ommunicil'~~ 'd:ns., mede of :kn.~wledge to those who ,m~1' not be ready '()I) receive it.

The ,si]iilt"," tIl,ell". bavjjn~' repen ted" 'fmds :tb"t master whQ ~Us '~l~rn ;jiJ, number of~ecret\S su.'l8h as are €~'horults ,ot~be .spiritual: path and ,mre' ri,tua:t~ d},at .. are hl~o1ved. In ILhe Sufi padl m.~", ,as S.j ~ (S~fi m:usic and d.m,dn,g),. The.,eK,pas~dD.n of many fine mrsdJC:id po.~n'B reveals S'uhrawa:rdi,~~ Ul(~:rg~gh, famiUar:[tyl 'with tbe' intrlc~ies, of ribe' Sufi. path.., SuJl.ra:wa:rdl e-xp.re's;$ies dlb,i~ ina, s.ym belie .conv,e:r:s~,d,on bet.we~b, a bat :~l1d a salamander wHose· pusa,ge dU~Dugh fi:m is ,s!J.lrppnsed to have protected him against ~n haems. The' 'bat is d~'Sotrifiing ilu~' pl.euure of drinking eold w,a~~r til. the middle Qf winre.~~ 'while ~re ~a.mander. is; 5Uf[e:rin.g from cold" ~e:h one

Idl • d d':.a: ..' . 'f' "l~ " ., , ... ~

COY,· _ :P(r:u¥~. _e":a .•... ;U:l:~rent '~nt~rp':I"'fe-tauon '0 ','r;(J. JU: w~'ter :~n ,a.a(';,QlIJ,i.,:",

ance to their ~:Kpe:r1enc:e~,

So :fa[~ 8~tdtmwardi he dmlm an pudin:e of th'~· ,esi;),teric ins:tNe= ti~oins ne~d,ed (or a $eeker to. PUfiSoe ·fh;e" pam of spiritua'lity~ wa:ich begins br :aD imn:er ye:a'rll:~ng a:nd C1011J~,intl.e_s, with ,ascetic :Ftr.ac,tiG€:'s. uJwd!~r d:~,e guitiJ,aDce ofa master., Th~is book int'en.ds m iltust1nlte 'the spiri:w,a;I, pa,dl, and 'the' journey Oif 'We ~eek.er (siJik'l from its Qegm",·

23

18, Blx.iLtl'YI 8A;f!IQtT AL-tme (1Jl£4TlSB: ON TIlE 1lEWTY

,->~ " " .-c' , ,>,." OP,UiWlj" ','. _.' ,

T1d$ wo,d ~f $uhr~1Qlrd]j, nol ,o)nID~ l1epres~f.Us one of th.e m,ost sJj.'bIJme example$ ofRersiwn litera1ture,) 'but i'r. also contains some o:f his, most, pmf~)itJndph:UDsophl,cal vie\W$. He 'he~iRS, '~" quot1:n:g a ver~e {roam me 'Qu~,n, and the;J1 lce-s on 110 ullt about :knowledge, and Us Il:la!ti,Ofns.bl,p "Wj'th the loteUeet.,

Kn~i'dt.at the fbf thin,g O~" prmse be upon him, created 'W'M, :3" luminous pearl caJl~d In re'll~:Ct ,~aq,l) ~ ~, frrs.t ereated Intel s= 'reel ~dJ, :P~ i1t three featur~: km(}w~,ed:~' ,ol~,Ct.d~ NU)Wled,g,e- of' ,sclfand ,knowlOOl~ Qt that .hich was net _d, m611 'WWj",oo

This, tre~dj;se m~th'e$, ~'~ climax 'when, Suhra~,rol ofFersl ,3. JS,P(~rirua] 'map of 'Iil:e' unieerse ifij, [h.e sixth cba,pte(rm It has been ~guerlthat this w<J.rk w,as wr,ilten 'an the blaSt" of Ibn Silai~'s lU$~lnJ (t~'~kf,,'fj:I, H~ti itt has to be' noted maLt ,Rib wor,'k. is, dirffel'efl t:'bom in form an d eontent from t,"h~t w:odk., Sin~e 'the rest ef SHh~w,aii.di'!;s wOf'b in Persian w11M.'rain 'th,e; sam,€: elements as tn .. e oth~~ wBrIts which 'we' have :eOrlJ$Lide,redj, I MIl n9t e\'~p~orund upen fhem'!u':aldHlml@:'l1 if). our sludy of '5uh:mrw,ardi' s eph,t~m,o:~,ogy fr,equell'~ references win be ~de 'to them, "Such WOlfkrs' inch~d,e .Bi{.$tan.. a;f,ptib Of Ra~t.' qJ4Ju~iib- (~ oj th~ ,Hea:nJ~ 'which is :3. mere philoso'p~hl:e:aJtf' oriented 'wo.rk :in wh1&ch Suhmwardi ~ddn~8fies slJch. iS$lle~ ,8 ,meta!.ph:ysic'S; sp~e~ time and m.otiOln.,

'Thb, 'W6r~, sdang with. f"axd'i1t ihin/iMd (K~mMng ,thi Di1'-~1U!) an~ hotth wrli:u~en ~n, ~e: stf'l~ 'Of the PeripilLredc'S arnd U'iDt ,o'nl,' contains, ,3 discus51,on ,or thr€ cb1$~lZal prob,1em.s of p:b~'~€Js~,;b:r't kwlt ,30$0. -ODellsi.!@nal ,~iSCUSSi,6ns r~p"Fding the' the()$o'p'h,i8I~'s m,ode 0'( 'lk!llomng',. ,Fi"~)al_my;· in 'h ~~5 bOok 1A.~ ,oj the Tf'Pffl,'~~ .suh:rawar1i~ descd'bes d),e .Datu.1Y ,~f tb,€ :tnowl,ed:ge n~~d, 'to cam,e to· 'know ~'l seruf and me cr:ea'ltio:n are' 3m'ern,g topks twhicn, ~th~y [P:eripat,eti,es] aU d~~iee' upon as :iong' as ~he ve:ifl1, :~s not vem0v:ed and :knowledge by p,-e~en.te i& n~t ,aR'alineg" Jj~ 1():n1(!e' ,this. know]edglf: is: ,au:a;medt the

2'4

The' L'ii.t:e' and W;a,];ks (l~ :SulU~3!w,ardi,

~ ih"iP1 'b.~l]" (o; _, • E ;~.' ..,,'I ,. 'iii ''.-11 ~,p"t:. . " .

'CI)',slm ea . v~a.m-:tJami ,Dca-f y~ur Q18PQsa,w an,tA "~wua:lteve:r :you, W2(.nt

C~U1il be' studied and rOll beccme.censeious ,.,fm:h,€- unlv.er,se and the, un seen wo,~]d ~'

- ......... "_.~ .. ..::~ _' -.-'.

Sllhim.wa.Fd~ illnd tbe Scho()~ cf Ill,umuila1t1oD

'n;ing" ~~td,~h S~'i'aW'ld:i sym,u0'1~'cal11 id1enT.~fie's as, (hHdrho~o[t The .significan(J~ Q,[ hllving a spiri T.lJ.Ulll master to ~~oid the dangoers on die path!j as 'we~] ;a1S diffefre:n:~ s~ge'~ of '~n'l1er d~vlelopm,ent, are am~ng some of m~' issues that S\!I1l.h.mTNa:nrdi elaborates 'U,pon., TIllie

f·· - ." JIRk" L....:::' :1.. • '" '~I •. .::1 ,iAn.

core ~ tbe.'s]liri,t.uat 'tt~a.chnlgs Q:~' 1~~·dS 'woO1\. ~ a. ,pJ;acnc~1IJ :gulu.e ~:V:r

.a "..' ~,,' ,'.,1:.,' ,-, ~ '" c _., iI!'"~ •• ~. 1 ' " , t-'h

,puBlung tne s"pln~uapa.. '.

l..i .... ,J" Ul'Nnc;r'ft(i'T 1'.1:A ~t':, '?Ann'lJIftj"'T' l;DDA,"IlE"DC"'.(j ~1':1"!Ii1 ~ ... il1I.I..r"':I"~~iI ~r~n &;'-Jl;ii;-~:D'~alI", ~~~.~;~~-".IiI

'PII' JD'DJ" 1'.t"",iII, IfI'I'I'n, 11. iI''4rI~

,~WrCUL&I~~"[ ,il'Ul''''~ JI

These' w['itings~ due to their devodO'n~~, nature, are di:sdnc'1!. ,froOm

... '1;.. • ,. f' ',Ij,]i L, • ....:1.. k"",,, .• ·'I..... > f C ..,I

p:tJJJej[' w~ntjnp. o. ~N!l.lmwa!['c(.d, !#lllJl :rull1 'terms n ~. i,p,rm anu. eenten r,

Despite the,~r 8i;gn,jfi,c-ance. for dl,e' farmulation of s.ub.t:a~l'a;rdr~,

. '.-, _JI ~'~" '"' \... 'W hs f " ,,., ~- . ", ,.,.;al ~'I,\...' . ,t" . "'~, ,.' ill h , ",.:iii . " , "

ange~w,oill.ogy;i' I!l.:.ue""} nave nos ,1II,·ec;ew:veWt me a~enll!.lOn 1M., ley neseree, n

.ott.. ' .• ' ~ h -..:I'~ ~1 ~:L. ",L. ]. 'h"" f' ... 'L. -

mese Wl1.t~ngs, en . ,m'Wa:lIl,ul u.eSCf:'IJu·e5 'UH,:~ re anons .~ r~.p -0 ~ tne planets

and fful~ir ch!am,cIIJeri~t~,cs 'With, that of the inner :fQn:ecS ,nr man, His,

.'. -- f .. 'L.. "'L' ,. 10· ~~, (. :I':hf ~, ~~, "Ii 'IL.

p:r::a;~~: 0', ~I.:ue' grea[ 1 -·U:DllDOUS, Jtje':~ng' '. a""J!:Y~r' a",a, ¥~mi ~ wuos,t:

pO:W€IN' and, g~ory deIm[nd .s!ubm:issio1D ~ addn.~~ss;in:g, t.he :rH~~1l.1y sun Humhshli 'a's 'we~l as the 're~ad,()ns(h ip 1be'~'een. th,t'Zo:roasuian an ~ls and. ,s~,~ri;tJua1 e:nJ.tities'jl are ,am:Qfl:~ tbe i's'ues, that ?Suhra~mi

o~ ,w.r... litjl

disensses in these works,. It is ilm,p.ortanJt for the reader of

Std):m(W,t\'fdi" l1,Qt t:O vi~w 'h is w-n~io.grs as, iso;~ated ~d. ,s~par,ated

be .1l,.,~, but: . ,.i~'.-., ''', ,',- :", t -- ,'II. ,.,....l' ., .. .,j -'~ .'ii.\.. ,- 11;0 .... ,... "r- "_A " , ,",-

o O.tIii;!ii , uU. rarner as, an Ul. e,IT;e!laLeU anlo. eranerase set '0 , ieeas In

wllh::h e¥ery pM-t can on:~¥ be pr,operly tlnders~aoo in regard t,O the 'whole 'w'l~,i~e' me 'Whole derives ~It~ vaUdi ty' from ,!Jtl; :f~rts~

1.510, CON'Clll8IO'N

All e~t,ensive d~C1jMio'l'l of $uhr.awatcdf~ '$ 'boolls requir.~~ a rsei'pa'ra~' w'OdiL I 'Win ,. hQ~er,. ,c~ns~der some 'Of these WO'E~S' 3:';, ':~e~grh :blJ the f~~th(;@.m:ln.~ eh-aplten,.

1 .. '!k s: ~~;:! - , f' Ci' L, ~"'-''''..:I ~!~' d .. ~;.,

n, U.IJC; :lnreg6'~ng 1U1I'iellSSiO:D", a mm:tn.ary' 0: ',L)'ll~ im,wm.td, S " ootnn~,

and the' esoteric worlD: 'has been plJesenlim .. S1:dlmward~ WOW "the 'm~jO;ri.'ty of h ~s w01riks in it p~ri~d of ill . (~ ~a'f:s. 'and, thertef0f·e the' distincdia~ ·of ~~atrl)l! ~md ~U:~wor.ks CmU'w,@il;.'be mme,. 'His, thoughlsJ' :d (If'wbichfnnn a pm:atli,g,fll;,c are nQits~mmat~,c jf'Yi~ed, indifvi4ual~,. H0wev~f:i, :u th~ a:_r\! viewoo in tb~iF ,toWigr~ fhe-y i~,ootn a eon;Sis.oont and colwer:en t fhUp.sophtcaJ sy~~m Mftiin wlm:ich v~;ri;GU~l W01 ,cJtims:~ ~am~'w1id and mean iDgful. A dose sbu~y' ofSuma:ward.i~s, rlritliljg.s ito, PefS!ian~, Widl ,emphadBJlP~n dl~ir epilstemJi);~,OfPe~ ,asPCt(:t, f1€Veals tbe' :elt~s;~n.~e ,O'f a lhe~ oIc:lma,w,'~~d;~ '~ce, ::nemUv 'known a:s "Know1r

~.&.J ~ ~- l~1 j'

ed,~' ~~ 'Pre:sen~f~ (aJ;.'1,lm, ,~'-A'WJ.:iirril., The :inoo:rt'WiMd and elabo'mtJ.e

.0-.,.., lUI ... . UJ. ~ ~

web gf.' myth mui ~oo~isJm 'in S~hra;'Watd:~:':s p:h-~Io~ephY' inkten.ds, 'IIO

al1ic[lla;~e )lis, tbeetly~,f know:~edge" a:n impo.n.au.t :anu fundament~l

'2l!5,

Suhnwa'r;cLi. {alnd the :$pho.ol Cif IMllUlmUladQII1

sublliect 1n the ish:rrt.ti sehool (if ,tbougb,t. Slllual\fal'd:L 'who claims to h~~e fiF~t (iiscave!red, me tnJ'dl, '~u1d then em barked on ,a. p~JID, 'to' find ale 'mri~nal ba$is, orbt~ eXpe'rien~al wisdom, n:!pmse'nts~ thilll{,erwhQ made an ~ttempt t0i brillg about a. mpproc-h~mleml.t ~twee'n mtional IdJ,iKou~ M.dl inner :purifl'CaJtiorn" The:reiUN, a cQ~pn~h~nmve inserp;retMton of $lih faw,aidi)s school of ,isl"'''aIf! "should lnclude ih.e '~ dirstin'ct dtmerwmons, of his phU~pbi~l paJ1ldigr~~ U1e' practical and, the phiiJ,OSO,J)himt

1 Fe-m'" marie 'ifiOOrflllation ,eo:ij~enlmG' Su_bf':a!:w,~wi ~ s ~Mf~ and b~ogr:afh'1 se~. ,I:lbn ,A.b' ~tr:fja;r'bi~llh~. i,V_;il.ll 4~",{}/'J])ba:'fl' ,~ilbaqat ~1:..a~AWt~ ed .. 'M'Ul~b~r~, (K;,oningsberg Pr,e5s~ 1884); l'iln Eh:al1ikan, Wcf~)Nit ak;a~ ed. I. "Aboos~ (Beiru:t 19G§) f and Sh~Jm"aJ-Din Shllh~riri" .N~tl~ tiMfIlmll' '~~ 't~;~t,~ '~4/J ,fl' ~j~,. ~'ll~ U)a;'~~/(£~ifi(l~ ed, Ith,iirshid

Ab!--~~dj 'V(J l. 2' '(HBfd~r,a~a,: ~ \ti'fi}.. "_' ~ ,~.~ _.

Q 1L1'.£I. • :"£:-",,6· 11 ,PoL, - ~liII ,_ .£- oil' iii",... ,.:'Il;..".~ "i!i!~ _~~ o':!I;",,~,h~ ... ;!. -~ ~.'1 ..... ,""'"',,;..iirr. l~ha iL.. !rMlirJ

.::;, n""'iE'eru.IUI .... :r Jj, ~:lIIallilii ,n;!lC": JW l!iJUWS,,,'VJfl&". ~' ";'If"";,,, .. q. ~~~~~" o,i:!\ ,'_IU I _', ,,< __ '~

N'udl~i.m,..;~rw~~ r~w~~ rtUfTlti) fi mriltli ~~~~ j' WfJ, j~flllii.si;fa~ ed, st. KHiir~sl~j'rud (~ad" 1l"7~) > '119~14!.,

3 SuJl~OOi!l tiptrm M~k~ a ~j~~, 'With an WnttnductiQt'j byS~H.,

N8l$f tTeJ'WIa[o;; INtWilll~U,e" d~"ElWck-'S et des Red\eJXh~s 'CWW~l1M,t- l 9~~l~ 1$., " S.,H"Nasr~ ThM,Muslt)nS. (('~mbrld~: H~ni Um\l\ers~lIlJ~ 19M)~ leo., r5' Shab:razuri, Num(d ai~a~J' 12~~

it: 'U;:i: 'I JiJ • :1..£., ~., ~._ • .J .... rr,,~]' '~I]A Qii"Ii ~ ~'G."iJ,1f;

vl'aqijit, ali-y~n~~ ~r"~I~m ~~~~ '~~",I~I!, fjlOIO!,V~ ~r:o uiJ:;:U.

'7 S!hilhrn;z~i! ,H.1IZk~t ~l."tI1'tlr1d~~ 125,.

S SuJIl:r:aM~u'fdj" Oper,a MetrJI/iit-lii:ca ~t M~IiJw.~~~ w,i,(h an in:woduc;dan br H~nn' GClr'hlhl (Istatnibtu]; Ma:i.ni:f MiQ.rbiiti!IJs:i!, ~~f46h 259.

'9t The pmlitlcaJll;\e.3$il~ might be iliu! I[t~ture ef bilS, t~I{)UghlS ~uld, l@p~'lnl~,~ 100 other ttadlddtFl~; ow' per:ha'~ because Ju~ nliiiliy haV\€ claimed 'to 'be a pro'ph~,t, $ee Sh30~u'a:z~d, NJizJwt, al4;l~~ 1 '2)11

10 Ibn Taq'h:r~bj(1di and Abutl-'Ufd~jsin YU$!M~ (j;fo.lWljiim ~l.-Vl-:Ai,'1:dA.ft ~ur~kc ~m~.w '~t!l~aAi'r~ vnru,. '6 I,Cairojl 3.~,Mu!~;83i~ ,t~l .. 'Uwsr·i~:b P~,eg~ 1ge3) ~ ill 1.4.

11 [b~,dl~ 115,. :1 '2: Ibid,"'i 30" 15 Iboodl~ J 14.

14 t~h3Jhraz:ur~(! ,NU1:ilw.t .;~~nlJ~ 120.

15, S. H'" NMr~' ~8\Wh~fdi:: 'th~ Mutelf .of MHumm3:t~on~ IG'llwt~,,: am~~l M:u:~ ~'~ 'trans. W. Gbi~d~k~ Jtmmal- (}IJtq:i~' Qu;lluTmr: .t~tflu" A R-(J,. 4 (1900):: 21.2"

lf~ P~r'ltan naftl.o~;U!)1iml {~A!t~~aJi} was:~ mDlIlem~n:t ~run 't'.hte 3_rd liC~UmJllJjvy A~, Me. 'Dmiin,g tihiiS pe-J"iGd a ~e.mE1nt b~ Persian i.nt\eJJ~ctuahc bepn as Tal, 'pr,~;w!t ag.a;Hl~t ,i\nl~b d'ommation., FOf' more inf¢irma;u,on see, 'tb;e ,ornnilblttsw.D1llI, flt ltbws wo:r~.,

11' ,H~ Ziifi i ~lhe Sorul!~t~ ~Dd, Natuu' of' '~:litiica'[ Author1!tf in Suhra!"

W3iniU'!s 'fhiJ~()mpJI:y 0:( IUuwrJiaJrtit)\Il" j in P~iti.tcq,l A~c~ ~f'ls,&J.mi(; Pi~~ $~iJ (Cambw~a:ge:: Hamf'd, 'Univer,si'ly' cPr'~,S&.! 1992' ~3'4.

18, [bid~'j' J10~

]n ('j'h Ilk ~- ""'_-'- A,Z.~",.L ~ i~',"'~_" "-ir" 11,C)~

, ~ ,;j,. aWJf1FMU1'1, l"!1!~4ifa~~~~ ~,li;~.,

2f) iG'h~i1i menti,(iUl~ twen.'LJ' reasons ~fOir d!~' @ttacy' ,oif the p,hruIosopJl~s~~,

• ,. .] ""',~ .~'III· Tn1,.;·:~! . .i~:{:n,I';;,~,{;,.,J. ;0; A y, .... , iI'''' 'I'L"':"'"

opu:.u'O[t" ;a;J",0uaz~J,!, ~ ~~ ,u,~' aii<'j~~;iwlil mall,S- ,~ .. ~. l&idll" 'I " -AL~ore::

n... ~l~~.... _ , 'IDih ·'111 . _ _ '1..,'" ~ - '~I r" .... -, ,. ." ''III ~'ii}') ~ I'

.I[',it~:tan ,I['", 'll11fJiSO'p'l'lIIu:;:aW ~n(ress:;. lI!i.~c~', ~ Ji ,

21 For 'mo£-t! 'iir1fOit.Hl~uiG\l1Il, see H. CQ17bbl1~ L ~man~ ,tmprm.T'jH'" (Paris::

F:W-~rJ)d~, 1916). '

22 FQf mD~ i:QfdF~;dJtinn '011 thils tr:~!ilmltru(},A ot Ccrfbm, see: 'Shihaboddirn '¥a\:r.yj, SD~:Il'~aM\31rdJ~ uLmr'B'd~'m.s~Je ~fq, ttad,ucr:~on et n@te,s :pail'" by:",., 'COrbin~, '(Paris: 'Vietd~,er'~ 1986).

27

Sul].'m·.Mu:u~diru. and the ,Sch~o:1 o.f ITbaminat"',ao

23, Thack.ston has-also translat .d part of the m 7th (:en.tul"Y' Persian trans:bldo n ,or the NW_OOf al4ruJ~h by ~ AU Ta brili ~nto Englis.h" See'; Thacksbon .. Mptiatl a~ V~~ Tr.eaQses of Stdtr~mi (Londoll:' the ,OctagD.l1 Press, 1982) ,. l~"

24 Tlraekston's translation [of Suhrawardi. 1S, generally c,ri;·lcUioo 'b}p the scholars of Suhraw.ard!i. It i;s based on the text w:h~ch is edited by Sp~es and. !lih"h, ~s., a, nOit :iJ.IJ0oOd ed:htlo.l1 of .sUh~.\~7trdi . .Aj"sQI' the ]:~t,eTary sityle qf Thankstoa do.' :i not do justice to (be bemudturn my.sticaru narratwes vI Suhia(W;3:'xdi In Persian,

26 : -b:r more irifoml.;a,'I;i.on on L, Ma:signon's, dassiflCadon see Recrteil d~ teues i-nedw '~~a11,~ l~idtJ.iJ'e.; d~ 'In m,stiq1le en. ,~'s d 1~dam. ( . arjf~~

1'929)" 3.

2\6 For S[.H .. , N~afr-"s ChllS.silic:a.don see TlcflrM' Mtl:$.li~. Sages, 58,. Fe H. Corbin"s classru·catlQu see the Pf01gal,C'8'a~ ~ 1, 115ff:

'2" S"H .. ·N·as·t :alf1gues ehar OlD tb.e b~.sis of ~bi~' uuity IQll stY~e ·~t.we~n th~ B-wttin ,al-qulil,fJ and. lIds other w:o,rb it can be eonsluded that this wO' k. does be: orlllj 00 Suhr.awa:rdi hiJll.Se~[ For ~.or.~ d~:ill:uss~.on [on this see M. ~L Sha~"if, A cHisJmy r1 M~:sJjm Philmophti (Wi.es.'baden: [OtJtG Harrasse'Witz:, 9163,')1" ,S?'5 .• and. the 1nb"oductiQn eo Sumwa.uU, opera .3, 40'.

28 NMt·~ Tlwee Mwlim Sa~, 15~J no. 1.'. 29 Ibid,; ,5,8:.

30 The .mvoc~1Iio~, and .P~E5. haw: ~en pulJb!]is;hed in M~ Mo~\mj M~:ma.~ a.mmA,tiJIJ. jKirnJtl,rish, (Tehran: Minis1l1' of. Educl1tion Press, 1'924), p,.SI[ These writin,p[ 1'- resent $uh'l"awar-di S angellol~, ~e']3'tmonship to the spirituam e;n.:tiJI.eS of' the planets and their e,o",e~po.nd.e:n~ ·~tl1 the ZOifioil\Stlian :iitch:an.gels. :Far exa:m:p~e, in the' 'two mo~t 'impolflt3:gt. pra:f~r~ the heave nly. sun, Hii:rakb.sh, liS be..mg addressed. Also; Sllh,1FaW31"(1}i expcunda 'upo' ,~[e qUailities. 'of the Great LuJ1ld()'US, Re~ng -(dl-Nqp· ,aM)m)j who ~s:~ ~n.c,~eal equivale.iuaf:an eMlmly"q~ and wh~ qualiJtie.s, ~ ·such ~hat th.ey demand $lf.d::unnisslon.

3 1. Su~bnwl'ardil' opera Melaph,nca d M)S·t~ca,4 2~ wit'h an. wnt.rod:uc.tio-n by .H., Corb~n (Istanbn I:: Maarif Mat·baH~!·l 954) ~ 10.

32 Suhr.awardii, [optrra 1 it. . 2~

33 F'or ill discusston on th~, see: Submw.ard~, f).h~a 2~ 8'7 .•. 00 ..

~F·'I! -

34 F:a'l" more ·diseuss.ion on this .see Sayyid Jar-;i al- '·in A.sbtiryanfs (On1- :m.en'tary· in Li,~iji., 1tisalih NuriYrab dar '~i~a;m-i milhilj" ~n Mojilkryi ~kihi"d~' 'WB, ~ ~jxif-i is.wm' O~:: Mil1h'ball Ur.rif\l\eni'~y~ 1912').

9·5 :For more [djjG;~~ircm 'Qill this see Suhiraw.,ardi~Optra 1.1 S4:1I.

,316 ,Suhraward~~~ OpBr.a 1.. ?'~l

,$." Ibid",

.3,8; ~;\H~ N,aJu" Thm Mml-im So~~ 6~ ... , , '. B[9 For po~it1citl). 8.l,gn.ifian.ce of tills da1w. ooncem~n.1I the billnS"misston of

kn.owrn.edge see: :H. Zwi,"ij "The.Seurce and Na'li'Illrj". of'[oUtical Aumonty ~n Suhr~i! ~ :PhHooop'hy of 1Illum.inalinn ' in ~r:1U NiU(.lil:A~ of biamk; PAilDso.pl!j (Omnboo,ge:: Harvard Unive:rsi:ty Pm'ess,., t92) j 3.0~M4.

Al('1i S· uh._...·,;;.~·~· . ....lI:: t'lh, ., ]' .ill 8' . .

~.1 .' .'. II< ,;:;r;·...,..ar'lll" '""'.Twa ; "2' .,

41 Ibid. t 124 .. 42 lMd. ~ 192 ..

43, Ihid.~ ·m.9~19.5.

28

4:" bm., S:c.-? 45 . ,bid." 50.5. 46 Ibid .. ~ 494.

47 Suhmwardi, [Gptff(l 2,. 2519 ..

48 S.H. . asr "The Re.la ~()nsbip B·~twe1"J Sufi1sm ~nd: Philosoph., in 'P' :r·s:bll Cu~mFe." :u;.,~,Jm-d l··rJ~,""i·"""~[6·'··, ii"IIO ·4';' (19'·S,!f):.:· 33-4""

_ -" 11 n.l~i _ _ !JWif-":~_~~1 , ~hl _ '.. _ ,1Il. __ . t!. ""Ill

4,9 .HamWii 's oo'mment3ry! .Aft,'Wa·~~ is :pa(l'u.eublr~ :inJete,stin.g since he bu. ·of(er~d 1tn. ish'~mp :E:ead~ng of ec'tawD aspeets of "Hmdu. phUo·sophy .. 'The tre'xt n=:presenu ene of the ea .~\ ' amples or c,ompamt~iv.e .. bilo= sophy. _ or more im.OirmatLoo see: M. ,Sh., a~,H·ir.ar:wi, An.wMiY)'G1 ed~ : . s,

Z:i;i:"~ (T,ehrarn:: An1ir .Kahi[' 'res.&)" .~. 358A'H .s, ~

50 Suhmwardi •. 1t;J;m:a 2~ 1. 2-13· ..

5 ~ ,_bn Sini.,[ atShifii~~ kilib a~~ ~ ch.6 and aIJ5Mrilt tva ~t~tanbiluj'~', final c:i'J"3ipte.r •

52 SubFawardi" IOftiJf'if, 3,.. 6~,1. ..

53 IF or. mOR ~fI!formadon. see: SJ,. $3JjicU;, Shihah ,af-e.Di.n Sllh;ra.~ WB suyti, ,d61' fols~f"7!Ji irskf"Qq (T,e'hean:: Eailsa1ih Press, 19:84).

54 For' mote< i.nfo,f:I'l:1ation f;)O S'ubraw.U'dr.~·~s ,emp'h~sis, 'Pn "seven bodies"

and ~akil'see' above,.,. 11~115 .. . 55 SuhRlWardi.; 'OpertJ. 3·" ,8~.

56 Ibid.,. 110.

,57 Ibittj :1:84.

,518 ,Suhrawairdi Q.:f~n refers to th@, fiuT!l!otls, ~mnlc verse that eq\tla~es God

'With. Ligb·t within a :niche. See: [Q,ul',an]l XXIV:: 35. .519 Su·t~l'rarw.Md1! Op.em 3~ 110.

61} ·S. H., N'asr" s Inn1QductwGin to ~or3~. 4!i ..

C:'l ~UI 1j..'If ..... 1i",i'JIl-...l:; ~~~: 1 !Oi~ u· ~. 11~IMt"~:lU~J ~r~w -kJj ·~O~

S''l[ lb ··dl 1I.iAn

I ~. . :'1 .. "!' .II. ::f1'Z1.

[{),3 This, is a f!i;l4f.t'h. by' the Pr,oiphet of Islam, 'Suhr.a'WlIJooi. bas used dt~s ~·th in v.ar~ous. p~aas. 1.0. argue ~I' en,e' dectrine that [l!IspinttlllW de_ath" ls U'le ne . &gary coadinon for !. sp ~ ritual bUltb .. ~

164 SlJ.b~w;al·tU OjN!ra 3., 3,95·,.

!55 Ibid.~ 1'98. [i,6 Ibld, 200,,· et Ibid., 202'.

68 Ibld., 1!9g...,20,51~

6t9 Thws worl. baS' p~ned ·wIDde~p.[ie.~cl, rnm·e. 'both for its U~e,nrxy strle and. the mysh[cal symllolism in it As ear y as 'the ~s.th ce'lltury for example, one can :6nd It cOmID.entary on. ~his. 'work w.r~uen. m. . erslaa by :~n unknown Indian author. Fh:r more WIwfO'nna:tion 00. tibis (,0)11'- mentary ~ eec "S~b.arlj.:"i, awaz-i par-i Jrujba' n ~ ~J ed, M~ Qas.~ m'~ 'i n Ma i(irif 1 {Marich("M.ay 1(84) '"

70 S'(]hrn~yar.di!t opera .a" 209. 71 Ibid.l• :~O&-20SI.

'2 :~b:id. j '242.

73 Ibid.,. ,2:28.

74 S.uhmwardi hu· ern.played tbe' ~bol~sm. that Rrda""TSi'13;:S used in the ~}',a~dmah t,o, f0nI~nI,daite his 3'~F1.01o,gy. 'There 'aJre th.Qse who argue

Sllbrit.wa~di . and the' School. ();f 111uR r m.aJt~on

!t1~a~ the SWl4timlh is -a pnlfQund~y' :my,slk8J~ wiOrk. and m3Jt.~· an. eso&,enc ~e~d:Ulg ~f. ,tb~s 'bo.o;k.

'.5 ,guh~a~di~, Gpera 3, '2'4'2' .

.., e 'I'&;,'AI Qi~e "'~ .;¥~ "I~ L':'JlQ.

'77 l~.d .. ~ '24f!i, '8 Im.ld.~, '252.

1S Thi s . ~.y~g 'of Chrism; from an "istrrf};rp,' :Foint Q( 'vie'w aUu,dj,es to U~~~

,elw~~ri,~ llui,o~liedge m~l ~h~tdd D~t be' :r·e, ~a~,eril te th~Ci: m,mtT:L~"Ul p~Qple' and tn die ~('t that 0'n~1 in:f;,tiiiui,es are :aUcK'h',vt?i I~Q ktIJo'wtbe se~;r,e~Qf r;he 'Sp[ri'tt1;~il R~th~

80 S~hmw:ar·dill 'ope.r.a s, 2[is;..,~. 81 N~~\ nffiB Muslim, ,S~ 59",

18:2' I:l'l' his in.~ocbl~d~D. (5ty) In Dper:(I 3:, N ur .irl!dirc~'te5, that ~hi~ w~rk b.

be~w 3ttributed. .!tb a num:bet df pl10p'~~ :s~tth as Sa.yyi.d, 8'hadfJurgird.1 Ibn $:irni:o WhiWjah N~h' al~lJf[n al~Tll~i~. Bibi M~a[t..i Kisha_ni and. fiMlly ~.A}W al-Qui}3!t H~ma,~lin:i. Ha~ver~. it w_ his OpiDtjl~nl: 'tbatf ~n m.~· ·basits. oif ,tbe .form ~:Q.d cement of the ~oR,. l't belg'l'l.~. (10

Suhlf'aw~.tdi .

83 SJU~:m"~ar:di~ GpWB.; 3~ 29'7-299,. 84· lbid.~. '2~r7'~

'05-'· iI'b";'d! - - ~Q,B

~'" e- ,1 .,11.· - ~'ir e- ~ . ,II

Q "",

C~'N:·--:1T· "RAL-:'- "1- T' -H' . 'E~~,MI-' E'~"S~·.··",

IL '," " ", -', ,', -,.,"

,$uhntmrdi has commented C!ft n umJ3;r~us, s,Q.bjecm\! often mallid·r18 ,origina] centri bot['O'Il:S j n ,each fireld. ~, to' hiR 'p:rede~'8~or$ aDd, their- hlft:uente up ott him, he was irlflllef;M:)ed 'by Gb,azZlill and .h iJi ,[~ous wori NJis.ikd~ q,~(l/t/l.wdr 'tl,at ~~ r(lJ.f such gte,at s~grdfi(:an.ee 'hl 'fon.f~U·rnati(tg the isk'm('li' ,d«:trlne~ 'He \'I,as· also bl:H:uen eed jt,. :~nij an d. B'i¥M~.d!, '\vh;o:m he €I ULO~rll 8,6 of~n" 3Jlld ·who. :ftfr $u]:u;awud.ru Wi2:fe the perf~"€:,t. n~p.r.,~s~ntaJ!~,~m of' true :phi~o$ppher$," :Fin;a:ny~ (be:re was· Ibn Sinit the mask1f IQ:f P,erip~t:eitl'C~h whlom, S.whfiaWlJ:rd~ criaicized but newEit'heltss, adhered to c~tt~dn ~,tra:fI.dt of I~lfjs'iJhil-o~o,l]J:ical ,stm~ctbl're such a:s, l'b·n, Sin,i~s, clCf@.,ci~pt of hi.-er.an:hy ~'Uld ,em'IJl.3\tloirru .. D'!€'$p,j;t,e hffi$ ~n. cantrlbu:doni Stlh.m~ml ac~~pted the '[.a.lie' of'the .Per.i.paletics as .3.. usefu.l means of ana11S'~s~. Let 'us rej:aJborate O~. some of itbe areas whe:re SU.h.r'awardli!s oo'f[tributi'ons, are .m~re ~u'bsbln dal ..

su.tu~w,a;ffli adhered to the tr.adidQ,n~J on 1tO'~Qgy as far' as the' hierarcb.ical structure gf' f¢.aUrty is, concerned. 'Wttlli~n the context ·of le¥fds of bew;s\ 'he sou,ghm: 19 ,offer an ex:po~ida.n of wrious philosopmea'n an.d :mystic311 i.nes~ He- retained n'be notian @f'b:i6mn:hi;~s olf 'being but chart.a·eo the ma:~lix of this, Ibn S~n~an onJt\().~Jo~ fI'9:m O'D,e 0f ~bein.g~ "to ene of ~n.'gh~. ~!, b: cwa-B, pF,eci~lf' this kind .of fiundam.ental cb~nge' m;h~t aU~td ·him. to off«r an. exposj·uo;n. of mystieal and esoteric d,actn.n,es" as 'we·n as mmly 'crt' the -:trdldnl~nal ph~lp;S0:phic;aJ issues, in Itlarncul~,r the rela~ti(l.nls;hip b~·tw~'e'B essence and existence. Ae'e-OJ"dlng' b)· ,S]!]'~l'~'Wiardi, 'the nature of

1,· ht-i ~ ~ ", .j.'II-.. " l-'ru .~i... 'iIi~. ... 1;. .'L.... L··· "h' ,.

~.g t 18, ~lo.nultl'C 11], ·uiat :a,"w uiln.gs. are ~noWn !I!.llrQ!u:g·~n U. . ig •. i1 ];S

made up of am mfinirt€ SUif!Dessjon of fon.dng,enr dependentlights

31

SUhra"w.ard·; 'and the &boo' 91" IUu:mmati'Ou

,and. ·e.a,c:b light is .. ·be exiseential cause of the li:ghl belI.low i;t. The u~tWmate' :~:igh.t~ which. . S ihe same as tbe': ' •. ecessary Being' (wiijib a~~j~i)l ~ is. fOir Suhrawardi the light lof migh.rs, (~ti.T al-,anoor) ; whilcb he t·egatds as 'th e ulrimate cause' of' all tnin.gs~

Mthoug:h. Suhnw,ard:i's ontlologi.lc~d. scheme was :~ater JCl~i.~i!cmed by some orChis successors, such as M'I: .Ui ~dri and I:I9ffii, '.lul1i, Hadi Sabzi.winil _it. nevertheless provides a means by '"vhi:cb onto'~ogica] issues, can be analyzed, As S.,H~ Nasr puts it, for Suhrawardi:

The ontological 'status of all beings, therefore, depends on. the degree in wh'icb theyapproach the sup'reme, Ught and. are themselves illum inated, ]

For Suhrawardi, just as Ugbt has degrees. at inrenshy, so does ~av!kness .. , AJ.dtough 'ale classifies ligp t 'in accordance to the degree th~u i t ,e·:tisg~ by J)]lece&si'~ his criten.on. f6r deteemini ng' the on tologi,cal status of .mights ls whether or not 1!b~y" are conscious of themselses, Therefore, se·tf'-.aW'"al'l~n,eSS becomes a eriterien fo:r higber on.tologjcam &tatu's., 'whic~,_. in tbi! is_fUJi system means a more:

intense degree lof light., ,

For SuhraW,a'rdi it is 'u'llitbha(e'~.y. aW'arene~g of' gne"s true nature that elewl.'(::s a. p~on 's al".l.tol.ogical status, T (1) demon sarate th is, ~, emp~oys Zorcastrian s.f'll1bol:s of light and darkness to depict the contradicti.ons, and tbe inner' stri're tbat 'EXtst$ whhin WM. The key to. 'the existential an.lemma resulti n.g fro I" ~h.is. inn er strugg~e 'be:~een [be ego (~ft) , whitch in, the ~oastrlan ·WeUansthauu·;Wis darkness, and 'man 's di.vine. self, Ugh:tjo is. m!ow'~.edge· or :a~nes:.S of

the 'reaUty of oneself, _

Su~'mwaLl"d:i arrises 'w. 'his. on 00·1 0':01 o.f light in two Wll1S'i' firs.t,. he' offers us' phUo:sophicala,rgu:men-ts to establish tbe axiomatic oa ture of light 'by Sila:ning' mat 1ight is. the most appa~nt of a:n phenomena since everytbii:ng else isiecegnized. and defined in ~erms of it. Su'hra'Wavd.t. argu~s that Ug'hl is the necessary condition tor thin.gs to be 0 bserved and I~ herefore it; is n:gbl and, not belng '~H should be the co;n,timre ei.remer~J'1i. of mo. ();n'~oloiD"

'Suhrawardj [ells us dun. dIe principality of Ugbt and its ontoJ..og,ical s~gn.jfican~e came to. him fx-st d~'rou,gp. i.:IAraqi mean sc. In rhe lftkm(J/,' at-i5hfr:aq he S'il)"!;

The issues and truths therein (1)ilnnQt tlUsktaq) firs.t carne to me not th rough rnti.onal inquiry, but their attainment w,~ tttFOUg'h a dJc~fferen l means, '. inaUy ~ after understanding

Ceotril Themes.

~h,emt I, sought tbe~r r.a·UcQoad ba$rs b~. a way StU:Jl t·h.at. if I I:gno.re them, nothing. can. make 'me' doubt their valid.miy..2·

~.~ __ ~~~_ th,~:~,~onl~_~:m.p'~'raliv:e, 'that in 3!ny d~s!€mJsion concerning S~b r-a~dl 5, ontology 'One has to, real":re the visiJOna;ry nature of

this ~fm.toJ~ ~nd. tha~ ublmarely his, philosophical :analys:ls· is 'bM~d on. his mystical ·experience.

2,~ EXlSTlfNCE AND ESSEN'CEo

For .suhrawardit 'to know something is to know :its essence and not :h:s ~~isten!c~~ ,~t _'Us DOW see how Suhrawardi mgues. f-o,r this

:posl'I:iOn and 'what its ·ish-1i-aqi:imp1"icado.ns~n~. .

<:::enBarf' to the· Peripat~dcs) Suhrawatdi. 'mammjns. iliat ·,exis£en.~e· .'5,1" mere ~.neep't and. has no external reality or roanifes,tation~SHis a~~'~ foot _me prin"dpaJity ~f essence (~ ~hi".ah),. 'whtoo d.~tlrngtUShes ~ II'm ~o.m most of the M.usim,p~~ iii050P'- rers, under:~mn£s. the role _~f o~i:stence :U thai ufJOIn wb~ch tb,e Ee3Uty o:f ~ thing '~erends .. ~n TM .~~losop,!!' of 1tlu~'natimt4 h~' ;argues 'tha't all, bei ngi :- ~uaUf an~1 di~ DO.t dare' case> that so'me existent beings 'exist mere ,_~. _:'~ 00 - .e~l'~;~ im 'I canon 'that eJdSf,ef)'c.e: is a universal eoncept, The

-p:robl.em. w.hl~.cb. roUows ft'Om dtitS is th3if. wl:h. things as ~hi.l!ell!,eiS,~ are a~ of a, 1WO'~vcnal nar~~!l[e whicll, nevertheless are regarded 'to be llrJIl;ven:al e_~Jloo as weU. If '~emrendf~' '~re not pure ~hi~~~ess71 or "s~Ul:e.5S"·"then it "wou~d not be a univer :a1 coneept, but would be :1, pa.rtJcul~,. But if dley were ehe same, d1.en~ :it wOu'Ld be' the same as eS~Rc~,. ~ This means ev~I! emting. being would balYe ibs aM) paru .. · cu~ar ~lstence,. Snbraw,am~ seems, (~ argue th,at if tbis· be' the case then ,dds. ~paFrlcu1ar existen ce'H' w(ndd be eq:uiwl.ent to. the essence of' the dl~ng. 'rrom mils; SUh'fa,WaRU oondu' es that existence ws a purely menoo ooncep~ wne'R:-as. the partieular essence has. ,an acmam. existence which makes, a, wihitE: ()if' b]~k object be 'white or black. IDn :dli5

he'smt~si -

A~trib"u:tilOn 101 exi;srence to> blackness, essence, man ~nd, b.Qf'SeS arC; :re;ga~oo, to· be 'ch:e' same, andtherefore the E()iDCept of ,eoclstence rs a concept that i£ll more 'uDi~rAl thM each ~f tiltem, The same is true of the coneept df essence in iu, abso.IDute sense and 'IDe ,co:n~ep.{1!, of truth and. dl.e namre of beings in. fhe~r ~~olure,'sen~. ~~Of'e: we ,cla'~m that suchcaregorles (existence: and. lUll~ essence) are pure' mental1concepts: s~nc.e if we (assume) that existence c·o·nsjstt onIDy Qf pure blackness,

,33

'Srih~~'W~t'd~ 'a:nd the :S~rbQO~J o:f 11llunjna'tio.n n,ereMmJ.y the 'same wiU not ho~d mm. wilh whi're"~ss ,and. C~ogiem,er) atnnot wD1elude·wihirefu~'~.mJd fTserree'.~'

Suhmwa:rdi g(H:~s>on to ~:rtber a,rgue for'lth.e principality t(.d' '~SSleJ1CI(': b~l co:n.€luiding we :following:

1 ~ EX1sc,ent >Qbjiec~ and existenee M'ff MO sepa.r~te rib rungs~

2" ~ism:,enl(e can 'be eonceived OrO:]}' in n~tSpeft 1'0 ~Il exi~u~nt beh1Jg',. ,J. lE%istenl beinls, pr.~oode I~Ws.tel1'Qe :~:n ~hffrur order of com'fig into

IS'runc€ existence as ~. U~[}.~ve\rsal CO\fi(:e.p'fS r:e>"I,uire:s an ,exis!4ent being in oiroer for-it tQ manifest i~~]£ and. 8b~.,ce l!'J(lsrent he:rungs require an essence in order'to 'tJec9 tt,h~n ,elsen,~ :must~pi<eoed:e e~1isW"n.~~· in 'tile ~(der of actuall~atl.Qn. :In robber WO'fdsj. since -essenee mg, needed 'pr all edS!tf}nt ln~'ill;1 w· ,ellrl:st ~ d e.,asreu'oo is condn~H-( Dpon an ~X~~1!ent 'be:~ng~ tben I~xistenee is Ic~nMnle-n t upon ~ne essence,

Suhmwardl Qf£~r;s tWQ typ~,S' of ar.g~um,eDts~. !tbe ~ PP:O:ft for b oth of'which ~s. based (1) the im:p gssibiUty' of th,~· existence ;of .s'll i:nnn.i'te succ~ssiQ'1l lcif' con tin,gen t dep,etnd~nt beb:'.i~gs., He :i:lf(Uel tlM't ~st'" ence ,can ,e'ldst ,if' ana.' 010'11 if ,~x~·t'€:'nt 'beinJ~:s, exist, R~ stales Iih:is, wn a vefY IcompUca:red, 'argumem.[. whit'h- is ~8 fOI1(;'iW1S;

If we ~a}" that wh~ne'Ve:r sl()m!edti'~g IS, flon,..gKiJtet1t~ its, existenee is ne(:essarUy not~actualjl'ed~, "thea i~ exiS'lD~nl~;e- is ~,O:p.'Efxi~ten't. Thta is. because 'w,w~th the' a~s.um.p'thoD t'hat its existence is nen-existea t, whienevet 'we OO,niCei~' IQf' lexw~t~(n.ce' atD4 say that It dnfSt ex.iJst~ ill beQo:me~ D.1!3Ci!SiSary dtat the' coneept of ~'K.is.'tr~ce· be dilff,~rent from the ,tJ~iBen t, o'bjelC;t~ {(

8"hta~rd~t ~~n tttl.€_ above argum'eflt 'tee:ks 00 demGn,8wa:t~: tlhat ,mst~ ence 'has rti:o aemal re~llifJ and. as a ~oncept it is, loondn:~:llt UpO'R die exicst'ell.ce ~f the e~~stent 'belngs and 'mere£Qre It& 'presence Is derieed from, the existen:~e @f the exisjfJ'!nt obje\cts, w'hicll themseN,esc.j,ow~ their ,e:~d8~en.Cfe tllleS$e~~ceJ. Tb~.s is, the fint ,argumen t l«r 'the' pti.l1ilcipdity of It'h,e ess~nce (6\~-jlat ,a~yJk~"ak) w'hlch becam~' '~ 'basis, Of::the isl'tlUJi docJ·rine,.

S'~,h:rawal'di ~s :se ~nnd~ :argumefft w:r tb,e' ,p\fincipali ty of the

- - ~ -

le~$ence. il$ hued. 'Oll tb,e faJl~¥ ,61 ,~1, teleQ.~I..,~£aJ] ,~rgume:nt., 'Oln ,thi~

~".I' Ir-., :-h~~l!'f,-"'!ii'~~';1 '1:!''r;P.iI't·I':;'~~ J~~ ~l dl~-'I!~!U_lll",~' ~~t ~1fI_

Thei[efon~!, if 'We Jay dIal what we 3ssumed. not. .~, e~isf. came in(;g eDst~n.ce and til.@; ex.ist~nce of th8iit. 'wb:~.c'h was not Jand then was cr~il;redj we reaHz;~ tn~'l cO!miJn:g into; 'being is

!l4·

differ~nt from ~sten:~.e .. I~. 'b eeQm~~ _~E'cessa'ry dl~t le'ldslt:ence should have ex:istenoe and W~ have to de(ine e1t~s:~no€ by e:x:isten ee , ap,1i, this~,coI)dn ues- Itzi;l i7tJin~lum., [It w~ stated tb~t]

. fi ,. ., f' L ~ . ,. ·k'l "

an ur ID.lEi:' successren {)'. ~eUl!g:s ];5 lm;pOS$J.,je.,~

In me' above, Subm:ward~ argues that ~f ~riS'te~n·ce' had a€tuilly eX.IDs:te:rlJ'i' :1 .Ie. a table, and '~m:. was d~fufferen'~ f~am, essence, then it must ll~ve an existence and S;G)~ on, This p~"'O(jif!;ssof)uld go ~w ad i'I[ijJtl~~jt:um~.

h- 'II) ~ bsurd

"~ U:III:111 ];s,a 13hi~ I' ,.

!hlhr,a~mr~ VID.ew on Iib.e p:dnei.p~~U~ flf fb€ essence rus M50- I ure·W crucial in the under:.stam·1J;iding of his pbn.os@phit;:al ~v~e\!lS,. 'To' kn-ow some rh.llDlg~, f'Or- Suhrawa;ml, rus t'D 'know irs essence and mal cannOl be done thr'{lug:h dl e senses, sim.'c!e senses can Qn.ly pe:rce,ive' the a ppeaJ:rance. Th erefore, ,e'ilfber 'we cann ot know an:y thin g:ji 'whi.ih, is ~'bSDrd.,~ I@F ehere is, an :alEerna:tiv;e e-xJ>,J~nauoll,. S-u.'bra=

. .l"~'. . 'ill ." f h ·'h'· ~"" .,. '·'111] b 'ill 'b ..,;all

'WM"i~. s t!~p,wan~u0n 0: " 'W . all :r: . I~ :~ .. l[)emat~,ve IS Wl~ .. e eJIj2Lor:3:tJeu.

upon :~:n the ,s@1(lit):.n 6n '~:Kn'Q'w~.edge and, Presence. ~

q ,0:': 'N'" - ~ffi'C'·1I;ii'C\~A. D:V .. A ~ft, 'C~" n'Nl1Nr-E'~~ 'D'UI'''' '."Ii' IC"~ .a!- ." .,". 1·~i'.I:I·.· ~~~ .. , :tM,~ . ~ ~ _. ~l~~'·: •. ~Jb'llU"q

H""Ii<.;';m',"", -, ~'if"'MI~,.:::.A '~or' 0lil"" . ' ....;, .. ~'~!"'m .' f:-' " ,'.' " """" ' ,~

~.'n , ,g ,s:"i!:;ILl,;JU, ~!:. ene p.L',I.fJ,el,pa~~~j 0, I, i€ssenre. over eXJ.;8,,~,nce: ut

ma]Q)ta;ini'n.g dlitt essence 18 :3 ne~ be~ngand, '~8tce;RJC'~ iis condngenlt upa,n. i't!,·Suh~~rtd~, ~s on m eqW1're·,e8~1l{'ie with Ugiht.

Havill,g M~ 'a:~nst am ,h:lfh:dl~~ :regr-ess of contiIlgtJDftuepe'Od ....

. 'iL. ~ h . 'II!-. '. • 1:1: "'\,, '~I· cliO f C'ii 'Iti,." . ..:iII ., jl

~nt ue:lng:s", 'W" 'leu is crucia l)or tne v,a~~~' _lty e : O;;UJ!l-~[3:wrutU:w. $ ooro-

l~icaI frnm,~ w~rk,~ ShJhmw.~i 'Q'ff~u :a,£I~mp]ex' ar-guJ1Jlen.~ t~3't :3U existent 'be:mgs exeept Ligb'lt. are Q£a lCQ'fittimge.nt nalu:re.:fJ,

TQ :Jl'~e' f'Ot lhi~J :$ruhl3]y,aFdi 6ffen~, an argum:e-nt :run. Itw',g parts, In the nat part be la;rg-:u~~, that 'while nn b.ein~g' exists by Relo'!~ssity {leK€~pt the 'l~ght ,a;:f 'Ught~) 'I an 'bein.gs eKijs,t nec!essa:ri~.y" His, argue' meJiJIj; :g:oes as 'f'o:l.mow,'Sj! Thin.g,s, either elds:t by .n~€)essjlD¥ or dU.i~:¥· are

.' . ~.' ." .. • 't;.. :,(t ... ;:t.. :fj

oonuhgen ri..u Lon tID:ng:elfl't. ennnes ~!Xl:S( necause ~J1i t!m::IIe pre£e~e· er

. .,

t"b,eir eanse a,nd~ SbO'ildd rr::neir cause 00 a.bslen,lt~, the effeClj 'whlch Is

th,€ en rlly ~~n qut·sdoll.!! wotdd. not exist either., Therefore" the emst'ence· of £Es,tellt ~lbj~cts fiS, due ~-If) the' ,ex~Jren.ce 6f lbei:r cause." ~~d :from ~h~8c SuhmWillrd:~ coo~lud~ {hmt Dbjects, w:bethet ~hey' ,exmst Qlr

- .

D:OC~ tare eoruingen:r. si.n.lce they arce' ca;,used. 'On the' other '~:aIld~

~ . 'Ilk, h :>.1, , •. '1: .. ,.'

,~U1~,I()e e¥E:xy ,~en.1t lUlU 'to . a,ve;' :ae ca:~ mu UJi~S pftOCess can not ,go~

'0'0 IOf e~rt Oll.,@' Gall conclude :t'iUl't. 'tlle.m has tiD be an ultimate

• ,,..,,6 h .' -

C31U~ W' o.se'i!Xlslen,c.e ts ;necess~~~

The -sec,Qnd. PW( ,of Su.hnward~~,'s ar.gm:unent ... is m,ore ,oom:plex., :He 5:ta;te's;:

Suhra;.W3;r-d~ allJtd" the ,sdl;OOI Qlf ·[lluHl"iiti.taooQ

lf~ -as some 'hJve assumed, it is, true thart ex]s'M:(tl(:fe elduaes flle (:oJ"ltingent from ~,'I:$ ,cooltfigenq' and.makes b.l]!'ecessaJ:f~ then it is, 'D0cess;my that fttln.-exeUnI ~tJ,Quld lext'~ude me' n'aft~ftent :fmm non-esistenee and m,9:k",e it nj,)lf.~~fble which meHl!S tb~re cannot be such a 'r;fiiD:g as, contin:ge.nt. bem,g.~

S9hril(~rs, a'~lent m~in:rnrins Watt if 'm- which comes inrt() e~dstl.. len~ losErs, its, 'oontingmll namre and becemes ,D,ecessamy~ then by a :[QgID~l Im~renre' :iJlm, opposite'" 'wh~.cb is r)}l:jll,-e:Dsu=!l'l1 by v1'rt.tte of its '1101]l-exismT1,cej sno'Ulld make all, f)J'Jn~isfte'l1.t. ,~ntiti€s pot-p.1,s$iilQ'l!e'. 'From this it, !foUOWtS diaJt ilL is nOot logically possible :for ~yt)lin:g 'to· be (:on,dnVi@Bt.

.0;-,

(j~ntral ''the~me's

there e:xis], infinite' in~g,cers~ Then it Js .n,ec.eJS~rr ('fbr iRfinim:y) w' be ~i.ml.fQed 00 tlH~s,e two, inte(~T'S, and tllis is :lm,p~s8i'b:~em 'If in

h .. ' '. 'iL"", £. ..JI • 'L.

t~at sJ)j~dessru~n. '(li;10 tntege;r;t rcallno~. I~' J,!IJ'U;nu In :SU!Clil, a 'W,ay

~hat ehe 'Il umbel", be~en (t.u~::m are noe U'1LK_mit:€d~ th en it. is necessary' th:2(t itDt€pe 'IDe ne 'un:it 'ul)rueM Itifite,~er,s) beMee~ ~hat and eve;m:y' lijif;ber in reger that i& ,eon,ceivedj, in mat SUC)f~ ,s'~on 00 finilt¢: and therefore i t. ~~l be n"ete~s'a:~:p that ijl~, tba:t

,. 'L.. £:. 1'1

SU!C;C;f!;SSlo'n De'inUDe: ..

'11 ..... ' p-, :> ...... in'

,.Ii J _' ,r

'0 P' -...[] p'"

,;::; - ~ =".1 ....:.

Thh is a r,adl~r unusual :a:pproa.eh 00 the problem ,of infinity.

C' h . .;J"~ _ ~'n -m".' 'h .. ,. ;i,'l,. th b

J1'[~·F;a:~).id, s argume:~rrul :g~~ as 1.'~. oiWS·;' ~~t ' er U:_lB tne c~e' -~Jt t ,I,e

principle of infinite dJ:ivi:sihibty h~tw~el1 lW:9 b,fti:ngs, i.e, t;wu .runteg'ersj ~s true' or not. If it( is trn~ 'men there: must b~ am infini:wo set of numbers 'be~:ee'J) OH·o difIer,ent in,t@'lers. For €1;K;a.mplej, be~t?Neen ~he rlUmbeJ/5 ! and 3 there' e'D,Sts an ,inuni.re' numbe'r of 'int6~~rs ;i"le" 2~ 1.~, ~'.,2~, ~',,§, etc" From ttds, iJl eaa' 'be' cOrn'cluded that infin ~t¥ 'exists, 'but its, -e~i;s«!n,ee is,1c-ont:in:gefl t ~po~n three eslstenee ,of ,3" be.gmnning and an en.d. Suhm~mli u!ies: mi:s, ,a~gu:rnent 'bo:tb :in ;3. 'p'hnosnphi.e~m and mysd!Cal. con ~exfi; and ~ppl'wes. til,is oov!ci~us,j_'Pn in a number 'Of SuD doc!t,rWueg·:ag 'MIl 'tle' d:~~,cu~d :hue'f.

HQwever~ ,suhr.a:wI3Lf-cU 'bas already 'm~in.tain-ed In tb~ first. pan,ofbis, argum-e,nl that aU ~isdng objects are rCoJ'H!iR_ge:n:et wh~b 'l$lQon tmw.y to the CODI;'~usi'0,n. of the above a:FgUm'en t~ In :tlh.'~ above' :a'fgum,entsj, !i,"h.'ra,w~w-drin.o,t o.rdy cridtmes the on-t'ologi!£al vi~~ of the' :P,ed,pa'teti,cs whleh he elaborates 'up,~ in, numerous p1aces' in T~e . DII':;' .... '~,:r.,'\i ~/l. J'~'j~;-·..,.;;::OM, . ~'n~~'ml:tti~(';.. ~f!J:Si':"',r.. and C~1ir:verJaltjtmS~ ,c"rJ"§I'w~'¥"TTI)J U'J.- U~':"'-~il~~'._ -~~ J;~.. ... -.~_!I.~;I" ~l'r· ~!..- ----- - ~.

'but also' strengthens hl~ g,Wll islt-rmp mews throug_'b ehe ,i,mpti,e3tloruil

'-'f- ii"L.ec armaments ~iilI' Qf l"l!ll_" !I!lI!'~ 8"- .. ":;"":lIh •• ~ .. , -

.. '1[ ~_.f'fT • .i iPo;iTni 'Hii.:r'E'l·N=~ ~ La1.I!H""'l ~ ,~,,~ .1_1" .E:&. .1_!A"'.

~ GOD",s' EXlS,Tm\~i'C:E

In '~e" isfj,.~£ sd;)oo] Goo i~ equated WJth, the light of Ug:h~ ~{rom, ~om ema:~:~te 'lh,€' lawer l~t$ ~fligbt~ the :an,~en.c oM,e~ an.d the ~tiebe'type,s., T_heJieiore~ 'til e '~isteDre ()f God is, fundamental foJ' the vaUd~'ty ,of ehe :p:h ~:~6soph!y Gf iUnmin,aidOiD and in, particular the emanati~r.dsd,c. scheme,

Snhm:wM"cll :argue~ ma~t ,ev~ evene :h~, at least one cause wbose existence' .itS, neC)~ssi'm't@d if ~ wh@7n 'that '(;8lLtSe is pre~ftt! Hdwever, ,aD eff~(;jt is ,o:~ten :30, compound e.n.ti~:j' andj therefore,; when A eauses B, ,wt

.... 1:;;;, ~,~l.AI J'L . ..ill' .:..:a1,.."II-. :r 1[~1 .,~ •. _.iii,: • .a ii

~,~aLQ~ ~bU~: te'garu;~~, as tne ;Gause QJ:, :a.'!'\~, '~Jl$ ~~nYiVJ,fl;;lluaJ ,t%H:"Xipfullmts,.

SinGe' J;; by Yirtue ,of be'ing' an @ff.e'Clj ~s' a oonti.Dien~ be;ng,~, ,au. its (:(J-m'pQn~D:t$ arc ,ijQntin.Fot., The ~.te ~s' MSQ 'tm.e;, dtatb~ if'~ndbii-, dnal ,m6IROOr:S of a set are caused, then the set tlfSe)[ must 'be, caused. fn\m the aQovf;' ~m,ent SUb~rdi cQne]~des that:

Th e ~a!u'i~ of een ti:A.:geft,t b eings cannot 'b\€ co.~tt!fng'en't~ because mal MIL then 'be' one in thil: set, TbQrefon?<~ (dl,e cause) must be s<oIDethin:g that i'S not eontingen 1:. 'o,:r non.e~isd:Wlg and th~~, m,e cal~B~ md the ,sourOO JO;f the Je!Eb,terioe of an Ifhe e-ondn,g~nt being~ ,mult ,he' ,a- ~I;l'e,ce~.ary Bein,g',. ~~

,3,/

The dlueu:ssioll 1(}~nC~mmg iimruJt and :~ooni:t}f roc Sl~ltra~rtIlm, bas 'bea.rinG upo'li.tds, eplste·Il1!!llogy., 'Whjl~~Bru,])hra~di ~8 .:OSit m,e ~e~e oJ!:an :itillni~ 5erie~ of '~6I]Jtm,;e,D'~ dependent bein;gs:. he' maintains that an :infillite diwsibruliqr'M.tbln a '~imiMd 'Set <-Mm, a, 'b!,g1;Q=' :ning and, an «rna ean ,emt. The pmoess~ of d.ivi!ii'bility~ h>Qwever.,~ wi11 nevereome ~o' an end and th'eFeb~tm@ aistence m sum ,a_, set rem"mns Ydtnin, &-e d~:~iw ofb,:~.gjt~, po~ffibllit1~ Slllb'[rawaoo.:~ "s~,:

l\ollOiW t'hat in each snccession ,(~f'be41B;,IS)' 'within 'whiclJ d},ere is' order, 'h'oWever 'dlJeY :ma1 be ~rmnged-. If' rll,ey are wiiliiml, d.l!e domain ,of emsrt~tl,€:'f\ they ftee:em~.tam :a Ib,nke o.r an end.,. B~etwe£n rea;ch in ~eger ~ this s,ucceS"S~on and (i;nrO'd~,er inrteg(N:'

,SID

,A&B

Cei1lJtral T1lteme~

saty Bfdn.rg" A. N'et€$5ilty Beh'iLg 'by odefinltioil (anHot, b3fve a con-

" . 1 "" Th 'h ']d " h ..:aI l) R "If r

t~n.n t-e '@nle~t m :tt. lL,.' J3' same ,'~t), __ "S true w,~t'C mgaru '~ ri~iL., " v

is a 'N,e~es_rY' 'bei:ng ,ao(l, 3 'pm-It of A and, ,B, then we"w.ill anlv:e' a\t ttu~' second .al~em,adve whleh we' 'have' ab~~y ,ex;.eluded.

.$uhnwaTd.i Qffen, ~t:m1J~j"' a.'~.fIlent:g in vario~ p:~Ees d\rolugh~ Aut 11- ';;,8. WQ,-' l""'~ Ml ~~'"': Ip""'am,',n~I~, " n, the A ~ i'z'~n~" he ,sum' , " I-m' : anc~i'Y''':;;'S,

v _. _ l_, _, _ r~ .l('V!!l, ...,___~~ 1"'~I!';.o,. ,t!!L~ ..... n ' _ ,_, ~ !II,,," , __ , .~ _ ~_

his news on the ,eKiste'm1u::e' of it, Nec€'ssaocy Bej'ng and iltS attri butesas f-Gnaws:

Sul;ruRtwa:m-ui ~alld tlle SchoQI of lDJUurn:inauOlo ,St:~hraw'ardfs argumeat ~pin rests on 'the princi'F~!le thJ¢dtan ~;nftnite ~h,ai:mI Df'G,a_'u~e 000 effect is FH''[ pass~ble and therefore the' sanse -of an, e£f;ect must b~ a IN~'SS3XY 'Bein':g-. HaviD1g ;a17gued til Qlt the ,Ca.US,el G:f 3:_U th~ng8 ~$' a, N'eoossary Btifi,g:~ Su/h mwa.rd.i then trru:es, 'W' f\J~s;po?d to, th,e p~GBs!ibility ,of hatYing s~e:fall)ecessary b~~ings by of'feting, the

:r~dlOW'ing: ,

'If the:te 00 move than one 'N~tes~'ry Rei:ng~ (wc!,e' •. A, & B) then

QlIDH!~ of'th,le :follorwling' £~es 'WIn oceur:

THe: 6rs~ one ,C3hU not be' t.m,le ;si:~e. A,& '8 at '[iea:s:t ha:ve' one 'wing in common J their property ,of'beh'ii;{{ a. 'N'ecessary Being" TheRfor,e" it is u,tit possiblle :ifbr several Necessary Beings, to exist w]:t:]lOU't shal'.mg' at least one common p:rope'f'~~

TbJe second aI~tnadve' ..;an :DLOt be the IC~ e;i]m,e'f because iif'.A &" B :hLad lev~~rrtlhing: Jin common, then 'they 'W6utd be' -ril),e same, WhMfi"ud{e:s ,A lit Rtol be MO d_lfferefrt tbin~s is that tbey m~t have at Ieast one diff:erenQe between tbe,m. Therefore A, &: B rem! o:.ot l\3tve~ eveqm:ing' in ~~mtnon; Qth~_~e' ~hey ,w0luld 00 the same,

which 'tbey are net, ,

'The ,tbird 0Juion ~m;pl~'~$ mat A ,&; B n.a",e' lometihing i:n t~.ommfin jj and yelt there are difEere:-ml ces ootw'oon tIl,em,., 'This, :fb~si~ hUhy IS Q'ot:a 'Via1l)le' nne ~~th.er", & Snbr.awar:di ;S:'tates;

:If'mait which ffis t!h"eir difmren,oe W'E:T':e' :Wlntj! then nane of them \WO'M~~,d 'h~ve exls.tedL ,An,lrii if ma;;t which they haffe. ~n leommOJ1l 'wen~ n6itj then e.~cb gne': wuuMd. DOlt. exist, ~"

'Sutu~wardi',s argumeDl ~equwr~'S 'fUFl.her ela'bo~tien:: ,If ATe is a" N;e.ee~3.'ry .Brt¥.mgj them C'ca:n:n.~t 'be ;l 'C;(),g.~rungenjt part ofthi~N!ece~'

Since dlem is no othut N'ece~ry Bcingj He has ne maI!tth ,and bec~US6 mere' 'is, :00 fQ[ic~ equal to; Him in power and might~

, '

there is D,o;tihmg to opfl'ose F.ti& Since He bas. no locadon, He

, ,-~

'has no, Dep,ti~o~n ~ike th,e;;nea~tian orwh~;tene&s: tba,tis, bm~k, All

the ])Qwer is em[mlaJteo from Hjm and, therefore n,g:thifJg is, His, ,en~,em-ll'V. ''1:1'.,:., '~~, ~iL--,~-T'm":;- oihliJ.., m,·'e~nn'~f~(!Ji"H·~ ~: a.vists becalll'Se ,of Hi,;:, Q~

- "=- - v - n .... -- U.!Je y~ -- ;g!,I!j_!lilL~'~D -- _ """..,._ - - - - - -, "_,!;l,;I' - , =

esseneeand everythin_g' ether dlan HIs essence is 1fOj,o't real (W,f/iO ,~jJlre in dl,dr:' 9"Wn, essence tb,ley ate n,ot ~Irdly 'of e~£fen,~e bf

. " "'fti!' -'T."'L. ,,.,~£', '. the ,'~, , "' __ ~,.:I;,., . ", £'. , I' ,.ot'iL··. i ~ 1,iIO~ . -i';~ "_~, .. L.

jr.l-ecessl'"-iJ~ E neretore, '- ,elr 1ldI, UtUJ! comes rrom tne ummate lUi, ula;.I'I

and fli0'l\ of ~~lefr ~i:~, ~nce,-l!j

I _ ,- ,. $' -... :J,Jl... _ ~~.a.1j . ~",...' . _ . . ... r.

~l

By' oomon;stn'~j.ng mal t'b~ e::6iSlteJICe of all being~ is tonung-en:t~ Sunr~w.roi has ;ilso pwepaxed 'Ul@path 'whi~c'h 'Jead,s1 _to. his islfl.~i 'Vi~ wliJ!em b~ ,equates Godl~tb Light 3J.l'ld, Ught mith Bemg~

£ -i:'1lV'ii ii:il . DO" I'D-Y"" '~'IOB.'rI ''il:MI. .• ~,'i5. ~ g~~Df .:,,)~,,_, ~'l~ . .',' :JJLinllD

0- -..' 'f" '''[l.-.,.- .- ~. -, I"", ~.~. I -,~', .-: ,hl ,.. .... ,fit .. ·h· ~l, .- "'~' -, . , . 'L, .. : h 'I . b·'. _. ',,' , ,. ',' ,,,' "ilit ; .,

ne .0) , L!I,Je celld',:a~, pro . ems 0'.11.' "" ~. 080P,luy . as . een to "al",p.e 'Ji.o:r

. h . " . ,>: " . f' ~~. 1~" 'Iii!'. . 1"' 'd''', ,. 1" .s, . L!·· .' '. t·L. ,.,'i.., 'L ..... ,A!

u e ,eX1S,£enee o. 8,.e.1lI or seu ,_ :a'lil," ,u.s~r~' a:tlonsLl'l,IP 'WI ~II, me LI,1Vu.iy~

In ,:Rart~~]i' he ~gIn~ 'by ~ermg sl@¥e'rn' :aflUments far 'the l!'Xis'~'~'l'l~ of an [n_de]?u:~nd<ent ~:seJlf'J· fI1o,m (be boo~'., His first arml1menrt ;arne's as foHoW5~: 'We ,afte'D Rf~r wo,mrse'lve,s and. ,sa,rv 'AI~

~(~ l~---- ~~

.1I;"'..l1 b·' --II./; 'iii' "If'I' ." - l:oll " -, - f-. - - - '-I; '~f- ,-- -;!Me i~ e In ha;ndr.)

uta, IE; is or fU.il!Jr. ,'I ... WUU 'Y, separn~& a par"" 0 myseu ,,1.,_', ="~ y,. __ :C,

andl pillt it 00 'me Wible, :I w(llUld neither refer ro 'it as '"I" n~r WQU_,dj I :~ any dlfOO;r,ent as far as, my Ill€rtonali'ty irs, cO\n~med. 'On this basis be CQ,n!C:~ud~s! that ,,;oj ~r "ellen is, differe]) t :Cro'm ih .. e oody aDd.

t- '~" - ~ - ,e.",._ '-', ~"iIf' '~ .. , -. '-. 't-I , 1l-..~ ,.'- c ;,' ".' ;0:..,., ~~. ",,'Ii

nererere b. nas ~ ,lmmii'h.~n~iI"

Th~ ;af\~ DMically fWD :prreblmns Milk Suhra~[~s, arguments,. :F:ttst,,:oo a~s, wat '''se-W~ whim, he' rajb, ~~~~, ,is albove ~d ~ond,

'er- -'I~:~--'-: '~I~_'" _~}.,

dI~ bOOy:. On fihl! odle:r hand. he im:p,Um; thRa there ,e_~ a carre-

, , .

':I!!']joii.A'1'Iii 'Ii..~iff.lI;hI;!;_-n' ,..Ji..~ u_,.,.., ~!':!Ii"!'''''inl''''' m·' I'· ,Q~~'I'''L'~~_''''':J. 'be rSlf~llileS! ,lJ_u.rLl'W.I.;m, 1LJ.I~IIYJlHI~~!Iu!. ,""t.lr:Il;L~IIJILi' F.'~'.I: ~_M:lhlJ;r ~jJ ~ _ Jl""~~if ~~.r~~IfI~"J. ~;" . ..:_. .:. ~,_,:: _

:Know dl,at 'nap (~ou:~J W,ag no't "restoit 'befi'ore 'the' 'bod.y~ ]f it

- , -' "'" """"h, "ill! ,o~·ld·" ·.,t.'Lo· .,'11... -4. .. -"~c·~ ';---d~'m;'Il,'nr\!'

were p:resel1l1. :p,n-OT I~ ,[II~,. .11i. W'Q'U '. :no" .1II.~Jarve- iUe1en one an ", .~ t

Subra'wardw ,md ~t'be' Schoo,l ('If ] I) :- minatio,n

since this ~s ~'mpossible~ The reason wby 'a, variely ~f souls (s,e~~'s) could not have' eKJiSted, before the b od.y "WS because a~n t'h'~ng;s, w:hen ~he1 ,sh"are in the same thing" l,e. SQ1Ld~, 3'fC ;()~~J and 'when they become numerous they become diifer-ent. ,~,8

Suhrawardi, then offers his, own view which :ms the mnstantaneous creat~,o:n. ,o,f:tbe' 'body and 'l:b,e sou' -. On this point he states:

ThernfQfif: iJ;t becomes appa'Mnl that the soul cannot exist before the- 'body and dia,t they CO'Ole hl'DO exiSit[elloe simul ... tanieou:sly~ B'etwefUl them there is, attraction, lowe and anxiety but not Ike the ~ttncdO\n, of beings ann -h"eir accidents, [11

Wi'~h rega~d l-O dus ism~ a rheory that main'tahu mind, and body are two diffe'renl and disltine't ent~tie.s wh ~ch in mm.clt with each other ~ S'unmwami argues that this: dlistinct~9n is a ~uperficial one,

SGhrawra:r:di i:n a, number O'f tFeadses"s.uch as'Pafl'~~ooma~' and Hq;jikil al-fiu~'1 aUudes. 'to me: diclitoro,m'y. between a charru.gjng' boof; and, an, lmmate'rial, s.e.'lfaHd states:

All the parts [of 'he 'body Ic'hange and 'we ~ur '~i,elr" ,consisted of 'these parts of the body 'they would also, be ~n a contiaueus stam of (:hange[. (Thas) ys.:mr. :s~'1" ~~st-er1(jayis not the sca:m.~ "self" as tod;ay~ but eaeh da1 YDur self is. oth!8r tM:n w'rBemf' and this obviously is not the case~ And since yout knowledge is, cdntln tJl,QUS. a:, d permanent ilt .s not it 1 bo d,y nor part ofthe booy, but it. is beyond all this_2l

The ,pnbl&m Suhrawanii aUudes to, b0'W'ever!, is that for him, me' bod~y is, Dortilmog but t'he absence of lig;trt, the :~owest level on the onto~ogkal :b'~.e.r.an:hy M li,gb t. Therefore, a relationship between the. "I" and. the body is a rel~dons;hip be~een, light a:od. it' absence', which is, not P ossible, Whe'f"eas the' ~'I~ :is' the seal of :wisdom;"the

. r

'body handles' lower funetlons, Th,erefore, that self and oody are

,esse.o:tlaJl, of 'the sa .. me ontological t~~ulre. The on-my dUf,~r,en.c.e bef1Wcen l'h,em is ,their "urtt,ensi,ly" w'b'ireh ~igniifies the'), belong- 'to differen t. 6n:toldgi}ca'~ statuses,

Ftom the ab.6vlej Suhrawardi co - (:lud,e'~ that the' self ~n.'d body are dift'ercn,lt aspects of thesame • hlenom,eno:n. whose lnteraceicns are in accordance :with tbe princlples of maljabbtih (love~' and ftahr (domiBatio[n).,'2~ The body, belon:ging to' a lower order, has an ~n1l3r~' ,love and 1ear]1.~ng for the higher order, ligh t; 'kno'l'in,~ tb;a t the higher o;rde:r. d,@mlI13te:s w'h:am-: Is be[llow ];t.. In the uJil'mmare'

A'in "1:'V

Centr.am -~,. emes

analjsis, '-"ow,ever:! v,arious, levels are of the, same source and thus

h ,. k·' h" 1).._""" ... 'i... ·...:11 d.. th 'bod 'Th' '111..

t ere ,eXI~ns a,lns ' ~:p oetween iuie ,mUl,[~, at);, ,', - e'__ c, y. , ".1&, t!ll[l,[eo'ry

- '

~;s. neither dllaUstic nor ,ep·'.phe7nom€'naH!;oc~, ig that the mllnd and,

body are 'viewed in, a d,Hfelrent t:,on,kx:l:. all t!llge'the.r. It can be called '~spi~,itua;~ 'monism" since it ]s, based on the m,ternct!~on of differen t manife$ta.dGn~s of the' same thing, :name[ly mig:ht.

Suhra1v,ardi l $ tbeo'[}' can 'be v.i;e'lfed f-rom, two on[olQgi~al pe:rSJpf3Cltjves,. Look.lng at iJt :from 'below:t> 'rile self IDI.d bld;y' Me' [WO different entities, since the Imv,er 9 rder, .lto wtHch 'ID[e bDdy belongs does. not in.dud,[e the' hlgb,er order, to 'which Id},f!' c'3tegory' of the' self b.loRJIcS., However, looking at the S2Lme Qnt.ologi:ca~, hierarchy from th.e a,bove" me' ,self';'llody. pro ,'~!em fa,des, away smce body is conrained within the 51elf who,se nature ,lS o'.n'~f ~ more intense ~~gbt tha.n the body. 1<1,

,'7J' _ ,~ "_'~D. n-, ,1!I'A,~ " II" .lL.iLEJE.i nr ~a. ~ .~.rI., rnIL

Sl ,'hmwardi offers, 't\!,lQ types. of :argumen'ts for die' existence [of hfe after death and the status of the soul :after it departs the body.. His firs' argume:n"-' is. an u'h1Q,(li one and the second a philQiophf.ad one. We shall consider th e is~qi 'vi,ew ftrs~.

Suhrnwardi ,08:ers, 31 p[rofou.n.d escha:wlogic:a.l analysis of' ~ . unnllli nature, w.h!'ich can be &lid to be a ~eoplawnjjza'·~on'-' dflbn Sina's view OR e.scb,at-ologywiili some ori~na, cgntributioDs ofhis~.25 In books 4 and 5 of ,I:liltmat \~i.sk,r.tiIf, 6 he .~gjJt$' ,a, di1scussion 'on, eschatology, propbe)~' and t:ra~nsmjgnt,(io'n or the salli~ baed on hls 0.0.10-' logi~~.'vi~ Adhering'~ basic Ibn Sinl3!n, d,~~ritJe' of me gradations QfOOiq~J SUhmmrdii goes on, to a!rgPe for the mtn8lm~gntdon of the' human ~j.ou~ on lihe 'liasi!, of the inner qualities tb~t h,e' ~ttribures. to' various ontolOgical statues, As he ,Sfares:;

O~i'ecu are in need of me ~ordli1' ligiht which has, a reladon- ship mtl1 ''b'e' body.. 'This in~restedneS5 [of It?rdly light] :is duel to the inhere/Ilt poverty of :il (body) JiBJndl its. y:eam~nR' towafd3 'the' higher'is due to :t~ ~]]umlnaJdonj.stre].am1Gn.lt m~anmgbod:y, is

be eei f ... ~.,:. d . U. 't." !'1

u ,€; ep-tome 0 recep~,Vlty M', ' contains Ulg.ll:wts. ;~

In the' above a;;gumen,t ,$uhralvarm, demonstrates the mechanism by w' ,:~dl tbe' lqw;ef beings aseend tJQwards a hig;he:r onto:~o,gk:a[ state, the gate '~.voW!gh this. ascendenee wtima~ly being man himself

J

Suhraw.illrdiand the School of IUllm.mnadon

The' gate of all gates i~ the human body since it ;(E,OIlS];sts of that which. other g:ates, precede it such ~hat, entering th.rough i~, i15 'required fl:rs't.,:2~

The 'qU~BJrl.ofi thaD! m3€'S now '~S what 'happens it@ me soul when one dies.. Tne entire section 4 pf l;lilr:mm ,(I;/Pis.hr:6q' provides an ishrt:Uji' ,analYsis in might of which 'due above is a' swered, In a section en tided "On the Smrns, 'Of the Human Soul ,After irs Departure From d1,e Bodv/~ SuihrnlWSiirdi is 'f!:lfpllid,t, in p .... UWlllJl forward his eschatoloeical

';/' ~ Ie] [D'

d,ocbin:e'. There be argues that 'lihe: status at 'me human soul :afrer

deatll depends on dle. d~~ to 'which one is able 'to ascend on the o'D,toiogical 'hlerarchy'1xfoxe' death .a In idlj's regar1d" Suhrnward~. 000,.$ide,~s [p'UffUing ;aba'~anced'ifj'6 based, 0.0: knowledge and acdon to be akeY'Hi ,determining:'ane"s Status aJ1erdeath". On this be Si£am!t'

Tbe good flJted. ones who are' balanced in 'knowledge' and action and the ascetles wbo are pur-e' and virtuous once departed from 'their bodtes, join 'Mth the' archetypes whic'h are the Q.ri.gin. of their bodies.:5D

'With .n~~,pnl 110 tl;[ f~t-e of dlooe whom Sub:raw,ardi does nor. COD,~ sider to, be li.\rilng'..ta "ba'hrH ced U.:6· ." be says!

The masters 0((' cruelty and mi~ry"wbo h~ve g.atb!ered around' bell " ~ ~ transmigr.ation be. true Of' not, once. me')" depart from 'he.if corporeal bodlesj they wwU h4~rve de plr~va. ions and, absences from the al'ch~e'types I( fUWlJr ... i 'mU "allaqah) m accordan ee WIth their characeer .,5,1

ESla'blishi.ng ~ ,oor.re~pon.den.ce.JbeftWeen o.o,e-'.s deeds in thi$ wor' 4 and the ;sm:tus, of one's soul ]in the, herenter is not '& new OOfloe.J~t. Suhmwar,w.;'s orginal coruribution is the use of the eoncept oj[

JMtt'!l'i.~n:~ ii -t'II"~~"/Jn'nn'k' 11~·t·"""';~I1!'\l m .... .<7.rii'n· . eh tol. d . .;J e: " '"

'1,--_w..=,:- i!'J'(o~ ,~e;~~'_) JJili ;";'li·g ,lit ".: ,uw.l:lng II,;, e '-suspen,l en rorms, In

e]abor.a:ting on hIS e:scbatoJogica] doctrine, Suhrawardi reminds, U8 that these' forms am d,ift"e'.il~en t fhan Plato Die archetypes and describes them as fc.U,ows;

The srlls.l~ended Forms, are not the same Sl5 the Platonic 'forms (m,u#l.ul)~ because Platenicforms.are lumin'ilU5.;and are in the wormd ·ot intell ectual enligh,le'Om,e':nt which is Immntable, However ~ these are :ro~s (~~a1") that are iiUSP mded in rhe 'wo'rld, of traascendence, some of which. are dark ,and some

lu !, ,,' :- - S!: _ lDln}Ou.s ..

cenU"a1 Th :m~s.

The' above is perhaps me original contribution of Suh'm'\l!:uxli, S'~nce' in his archetyp. WQ,rld tber-e are uihe-r,ently evi~ thil);gs wni,ch he' tdentifles M.th ~~iaU'kness.~' Perhaps this. is when~ Z,QooastriaJD. dualism

;I~ 'L.k;e>r BV·ii!IiIlfr'llnl!~~...:I' in c.ou·iI;..·'fN.lII~·---,~.lll·!I,1Zl ... heuzh ... · since the "beneeelant ~~ 'i..JeJ3!L. '\;;.~aJ¥I!'.:.."r; IllIlctJ. " I~. liJIIJ.,",WLWJU~ ;0. lIbI,~;yj ,~r'~~IL ,,~. " !\.rib.' t &,' ~. ,; ·~'T'!bll.~.I11b

'God."' (All1¥nunazda) and the' "malevolent Godi~ (Ahrimm) have t I eir own good' and bad! ;an.8~e18 'w,ho. are necesssry beiDgs~ t iis: preleise']y in:u-ooucing. of dtls, type- of dualism in to. the archetypal world. 0;" traditional Platonic ideas a(nJJ tij,e J"e'~tiQn of .it '[0 Ufe atm:er death which is a srugnirficant oontti·bution. ,of Suh~i to the ongo;bl.g ,e.s~hato]Q.gical debates in lsilarmj,(; philosophy., Em: is a oonce,pt. wbi,dl. is 'C€'rtamlly not shared by many of: J_is; $\l~T;S·. In Suhm'Walt.dI's. world, of :S'~peRdl,ed fonns (tu.~. al=mu ~~) ~ m.'ere are aJs.o.perrect.fnO\ls of ,evil wb~ch he' idenU6es wilib darkness,

Fjnally~ $uh~~w.a;rd:i concludes his eschatO~og.~cal diOcttr.iine 'by establish~n.,g a f'ela.tioDs'h:ip The/tween ids ontolegy, ange:~ology' and bb dOCJu:~ne ,af f~,e suspended forms, He argues t'hat in fact the souls of those 'w,h.o have .liiYedl-a 'balanced life give rise to an angelic order who in tarn determine diffen!lnt gradations of the' ish~' onrology. Furthermore, 'he concludes that theontological smtus"o,£ ind:~vid'ua1s, is determined on the basis ,of tb is hi;eral1eby and s'tates!:

'-:rom the sou'~s' p.I' the balanced :people who passess rb,e sU&o l).end,ed fo'rms and their manifestadens which are 'the heavens, different levels of an,g,els. are created who'Se' numbers are unlimited .. They have d:i.f£ereat s,ta'"jllS in accordance-with d:.fferenlleveJs of tbe hea~ns upto the ·sta·~e 0,( Lhe' purifled ones. and tb,e9S0P,hers,. That status is hi,ghe~ and more' noble than th'€, worl~ ofa:n;gels.,n

His a;rgume'n ts :FGf.'ow those that arne typi,cal of fhe Peripatetics, j:n.

nc ""';""u" 1,05 - bn S .. _ ,Oi O"AU 04C' h ~.z; .,' o!!j""" h" . t>""", dl" ·\t·L. tb

r,a.~ yJ>C ,,t;1liIo1" ~_, , ',I . ~ ..' ~;~,~ .r. ,~: !.l ,m ,argtllH1;..::;:fi ~ . as, l~ - ,i(}' W1!lIflil '.: e'

immartaUty of the cause: of .:he self or soul, ,On';' I. I:~S, he states:

.Know that the self remains and deft'th' for it is .no~ coneeivable 'because irs cause is th.e Active Intellect, which. is, immueable. Tberefore " dlu~ effect wiU. remain immortal 'because of the imm,orta~ :natUl"'e' 01 the' Cause .,34

HGwever~ :Sunr,awardi falls 'roadequa,teW.y d emenstrate that if a g~ven cause is, :immona1.~ 'the effect too becomes imnnn able and immortal~ a, .re~attonship which he seems ro 't~ke fOr gr,allted~ h. is, '~m!€ tll,at there' 'has to be an affi:q:ity belween it ca.use and. ·~tS effec't.; 'but. tu establis,h 'it. oJecessa:ry relatJonship bet~'i~en ill ca!u~e and its.

a.

S!'Ih'm,W3l!drn ~.nd the SChoaW ,of ~'UJtl;inhla'twn

ef.Jeet ~Ul,,(J, ItO, ~soi.be r;'be emsl£otial a:Urit:nJtes O',r·tthe eause 'fa :i~5 ef.tec~ is 'Unf~unded,.,

5uhritw,a;rdi aff~t& .a n-~mber of ,other 8.~men ts, ,es,peci~llf'~n [be! ;Al~ ''l~3S and :e~~~ ,fi1r 'the e:lclL~u,eDce 'rJf"~ffe dmr death whith :ge',n,~m1~f fonow the ,~aml;: ,pa!tt~A" nanlely by esmbli~h.-' iO-l' lil,e exi_s~w.'ce of iIiH, unma,terial md ind~penden:tt: "self" from [he

hOOf·

I 'Ii ~:j9I'l~ Ii! LVU,.t-~1

S'l.'d'W'mwardlt_ c:ia$ifi,es, :an :knowl;~d:g;~ 00' the' bil~j~ of wh~tber it ;,8 'aequired, chr,t)'~gll, the ~ se p~rce:pt~o,n, or w'h'¢thef9~t is ]n:~,a.ra ,H~: argu~,s dl~lJ'tt; ~~,e :b1,Qwl~dge Jt'hat is attaiood tbwugl1 it! ~;a~ id,eas\ is· beyo:nd l~g;~cal anal}lS~$!. Therefbre, lr~ic as surih can he appUed only to the ,ca.teggrr of 3J;G~uli;md, ltJi'QW.led.ge~5S ,sQ' far~, Suhr.aw:ardi, h~- ,remaln,~, 'Mthin the logieaJ 'p~j:tji;.dig:u~ or tb"e 1P',ed.pa,r~d:€:s,as e~mpHfi.edl b~t Ibn Sini~ s boo,K, '01 H:eati1tg, (Sl!li1) . 3-1' Lo~.c, for Suhrn~ wardi [$ Qil] ~y a" 'too'~ fOl"'.~naly$,~~) and in d:u~rt ,ea~'cl'ty it is subse:meftt to' ph ih)"gp:~'f'.' R., ,Z~l'j'i -sum rna dZeB, Suh Cl'wardi' J;' vl'ews on '~,,()gjc 'as pr,ese..ll~ed ':ill the al-Mu_~~-lHit in lb~ following' three principles

(1' L(),~~ deals 'Mth ~oncepdQn and -ass!e'Jlt insofar 3J$ l'dley

.'f1lnI,fj'tll' '~ .. ~ "'I" '_"!i,Jt:Ii<'~. (;'~\ 'ft!OIO'l'·,e: ,;,~ hi '""n.i:!;(i"",'iI1 ~,*':rv-~, ~'I"1' t~\~A Ir;z' ~aze-ti...mtl)

~ ... :~al lblllG [lL.l U£l!...r~, \. ~I .W·__'_a' li~ l~l ~r~~~~~~U _ ~ g,J.. [~ '\ ~i@i~-I~ - - - - '.~ ~ - .

'~hiehr deals 'with 'CQu,ceptiO!~, ana Mse;fn~ m,e fOllfi, ~ ,sylIg,., gism and 'ehe':;s~cond,a;~ i~teUi&ible's; (3)1 ]g:g:k:is, an~~omarlc a:.rt ~f the rules l silui"a f'anu.niy,a) which :g:uarrds, tlle human :mind against, en'illf :~n thin:king~ SB,

1\s. far as, furnl3l~ difre~rence~s 'betW1@e.:~ 5uhrftWMdi and P,eriparte:t.'ics, are ,c~n,~tn€:a.~ SmJ:!f:Th'mw,a;r::di d,oe3, hOI adhere eo the nine 'oo,olts, or Adst!0tle ~ s ~.a'ii~. JFw:rs,~ of all, 'the' Ca~e.s are absen It from Suhra~rdt'~ :a~a'I,ft5t'S and [here are oldy' brief referenees ''0 them In t:h~: T.i;(;$~ R1tetmic, and, P(Mtics, \Vh~I'e them m no separate ereattl}e'u,t ,t,tf ,i\:dsmdJe 's Ctrt~S' as m~s[ 1~l' the Peri pate~'ics ~,.e~ Ibn S-[~;i) have done, Suh:ra'Waooi does consider me' A.trus,tQte'lian, (ta;m.e=' go:ries and in. f~t reduces them .fr;om, ~n 'to f'Ou:ft. with n;i\Odo.n 'being a n,ew ,c-a:tegory.,

~H,. Zii,' i ~n:gJl;e~'~ n his wBtk" Piil.asQj)/i" ~f:Jlg~,t1U'nath)Jn,. ~ tlh ~t 'while Suhmwar:reu' does not deviate fi~,~m, t~e Peripatetie lo,gru,c in a ~j0'r wa¥ ~n the- 11i(i'm{t:tj()~ ,and Clmltreij'a:tittm':; 'be; (j,IQl!S raifel' it ~~ew' itrO:ctu~ej~ 0'£ ~,og,ru~ b;}, ,th:e 1;JkmtJt. f1l..:islimq,. Th.is ne'w srt:x:u'c,ltuoo Q€JCording Ii,a ~ii''i di~des ,the' 'fl~1d o,f logic, 'c;n'~fi thoo~ ~ne'ml M~;

4t

'm. Sema~llLics,

:2~ :PrtniEip~,e£ ofproor£'

,3,., Errors ,o;f'flOrmal and material logic

'an this Z ilii ~i ~t,~~eS;;

This, r;H~W structure :ma,y be an atrempt 0 n the part of Su h raw,a'r;:di itt) r-e,c)ogfDJ,iize .the traditional o,g~~wn3.~eOrdID:Jlg'o h~~~,g~~~l -b]ip~~ri~e division of I,ogie~rl't~' e(S:posi:tory prolP~siti;ans, and '~(ro()fso~

In ~'~' :fo,rthcommg C:hliap~er~ 1: wi.n demC!instra:~e haw Sll'~ra~rdl app:rni~s,.logic to' G~mm,ent on SlU;'h, ,tlOpics as knawledge 'by de;t.ln'~;· dOH;. sense :~iert'tptjh,n~ ete, Suh:rnw,Blrdi':s use of '~'ogk ,ca:nbe'st '~:fe seen in 'hu..semarlu,€9,1. a,ful'~.ysis and his criilcism of logi.€ 'as ,applled by tbe Yerip(illiieti~s~ w:h~~h :h,e argues can ranly :ie~a,d, 't'o a parda~ d~Q\te:ry ()f truth .;4 m,

9 .. ANGnOLaa;f

Ha:Vi,ri\g used ~he' synlbdj'~sm ot~igbt ~nd, darlln.l!eslS, Suhra,W"a;l:a]i wen goes on tJ~ deve'lo'p ,an ela:bot3:te ang;elO:~ogy based on _fZD"r~~trlan, angel~. H('!' ach~~:s, this by idl.ep,tifying different _ ,gt,a;d,es, ~f Ughh 'with. 'var-idJUS a'Dgelic Ordif:fS,. fle'tWeen. the li.ght of lights and Mtal d~'l;rluu~,ss~ 'the:,,,€: are levels upon h~'vels, ,of ligh~ with dlffe:mnt d¢gfee',s of inten)8{rw such, 'it]lal each level cone~,pond;s £00 an angel.

The D€W schemata of ang~ls changes, dle 'thldidon;al vlew of :a:ngels as d1,~ force '~bind Jtb@ '[tlQ'vemerrlt of me' bea;w,eniy 'bodies. A~o(ITlffing tOo Suhrawa:rdi~ ,~ngels, serve a number of fun,etions, the ,mb~1: ,imporclRt of whim is their: ItmTte:mlea'rumry role b~;twie_e~ rtll,e' :~'~8bt ,of Uights, and, man, For :b:l$fitXH::e-~ an :ahg~'li){:;'Jrdelt IdentLI~~ as dl~ ~lor.dlf' ~ig"hf~ (Jll",~ii,r ,(J.l-hlaJtbr«ll~ is ,defined, by, Suhmward:i ~as, ~h~)t w:hicb. is ~wifh;~n the soul of man" such dlit ~~~he:re Its ,signs are m.$m:wif~st~d, a.rru d an dling,8 attest 'to im pr-e:senc:e,.,~~J:

-,Suhr,aw,a;rdi:;,s dinl'Ology ,and. b~s b¥pr,od]:rmctj, '@:nge]6Iogy:, are meant tG :mi~:p out. me: In'teid~r rea~it;1 .of man 'rather tha:n to provide a, I,ogica], ex;:lan~tlo;n, -Cot such tfl.rungs. as. angerus ~'(lU,t there," The

P~dpatetit_liew o~ the FunctiDn ,~l m:geb"" e~p~clal]y "th~t of lb~ Sffi,na 'and F,i~-ibi, 'whg stmply'.saw the 'ang,els ,ts 001 n~gs ,,,,,bo ped"OI'ID certain :fun,etiQ[ts our th e:re- in, d~,e' u;niv~ESe such asrotetion ofthe he~vens" W3;f), ,crit~t:i:zed, !by SU,hmwardi "Yllli'~i~le' $ulu~aM'ard~, 3liC0epJts, th,e! view 'l:'h.ilJ: mng-eIs ha:VlC r-eali:des" b,e- ,mawntains, th~1t the nuniber Q'! ;lng,els, ar~ eq]uiV3J.,en t {~ the n,umber.p:f the r~ed s~rs ~ m,~,anhl,g

SUh:F-a:wardi and, the 'Sdlool 'of" lilhaml_nadgn

a; virtuaUy 'U,nUmiu~~d number or them, a departure from dle tradition;al P1eripatetic ·view.

From th,e hienrohy o:f angels. arise two angeUc ord.~":: :3, '~ongltudinal (#ill!)" and a laditud:~nal (fer~) order with t\\fQ, separate functions .. The . engitudinal angelic ~roef' represents, the vertical axis 'Of hier.an:hy· of lig'ht similar 'to, a ladder. The lat~.tudJin>arl angelic order (0([, Suhn,\(\'tal1di is who ore the "af;chetypes'" or "forms" reside .. Suhrassardi goo~ ~O' ato argue that at the lOp of d:l e Jon:giltudi . j'a'

~I f' I" 'I.. th . d ~'1Il.. 1'" il\.., h" 'IJ,.. b ·m1·!k·

.01 uer In ,1.gJlrlli.'t.' ··er@; ,smn'- s tne supreme .d:g~ d: 'W:I .l.C,~.Iii,· e caw s IU,' ]b!

'Quranlc and 'Mazdean names, a~UT (j14J~ (the Supreme Light) and V,~.l'Uman (Bah'mtm)'~ From this '-'irght Oif' Ught$~ issues the lowe'r om!er that is .illum'inated by the Ught :a'bewe it and the procve--ss, of one Hght .i:ssuing a, lower one continues I!IntU il reaches darkness .. The' high~r ligbtj wh~ch is marked by :lnltensiry ,. dominates l( qahr) :the lower erder and the lower order is. marked by 'yea:rning and love for the higher 'one,.,'1:1 This process remains valid, forI( the entire: succession 'from tbe n,uT'lJI=an'WliT to darkness. As w,e'wiU see later, Suhrawltl'd'i ilRpUes this scheme' to. offer hi~ epjjs.~lemolo.gi(al view wlhich Cor hnn (-an replace the' Ar.jstotelia~ categories· M, a means of e'p181emic .an..al"..sis~

,For Suhraw,anU there exists a veil be~eefl eaeh level of li:ght which acts as a ~,ru·r;PkJIO';n OJ: Blind', ~d. 811ow8 d).le passa81e ,of {i,nly a certain 'amount ,ollight~ The' prim.ord~~at. >original and allenco.mpas$ing n 3:hlre' ,of' thls systeim., du~au.gh which Suhmwa.rdi expresses a num bee of esoteric doctrines, is such 'that he calls it al~u./mmoh(jt (the mothers) (" since aU. that exlsts origjna'les, from this hi,erarrchy and therefore itt contains 'with in 'itse11 dle '1deas~' (.0. ,an ~im,ta-A) whose' unfotdin.:~ is the world.

In hiis ,attempt, t~J; equate the ange-b, 'of afiiciien't Persia wirth tbe Plamnic foems or ~betYlu!'s:; .s'Uhraward:i considers me lon.gitu.dh:ru\l order to haVE glvsen rise to a lat~tudin;a'l order an.d~ .. that to him 'is. none other than the Platonic forms O~ ideas, Each being in the world has its own :aochetype (a;lMb· afrttuJiia, wit ,.iin he ladtutUnal axiswbi,cn S'aDraw,a:rdi idenl!ifi;es"Wiili the ZoroMtri.ana,ogel.Oilogy ... Fo,T. exam.plej he ·ident~fie8w-aJte~ Wii1th the '~' .• azdean ,an.gel .1Qz,tcr.datl.; fire with lJr.dfbf/tish4: vegetables as M~~ and .minerals ;as; ShahriWtw~, "Th€',se angels :a;od 'many mQre aJ"t t'he' Nebet~pe.s. 'whose actualization or man:ifes.!tation itoim the arebetypes, I( fJ&',(1. )an

~!. -.Il.!.I! ~ Z.\ • 1... " 11 &...... ~ d b' 44:

t"ifJUUw:lP! appear '~n t.u@ mat,etja~w.1.g,rms, ment10ne .. a :ove, ..

Al~, '1U

CenJUaI Themes

S"lJj,~ra\WaJ"di (ansi,den, the" heavenly bedies and the more v,rusible and mat!erializ~d ~p'ect. of the m:ge'lic order to- have come from t'h!e longitudi~al b;ooe.'.f:i wb iJ.,~ the la:~tlJdin al Griller gives rise' to more esoteric phenomena such as the ·lord.~ ~:igh t.

SOllce' Sro,b-raw:a_rdi kn~ow8 thaI in the final analysis the ultim~te U1l til tOlwhich 'h.e is aUnding Iies at the heart of all lh.e- divinely' revealed traditions, the use of various symbols from different tradi-, tions becumes secondary. The'm:efofe, symoo1s, 'be they M·az.de:a'n. or Quranit~, allude 1;0 truths which are protTQu;nd~.y Islamic as weU as Zoroastrian ..

euh'lIi"'Q,'til'D'~!;"'iIi: anse ol-_.-tG relies ...... n 'the ~'bo1'~!ilfm' of manv It~di"

"".~ iI!","''''~Uili,~.~~~l . 'V5l ~ ~·'._c_~,",'ilJ,~,_ . :c ".;;,_, .. , .. ' .• .I!!iUol!'.'. ·.,.11Uil~Uy 'Ild-A 1-

, • ~...l . , ..... ,.~ . ..:I ..... .£!',.".. '1" 'm] • at

nons In oraer to pru¥~e ,3, map VI, man s meenor .... 1:. IS' a cos:mollJogJl'c~ .

doctri h : " .• t.. , ... t· d tb f ~Ar.i III ']1

ocmne w . ~],,jJ uc es te tne presence 0 a 1l]n~.,~wg etementm a .' Je

traditional religions of man, nOOl~ll a, unwersal truth ...

I lA, 'P'I' .. 'n.!C'I'I'~S·· ,v. r,IlI.ll.a ~'.

\1 .' .' It:. 'II! 'h'" u, • eIIl5. 'e!' h ---1'. ·-be· . h

m putl:rung ~UlOr.t~1: ']8 VlJe'WS IOn p'.Ij.lIlyS'J.C.s.~, :_ ~u·c ~awa_1u.l ; . gins Wlt,_ a,

dlscussicn re,ga,n3J:ng the nature of ·the' universe, W:h.i,(;fl t:rQm his point of view is pure' ight. The' vielV$, of the A.d~, Ian' te'.Atomw ses, 'who were one of the predominant inlleDeictual scbools efthe dme" were based on the prm..ci·pality of fOnD and matter and, eherefere Il:he study of physics for them became the study "of matter. Su'h~awardi argued, ~.alnst them br saYIng that since material 'bodies a.:re constituted ~f Ugh r, the' stu.dy @:f phy:s~cs is. the stud.y of Iig'hit.

H;aw'ng di 'fined. the nature of th,in,gs as nght" Su.bra~i goes on eo class.i{y th Ings according to the deg,ree ef the ;"f.' 'transparency. For example, all thMe ,entil!1ies wh'ich allow n.gh.t to pass iihrough them, such as air, are in a hi;gber onr:ologica. ca~go~' man those whi,ch obstruct llght sneh.as th.e earth,

I 111 ,. ., ~ll i -.~, h S h' ~ ........ _..:iI .• ' &. 1"[' Th-

o ex:p~amwng'-'mete:O'~)UiogJC~ 'p_~ :e'Dom.ena,,··~u .. mwW:U '(0 ,o.'M'1\ n

Sina and Aristotle·.;, but he rejects· their views \Vi~ . - epJid. to fb,e eeeurrenee ·of change widdn the nature of thmgs" Jor e~:p,le, Atistede argues, that boUm" ''Na'~er 119 ,riMue to m.e· i(,ommg in ron·tact!ot

th t 4;.' d S '1.. .....1.1 ~ . tho . 1-. ...... il'~ i, J...ri

,e atoms o£ dte 'aD_ 'wate'r~ I~'u!l.imwa,l~~. S'tlltes· itt. w -ngts .~came

th~re emts a quality in water $ueh 'that when.it come-s close 'OO"fiire' this.

~~1!:· -m::',,", d- H .. ,I..., fi d .

potlfm.tJ'd.I!ity IS ,aetU3de'"_, e ar~el5i, l,o~ait . 'reo ,"~; oe.s n.ot 'Go'me 1'n, 'OOQtarc:t

'Wi~1... Ith'" ... ..i;l"Jilf,~'1. FIJ.n'f d," 0- Pis ~t...,e V'n.]um'~ 0'"ClI,ji1"JJ i!', ..... Ii:'" ,eb' "o:JI'~a@ Th· -iiOo'""~O'{f~ the

" , lUI It-. ,~. r."y'~'J: j! 1i1r.'Iaif .. __ . _ !~,. _ v.~._ "._ ~."" '-"81~'"., - -BIII.~'_~ . ~A'~~I.· ~~,Jl .. :.

ih", II· . ..::1...... • £: 'h .. f- ~ ..... ,

on~1 tODICllUS1on one ca.O ~i,itW 'f' 'to argue ::..-or t I •. e en~tence 0 i' a spocw

quaUty or at'trlbube M·tbin 'lWIaJter, A:s he SJ1;a,;l:e's;

. ,-

·47

Suhrn.\~a;rdl. ant" the, Sch()ol ~f fl1u.m.ID~u)t1Dn Qua~itad've ch;~uw~~' w.~ ,du,e' rad1.e~~ to tbe. ~o(m~ng into be:tng "Gr a ,q.uaU:ty whj.,ch .ru~ in e!3tmediate. between 'the' ,qualities of' th,e @rigin:a'~ bodIes and whi.ch ~s shared .by aU th·e particles, of (be Il~ o~mpo'1ind.~4~'

I'· 'Ilk,. tho - _},l;.. ;j;.'!i.. hasImnl ~ . 'i' '-. '-,

_ ,t ru~ lTI!iv'VlO:US .. , :i(_~ :S-Ut:JJ a U~ eury . 3l_S, Ullp t~lltio:n~~r not O-Dlly fm the

field of p:~ym.Qij but ,ah!Q ~P an ~relr.l.c d;octtiu~' t~at ~e€'kS 00 ex:.p~aJin ,h. ow· the "asSQ-cia,-truon b,r ,dlffe~refl t things .may bring about a, qfllaU'ta:tt~le chan.ge .. This princrople is, one of tn,e cruefal e~.~me:Jijts in tbe d.'evelQpm~nt of s,piriltual alchemy wfl:t(;b appears In l's~a:mic eseteric wr.~dnO!'s,:48;

,Ct'

n, PSY:C.HOLOGY

,suhra:wardf's, yj~ws on :ps.y~hQ1Qgy are c19~ely related to his eon-

f·· 1 b,~ h .' a, .~'81· .. 1 1 dl th

ceplt,~ eplsremo ()gf;l: Wi.ifll€'L rn turn icS !llIJ:in3€:uy re ~U;@l'" b) .-j re onto-

log~c~ h~era__tcb, that set'V~S ~_S ~1ec :f~lIll.ndad.'o.n. Qlf his philQ.SGpny,. The' faUo.iog d:iagra:1!J1 hcl~ to demenserate this connecdon :~~

DO.M].N.~·CE,~

L~gJ1t of li,g'bts-i!!' M,geUc ,olfd~r~ S()U~s.~ .Hea-:vem;s_'" ':I~l~ie& o:f lig;I!J es U niv.ersal .b~teit~e(:t"=* Inte.~I:igm~-P &l\lts~ ·H~alv.ens

..... 1..'OVE

Sw,ch a hierarchy :Mtlue:nc!es the human p~tbe m. the :fuUoM,m:g manne);.: The O(llt-9}.qg·'(~1 status; ·of tt.· be-i.ng; ,ml.ec~J1sdrmt~:8: a ce:n.a:run psycho·lo~.cal SJpparatLl.l., .. and h~ 'the psy~he and toe faculties 'Of jtbm b~ing'functidFJI d~pcnd~ on ~th,eir :pkt!ge w.~~thm ehe hierarchical s'lrnclUrt of the uni~~~

Su,hraw:a:_~dj j,~ vIew of psyciu)l(J;gl\~ ·th~o·Q~b inf1~,en,ced. by luistod~j~s, .ps.yc,holo~fl M d~CUiSS€d ~.n the De',A-n-.~). d~'$, net ·f.i)11'0w Aiislt0iQe'~'~ £b~~.jlicad~n~ and in fact is cleser te Ibn Sini than Jt.tl AmJtutle,. "Suln3:w.a:rdi e:~aMjtfie8 an bein,g,s. '~Il~Q; three· '~;tLte~·dlri,es.! Vel~lablre~o anima] ,apdl human, The 'i[jol)" .m.aj or ·diffe:te;n,ce b~t:ween hisvl"e;Wania. :the P:eE"~p~:tetifcs :~ie's .j·n his n'od~o ~r' bqdy' 3)8 thetJheur.gy of lsp~ij,"ttil.

A~oording 'fgQ Buh[m~dj"~ the i(lla~ificat~G'D. Q:f:diffier,ent f~~ ~1,tie's ean 'be .IDnl1stra~:ed by tbe follow.mng dia,g,mmB;

48,

. . ..., .1 F~eaillg (~~"iJllal;) .AtlnlctiGll1llJUkibakl

V,e.g,etabl,e· ~ul ,. ";r;~\\'1..h ~ n(Dfltjl5ltm~r Re·t:entiOi1'l (~l)

II. Repr-Gdl~COOn (m~:~llW'(lR) .Dffig~s~pn (}1~i.1~h) Repulsi!GD (.daft,j~k)

{. P;gwtll!" ~ ma~im~ ('.~~milak)PoWer €If lust (Biall-.!j;) . ~~wer' ,of de~re ~ num'~",ll#) P,ower of ang.er fgiJ.~)

The ,ee:n (e~r wh~r'e' ,aU the bif~l'Inati~];l and

. . .

dalta, of 'the e:M.~er.ml!al w)od.d is 'C,i,i)ne~t£d~ Th e );oe~uj'on is. in th.e· ~front ofibe' 'brain.

The fblce 'whem 'smtS1tS ,~m:u~is:ws sltor-ed. It is located m "1h,e hack 'of ~h€ ·ca~ty.

G~v,ems ~6Imi.b·h~· thiIJ:gs 'which t·tile ~en,-ses are not cap~])L~ of ;a{therin.gc and ,h is lOO.a;L~d .hl thf! m~d,(U€" cavity.

()ftea id,endfied. 'wi;th 8Jp:pn~;h,e-ml;si~r.w but its fUl1ctiof,l -foes :mnJieJ: and, it ~y.n,t!hesiR,s and ,S:fJ,al~s, .

The place· 'whe:u' a:pp:rehe;~ion is, slored. It ts~ .I.ocared ~n tb~ ba-ck of the midd.·~e ca:vtty,.

.Appreben~t0n (wahm)

'Memory (.biL}4aa)

·1'q. 'E"lE'PUI ' . .Ii' "'~I~'i' A.Gv' I'~:~ ~u~ ',-,~~. '-\1

S L ......... ~., .... )..,.AII'·!' - ''1- , ..... !f' 1!... ii .... l ., ,.J:-~ d ,£..., '\._," •• (-

'.' 0u.~.u,«~~J.I u!l s nonen ~ es(u~~~ lS imi rYe' u.om ,u.1S .B0BOJ'l o , .p...~

dlQl~,.!:i~ He· OOl'l,~tud.es (b3!!t:ttl,e g'~l. of msn is to OOC\'llDe: :i111um~nakd and E@W'm -W' 'lli'ruJ$ orlgii_n, ~n m,e odrue:r wo:dd. ~. od]tr 'world is Q·rdY a, ('''OntiJn:uati.O<D .of this Qne~, and tllLe s~ of the emul 'ifR tbe hereafmr d~peJl_d$, en. the: -dew,ee '[0' 'whim HI '~[Wn is purned. here MId. ~,6W .•

Su'h'ralva:r:di .iden tiDes. dl:re&groops, of people' 'with" re~p6ct I~r.l tbe: d'egcr-ee ·()f their" pur.h:y a:nd. .iUuminatioIJ and estaJbUshes, ~: sa usal c·o,nn~t;[i,o~ rlnetween '~h!ei.r 'pul'i:r.y and their an:tQlorg!.eal.sm;r:.us in the; other world .. These three groups are:

1,. Those who remained in the darkness of ~gao;ran·ce 't lU~,{i ). . 2.. Tho$e who :p,U:[i-1fle~l 'tllerr.tstd.ves ro S~ extent {~Mi).

3.. Those wh e ,purified the:m.se-iVf:S and reached illumin~dQtl (mw'(J;

'" .lJ:!l:.. - , \ am;l','~u.'nl a

·49

Suhmward~ :afl.d ithe' School Qf nlruminatio~D.

In his. book, .YQulcin ihitiimit,. ~ :b,e demcnsnates the' type ofconnecdon that :h.e le,s.tab]jshes between one S oDroJ.ogical, status in tb~s world and r:iUl'E:J of.. the other wo:rld~ "He argues that regard iess of [he

...:I: -"",..£' "'_ ,,'. th t, ," 1 .,- ,~- ,- , ,-, I'.c • __ -~, -- __ - -ta. - 1- ,-, ,~o!!" ar.(lj!'n~

uegree ~I one s pU1tIty:, I ae sou.' , 5, [.1 essence immor - ','.. L - .-.0. _

ment is as follows;:

Kn,QW that the 5'Q'UI remains; .~t is inCO(DCeivab]e for it to. :per,ish since its. Gause (Iof ea,mblg' to 'be). 'which. is the active intellect, 'is eternal; therefore, iilt remains .eternal ":eCaiUse of its cause (which 'i~ eternal) ,:"

18~ HIlCJMTVEBSt18 PHILOSOPHY

Lilte ;manJ' other Jslalrdc ph.losopherj~ S r hra\ViU'di makes a dJii.s.. 'tinC~iOift between phU~phy- and lUkmm whi.c'h is crucial fOr tbe 'lnlde~fSta;nd:ing of not on'lf uhtirll[i do,ctr:inc 'but also tne P;QSl" Subm~bm. phiosgphy~ espriaUy m. Pema. and the sub-eentlnent ;0:£ ndia, The distinction between p~ 'bilosop'~ hy·. and .liikmot whiCh ~s

. . , J ,_ I ..•. _' " .. ' _. or •• ".. I"'" , : _ _ '! __ ', _ _ I!!!_I'! •• _ _ _ _

held 'by a pat number af' &lam.ic philtoSG'plhers is believed. to have been ~dvocamd ~D. by such peripatetia as Ibn Sin.l, who aftoer reaching' the mmth of h-~s phUosoph:kaIl. maturity. dem.Ollsttamd

. ,.~,m - d ". I ;I;o'iI.. ~ ...... _ . ..:1 . ". tin ... 1 - -""1.. . .., , - ~....!.iil1 h'

U}\I:.,""""": te'n:·. enCles" n ~~,e 'rQu ~KJIUCDo.n. to: 'mmJ,~ fMi'"'fl-u.AI;liTtlfPYjJ"" . e

t€Us us that ~'dlere' are bmmches of'Midom that do not ori,gina·te from

- G' b _JI'; I hi ~k aJlPIasl.~tI: ',1' .. ,_ "~"'.- " S--'--b - ",- • .rI.

[i'~1...la .: '-r;~.::!Ii -,' ~~ n' ,''I.;:' I I - -. . 1 '., fW71iWa !Co.m'Uitm1"'" "":u I lrawatrul

IUI~ ':._- _~ __ ::.... __ ,.,' ~ _, ..... , . I' . . '. '1 !II! '. "Ii'" _' ,'" _ __ __ _

teUs. us matt. 'while most. of m:bn. Sini.',s, 'writings are d~id of~, 'ltheo.. ,s~hical s,~gnir6cance"1 there are references .0 tlhe existence lof l(l Ifpe of wisdom other than the Greeks a_nd 'their discursive method ..

Suhrawail"di may 'hue believed that, due ItO the e~'t'£umstance UDder whi,ch Ibn ,sini ~dJ;; he had to'rema1_n sUerrt in ~ '110 his isA1"t1Iji ideas~, Therefore SURra¥l3I'di fe~,].s thart he not, only has to· disclose The iskn«Ji'rendenci,e.s offbn Silli ly~t also to ('Qnunue C£jhem. :Fnr' ex:amp e,

.. -... ,. ;I'i'.._:':r~ (- . ...-1 rrz.·.....I.·=;I!.;o1L,dtj(~!IM'I\f'!JlJt.\ S' ~-~ L. -...I,:,

bl.his.<wotk "";TkeiO~~'W' .,"1'"Utll1J.';'~~,,,~~uy.r\I!}I,.·. 'wjrawaH~ul

p:iCks up the smry where Ibn Bini had ended, his short wOl."k~ .Risii:JtJt' lJ«,y ibn ,.n. ~7 'Both of :iliese' stones are highly s,}!W!oolilc and demonstrate tihe.Spiritual5t3,s:es of:ilie inner being of a seeker of tru.th 'aft ~ _ his, :fe'lationsbip with the acb~~' i __ ~tcellecr~ which Snhrnwardi identifies as the "glorious .ok! master" (P/:r..;:i DumB) .

Ibn Sin.i was, We I .aW,Me 01£ the dang~d. of ~p6plularhing' I t' -.' e

~ ... .rI11_ ,-,,~ "'illli- ., 0· d hi ~ - ~ --. rI!ok' rDl~'rd- 'm" "liV 'iliiI'e1i1 1,., ,=

Wl.~m UJ, J~JlUmln:aJ Ion}, an, _ ,1S,:S ella 1'D 'lU,lS ~';""6~ ,_ . '(;..;, " _,g. ut:::

aJurib\ned to this very point. In, the at..Isba.riit uta; ~l--ttJmn1idt; he' says,

50

Cem;tml Themes,

If you CO'ITUpt: )dlisr 'wisQ'oim, Cod be tbe jurlge.' 'be/tween you and me·.:~8.

,II it was Spi 1 eza who Ulid, f!'God. :is., nor ~G mindlesa ~'S to' I~e~t : a, two legged creature and '.eave' lit to Aristotl,e to make' b!:m raJt:JJGna~,.» S~u1Jtrawardj would ,add to this;: "and 'to make Axis,to'~le the Oinly,gate throogh wllich 'truth can be attained, n This, is, because ,Su hrawardi ne~thet ,oallsiden i\risrtO'ti,e to be tbe founder of radonaU·lJ nor can thetype of wisdom be advocates be the on·~.y one that leads. '.0 truth. .As S~H:~ N asr staJtes:

He [S-l!tbra~di] beli.eved ·that this wisdom is un.h:ersalm and. Perennia1l, the ,p:1tilosejJlu; fJt1mnis and: un·immJalii~. whicll. egsted in vaJious fonns anwng 'die anciem Hindus, Persians, .8ih¥;., lonians and Kgyp-tiLi:lnS and :anlU!)(og:dw.e Oree'b up to the· tinre of Arj;S'tode~, 'wbo fol' Suh"rawardm, was not the beginn.ing but. rather the end of phi~osophy among' th.,e G~eb W~Q 'W'mlJ'i:n;awdJ ',ih'js, tradition of wisdom. 'by ]imn~'ng it to its, t:ag,onaJlstic aspect.69

The inherent distjjncdan. 'between pbaosophy and (rM'lMA for Sunr.aw,ardi is. a natural one and emanaees from the: met fihat t'~ .,;6 faculty of in:l1eUectus. and, praxis are 'tw'O, separate f3C'~ll,~ties.,

In 'n is woik YlWIa-u shirtalthl) SubraMln:U aludes, to 'd1:i84istinction and. argu.es that there lie two powers within -the soul; one a:p-PI'iebends and. the' other ane. g,eneraws, .a,'ctlon" SuhrawaDfi then ,~s on to make the funeno rrin_g' of mae 't'Wg faculties 'be' ool}till:ge.nf. uf!'On ,eac·b. other and &ta1tefl::

'Th.eol'e-··cal (facuby); for example, :w.s such as knowing that 'the' WQ,:rldl is creat,ed., and :practtea' [fat:ull¥ :mr ,e'u'mpl.] is to know that oppr-ession is evil ,. ., ,. tbeo."tita~ is subject to discursive science and. from practical (£acnlty) ~,knowted_ge is

,. d 11r~ 1-. - Ii' 'h- 0' ukl 1I-..'=.". ..... m' .... 11 .• nown 6'&

fequLFe . to, ,lfo.l:J!OW wJJJJa~ is .1, ~. ~,II, UCoi..iv.'· ~ Ii.J.l '''''''~.." •..

This is not to S3(Y' that. Suhrawaidi QPpoiSed at rational 'a'PPf'Q3cb. 'to p:-L ilOJopbh:al issues, IlIQf was he 1'!;;an'ti=phimoso.pb.Ylt ~I as, G, .j ;~uil~ a~.d some 'other SUfis were· .. In. fact, re_oning and independent Judgmen -i are ,all, 'essential pa'rt: of one s ,quest for rhe pursuit of truth, Suh rawafcll:~'s respectfbr at rarional p[to~e~s,of .reasonin~ ~oes so far as lo' say:: Do not fo.}'~ow meor a,n.ybody else and 'know that the only

~ """"" ,. - - .. - 1iN:i.""!i ill\'Q.n 61J cneenon l!li ~~J"".'oJ! ,lIlnIl".

Therefore, 'wb.ereas philosophical spec-ulation for Suh~~~.i is :'·mportan't." it l(iow;eve.t origillaces from. a :faculty that is. ~ubseMent- 1_0 i:ntele~tual m-ruuj,oD. (dlUlWIJJ'., Suhrawardj :goes ~ far ,as, to ~ate.-

&1

S:1l.hra~.atilJj ~;rnd dl!!;:~ ~ll(;fO;l IQf IUl!Jlmbla!R6H

gu£lze dif'f,e'reu,tJ kn6Wers, in at;ctJm~D!C€ wirth theit 'm~lre'ry' of 'ra.t1ooaHsttc phno~p'by and ~mmt1t. ffi.s~d,aH:ili(~tmons go a, fon~s:~

I. "T~os~ who ha¥t m~tered ~t~'wi'sdom but are no:t w~l ~,en;ed

. .:in. dmcu~sive reasotring, (i..e'., Iliy-a2;id~ Darraq,ini),

'2", 'T,~ose wh o 'have' mMte:t-ed ~ur$jj,e r:e~oni,fi:g m,1t ytet l:ack isItTxlll'i,' '~~'u,d~nil!1tiol1 'i.,e'", Fi:mbi)

!l, Those 'who. :ll,a¥~' masTt~red bOth ,discu:mvc' r-e~Sl{)niDI ,an0 fin/rag/: '~dlom., These are pedect 'philosop'h,ers, and ate en:6ded, /00 be the '~}c~ge['en~s Qf Cod ~~' (klmli/at'~).,

Yih,Ue' ~'f' is, clear dUlt Suh:rnwa~di :~lcommends the stuaf Qf tbe Peri pa:t,~'d~p"hilosopb1 ,tlrsl;, especially in the ,a~ Ta;ltitJ)dt and

~.itJf " .'.Ii: (II " - 62 '" - ,

a: :J;'~,~" an - wa ~upam~a~ he pUb the Sludy o'f disti;ursive pbU~

ph)' m perspectwe~

l~aVinl Ide:rendedl the smdy of' disi;~ve p,hilooophy as a pre:requ~s.ite' to 'the' 'll00erst3.ndmg of iikr-.aq~ Suhra'Waiidi Ifhe::.o teDls ~ -of the U!mque ,c:~teri$1iiG$, lof (he type of~Clm that hels propapting'/"

StlbN'Wa~di eensiders hi-mselt' tQ be dl,e urriilfi.er. ;n,' wha;; he ,ca~15' H,~~,~t, f$U{llj~7jifah.~' fD.ivtne VVisdo;m)' I' a ~hiol1 (h~t '~gh,;u, wi~ Prop~het H~nnes (,kli~1")1 and bas ,pe\rmsit~d thli'O'~ghout, lime in variOltS forms .. AJ 't'O, thE..:;soUn~te' 0(. this, Wisdom he a'fgUfS:;

The' ~i,g:tu" ,@:f iihe. :fath 'whi~h stretches into t~e past ms the suw,tan!C@ of·PJtbag~'ru " ~ '.' and 'was ,sent d~ 'Il,lPO'l1 Tus~ri and his f0illo:wen., The substanoe 0'( Kh~~~a:n I['wisd~m] has '[been sent dOlm to. Kha;_n'qini .and S,a,,-ar Bas¢urni.68

Ther~'On~",Stlibra"Wat(n 'ilS ~umg m8iE whUe' phUOiS'opby ~ndl ul1nitt i$we forili from 'th.e same ~~urlce; mey nevertbele:ss' are. dis'ti~u::1t lor t:[ha;t phi,l_op:by :18, the n,eoos~ ,cond:hJon .. and theos~'phy th,~' suftleien t condi 1il0'1l :for the :attab],me(~l ,of truth" Su:h:mW"a:mi~ "as the '~mer of dUlereni;. traditions of wisdom, c~nside'n, phi1,0<SiC)phy and, dleQs:ophy eo, be M6 t}?pes .af w~sd~im:~ l~aJch ('Jf which iscswta'ble I@'f a pu:rpose. Trurh for 5uh['a\W,ard:iJ. ul;timilre(~y snCi'~ld :Rily on 'knowJ~ ed:g~ d~at is .aJtt'alned tb.rough Ulu_nl~na:tio',nj 'whilre it has to susb.in th,e ~~nl1Jtruny of '~ogit: and r.il'tiQlual ~nin:g and be ,oompatable

'wi,;t1l ~be\m~ -

'On me n~lado:n;ship' '~u~~'twlee'n pbUos@p:Ohy mld hiimat., Suh:m~nU bl w,e in trod llc,tign 1:0. Tim PhtJ!J:BlfPk, !of lllum-i~'O!n, 8ra'~es,:

., .. ,'Thj~bo~~, i.8 o'! IL diffe:v.e~it meJIt,!h,I~~.'~', atnd a pa!tih (of 'mlJ,tiil.) 'th~t IS u'eare:r than 'the odle-r one ~,dlscl1]l~rsiy,e) ., . . . rta

'Ce~tra:ru Themes

tr:lltp and o:ther enigmas fl~t djdl 'cI},b't ,tome to me m~otlgb thinltill,g CUr discourse but ib, :attainmeru ~ of a ,difFe1Pent ,na.ilure. IF:maUY:t when, I ,aJt.m~ned ~:he tttdih" I que~d,Gned 'ruts rn:ti@,,~a16' in such a ~~, that if I i,g.nore the re.asonin.;g process,

fiJ1Q ·dfolJ,lbt can ~O'm~ U:pCin m~",M' .

Suhraw,ar:dl claims to haee fm,t d:!$eovef,ed th}e truth, which be' ,caUs, Ijlk.~~, and then be embarked on a pca.th 'to :find (hie rationa] basis o,f his ,e__~p~r"iend~~ 'Wlsoo:m - It is certain th~'t ph.il~sophy in Suhm~ wardi~s, th;oug:~t, plars a d:iffer-ent. role £~om, ID~q,s()if!hyj(a;nd SQ g,oes. the means' by 'whi,~h' one Gomes to ,aJlJoo;ln mastery of each 'tYlPe of wisdom. These ~'~ ttad ~tjjon5' t'ifw~sdo,tOO, fQt me: master of uh\'f:rJf are' notonly di!f£;ere,nt in th~1~rf'o'tm and th,e;wr ceneene 'but also olri_gjn,ate from t-wo dtf[eiren~ sources; D;scuws;we 'pjlb~]~sop:by eemes from the rad'Qfl,al f~:~'~'j 'wheri!M 'i1kraqiwisdom. is, issued forth r~am the Ia.cuIty ,of ,~nt~:iit~@':n'i'

It, major pro blem w3!tis, often an~~d 11.'0 ruSe th3l!t wbere~, the resld.~

of lD~cal ana_~s;ei' 'are' vgrifh;ble:~ s:uch i'5 bpi( the ease lD :~prdl m w,ri~us truJh ~aims, 'dial are ef 2in islrat{i nature, Suhmwardi ~;a~es mat 'his ~~ miD 'be' 'Ve.rified ;only'by 'm,oie 'whD. ba:w been :~m~ted inm, th,e Kie~,@e of'iMrr.aq through. a spildula] master who 'has 'become'

,jO,L· ,.' - ,1fiFi/' . ~'.'&! ("'I._~ - '~, (-1:1. .... :f:~;f{; . AI :II'I'~'i!:i.') ~ ""'" ~

me vnte~~re~:t 01' ~ on. itwtn .:~t~Jat n!~'iJ'" . :Un ill:ns, be :stat~,g::

Of course, it is, :1l,o[fea:sj1}le.~to'F O(nE; 'wn:G has, DO:t 'fele;rred M ,3., sage who -ls th,e 'v:i,(~I~r:e'l)m:. (of God'} imd pQS$e~se~ the knowled,ge m this 'boJf)~"b) .gmn M:1('ess, to the secrets of th.~$. oo@k,.~'

Of'tem ,:!hlh~awa_nlw is ve~ e'x.pUcru,t in his ~ini8tt1;lcd,ons as 'W' 'how the'fJ:pts o:fwitdom he :adv~cmtes, J€an be' aU'ained" For $uhrawllrdi .l:li~'mIJt a~ukJitiq :i:s a blueprjn t for those who 'w,~sh tOI have an ~p@rien~. of nt.uminadoR-~ l't[8, cruetal ti@ N,eaJi-ze the lm:pnrmllce of ascetielsm and f,J(ractica], wi s-dQ In, to the islrag'i dGclnne <a~ a wbo;[e ~ €~!Q, dhro:ugh t'h:is, ws €(alorr.ary t-o seme ,ai' the :~a:ter in ter~preters of S~hmward~, 'who po:t m.o:re, emphasis o,nJ:.iis 'runtel~,ec,tual

ao.d lP~hj10-s()'ph ical.p]'=:cts. -"

The prim,e eeneem oif Stw.n:r.a\wa:mps lentill~ :p,tHlo~o:p':hy is to de:m,o'nst~'re mle'.j@unlLqt OIf th.'e ~buma[l s,Qul tG~:rd,s, .. im origJ~tal :abooe'~ Onre beg~ns, by gaion;wng' ,an a:W8l:~ness. of' the. 'p~rh thilt he o1J!gnt to fQUo{w'~ H;avin.g fon()Wtd c}u:: tei3ichin,gs, Qf',a. :m:ast,e;r 'who c:a'ft d:in;~ct rtlle di8eip~,e fhn,TI~ltl_gh ttu~ :maz'~ ~f spirjt~a~ ~ge~, gn¢ .rellt:bes, a stare wben~' spitituoo. 'tJ;J,owledg''B' (an be, obtained di:mctly' M'th,ou:t m~dmdon~ In this S!tilte~ SuhX3w,ardi oo.nsid,ers knO'Meag,e

n-- ........ 'I TrL, -

'\;.;.!'enlb-iU ,. lI,i,emes:

luhraw:rdi :~nd, the ,$t;h,oP~ ,of IU.ummat1~n

J. MichJ()~'I ~ ~l ia. ,dutink ,fl'e tlmnme' mq~ mt!t. Awaenn;~ ~Beeus~ -L@l~~n fU'!b(" 19&'[.) '.

26 :S~bmw~wdi;; Qp?ia :2~ ,ch,.~ 5,.

~/j. :[bid.,t 2]Jl. ' ,

~8 Ibid., 2M Z.

~9 :n~:~td.~ ~~.

so ,[bid.,~ ~29,.

31 lWd.,~ '230,.

32' Ibid.,!, 23],.

~3 ,U;,wn"1 2!5.

34 SUhrnN.t~jnU~ tJ!!erfl 3,! 65,.

3,0 FGIJ:' meee hDgnna;li~n on Suh~drs view' an tb~l e1li;'i;ste:n;ce O'f l~fe

. r - - - - - - ... •

;arftrF'de~tllJ'j see A.~"'~~i,,~, 155tl IlJ<jCi: i!:'~""Ii--'~:W"-!ir-Al~ ~'1 1 =4 u

~!gr !b1!UlJiJ..~" __ '~JJU~~., ~1t-. ~ _ " __ L_ .•

,3,1 Shiff t, 2-~,,,,

~8 'H __ Z"it'! _ 4<;'Subra:wKdi 's .PhUcnu::lr:n,hv of IUl:U;fi'~f.ilJhtiOiU'" l,P~l.fD}. D;u;s\O~

~ .. _, ~ - I.. _ - - _ - '" - _. _ - !r J . ~ -7'

Ha;~ [Jn~r~lty, 1975)! 513=51., _ ,g,g Ibld",~ ~7",

40 Ibtd .. ~ 82"

41 'Frlu" 'm.,~!I"e infu[m~!tW.O:.fi '(:)lEI' Subr;awa1)d:i ~~, IQgi'~ ~e:; :f.;t Z~a "i, KnJllvled,'ge.

a;fiid lllu..miMliM (A:tl~~u;~: Scb~1iU"5, Pr:e'$" 1 gg~) .,

4'2 Ibid.~ 7ft

4:3 ]:~ :iJs Dlotundjl Mulli, S~ri{~ :ti_m~ 'lihat th~ ,m.~eh3;nis:m h¥ whj~m b~c yeam, fur tb~ h~her' 'i3IrdeF' i~ tJJ.o:['crugll1r d~d" Hi:t :n.J)d,o,m, ,~,f ~T.~Jbstan.ti;M :m()li~n jJ' r( ~i!t, ,fJl.jawh(j-rn,~~~} e-~bl:i~ t'he 'UlD.6r ~arom,g of b~hlg~ tQ\Wtds 3, higber QlIJito.!,og;ilCal ;Wa,·t1l!s.

44 'Hid~i~ in h~s ~nm'menmlj( 1dp0,(II'J. Salbziw.iirr:s s~~ ,~~~ O,tle:r.s ,3JJ (;;()mpl!e;~ li:s,'t Qf the 'w01~~ and phir6e~ of th,e a:nci:en~ Fm-siaJl ~8es whr~ch. Suhrmwar-dl :refers d!;a:fiQ'Ugh-.9Ut h~ 'writi_1lB:S;. Far. room :in:EQP:ma'ti~:n, see l;laMi,,~ 'i~~ ('[eimran).~ 2N.,

,45 ,For' fUJfmer djsew;ss~,on ,of SUlh~di~t~ ,~upJ~lpD'! ~e Ho. C6mtn'~8, intf!e..duction itO Suhrnwatdi:t ~ 2~ ,;a;~d G .. Wel5:bs" S'U"kmwa$8'~' A~J~!DJ' ('h,D., 'Difil~ T~n:l!pl_e lJ_nii.veT"Slity, i'Qagl),.

46 Far' a tlls(:l!J.tsslDIiIJ of 9uhmwa_rrdi "s, Ph'i~c:s~ S~ H. Corbiin 5,S 'ffinb:odlJ(',:t].o:n

to 'rJpua '2" ,

4\ 7 At. His~ ~I Mlsiim Phi~s.h~ vat I, ~;d, :MI.·M., ~Sb9ifif (Wi~s:ba:den.:: QIU;O'

U'a~~sow1~j ~96'1') ~ B'9 [,

48 F,ow; mere mf'Orm~!iQn Q.[O arn('.h~1D1f :and i~ ,Sip:ir.~ltUJjl sJ"lboUmi; see S.H,.

N3IM,. S~{;$ a~ CiJbi~tftm. in J~ ~Can1Bf,id~:; H~d 'U,niver15ity P,r,¢f;S~. 'l00Sl; and· T,.: B1%lI"kba~~~,~ Aldumly. Sam~ fijt1B Ocsm03:j ,Stim6~' 01 till $~~, trans, 'W'. S'tlIDda~d (Ollt,en,: W~ltet', 1:91').

_.;jl,~ F. """ . ~ .- - A = - _ , -;c :-C1ri'II'n'~,u,b~~ d' ~.cci:"'!Ji~'i'i:l',BO""'~J, seeH __ - . ~orbi!J]l":s tn~mduttion to, ~-ta:

"'f~ v.r a m.'IU'.re C(h.tlllrJil!;. ""'"' 1WIIi.-~",ruJI!.)!~,~ ~ ....... """ "b - . - . - - ,,_ _. _ ~r~;~

2 .•

3,Q I: 'have fO!O<lrled tt!hJ~ o'UtUn~ presented. by SI.H; 'Nasr wn. A Fmlm'j qf M1t3im .PlU:lio,s~l} ed, M.,M~ Sharif., p. 2'1 ti.

I!!!"I 11'.,- t .... ..:;" l_r:iUiri:ili c ~,iii'~" -{', tr1..~, u~"lt-.-_-t , ..... t.!"'~~iI'f 9ub,nllUrdi devotes 3, ma;iQr'

a JI. JLIi1 ,t:n~ illli}~ir r~ """ 'V, 1!L'J.h.. ~;, __ ~- ~~"'''''''~l'' ~ - u~ - _ -- - ::J

8ee.dOn, eo ,th·~ di&Cl\l,ssioln of e.Sidlaro~og1 Ui5,jH:g me ]angu~g'e' ef nrn.llDlbDJa:ti,mn. Sec' 0jMm '2, '2' Hi.

5,2 ~:uh~aw:iIrdi," {)P,W4 g~, 411'9 412,",

i!::.,1!!j I"J. I;

3'

.

P'RACTICAL-~·' .. S······ UII:·-F··IS'· ·:·M·· ...... ·'

. . . ..' " . " 1-

I ,ey,fI:i"D .... "r'.I. ft'nro'11'Cli 'VIS· I' "IO'N' .OIY~~ .. ,~.t·al .. r ""[i.,.,I ..

The' beg~ nni.ng of "the' IDysd~ld trad "'d.ons. is often 'traced back to the visien \)f tbeb~ founde'B~, 'and d1,e mystical dimension 0E S"u,'b raw~rdi.'s, t~ou,gbt is no e.~~ption., Suhm~'ro.~ in TN)' Pn.ikJ.$flJiA~ el lU'U/ml"MhJrJ'7i.;1 'te~.ls, USI that tn "a straage dJayl'J~, t e truth and the seeress of the D.iw:ne were OOMamed to,·: l]m .. IIaYi'ng had ill, vision; he then sets forth to wri"l:e do,'~n the pri~_c.ip[e,~ of his transcendental tbeGsophy rorf those philosephers who, are 'weD versed in esoteric sciences as, weU as d:iscU'mve' .phUGso,pb,y..

In his. intreduetion to Th8 PhiWs.oplliy. of lllmni~ Sulnawani tells us tbai t_he content and hUm. of this book were' nat 3!ttlined. thr:o'Ugh dlisrursffi e reasonlag, I' ving attained, die truth "in another \fay,~i12 he goes, on 'to say tb:art he' then rou.ghl the jUS:tiliCltlJJl'l of his 'findmgs, In a more discursive con text, Sulu~W3!fdi fUrther tells us d),a{ the ,cert~dD.ty· Wat is, attained th'rougb dl'iJ, dimct.,m'eaflo$. ofl~p:~d'on. is such mart it stands independl.en~ of the pf6eeM (if ]tlfP,eal reasoning that alse 1~ to the' S3!Ill€ ,cot,H=iusion.,~

.,. Since' ~oir ~lihrnwaJiidi it is '~is sipec:lal mode 0 'lmow~e.dgl~ 'that druffere:pJtlatt's betwlcen tl\o,se. who truly know an~, those 'who do not; he :goes on to, lCillJt,egorilz,e the seekers of wisdom, ,i!ccording~y., ·1

1 .. ThM€: who a,e 'imme1f'sed in dJeoso.~p'hia ;a:nd, do not cencern _. themse.,~s 'Witl, 'discuni~ and r.atiJona~.isd.c p,hUas op,hy.,

2~ RationaIisitc philosophers, who do nat concern themselves with theosophy..

!t Learned 'mer 1 who 'have benefited b;)tb from tbeO&ophy a . d

discursive' 'p,hilo·so:phy,. - .

t. Theosophers who- are QeYefmJl~es,s medic-eve or 'weak. in dl:~si(ursive 'p1bilosopby

P.wat';tlcll Sufism

5~ 'R.aOOI)ai6stie phUosophers wbo are mediocre-or weal, in theosophy . 16,. S~udents .of th,eesap'hy and dbcUDi~ ph:llosophy

'1. Sttudenil:S m th eooop;hy ·a.o·i])e~

s. Studen ts .of dbcun;iv.~ phiiorop. by alone.

What is, tbe nature of the . ·now~.edg'€ 'O'f' a" theosopher wb..~,c:h. enables him 'tOI know the b11, h. and 'til attain the' ,eertaln:ry tbat is not part Qf dis .~r,siVe .kno:wmedge? 'C larlflcadon of this erueial point ~n Suhrawardi's phi1iQs~phy requires a I~n"gthl" dlss1cu.sw,on concerning Subr:awa:rdi; s ep'istemltl'~.'ogy"

,It should 'be first. mennoned that there is a differen,£,e between th'~s 8p~c"a] mode of knovledge and what is oommonly knOlWll as

mys,tical'v·'sionu or m¥s.tical experience. Suhrraward;"' te~lS'us, tha .. h: himself was :p:Uzzled as to' :h6W one' comes to :ko,ow' a thin,g., Hponders upon t'h.'i:s IqueS;Uion, and finally in a state of utl'J.er nu;stra don he 'ba,s a v.hdon of &i~,tot~e w:ho' tells htm 'what 1D!e'sniud,on is;:

Aristude:: If you turn to yuur, ow~ s.e1lf (tibiA) and inquire, yeu 'will certain If find your answer.

Snb_lf.a:wu,di': .O'W ,. s that?'

Aristo:tIe! Is ,it n at the CMe tha't f'oU understand yours:elf? Is rh is under:smndin,g' of t_he ~el~, or is it. the understanding' of the self through someth'iing other '[han the seW If it is, t'h.'€: case that the' 'undent3nding of the. self hvm,f\i)ugh something other tha.n the self, for yOO1' se:]Jf Ii ere is, anothe I, self who Uf),aters:tanlis' you and it is RO' ~o,n,ger you. who understands yourse,lf., Now that this is 'the' 'case" neceQar:ily one questions this new self that is lih· true elrem'eD't tor the: undt~:\ntaaJ!din,g ef the self. Does lids self' understand irseJf, Q,r does, i'l:. need som~minJi ,e);se? If tilda, be' ehe 'c.e,nheJll. it gOf>S on ad i"'ifimtu~ which 'is bnpos-:dbJe. The other ass-: mptiQD is £boat you come to M:01W' Qf',au:r mlf through the eft"ect or an idea tD;a- }'<)I_' attain dJe truth 'ofyQU'r 5elfan.d,dlat me truth ,ofyourse.,]f'can never be understood without :any mediation,

,Suhrawardi; E agree dl:alt 1 can never 'know ,royse f directly and it ls 'o;mi~y' ,th:pou.gb the p~~ure' Of' thre idcea ,of ,I self malt 1 can kD,QW

~lf~

Aristotle:' If' what y011lJ1 ~1' were the C3JteJ then if . bisl.idea or picture does not eerrespond with, your self, it does net represent your se:!f,. ~d· because this !l ea is, not an indication 0:' ,. your self then yo.1,1 have not understood youl" ~~lf,,"

S~a~di: Sop'.pose :t:hrils\ idea, cQrresponds to :my :8eJlf~, 'If dl;i,~ idea, carnies. to m.y mind mroug,b m,y "self", then it is precisely repre-

,591

. Stihra~_rdi :and dl,e ~boo,:1 'of Illu:mwdon

~R mtl'ft!. of m:y self 'and;, no :other' thint:~ Do you, s;dU. beUeve fllat -i"'"£i "1:'. C;""lf ~Q~ln~'c 00 understoed d}f1a~'~h such a ttlm~

~,~,J.~ o,aL . ~1~r:....L~., . -.- -." . - .- 1".- " - ", .. _._ ' .. -'l~if . _'. ~ . ~

~t,o:tlet ·r.~l:irs, idea ,ce;ttail1]Y .~~(i)onespond~ to fnu~ self bul dot's 'it cor res:p on d. to the universal 'Se~f or 00 YOUT PM(~,cular ~:~f mat has $p,ecm€ C:haQ€~€risd~~ ~d~·a;tldblUt~S?

Slmmwudi~ I assume t'b,e ,~att'er by s:ayi .. ng that the pi,ctorm:~ Idea ,corres'p.·.:()nds, with '01'\1' '~lr~ ILhat 'has ~erJtahl, Ch~ra,Gtder,is'tiics and lher~fu,re rep)}\e:s€n~'~:r self~

~(xde= 'E'Ve'fY pr'C{U'oo that "fon:ni$. in, the mind, i~ ,~a universal character, and as mu,~h as ,"o'u, limit these iC,,,nrepw, to ha:vin,:g 'a."t'tdbutes; etc, 'Y'~t~, 6~nC€ th ey are Qf' m ubi,}e~ '~l';ture',~ they are SIt;WU 'un.iVe\Q1~l If m case due 'to :an ohsita~]e' :in the Qutsi,d!(i: WD,dd" the validity 'of a 'uIdv~'f'Sal 'r!~nGePt is 'vi,Q'l~tsed because of the partlenlar cbr;::u .. :acil:erist~cs ~l):f an inrdirvidua]1f. ilt ·n.'eve:rtbe~.e~s, remains u:niive:n~l at a coneeptUalltvel, The inewtahle: fact is tha.t YOM, understand 'Your' un iq ue~' $,e'l(~, a, s,e:1f tba t ls truly free ,fir;om any :ih aring Q r cemmenness. The ~~Stdl is that 'fills ,parfi"c.tdM'tm,dersmndJin,g mat ,'011. :ha,ve of yo'tU·· unlque }1,1ml,d uncornmon seff cau::no'~. be 1IIlder8lnoo 'through ,3, picture 6,1." idea, Therefore, u:nd~,ta:Ddin:g of the self is never rJlrQ'ug;h, dJ~ ~ide:,a.~ I~@'f: p.icture) ~ s

,l:..l ., ., llr'.;\ ,_.;: ,."," 1! ';;c h P ,.

S.u:h:rnwalrdi in, 'Ids ~ti\te; Q'J. ",reaxn,=wSJao M~S m~tllle ,0, 'L e . eri-

patet1c .:phil,&s~f;bers are the true' masters of wiSidlam~ ·A_ris:totle wIts-. him t!hal s\Kh filU'res as B~id. and. :ij:aUij! t"h,e m;asteu of ~he Sun tmdi~j,on:j are the true philosophers, and nor [he P,e(ripil\md,~s~ PJ.'&' s!Q:ma'Wy 'Ibecaggse t'bJeY' came, l~ )mo,*, ID'eicr: ~s.eU~:nr.st;,6

AmtottJe'~ a.dlW£I'e to Suhnt'Wm!dl is dlat. to know 3!Ryth~n,g: one must

- 1,~ 'In Th" '1r'~," h'" ilL. e '~~'~h~.'~''"''';:Io:. ,",...J'~" ~ it

:firn·~ '~knQW 'hhnseu~,-~ .. 'ms, ~:~o.ng'r 'W . icn ioIrur ~u ··l·,..aW;~W, I~S, :PlliruJ€

bod, fan a practial and {\ philosophical level, is a oentral th'e'm~' ,of i5ktt1ip' pbllpsop,hy. On jI! plaCticaiJ. ~,e:veJ; the' ji~:[' '~s, tn,e source ,of :i1 sublime desires ¥~rulro by m!e mmptatinm)s of 'me eorpereal dimensio'fi of ,ma:WDJ .. On a pni1lo~phicW level: .stth~a;P1i Qo:hsi~ the' ~:I'P ~, 'be. the mun,da;tian of ' the iUumiuaJtil,onist e.pisite~l.,,~

b. i& p(oocisely this iH.uminatibnisj. e:pisJt'c'mo"'Qgy itha;t @;n 'Ie\ad, to t't~1~ Visionary experience ~rf .flilleen types 0f li:g;hls by thme who a~~( 0," the s:pir~thla'i ~th" ,8uhta:w:atdl, tel~s, us those 'wh~c di~engage th€m~~ves from - the w('Jr1Jd of matter ;Qr€ ab),e to a.rri;ve' a:~ the: ~',eigJl'th 'heaven"' (,at,hm a l-tlam in)", which h,e' i:Ji,entiifl!es 'w~Ul the at('het)q)t'al waild, (inam mi~"liifJ ,~7 ,~iuhr~w,ardi mi~n[ions such :Bg~res a;s H(:trm'~s~ 'R~ta:~r a,~,d tb!~ prophet '~lubammad, b) 'be' am,Q.n:g those, 'who ha~e' h'i\\d, a. vision of these: lights~ eitCh. 0.f which

'Pn~tkai Sufism .

Su'hrawaiFdi ldentifies Mth a pardcti)a'f ~ttribute., ,Ac~o:ming to SuhraW2rdi~ the~e frl"'lLeen :~i:g'~'bSj some olf w:h:~eli h:a~ peculia-X" des(;rru,pri,Q'(d. 31''6 !'tbe pu~p~ of th,~, parb ,of knowl'edge" n~ Th~ vWS~,~Ili,Ul' 'I~.~ U< which ~'m~a~~~te 'from, the wo"ddJ of in toeU~ct ~e tb.€ essence ()f powe'f and knowledge, ~ndh!e whQ1 experiences these '~jgb,B, ;d~ iJittains the .J;.~,er to [lute' ,Q:ve:r the material world", 'Tile ~ecess~ry ,(~nditi0'D f()l" this -experienee is, ht)weve:r!1 ~pi{rntio,n (' taj'n4) from one' s ,c\oT!p~real 't}ooy, Tb_es~ lights, :arl~,!9

I, It ngl1,t wblch sh1nes UPQrl ftlJe1 If!t'oYi,e;e ~:nd, l~ ,ple,~ant but Dot

'p~rlH~ne.nt. .'

~.L A ,l~g~l't that shiot's UPJU omers, ,andjs, fflJ0\re~ Uk,€ a UghD1:ing~,~IL

3" A ]~,~'h,'t fh~t is socot~l~n;' lMld, enters tare hearts of me' gnQs'~(;s.., :~ t is as ,ruf warm. wa,ter is ,paut-e4, 00, you! a plec~an't sens'a~10n ]S [h,e;n experienced. _ 4" A H,ght 'thaJt de~ends upon 'lib eo beam nf'th~ men ,of vision ~ a;~d

Iasts a lon:g time., Till;$.;s adominantl1ght.whicffi'h ifu:11J(;~s,3LFonr[IJ

fIll - .1 ..... 1,

'0: In.tooc~CaUO(R,,

5~ :A 'li:g',ht of e:¥lr~eJne ,g,mc~ and. p'l,eiU,Ur€' wbidl is, iuduc,eid thnn;cQug;h the pi:jW;e~r ~ 1~'.,

tt A Ugh I[ 'tha~ burmls and is induced, tll r'Ou~g,b lIt:nI()W[edgre th~t :i;s ~!rtah},ed dl:roug'h .in te:~I,ection..,

7,. A ~:~gh't 'w:li1.~ch ~t fir,slt is lu min eus and, is more '~n tense, tharn the

light .01' the:-,sq;p. ~ .

8,. A 1umin~us ~Dde pleasant light illpp~arin:lc as if it 'OOIn,es :ft.'()m the hair ,nd, lasts, a 10n.l, o~ne:.

g" An emanating light 'whi,ch is p,.ainful 'btU, pleasurable, 10.. A light !Colm:~g' ftam seme fi~s and, lies ill. IDe braln.

),1,. A liglh 'tlta~ emanates from ttie se,N! r~} and sb~n~s upon. the' e:ndre sphl.tual ,comp'(:u~,ents.,

:I 2,. A Ugh t whos.e; att;ainm'eJ;l t is m~rked by in,re.nsii1;y.,

:I g,. A '~ig~ t dja~ giv.ts birth '~O th,e ~eIr~ and a,p'pears, to _ 'be Stl.~· pend,ed,. Tbe i'ftto'rpOllle~¥tty o;f.' d},'e ~~u~ can be Q'ib.$e'~d through. this light.

11 4. A lii'h'f 'wlti!ih ~n,d"ce! a ~peeia:~ he:arin,~ss 5'Ucb that lit exerts a

L~, d ' ~.]~

pressure !JefUDJ~ ene ~,.:a~~ ,I,ty,.

]15,. ,A :Ugll It that ,~s tbe ~a.use ~ il',re' m,(.Weinents of tnt' oody and dle'

;m;at:e~mrm~ S"elf.10

Suhr.awardl t,e'Us 1i.~ that be :has "seen~' :atlJ,iL e:H:peli'e~nlced tbele; Blh 1:5 :an.d tha't th~r :ate tIl,e' n~a$on, $a~es ,j;f'e ,ah1~ ~ pelfc)nn mif,~€le.s~ 1] 1\8 he' ,senes:

IS1Jnrawa'rd,1 'iind the Seboo] '0'£ n~,U1Y.dnatiQllJ

:He 'wh~ wpT,ship8' Cod 'wi;th ,sincerity ,and d~es, frQm the material darkness a'od, tooes h rum$l~lf fm,m the' eerpereal boo:}" and alb~~Ilidons th~ 'GU;rru:8~iousn,e$8 ~f the Dia:teria.il issues" win 'Wi,'tnes's that w,bich ethers are' ~'ncapa;b:~e: ()if seeing, l2

11k. a. '~I·' 1

Visi,on :[tr$' SU:h:mwaJr,d:i is, a mode of being w,uose' epmstefnpwo,~,(a

signUi;ca.n,Cie is to ,p,:rGw4e' :d~!~ m.qw,€if'irith a mode _'o~ eQgpid'Q'l) that is, wttamed 'tilXo@ugb the p'W',suit ,~f the ,spiritij.aJ life,. 'The ntaUf co,ttJ;ponents of the' s~pin,tuat ]if~j, howeve:.rj are di$CTUrS~ed :wn a ,~.dn~ socr-etive and esoterls manner in h is vari'ous 'worksr bur the ubilQ)!a7te

.. '1.. ,. ,13'- tn .'~ , ..

purpese Qf them r,en:udn,~ 'the .sames me e~,penenc~e O~,l ~~tnhlatl~n

throug;h ~eeio,:g; the sepamti,~n €If the' self' {[10m tlie' body ,alnd, the mB!terbl'WOirld.

g O-';N ~"C" N·iA"A'm''IW' Q--I:1' MAN

~~, -_' - --- rI. ... ~, tn.~~l~ - -JC' _ ,-

Suhl'11lw,a:rdi adheres to, tile ttadllf:io,nam d;stlOCW,tnon be£~~n the booyand to,e"so-uL Bady f.or hbn, f~p'resenR darkness, an aM,en.oe' @f a, 11lct. ,uI 'ti,ght. te whi'ch he refers as- '~ood,l~llta:JkJJlJ) '.

Ktlow 'liha.Jt tbe ~[~' ('najJ' fMil1l111h) is of'a Dlirv.in~' substance which

;11,1l., ,_ -- ""'." biif',Cl_ "!iM,1iI ,on- O'oGIa:,iiEiomd;n!!''''' no!f' '"'1'1-. -.- 'I:...".·..lv T~.;iF;h- ,~t.p~!i!f ;-~ ~am- 1'1:8 Il!i1{Je p~w .... ~--~ ,~~y ~. _ .Ciin'il:l·'~ ',II!;;,'~ v, 'i.'JJ~ U{}u, l n II'!,. ~ "'" fl ~~, .l~- ~ _ -e e_ -

a bode, '~,el1i.eveir the soul :is s,trc~lihen,ed 'I!hr0-ug'll, ~plrltui~ virtues, and fib -- bdd.y is weak"ene«, tbfQrtfgh f~li~g and not ,sle~tQ,g-; to@ saul is released :and. u:nrites: wi:tJh the ,sp~ritrua~, 'wndd'i~5

iSubm¥!Piudj~, w'bQ' repe3J;ted1r Gffers, a;~m.mls ,£Or 'the' existence of' an mdeJ-e'ooecn;1t- seJt· fj""Om th:e boo1~ fQl1ows, a .N,eQpla;~o~K seheme by cO{Bs~derin:g the body 11.0 be 'ai, ve~rul, tbat, pif'e'vent~, man from ,s€~i_ng the itt~elUW'~:le-$:

~QW IDa t· if!. its ma;£ter. that 'Pr~e'nts in~m]e~tion ~ln.'oe un,til you. have a,~lhtaC~ed &0mefhin:g (r,om, 'mQlieF ~nd what b :~n ~aeT~ 'YOU can nor be the s~~Jecit ~finmlm.ecd,on,.']~

C;or,ofe'aH,ty, by na:lIure ~s [he antipode 01 ,inte'Ueef;~on or thinking", whi,cb h~, regar.ds !}S .'~-el@in:g,~ng 't~ tbJ~ m,corptlfeal \m(dd. Thre ~lfjf ~oni,dLu'te8 'the 'tru.e- id~m,lity of a. p;BrstOn~" ~:a Jiving rm:bs!tan.(je whlcb, e~isJts by :necewty @f :k~ .own, ,es~noe,. I1tQ On ~be conltm'rt}f~, 'rhe. Doo,)" has ,a 'tendep.~ '~DWllrds tn,e- lowE'[, wltJrLd'J andl:, n~lfiDlI on Slense perce,dan~ ,aJ,~u:i.e-5 the m.or,e trnn~~llden:taJ pi.easQ.oos and, ,seeb the b'ighest, of' tJ}u~ arutaii:nable pltEa~une' ,of each Mnses~

PracdcaJ Sufism

8uhra'W3J;r.clJ:i, who, 'ronow~ the hierarehleal Sit l"U,(;m;tu"e' @!f Is];ami,a ,an't'Q](~gy ~ ,upiaitlS the' :p,[aee' 0'( Jelf and 'b odJy In diil COl''J,itex!t. Jd!e~1-iif~g the ~e]f with :iigbl~, Suh miWcd:i. tells us that the ,s~lt has a hlgb~r o~toJ,'~gical n~ali:ty :fo,[ wh.kb the booty j( b~in.,g' Lu_r~ has a" ~tura:~, ye'am~ngm 8tihrnw,ardi ''8 a~aill¥m~, 'Of the place, B~tu:re and

f;:I" h ,~ AI_,'Il-.. 110_ c. - h lch ''I,;;"..j;'I'1 'L.. ..... ..lif'[ie< ....... rssed a-'t' a-later

~e5 0, i.'Wg'· ::b IS an 6',lli~I[}:e['a~. Qln~ w .. !.~,- 'r'(,ld: ~ g, :a~lL_~"-aL ,- 'u;'" '",", u,~,

'point, 00:[ this hterarehleal 'S'ttll(:'tulT,e pu.t:,s in ,plat:e a :m~t:~ha,n~sm wbereb,' :the need, yearn:ing and ,Cie'm'r.e fOE man ,tOo f,ol'b~\\'l the spif,wtuam pa:th, becoul.'es, a nec~~ry and rUlIw:raJ, pr'(J®es'S., N 0 W{f\nd~T' iSllhrawa_lf!d:l,argues, that ,allbehlgs, ~~n_f~o.~,unt:ary·re,ar~~for HghfL m'tller than the 'inferlof S(a$~8, of dar~e.ol

AU bej,nt~ 1)-y nature 'Sleek periet~"n!, whi,cb eJiJplams why even 'an itTlf,dS are drawn, to ligh.t., ~,6 The o.l~ol~qgi,cru ,n~ceMm~t" OIf the: sp'ir,FtuaW as~n(ht:n.~e' m Illustrated j,n ehe myuicGt~ ,narratives ef Suhrawm-rii I' run pa(t'1tlcula-r th,Jou,gh the langua:ge of the bi rtl s, The nature, gf man is such that: in encoun tedng the w'OF1.dly pleasures, he is overt,Q~,e' by ft)l."'~tf~ln~ss~ IB tbe 1lU.j~>~. al~~Y" be :teU~ IUS:

'W,id:w, God.'~~ gr.ilO€j, he wbQ ean remaHt stea.dfast ill h~ 4!erer-.. mi]l3J;tion at the, time 'wh~n lu;sitlful de-s(h;~e-s .'a!ttae;k~: liS superior to an geJSI and if one is o,';~rer'C6me by them, is .. ~n:ferior' t() ani1D:al~S,. 'I W'

Suhrawar,liW:i 'begi'Ds 'b.t~ 'R.isaliit a1-4'O:-Y' des Gl:itJi ag' the journey ,0£ a group @fbird!swh:o~in, th,ei;r ftigh~, w 'me"~r '~f;igm~ ~abode:fam In the: trap 0'1[ the eX'~erna:j '~auty ,gf we' wodd 'and become prey to, 'built~I'S. Id£nrtlfyin;g tEl e se.Jif Ylith one j'f bOd, as a, cmts~a"~e m,at da,e; e,g(~ makes- is a central eheme "ill man,}' mrystlcal tmditio'llSij in pa:niculat Islam and HiQd,uism,. Sgn m:ward~, Ii:e lls us' dne tOo the f!i.ll'get;., £ulne.ss ,of huma.n nature ~ we become accustomed to the i(o.[;po[',~a1 'W'O,rld 't~ 'the' ,p-6in. t !J,f "~Qhsidedng ~~t, to be our ~;a.tufw abQd,~'"

Sp€,aJkjn~ as, (i)rRte of the birds~ Su:b,ra!,wa:mi teU!s 'us fhat he_ 'was, re'mi:ru!ed. ,of 'bIDs, o]tiginaJ ton Hi don w'h!en he Sa\!'{ that lome' Gf the birds had. partialy freed themselves, Thr;QU(gh the "pjda'l'loa of his, poe.ern, hie 'ttll() is, :p{u"dwJ.y f~«~d and begins his 'ffigbt '~bi1~ 'tds Jeg~;a'r-e ;Itn~, hI ,chains,. 'Tl1,ie bird.s," ,~nt~pm,e;n.t re:pre'seRts the human ,oon-

ditiontt tT:,app€d 1'n i£1le Wfil'~.d of f\i)nllS~, ch::rine~ 'by_ '~llr l!U!ttb1 de sires,,_ h.1ItDJ:DtI'E:!d by' ~ur @!w.n '~g~ a:n.d afraid m the' bamshii?'s ,uC ~he spiiitu,t(1 path,. A fft'w.,. b~we,vitt[; a:oo abW,I!' to n~m'Je'm'beF man~s,'Origin ~tl1.d d,estinatio'B.

17he birds cOlndnue fh~hf joun1.~Y '1tlnd'~ .tn:J3.. e'ighth (;-i~f which spll't)oHzo@'s the ;ar"';h,eltwa1 wo,rldJ. Thema:n in tlli~_f~,e of. tbe; city 'telts

es,

Suh.mwardw and the .Schoo;] Of IU! .. unkuI'{ijon

ehem lhat 'they mustplroce.ed t[C) the, top; 9f the.' mountain wher.e His 'M;e~jes.t, resides, The Birds finally arrive at the ,l)ivin,e throne, only ·tlO h.'ear t:[im ,say that Qnly he w:ho has, dh,ainad you can 'rree you from bondage, Suhrawardi sym,bolic:aJly' alludes to the fact mat it is man who has co. idemed "'I'wnlself' to his condition, suff~r.iJt1g and bondlage~ and onmy :~le can free himseU"~ The que,s d 0.1l, .DOW is how man tan. overcome his (jOnlfjJ,W.tru[Qn~

SUhrawarm's, answer ~n this questw[n 'IS, 'two,.fomd" On the one

b~'III'1I[d man's eondirion ;,,~ due ....... his ~,~u:..al"" _ ':::'D,C" .... i'D ~ Ct~'R:trif'l'"ikO'C ~iii'Ti' rIi> ..... hi's

~~.'I'li:' ~~ .: LU~, _ll~.IU.IIJ~~. W t_ :'b ~ [ J..:;i tn~'~KnJ~i;J~ Q..'~_g. D1-¥-\.wl-.lt, ~W~!I' Ill.\U'.~ .

lustful desires, On 'the. other hand, this is' not the fan ~t of man since our cond'i.ti~o:n. is de,ri¥ed from an ofltO:~ogjcaJ 'riealh:y in whIch mauer iiS the lowesm'; pan.,w hieh ,constitutes tbe~ bo4y~ H@we\'ler~ man does pos~ss the pO'fJ~n't~al Co.ns;c~ousneS$ to' understand [h,e' exalted staturs of our "selt", 'which can thenbre,a.'1{ the chains, and free us.

In "fiB R_ed inll!llec4,18 ,subnrW~'rdi d'jsclJsses, th~ f.orgetft~, nafure of man thrroUigh aDO r' I er n.l"ative~ A bird wh.o has abo, fo~tten hils origin meets, Q, redL.£aQ€-d 'man wl1() teUs, the bb"fd he is the first man of' creation, :SUt 'he too is a. prisoner of the' materia] wo,dd which Suhnll\$uti iden:drfies,'\ri:th darkness, The r~dlfa;:ed man ,exR~ains.b0w man in his orj,girn:al Mami.e state :~s white and lruniil;ous'!, but When mixed, 'with the ldru~knes, of th,~, created doma'~ll be b- ttrnled], red. The·fllnt son of,creatio:n describes man's oOQt'rtion of fallermess by :anlld~g to the wonders he' hesseen arennd the world.

I asked from, ,the wonders, of the wo,:d.dL what have you, ,seren'?' 'He said,:' "The QH mountaln, the Tiiba tFee, twelve work ... :S L ops, 'D,a.'VidJs shield, th,le sworn of Blark, the' foontain of li£e.,'[~"~

The iblmens.e~ rich symbolism Suhraw,ardi [em: 'II~~}'I helle provides us Vt"i,th a s,pir.itu~:t map 'whic'h aids the saliA to fi"nd his path. The [@.f mountain is aur'oIiginal abodi[€(ffOm whi¢h [eveFft11i:ng eames;l1nd to w~hiGh al~, 'chi· gs return, a pbce' that Suhrawardi refers to. as '~OO1t:ujii iiJulrr (the' n.qwhen~ but prosp ero us' '~a~d)l., [The lum:~nous pear:~ ls 'tile first o1!i'ect of Cfe~~;ti()n~ the' ~nte':~:tect w:tru"ch is the cause of U~.umina'tiiC)n but whose' misuse' can lead to. disasterous results, The' Til bi tree ~ymboliz,es life' and. its, fruits are the a:ch[etype,s~ t ~'i UpSml. mis tree tba.~ me' SlfmUrgh (Iliftln) ~ ,sr~ol .of. dtv1R.~' unity;~ has its nes.t~ The twemv.e 'w"OrKsbops are the _evels, of,re:a1:il}' or be.:·'ng;,. ci.\Ch ofw':hicb is, Ihe' existential [ctluse of the' one belolvit. The '~owe:r

1, '~ f"t..· III..~. 'h' ] h ~1_ L, ;!;oIL. D' .. ·.!.:d'.. h' :ldll ~

[eve~: 0: uilS ,~:w,~e\mrc - .~.e.a, st': . ie'm'e '~s w~Cllie~@ 'Yr.tf!' avw·· .rnrml s· ~,eJ. ,rus

wOY'en., D:avld.~ £h.e' Prophet af tbe 0' d OOttarneftt and tbe Quran

164

FW":~.cdc,aJl Su8Sim

alike, is' known to have had, a legendary shield known. fOF its, imp·e,[letrabil ~'I¥., This sh;ield ,s-ym.bQU~es the attachmenes, of our wo:rldl \,qhichha:ve made a. p.ASQIU~T [of us all,

Th[€ s'bie:~.d of 30, zachments is eut 'loose ()'n'~y 'by me sw()rd, of B~a:r.k, tbe' power of\vill :< Itimmah). Suhrawardi tens us' tb:a; tn;rou:gh de~,e.(f'm'runa.dQn~ one ISh ou~d seek. tb e' fountain Qii :~ife \vhi~h be identifies as, So:p'1iio; p-ermnis.Havin.,g overcome oneself and the tempta lions of th e body,. t'. _ e foun tain .of :~ife is, then attained.fD Su hrawardi expeesses dlb ~ontC,ept in a beautIftd, ode:

I RID the' falcon who hunters are in search of all an times, M.y prey are the blaek eyed CazeUe

Who emanate' fro:m, themselves fl.,ikma:h

I am far from word..:play~ Ita me h. Js themea',in"g ,':, at ma'u.e.r$}~'!'

i!iI! 0' ".Y T~ S· p['ID 'I1"I"'I1f ll'.it ''If 10' '.' rnl\.111Jiii!'U Ai 'K'Ji"n.I' ,.i, ~"~ClI Si' i'i..1f

~iII .. '" lJC' . _ ..• c.L.IJJCi] ._,' . ,1i.ft.L.J.. tUJA-LlJ1 .. · : IIU~;I.EilI:'·1 m~"I'" ~~'J. Jb _. _ ·~,ttD

Much has b en wriltten on the spiri tual j<ollrtJ,ey of man and the Sufi, encounter 'M.th the path "of love and knowledge, [Suhra:wa ~i follows the traditional vilelY$; of the 8,phili.ual pa,'th and man' s quest,

t" ,,(, '~f;".if.. ~ 'lIn.. "' ..JII~·« - ~~L d '" .... ;II!., ,.

ror gnoslS ma '-"1IW"i' nu3,t!lS [W1J.erent m ;.2Jl[uirawav . '~S' approaen 1S

, -

the ,sytn'ool'ism be em,p,l~, to anudle to. 'the cen tr~li;ty [Of vafllOUS

,compolnents of the SuA path In particular ascetieasm.

In his ,,A Day A:morng ,S'U~ Suhra',:ar"ri des,cti'bes, the convers:a.tiorc~, of a, Sufi master and a 'novice in a SUfi, ·1\Q;tlse (, khdniqliJi) . F onowi:~,g a series of questions! and answers between. master 'and disc.ip"~e' that- offers :R eencise and pn)fou:nd u: 'd,ersjtandc~ng of tile medieval c<'QsmdJ,o,lft the' master indlcaf.'es, mat he' regards all such

W • U' 'I, h

[c,Q:nv.enanons as vam, . sIng a.su·a"nomy as.- 'an ex.a.m:pIJJe l t - e 'master

., di . ..-\.., d-I:;~ _,..1: f k · . f h-' ,

mcncates enree .UJ(,e're'nt moaes '0 ,. nO'Wlng'~lWo to w,_lch are not.

releven '. to, one' s ,splrl~ual 'path.

Those who r-efle<:t upon 'the heavens, the master says,. are of three typ,es,.: a group of them see the cosmos thtou:g'll the external eyes, and see a daoc;k sheet with several white dots on it. 'hese are the common ers ,arfu[dj, th 1S much, the animals see too, Anoeher group s e the cosmos through the. ,e-ye,s of'th,e cosmee and tlre8~ are astronomers .' . . but there are' thos'e who, dQ IlIO( see the' secret of the' hea)\ltrl's, an d sm:n through in tellectioa [r~ning] (is~i:d'fijl). f. these: a~e se .k·ers;'.2l1

'Th~ .fa la, ,asks the JllM,ter :h6w uthe eye fi ,open'S lcV.~tb. iuch one can SIi5e. reality" III a,ne of the most '!l,~n]iqu.e, examp:~e9 of $u\fi

Sttb~vm;rdij and the' S¢hool of I UO!JDm~ldQfi

sym,hQlis:m and an. txquisite' liteftI~l style~ Suhr.a~!lJdl offers ~ pr.e-, sedpdon for ascedcism, ,Becaus~ the s:ignmC~itn,OO of Ul~ p~~le

11' H- '11.!!I~ L. 'L ~I ...:I 1 f' -.!" ,. '" ~,1l.. 11-

rare ' 'e;f €,8ta,vjJl~;t[e's 1:~,~.'e' rnllJe, aDo 'I 'ace' 0: asceucism m ~ue ,av,era~

school df ul'fi-a(J~ we present rihe tJmJlslaHom of ehe e'ntl-re sect;i@D"

'I asked dUi~:' Sb~ykb~ ): 00 net haye dlait im~dghl. '\tVhat is t]]if; soluti,on:?"~ The Sha:y'lth :s:aid~ ~YQU ha~' in,dtgesdon.. Fast (PI"' .ror~ days an d 'men d.-rink lax;3![w'W' so you i_maLY vomi't and, y.oUr eyes mB'.y '@Jle;n~ ~ I asked:! "What is Ole pirescti;px~Qn fQ[ d:lat laxat1.ve~,&j He said 'The' iOJgredie'ots of that ,ar;e atraJned, by' ¥~U. '" 'I said ~at 9,ll',e the iO:Gir-edlen'm'?"' 'He sai(j~ ~ Vvl1Hlttev~r is, dear I'D }fou from 'weaLth, li[[',o'pe'rtf~ ,po!,sesrinu><s :a-old, the p~e,a;su:res of the 'body aatd such things ,:I~e :irtgr:eil-ienB of mis l~tiv@~ F0if ff1tty- day.t ~!}t pure but nl!!d,~ :food ~ ., ,. m If you must use the, .bathr~m ,SQ9,n ~ then the med'~~dfJ.e has been effe't;uve'~ y;O'ur ~ig;)lt! Y{iU, be nln:mi:nale~ ~d, n 'the ,D!~ed M1&eS~ for an,ot_hrer rGH1o/ days:tasrt and 'Urge the same laxati~, sn itt cma,w~,rk dl'is, dme:'too\. fro: ID()eS ,DcQlt W()fk~ ap'p~lJ it ti:m~ and time ag:~dn, :wJtrWiU '",,'ork ,. m ., • .'"

I asked ttri,e Shia,k~ "Once the in'9,sr ~ye is o:pen,ed1 wbat. doe'S tbe' seer see?'~ The ,Sba;ylkh saidlJ ''1Jn.ee the inner 'eye' is, o:penro,~, the ~limm~l ,~e$ .and 'lips ~hQTuJjdoo 'shut :;U1Q the ,firve' e-oomfn~tI stinks, sheuld be' isUen.'~fL The '~Nn,er .sense should. begin '(01 ~nlcuori ;~O' that if th,le patient grnsps.ii he Iomay Q() so' t'hE-rOUgh dl,e jj_O.n~T band and mf he sees, he? sees with ['b~ Il1l;ner ~' and 'if b,le~ hears, he ,b~M:S 'w-.irth the' j,nneI' ear a:nQl if he ~mell~, he i$me'Us, 'with the inn,e'l" sense" .' " .. ,[th~n] be sees w:ha;t 'he- sees :a:od w]},Ien :he ~S\,,2~

In this ,mOB£. ,in..resting ana1)o,~~,SuhA.wardj cleall'l)' m,olit$, tit .. i€: :~D;tegt~m r~lad€JnS:h~p ~een the' spi'riwal ytam'~, the' role of the ~ and bis; SUP~MS\O:D eo CUf@ 'the Pi,e~' or the' soul 3flld the Fi~a~' of asceticism '~n this. ]'0 the' ,above narrati\re the sooK,er."'l inalbii_lty {~I open his inner eJe il ;flnaJJo~ M 'rn-digestio.n. ED ttl,if! fc.,rty'da:ys, nf Fasting, known ,among tbte SUfis, as diillol\, an ttl!Jtempt is ~mad~' 1;;.0 eentain dIe, d,eiire:HJf 'm~' qo (~~)., ThR 2Jttemp~ :is ;re~,ed by most; ISufl!i ItO be W,e CUR: of ,sp,iritua~ il1n~e,s anm, so' is ,aalGgk-€d as, ,~ ]~a~" th,a:t w'hich Bosbes ~ut impmjties" To 'allude t,o 'the' worldly' M'tachmen.ts, w:hich :~ent @ipe;rulin:g; €if thee m:neUeCij, Su:hna~di 'Use~ the' mla~~ of indi,.stiQ;n.,

'er:ha'p~ the most ,impo,rWJDt part of th~ passa"e: ~s' 'the aJih.ts:ruon to [he existenc,e, of a 'I'e'~ation~&b~,:p betw,e}~n tn:e' ex:te'mal mlld

66

~hK'tlca~ $"9:ftsm

in,te'fl1.~l senses, FOil Suhrnw,a:r;d:iJ ~,e ,ai~tain.Illient. of tnow'~,ed\ge: 'begJ.ns by sense ,peMeplt~O\ll lana. asl!b,~' prooess: of' inner purity rpont~nue~ (1i\nl~' begins to understand rl!hroo,gb the ,inner senses .. g'l1hBW2lf'!tH id~n.dj],eS' the external senses with the' ~~Oim'i!'n'~s quatrrerj,~ and tbe Umil~;t!~,OlD;S of tale $ense p-elroepUnn as boud~g-es of the children's world., He who frees himse]jf and. penetrates the wgin.~n:',s quarter, :SU'~'u1war~'~, tells US; may,anruve al the ~mml,"s 'qlU;a_['te,r~ '" a ICOo:ndilio{o that :is ne~-essary fo:r the 'un,de:~S'tar:uihrag ,nf the~ incoEp't):~:al w,ol"]d ,t '~i4am taj~!tlJ . 2'~

In his 'wo.rkj On the Sta~e oj Ch~l:dkoo.d),6 Sun:r.amJIdi ~(On:tiflu.~ this theme and eq,uatt',f hi~ P31s-t - wh~n he atJtaitBJed 'knl(i'Wled~e only' throu:gh sense per'@iepdoll ~ wirth lchUd,boOQ" Alludln_g t'O ,t,h,e necesalLy of initiatj,on~ a chUd meets ~ mastee 'whQ teaches hIm, the esoteric sciences, H,awever., the child reveals the secrets tQ the urtin ilt'iairetcl ~ Ul'~ieby -casdng tb~ ,p-~~l of i&atf!!riJr; sciences 'Defiore the SMne ,10':£ un:pfeparedll\ess whir;;h :re$~lb: :b11 the loss of ~h,ait 'he had l(t~,nled,. Self~~atdjn.g :~~'marJls, a:n, esse:D'-iI;~;al pa:rt of the spiritual paID", fi0E:e'ssary to, the' transkti,lQ:~ from the' c'h~l,drbood and, the ,~cqui8~:r;jf)n of kn6wled:ge 'til,fQ'Ugh dle senses,

,~ai:n in IDe treatise, Suhtaw3'rdi cans (or me' aban,dm ment 100f :aU al~th:m~rits and hie ,oornd.den wDrIdly- desires to be a veij and a hlndranee tf.) tbe a;w;ake'Ilblg -of the irmer 'Selns~s'. A~knowJ,edging the: dirfficuhy ,qf ,liermfJl'iJng o.neself fto.'ID, wealllh,~ pvsitiollll! etc.,

C!' h ,.4:'.

I~U.· raW"3!£ul s.t3!res~

:I: aslt_em ttu:;, Sh~&b if these is any one 'whO' c:an"gi.¥e' '!i1p ,aU tha'fh 'he has Sha:ykfl a;~swered~ ~A, true human is he 'who can ." ,I :~kf:d ~~f he has :Dlf}tl!m-r bj,QW dees h~ nver~ ,~aylkh tepH~-d "He wbD- thinks like rids does not g1v'~ 'Up 31tlyt'hing~r but he wl},o gives- u':P' @'Ve'rytbj.-D_g ,d£IJes not th'~nk lite, lhi~,. ~

1ill0000:n,g-r'he truth therefore n~q!Llires tbe fuft(:;uo,nin;g ~f the inner .senses 'wbkh lfj,oes not happ8!D unless "Q1),e' d~$~hes himseIf 1f~m his wo'dd]y p~0Ue'ss]()tl'S., T'g; e'x:plram -tht nature of the lnewled,ge "tha't~ is auained 'by th~ inner senses, ,sahraw,ardi :gi\f1es 'the, le~ample ~f th~ inab~1ity ,of a child 10, undtnta;nd ,the ,ple~;sme that. is, derlwd fro:m :se~UJa:l :~n te;rQelume~ ~ Just as phf$i-caF ma.turb;y is- needed T9f ~Jt;.ual bltei:CGJUm; sjl:~r,h;ual maturity' "is 'F-equi,red for the atta~n,men.l m 'knowledge' ilir,ou,gh.. me: inn~r Ji~nse~. Oln titre', ~S-!!llfi ':~th~ ~p:i:dlual maturity com,es, through ,iI:l~tm:tion{J ac$~edt: pr,atti£t:'i afIJd ,observance ~f me' moral >€~es Qf I~lam," The pleMures 'of eJt;,p¢d~ elt1I!1~:irrg (b,e' ~ncQQl(}(f,eal 'wo,rld thr,augll, Ell'€: inn~r 8eftses t'iilam

,61

S::Ulbf~;wardi and, the SehM'l o.f I.l(lumim~;t:iiSrn.

awJluz'ti,VJ, are Sf) ~~l t'h,at th,~ in ner se'][£ of ~,e I$u:fi, ~am,s, to bum

~.j.~ ar ~ f_-:..~;-

open,;, It is this in ner j 0", which h~ the basis of SUB mu'Si(:~ l.ta;nle:tug'

(t(i~: ~I ~ POC'l:ry ,a'nd art, .

To. eJt:,piaJIl Suo. dan,cln.g .throug;h the Lfl aer senses" Suhra~var-di

S3i,YS,:,

T:he ,sl!)ul 'tQO;t alWay toat a.bru'fity loom, the :et~lrs~, it 1['Mu~ SQld] sa:,ys", ,oll [ears] are 'not WDltRy tar ntlaT mis music, The soul de:rnives. tbJe ear £r.,om hearrung' and hears l:ts~~f sin,Qt h~ the od~~r world, :be'aring\ is not a, ,f.unif:t~,Oin of th:e e ar, W

It 'i~ maa's ~n:n:er ~tarttiflg fu,r dl,~ tmllst'~ndtent [hat makes him, wish to dance Iike a bh:-d w'ho 'W'~iUJ.ts '(0 fly w:h:ile taldn.g :~6 cage' 'w.idl, 'it., The' S:~fi~ too, in his attttTlpt:f:01' ,sp~ritual ftigJu.,- carries '!d~"'l»d'y

~ r. ~ ';0.,1;." &.,,: '1'¥10 MI!!4.1: J!j,lIl :u,~",.,

111 the' la, i "ttl" ,pru1: of an ,t)iJe St"l:te &J iCkil4hQQ~ 00 Subnng:rdi ~es ,through variJQlil$ S;~fi p,ACtices such as sh~dlzing' of the ~~deeve's~ 'thIiOWlr:Og. ,a~,ar of d1~' Su£i ,g;a:rm,e11 t, faintinl duri~g ,s:a1'nli"~' and ddnl(ln,g 'w~U,eF' fbU~wn~' the StEma~; In each case, Suhhrward:i offers his int~rpn~wion, by' .mre;a:ns 'llf: ne~Pla~W~j'ic ~ch)eme..

Acoordin;~ 00 Suhr,aw"Mdi" '~he. S;pi~ritua'~ jgum:~ and the IMrai!.e'S and stajl~LlnS bf :~ts pa'tD arise fr:ou mr~er phenomena; vi["r~UJe {~U5fi} ~ low' (1nihr)1 ana n~fte~truw sadU!~s I( ~u.zfn)" In his, ,~ the J!i.e~Ut-l r(

LWB~~ $TlIlh-LI:lr~Ifw;:jl':rA'l· ,3ir'l"lI':'iJkrnlta,,~ VI"'lI!"tj'I'~A 'i;,;;o.;; ,;;.'ib,~;i;I. 'III~~IO_ W. '!I_~I~. _. of ,~_~_A; "liI':"~ _,. -tIt - - _,_ - - _.-_,~u _]~Yil~U~~i;I!' ~ ~ I~ ~ u~'.&~ KW~ -.- .,W,~tUlb~ u_,~u. !tA.JJ~l

ld:Ve to n;nTt' kn'owled:~e of'th,e $c1lf and fwally to a sadinl(;ts5 'whim,

C-me'~ £:1,-._ ........ ~lI;h· e' iJ1 .. • ...... l'fio1il~ .. -1""'..]·jJfl6 h'f" 'li!L'ii.;,,':!II'" 'fI1.,~,,>; ... 'nQ'" and if'h'- _. - r.' - '!~~ T'h' . f1ciI' "I,:Q 1.lI!,'!ili'.U:J., IL_I, ,~.lOf~ ''''''''U:d,'''fo. ~""t!!:t~"~~~!!i.~';" ~, fy IIf; f Hen. was" . ~e'

'kn@wled;ge of I~nd is- a virtue', a g~~u)d" if:J:d!eed the $ummvm ,bonum) whe\reas tllU5 :tm(wd.e~ge of the self' :~,e.ads t'O the cUscbve'ltJ' tbJ3!t. the self i,s divine; ~$~~dng in, tbe 1,1(W'e' and yearnin:g that $utls, ~p~rience. PmaJ11y'j there is the sadn,e'~ dl~,t is ,experi,el)ced by' refle(ting on the created ftrderj for it signwes sepam.tidn of man :a~!tj. his departure 'Flom his, Griginal abode,

In the treatise on ,~fu:o &m,,,, of ~ 'where' me 1langtlBJ.g,e ot esoeerie symbolism reaches its clitn;ax~ 51[dn~wardi destribes tbe ~lt~ry ,of lot:'e~l1gn ~y 4Jjrst 'r€feri.ng ito ,tbe Irr.S.t ~bJecl! Oif cn=adfll1lJ., 3~ th.e In~,eUe(:ll;. Ham,g stat,ed that ate £u~mmU. :bO:n'u.~ knowledge" lo~' aln!d j~d:ne$s'J' Q,t 'tht, p~in of sepam'tl,(Jn" iute ruree as:p~e£:ts-Dfi(r'ea~ion! S'tlhmwardl goes en to d,e-st:rib~ bow' e;a;ch Oonr(; Ga;m,e; f~n1. IDe' {)'rh1er 'Or:Jle;. U smog srut~ Suli symooHmn ~S; ~~'Cmlty Qf the soul" (slu:t.irtt$liitnrt jii.'fI)~ ~u~~~d mas;te\f~~ J~)--i jtt~"tft) ~ ~~dl,e' [),(Thl~he~ but .p'fOfj:p:erous, l:a:nt[~~ (raifluji .ijiJiil), :an.d ~r:en:n hrl wi~oroJ (jd'r;uhd:in kht_~.~ S~,d~rA=' ~'rdt ~es d:H1CN,;tgh f}u~ ~cmd, jioll;m,ey in great de~~dl~ :<of[eriil1tg the'

IS a,

s,piril'CUal t-dpo.grap:h~ o,flhb,jGumey .. Vs;po:WS te~'W~~ d.omains, and daegers of the jaurnq of 'rh,€; soul 'towards th€:' '~'ete(fnal ~lo/'" (..,kaltmtii-M autI}' are discussed atMiJJ}cl ('tn,loe ,a,gruin at 'me' ena O'f'til,is, treatise, Suhra\'/a,rdl mn.cb.1dies th9J!t UJ!l~l "the c~w ~f egp is Slau:rh-~ r~md~ one does n'.,~ set (bot in mal [~ttem3d] ,¢i~ll'. tG5

The 0~ntmH;~ of ~ndlcadng the eg-o and the lusifuJ desires of the flesh thn)ug"h ascetic p(ractices is a (cn:nmQ~ theme: in the Sufi d,Q-ct:rine 'w'hb:b is echo e d' time and time again· in varlGMs lr,eadses or SUllfnlw.ardt Th~e O()ns;_:SUlncy 'Mdt w'biffi Sl.dlf3tMtrd,w aJ;"gues f@f" :th'm, is a, clear indic~uioo dl,a.'t ela8sic~:~, Sufi be~ie's ;l.ndJ. pme~lces M~' a11 iFaLber.ent part of the iislmqsi ,s(JloQl of 'thl~ll,ght ,a'~d ~:re' ,6,Ot, margi'oal in Suhraw,aroi's phn,osophy aa 'Some h~e snggested"

Snh,awardi 'bril'l3s 'tjlis u'learlise' m an end wi~M an, ,emp,has,is @in the d.1.4~al nature of truili,; the plra,cllj.ca'~ and theoreacal, ~a'[Wd, their li;f~'l~tionship vntn th,e 'nap of '~,~~ wb(') €ho~$e$ Q,OIt. 1;~ eng8Jge' '~n: an inner effort) jz'lloo" :agatnst his mi.fo . '. ~ ,I

,Ne-1tllJer ttu;:o'l,gh the ~l'on ef 3!Sce'Ilir€JsJn, d.,(Jtj~ b@ p'low' the grou.nd, 'of 'Ulle booy ;S0 it :ma~,. become worthy '00 plant (~e '$eds of:a~dQnl! nor I[,does 'ne] use meovehitl,e ,of ,th}ough,t to ,eRa-a~:t :k.~DGWledle .£n:)m, the welID, of ltht.Jiught so [he] may a;r,ri¥e from the 'known. t'o >~h~ un.kn6~ He, wanden, ,~n th~ dese'" of se,]f~'rua,tuat)ion ,i ,. ;, not ~ry' Cit)W (le~'0') .i8 cW6l'1thy t~ be s1a!glhte~d and ULOt :Ln, lev~lm¥ Cif11s there sucha (LOW ~n4, not ,~~n,e has the heart' to saeriflee thru_s: CfJW atld, the, en ance J1t-O do siJr fs nOf bestowed, upon one at ,aU times,. $6

Tjj];J~e 3!1.d 't~me :ag;ain the theme of ttu,~ sp:irnula'~ jrrblm,e,' and :w essential co'mp onents are dis~u~se'd in 'varions treatises, and in t!er~sdn,g~,y~, In 9t'b, :Qar:r,adve a, n,~w set Qif symb6}ism is, ,em,[oy,ed 'to -a'~~udJe' to tbe tndltl10nal 'Sufi ,cbnc,~pU,. In his, T"l;;J;~agr tIl l'erm,iM!~1as in ~'any ,ot'tJer:' wdtj.mlgs~ I$uhrawa:firli identifies the- nap ,0 :th,e enem:y that s:tandl ootweeJ'DJ th~ diYin,e self and dIe' 'eKpeJ:ienee ~of :9iUuminaitibn., He stll.~:es~

Vlha,reve\f :hinde'fs good. is e~,m'~ 'aDd w'haJte-veF hIDoclts tbe [sph:-iuUlllJ p\~;rih is, ln6iit/elt~l (tuft)., T'o be iP0rt'ten'~ with what,everone'~s ~n;sual self (fl,q:s) 'pf~senU. and itO ~d~p't,one,selftO,I i,t, b~' rnmpaiEen~e.' on th,e pratth p,f m.}t$t1~a[ :pirolressi~n {drar tariq4 mlukl. To. lroo,l. with, deUg'bt upon Questelf, eve.n, if i()'ne' hM Go.d, :in ,~nind,; is llenu.tJ;(;w3JJtruou. L~beratioln fJt,ha~) is, to tum, anrej,8 '&00 ultJer'gr' 'l:0w,avds GOO~ ~

S!l!l.l}'r.ar:~ru. and d\e Sehool .wE :1.U.u:n'Jma~IO'n

,If" h ~.,J"~ • - ~ "11 leh . 'L, 'iL.]· L ~ 1 . ...,

~:t1.r:am1'tJil ~ 'lIWfl,tings ::a;r~ nOl ,n:fl.~y '~~C,' W1b!l. S,ytlllUo. ism but aiso

willi :bis, 11l~U1j' refeoc:ences' to Ithe QUfa'D and 'iJarA as we:n H, poem:s b¥ himself and lOthitrio" AU ~of these provid.'€ 'QS, wj~h an 'lr.u;i,g;hl 'runto th-e sacred un ive'r~e i:n 'whieb Suh ~a£-di h:~mself had, h'~s mystj,€a] t1i,g:ht lik~ $imu~ the 'bini 'wb~espi~ritJu.atl biggrap.hy ms e':~abo.mted

• "'f"-l...£"l:!'. '1lif ","'''' -1.. ~ "If "" 'L • ",eli 'h ~.A,. •

tl,P'I}n. ,~:R .Jl ne ~T,,a~t '~' ~~muJ';s,~~.' 'JJU ll..u:lS u,:eatis~ JU . mwal en is MJOS[

~xp,:mjtC.~r aJ}OH,t :rhe' s~gnifica:nce ~f" aseetic prat.dam ~uld, lln!eiF r:elado:n8tlJ'~p w h~wn.g an exp men ce of 'V'ar't@!USI" ~.'ffigh rBr each. of

\.,;:'.. h f']' ~'~iL ~::'..,..,~....J ~ 1'111

W1.dIC, represents a" type 'Q'" mys.'bca . eX"erle,n!ee~ ~'unrawal,~U~. te IIJSr us

'that "all kfirow~,edge comes fro;m 'the ch:an.tm ~-mu.t;g"'~'o and o.n, dl~t basis be dj_'~ides the cbtint of Simu.~ wb~,~h be eq.u8ileS ,'With s'(ienJ.ia

,i!jC- --On ~I'ffi"ti .... three f')'3...,:tloCi"O ,"""iIo'li; ",'Le ,.ri:,rtll'l,.o';;'j of' II!':L~"" unioue '1~'~"Ii"i;/!l'.iir'~liGid~ """'0 iJ!aa;~, ,U',[ !L'U !L!t\!, . '!GO""'" ..raJ. ~i:l!\~ ',,,!I"III,II. III.,;U·. v,w. . ,ui'!t;!i:J;' .'" Ihlllllli:3! - '1-:': 'ii,' 'I!<'; 1'U:I'IU"", II:~: b .... 1i! U', .

w~~;t is re'~evan t to - br,~ft:n:,en, ,lof' purb;y"' tdhl!it'tajnrru() and flj~any on ~nner: peace (sdi'naA).,

On the, ¥if£~~S, of this lui.Qvi~.edlge ~nd .its sup~r.~"rlty ti.1)lt~r other type'S! Suhraw,a:mi tells us that the desired end of th ls kn owW edge' is lm,~ il!Jnd. furthermore iii is, 'based on vjsio.n and 0 bservatien, It m:s self-eviden Ki. that ~~lne,ssin-w is stroneer than reasonina .. '"41 :fDr one

I~J ,e tjl'"

can ~lw,~ys 'qu~sd,o,n the, proGce,$$ of r,eti'QUiD,I but "Rot a direct and.

unmediated t'€'Jad,on Ito'tb.'€t otrt,ecl). '0'£ one's 'lnowledg~~'., liunt;awaroi ,~ffers a -_' hih'j~ophic:d aPlla.t}lSW: ,nf h.c.w tJ}d& 'is: pQS!Slbl.'e~, wllich will be discussed in the :fo.rdu;omiuO!' chapter.

~~ ,

& m wha:t is man~$ed, 'til' the' :knower oJ the pa;~~tru,;[Uml~ mode

{lif kn\Omng,~, Sutn:a:wardi ~ns ULS that f[-om this, i:R(:JoIp-o:real w,'Odd ligllt$ descend npOi[) 'me stud (1fu,wan) '6:£.' th.e brethren ~f 'pulitY'~ These ~igbt5 come like l~ghttll'"3 and Jast ,tonly a few mOm£;hm, Subr':'dtW'a:tdi $ atyS " ,ahd. tbey are heart wannmg and pleasant, Often tlley S:tlOp and '''wll_e.n ,a.sc8t'lc pmcdoes are lnAtel;:u;tfied~ Ii:g;tl'U, eome in al)undatlCie, un'tU 'they fe,31ch; :30, llevel whet:e: wb:atev:er peop~e' ta,ok .at~, remlnds them ,01 'the s:tii!J!um Q(( that Un~orpi)rea]_] V'rQ,r~rl. ~2 Those w'no are not en~ged, in ,aus~eJ1e ,and. ,serioqs, ,as,C'ed~ pf::3.€d(;~js d~ not 5~e' me ngpu eYeR 'when liley' might ,oC)'me ~o m~m~p~edc PI',a"tbres ,~nne ~h,~' characwr ,anti Imake a, pe:f8ot), :mc~pdve ro ha"rillg a ',;r,~sion I@'f: tlle~\f;, li:gh r8., Suhra~tdi olfe"r8 th"e" ~u1Ja~~gf ~f beadng on a drum a.t ~h,e time of'WW" o'.r riding'lon :I, :horge_~, which indh,;~lc~ ~mU'fiQnsc :t:rn, a\ P er.,8on ellen if' o!ne ,is ~I!;t.gt Tend)' :for' the' experienc'e.

'\tYheh 'th,e' iutensi~y ,a:n,d dllD!t1Q:n Qt die' w~ion ,of (fte51e l~g)ltsjzea:eh du~i:r ,tlimaoc ft. m ,(a(ljled sald~ 'wn iell is a fee~t~ ¢If iM~r pea(;e u~lme.anr odl,,~r ,e:x~rierO'Ge, Rt:fbrrlng to, !~~TIUlie Vl"enes, wh'.ere' tIle' n@u@\n; p:f §dimm .~s ~S$e4" Suhra~rdi oof.l;sidens it to; be· a ,smtioin

7'0

,Practic~1 Suf'l$M

~J\'I't..rere ~th,e 8m ~f:r:D'm tb~ be~v.e:n BeaJfS, suhWlme m,d' . soli ,vt),ie:es and

\' .... J;,~ ." '.' ' , _. ~ I . • '" "'. = I. _ _ _ _ '--'_ _ _ _~_ _ _

~06~:t\e· ~ ~iJ\'~~'~n" moa,l '"",_'_~lpli"ililll'li'...I ~Ii'Ii,~ and ;ti,itt~~'n.oI!' ~,prr.""~'ri"N j~!iI;

J,~~'~~'~'I ''go ~-r~aJ.~~-.- I~_ ~~.L~!~iIl] ·-IId.P,I·,Yj,UL.iIJ:~/0L: ,~ua-IIl,( ~~II.~I ~~. ~~'~l'l!! 1!!

'We CQ"-c'~ude' 01iji' di~Qtrn of Suhmwanil;~ v.t,!!W .en the spirituaJ

j"oum~ uf'man and iN i-ntegTall part, ~ceficUm.~ 'With a bri,e;f :ri~ft~[:tion

. .

on the: wl]i~.uding $e~udn pf.Sy!qrawM:d.i·'~ .BilJta'7t ~m~~,~ 'Having

discussed a, num~N" .of tt'arljoon~d :phnQ$U{Rh~ca1 iis~es, ~n dl.'e ,Bmtim ,al-qUlub~, 5ubm~r<i, then dhange} tbe themean,d the ~anrgua,ge Iq:Ofcle thail 'oom.er8 'pffi!try and prooe and eeoelndes m~;s treatise 'M.'th a $iummary of the ,es'Se,wdalJ l~ftm~flJenu ,Of me pia-¢o€am ,~eCiI:S (xf.th.e

h,~oE ,-, ",~, c~,",.;L." "h-' . _.,.'.- ,i;,. '~II~,., • J~J. pii:U'!l.~ n l:d,C, , are.as ·J.OIIIJ.gWS.

, ~

1 Farsting: Sllh.mward~ r1Dt~d~u~~es, itthe cent~lity 'rlf :(Zlij-ng and hun,g,er~ 'Whj;C::ll he id~uufie" as t!l.e fouA,d'atio,n of the ascetic .'lnl.... '9 -.-

palla:IIl~, e states;

IblBW diat the f6",nd3;Jt~oh of asceticism lies an hUll;ge:r ~ ~ ~ if he who wants te p,ursue: ~:pif)7i.'ru"anW does fl1@'11 e~pe:r,~,~n'ce hun_g:er~~ ntofhing ~,U be a~hieved,. AJl [sphitualJ iUnesse$. are

d - -- ,i;, ..... '~ .. ··!m· - g- f~'iJlillll 'li:iio'lI; d ...... "II:r.i:oiiil"\li:ll"lio'F']·~"tr. 4~ i!U!!e w Ia"M;; • ~_ ..... ,_~ u~_~ ~'!I1''I6'!II:'L"'' --I;III~,. .

:2 S:ta;yjD'I' :awake; '1:he s€c()lnd: i:llstm,ction of Su'1::Viarw'ilrdl 'is t,o' reduee ,Sll,e~plft'g to its :minirmum" ,hgublg th:iil!t God 18 ,alw:ays await,e' and dlat. the' Q!il[a.n teJIs us to' become ~od-Ut.1; ~6 he CODlElude--s 'filial .~act of feed reduces sl'ee:pifl,g' tim.eand, causes 0me:r h"m~IlJ passions to be -red,uCiedas weini

S0~, the: meg 'mer [SufIS.] eat, dIe more 'me,' 'Will become su ~ects, t~ cU:\fin.e' ~it;u'i,bu.f!es md aJjs.,~ the' I,e~~, the-y eat, the ~,ess they s~e~p~ 4,7

Su.h~i mMnttdn~ that wbere' and 'when ,pomU~le~, one' should ~re-mMn awkie durin;g: th~ night Md;ifma:t.is 'tOO bmden$Qm,e:~, one ~llowd :mel:1Oiam awa~e' in th~ latoo'!i pm. afthe ll_tghit~d,~ if one filjdc~ dlics '~ exceed! an~:''i aJbitity~ tbem-w one ,shQuld. lO'i)~ the &undse~ :mr .~, is m'~ch benefit im remai:rlJing ;awak~'~

B lnVQca,dQn~ Th~ lnvoatJion of di~'ne name£ ,( dJi'ii;t) br1ngs, an inner change wihich 'pr"¢1'~s the hUlnWl p~<ihe to ooeom,le :ret~p~ji~' t~:-' ~~Wl,lJlLt1inalion~, "Il e goesc so f~r: :3;5 Ml !fa'.}" tl\a:t ev;en th.e rr(Jpl~,ell :U:ubantmad 'b€fo're receim.~g ,Feve'llati~n was ,enla,~ed. in ~e:a~~e8S! in\Voc~~tion, '5ulm rawardl k:Us, 'Us tha~'f h~j}~Qc,al1fj,o,n befPns 'on a ~rbal level, md then th:e StW. reacbes: a :point at 'wtiitc:h his enure bein.:g inVDKes the clbAln~ uam,e ~ ~he SUfi at'lhirg st3;g:e re'moah'Ws isJ~eo.itt..,

't.

SLtlnii;:tw,~mi liTh~. the SC:h()~~ at nlum'mad~n

Flr,t i:t is the 'brvoc:atio'l1 by tongUI~ then by lle~:u:t, wb.len (hie soul Cjii'HJ 'be1tinl inv()(i!tion~ the lon:gu:~ remMtul, sjlegt.;48

,4 5'Plri~Ha~. ~\h}_Ste!~. Alfhou:gb invo:canon is importantJ Suhraw;ardi

I·!'!' q~11I~,;;k 't· . ...., remin d l~I!I!' . ..iL·<:!iI'" "3. i!'rpl~n~"iio!I'!Ii'Jil 'm"'li;~""~'''''' ii'l:" n,Q~ . ded ~""'~I~V"1Ie; ,.~L,;:r;.

~l. IU.~1Ii:.,;; . l.~ ,l!\ .. AI.lJ.lII . U~· u.J.~~ ~I 0 til "~JlJ.Il U " ~I~\W, lIl~ I.J,!Ii..r.~!IL.r.. tIlA.J! r~ ~.- L~W"~,~

:llJ.an tra {-I'),. The >sphitual ;tnaster. IDS, .]1leeelSlB;aFY ]jf one Is til) be gumded ,rO!FU~lr:~~ on 'the- S,ufi .. ffil~iliand the initiate SI'1U)ld.d give himself-to the maste-,r .. As, Suhrawardi s:tat.e~l!

'Ylhefl ma,fire~r (pir/ meets ~h~ seeker :a.~. 'kl1~ that he :ltUl!il ,.,:i1--ec pc :t, - '"i','iIt~ al. ~I~",": [m' ,- aster] en courases h im 10·; F'iU~~fr.- ~he

.. 1.11 Q ""elll_!!J _L , '1!r~~I!I;,o. - - - - - .... , .. ,1,' - 'II,!II" - t;i'""" ~ , = ~~~ - r _ J]I,I,!;,iJ L.L~ '!liL, ~

inV1Q,cation that he' deecQ1s, n,leoess,ary. .. ~ . :e;'rvery day [t.he mas:~:r] cernes t~ the i_nit~~'re [mft'"~' so he may ~~n.~rp'ret. eveml ts or dreams dta,r~ ha;,v~ OCcLltJed to' the br~]tbu\e. 49

$ildiJj'~ardi ,ex.pUcrnd,y ~u~!t.eBe:~'h;at ~'\fh:h.oUlt ~ master o.n.e' does not get a;nywbere·/'" and cOlfls:ide,rs Q,ne' of the :m@S!t important:

Fie s.p onsi b~~h1e'8 I@:f the spiritual master t@ 'be' th:e' Q'v,~~e.mng; of

L. ~ " . 1 ..... G rh ~:r:: J~ .c: t;; , .AI .

tne ~lnltu;a_ r'elLreal UJ. r ie S~R:N> l!O(fa.1Qrty 100;a,s:

:Npl1 Iess than fO['l1,ria~, '(the -initiate' has ro observe a retreat (khalWak) and if one Ikk~VJQlh, Qoes, no,l; open [,the' '~~ik]! ~ ttien :l seoond.", w':ruldJ ~ • '. "SIlOlldd be .done, ~

6, U~o;mt VirltJues;: Oh~ervm.g ,ftI€h mo;r~d vb:'ttles as truu1rfu,~n~88~, bD:mnh.y~ ~o~,p~s:~miQin~ 'honesty~ and no~ b~linlj;f;aJnus ofothers are i~sQ ess:~nJdil.1pmu of the ~Iufl path .. EVien such detaUs. JU, DSi~ng :foo,d .pe~um'e andJ recidn.g po.etry ~ one g00'5 tb,mugh daiy life ,are recommended by Suh:rn~di

~etic'~l SU:fiLS:W!I,

This .sim~~ fl~.lftS 'Yntho[W,t; 'mtlyin:g and Wb'l'iOtMI wing~~ .. ~ . 'He, is, eolorless and in the' ~as~ lies his aest and me west is, not

...:I. ';" - . :~,..:I ,.$ hh 'h' .• .'t!\;"", . ..,l ~ £0 . I' .. ...;1 ,0;:1...- 1,:," 'i. " . f: !i.'l.-

~eVi{).;t~ O}J ~ 1m .e '. '. •• 1:8 ,w.O U1!L.l JS dre ,. ~ • anY, Ule , D1v>e,rs 0" J!J.JLWe

secrets of the heart tell him dlei'r :in:ner secrets, 5'~

1.2

Simu'ryj"h represen b. the -per:fe,ct IbM (,at~~iitn, ,(j;MiimilJ 'who~ Jn te:~~ect has been ~:~eval~d to ltll)l~ ,wo(rlds, above an d has; became' retepidve w nlum.~n~;ti6n~ In The: OIu}.;~t rf .si#1~r:gA Suil'm;wardl d,evot'es tt~e bitter part af thtf treaeise torthroN~.gh Idiscu~siQn g, the end Qf the Sipir.ttnal path" when one i~ no l~'figei[t an 'cbe' path but is "the truth, the' wa~y :an.d1 the Mi~.l. ~~. Soos are f.are1r as, e%p'Uch: as Suhra\!i1'.ardi in reve~~]:~.:g"l~,e. e'W,wri,;:. kYtll,.

Submwmrli divi,de~ the fiual ,state of the S9n .pam iMt:Q ehree m,ode8j".6irs<r:on ~nmb~1a:tjon ifwn~1 J second. on ~kn'mvledge' and pe'tfrt~ tien, :and mUd on Ieve, fi"ana for $uh$~ml is a, :stare @If 'being in whkh ~(}.fl.'e traDa:;e:ndis even s,pidrual ec;s~'l)nd ~s mMk~ by mJalloss,

IflIf r ...... ln scio .. ~I"" .... e~,e '11-&>, ~,.~hl~"'iIL.c S·· uhrai ·""""''"!'i11.~; 'i'!,=,€,.iIZ!'~ ;':IIlIZ' !!IIto'1..,,,,,,, 0'lIl¥"i'31",.;c;·:r ~ood'1!

",,""' '!crV,",~, .... Ji ~J.. '-':10 I!!. ...... ~' ,~_'!i.,.U ,>, ~b1UW.ru(llclII,1II J.~'r.....!t~ ~ IUJ)~ 0'-' _~u;u: . .1\~'riV!'

(Ja~j~, dk~ .. Once' .Qn.f:' i~ :U:l:nmi~,~le4 >an~ also iannUIUt\tes the.eon~o.cn.~$'lle,ss alf b~$ ,anlli.hi1aJdon" the hl,~)le.st possible station;in the SUfi,

1"\ ... iI.:~ 1I.!i·~n· ;'i"i;~-h~-l"!ii"'~Oi"Iin n(C' <"!i;'n~""I"J'h~iill"'li"I":"""n~~ {.(fl.JR~ ..l~~ '£R~)" ·i,... ,~iI'""''''']~n' ed A ... y~'Y~W~l Iq,..~ t~~ll_ll- t~tJlJ.lli~!_' ~ uJ H..t-.lll~II., . _iljll~U'W. ~i~~~~ ~'- J:~l;:~~ .. -1 l~~ ,s~~ - ~ ~I!: :- ~

long asman is. happy mID [his] kn.oviLedg~ 'he is 'im~cl ~ . ,; he a'tmilrrus" peidectio.n. 'whe'n. m0'Ji\\!Wedge ~s' lost lin its ,o~e<:t.!i~

U' ,.,", ".411 . " "h: ·:1" ". ;. - I~-~·:I!....:, '-·~i':·-. I ... " ~',., . L' ··'1" .. i .. " .. _:

." .. rut)' ane ,an 01, w' .a;lJ.oll.~ i;;JUnra~aru.1J ;},~:es.~, !UaYe many CQnn(F

rations :rnn:grmg r~m. the c9mm.liJo. ~,~.der8c~ndiD;1 m. auni'hilaUolD, 'to?'w:h;at ilie- seirirual e:lliite~ unde{r;smnd by that eeneept, .8ub:r:awardi

~ - I

oo·~]s us ilhat. tbe~ arc {lYe :runterprt;tations ~f 1~' ·beg~f.iiltng ~i.'th

,..;,j..'L-.- ,- '!I-.- . ...!iJ ~ .•.. ' G··'·~...,'I "'.>'N...'" 'h i(.'!' .• ,~ilJ...,'-., - . .......:II~ ... '-. td-'" r;. L.,.=.

mere as no 'l;J!elty ,e:x.e~p't .': W'U;; w,w,w se '~IWjj ra:la", 1~d COn&L ers to ,~

I!h!t aOI1lln"n U:lldeim:m:n"Ung 0:1 'unity·,. "{be s,~.Gnd pOlllP~ and a more 'pl"o£e.und, understanding; is liithe'Fe' b. 0:0 ~b.e·~ ~'xcept !'He .. "u T.tds g.f6J'Up see's '000 ~s me· :Seluved ~'~4 eKpe:r:iefHjeS dl!13 im .. ma~,en,t, ~pe'CJt O't the tr.amtZ-€l'llliW:en tal. T,h,e third, gro\llJ,p a.:r,'€ tho.5ie· :fo(r·whQID. Goo ~s DOlt. ~ ~'H.e ~'-' but :a. '~otl,./j' ~ :ID1),.Qrr'e p,r:rs.onm rrefe;ren.,ae:

" " .. -, Ii!

w:h;icb also. in,d:iJ,ca:~s pFlesen~e ::iHld. vwsion.. The f~ur~ group"of 'x ltl J'5,

"'lh h ~'h ~ ~. Ji [!M' d .. '1.. .t' ,t...

:a,ir.e IlU.lQse 'W:·@Ii ~}!' . It .- ei,e itS no. "ru e~£~t .. '" an.' U\lJme '3'l:e '1.lew' W;urO'

:ar:6 superior w ~'t'hen fo,r they 'have 'tran:sce:n.d~d duality, 'be it' "'He~ Of' ~OU'~I ilII,S, prpl}oI;ll1S 'indic~tlng ~lJe n~u.t1re of 'their- '[;€~dldll&b:~,p' wi tit God., This group 'kn,ow:.$ that ther 6nl~ fEali:ty is th'a't ()f God ,~tnd. that tbei:r ~I-.nless ~ :~s due 'b,) the ordy' true ~~l"'~ w·t~t~l:h ~s Goo., Fi_n,9Llly~ th~~e is :a ,nrtt:.i. l}p6' ('If' un ru,tf wbicll c.lnJy a few Sufis h~:ve ~auame,L Tjhir5 'ma.nlr~s:r;s ir~;~f ,~:n ·th,e '~eI1 being ·of :[h:o~t! whore ,SOlld~, ·tes:tlfy that ~an thi:ngs perish. ~ceprt :His fHe: .. ''; In, 'this 'n!pn-dual ,st-a'te of

The' ~~mrltual "oum~~ :::u'ld :!'ts efsse'ilU:a1, ~omp- ",o~le.n,fH, i:a,h:ia~i·o'-

"" - ·r' . - -, JI- , "" -/ - . L , _\L -;"-- - ,,~. "~''Il-" --" ----- ~- D"

iC;P';'1iI""1':'t1l1l~i'l m"'.il''''i'"6,"", - .... , .... '6!1j'~.t:'il·"m·,1 ·e· 11"'''''' 'o!!iiiil"',,,,,, "fIi'ii"'"~]v m' Ie· "!i'i"i,!p oi.lt.:...'~,.,.U'iIi... ~"fh-··.'l·"""h"

3, .. J..W, ,uii!W. '. aaII!..UJ'J ~.~,'b..;!!!. ~,. . IlL""'., ,liU '"" '"""~ J. 'I ' " .. _ ilI"l.l~ 't.l.l!li·u U,~,~:~, "~'" > ~

gn,e becom~s th,e' !f/N!/Ug;~ 'the ~:bol ()tf u:nm'lf~ ~ ()rtUU:l'ry :m;an who. ·~:lk.e ,nutlkmJ (hoepoe) wou~d th'row' a~,y' h i:s, ,oomfo:rta'bl,e Ure'

. , . .A . ~ ' ... iIt.. "L.' .,;'" "i" 'idil!... ·fooo I ." ·d· I "") , .~, '"":l..... . if'); 7ft·, '.\'<.,"'''1-' ,"",/ ' 'b'" 'tg,. anu P.iI.uC~ ,.IIUI~$. QW1l 1.Ie.ao"w~el)8.,. a~ . iiliLlm 211L I;.ue ~~ mvuI'lILa1l!t;1, . ,.ec,vo

b~Qome~ a, Sim~h whose (:;handng' rn;e~a:W'alternl:8 mQse who a~ slee}W i~g~ thereby givi~g 'til/em. Btp:ixi'tru;lfd birth. Th,le si/#A ~hooe- ende~l!Q~s

h 'b fie '. d I h d d- "1\ r-f;" h- •

~ '.' ~ . _. ,~. . '~.·I' '-I' I' . ',1._;,'" I ,'" : - (' 'i . 1 .-, 'I I 1 '. . ". .,...... .v .. .J; i (" r~, ~ - 'j' . . ,". - I -r', po I I " ~~. ,

a.ve , . o-m .. mit. iiUl.. W 110 . ,3;ii @Q, .ure _ . mll"~. ~U. e,rlf.l,g on . , J!S q~,est

fo.r illum~J'la,rlon. n.ow has oo()Qxrnre the .p·~ssessQr or 'th,e les.oi~erile, ttrn,m wh~ g;pir,irtual .tlig'hl: ~n rehe saCFea (osmos tncflS€l€JJ1US, the world ()f :f\~rm and tl:u,:;r~rO)1e 'ffiOOKs RpO·Jl it mth dl'dm·~r:utuOn.,.

Subrnwa1"di 3JI d the' Scboo'~ of ]]llumination

'b . ,. -. ""'n""" ,1l"A<iI:Ii~ 'G' . - AI n ....... ~ ",",e, "::Ii .rq:J A 00 0 a- "'If.ou ii9' -r er.l1en ,"",T'II "cI~ bu ill' ~_;e

.·€Ingj Vii ~ ~~~, .. ' .l)tJi .. ·VI.., ,ua'a, '.n~ .' r .. .1. :;u ' .. ;;"'::"·I,-,¥~ _ ru:1!: .' .!!A11l, ;m ..... ~,;l!

nothing for there ts1 no one thing .~ see, This fOlr Suhtaw.ar,d'i represents th-e 'h'ighest p05'$i~.ble' station for a Sufi.

The second. mode ,of the final $.,'tage a,f the path is that of knowledge., In a, section entitled "He wbo is. moe know~edgable :is more perfect," Suhrawardi discusselth€ second charaeteristie of' ORe who has aehi eYed llniEy~

This know-I,ed:ge., Suhraward:i tells US'~ is, a~:ta~ned through. presence, ~ He who. atita·ins. it gainsl access (0 the 8.~~retS: 0.£ the' he.·.ave'nl and then the earth, Su'h:raw"Mdi is eKtrem.e~.y cautious regard'mg th!t secretlse nature of this lq1aw1edge and \cons~ders re'v;ealing it to be forbidden. Si lice it is, through love th.at one cemes to U-. lite Mth God and God is lomn·iseien.[~ 'chien be who unirres 'Wi'r:b Cod Jn a sense also ~omeJ. ,omn.~s£i.ent.. 'We' wHI, ela:bomte on ~'h~s .~:n, more' Jdl1epth in the fut"'thoom.ing chapter ..

. iI Ac.... - _. +, ~._.. ~ ·IL. ~ .• , ..... _.-l ~·t

The m:lm, aSfoct. ofthe fmal mode of being 181 iove, ~itlW'~mriiu'i2(1 s

exposirlon of ow is most 'lftteresdng .in that lowng romething requires, a, lover and a beloved .and this iDlplies duality~ LQ¥e in ~i(S ultimate· sense ·~s an .absorpdon~ a" perreclion.(; a state' of not desiring' for wm:rre there is desire'~ there is imperfection,. He Wbd ·'.i 'OW'S, he :6 as, his beJ!dFied deslres nothing more, This. state of ttanscencling desires and Ilvi_n.g with. the- be~.owd is h perfection or the'·,cor.rscW>()US'~.~1 "for when me consciousness aittains tibat [kn.QWle~ge· of God] , the highest of itS,· perfection is. D"Om the. illumination 1Q,f tile- 'lght, of froth. '~1' rle who seeks the .Ionn'lam of nre 'MU 'wander much in darkness if be IbeloD}p 0;) .[1. ose wh;o ate meant to :find the' fountail1j~ but Suhrawardi. teUs US thaIt 'the' Sufi. has to set Fool: on the spiri:tual.patb. ~i~e Seth, Ref€'Iing li.G 'di~' eoncept in the· Bii.smn Ja&qulufJ:J he SlI!ar¢i::

He who. comes '£,0 know of him"s:di, inasmuch as. hirs .a·bitUty aUows", attains 'k:nowledge of God, and the mere he eadnres ascetic practices the.more he' be.ooroes perfect and hb;, }mo.I.-' edge increues.51;'

In one 0'1' 'his leJDJ:gt:hies![. trea,dses} Y~:n $ki'riii/l,A~ ~.? Suhr;awardi

e'MlO'!ii ~,."...~ i',,",S on ae·c· 'L.<"]j -'~""",,'Dl'V ~ith·' I :r"'"'j)'m· ... .,iI :hr... .M!.;~' .... , l!.;yne··il'! , . .".~' deat '11...

I ,IIGUllUl'li. a ~,.' I _' ~~ .• ~_~.a.'IA:JI,II'~~ll 'q.ll. , . ~'biAl'U. 1~V- ~'nlu ru'~fr" ra .U,iL' .' ~R I w,~

namelj' ph.ySl.lcal and: ~spiritual death. B His treatmen t ()if ph¥8~.C~ Id.eath. is brIef 'but his expos.idoD uf spiritual death and rebn1ih.,

. .. h· h . . f'· aI'l ,. d' ......;iI' 'h

w· 're IS, 'to e n:atur.a , C6Dsequen.oi!!;O :pmetlc - ~qS .Iom" 18 :Ln~ept '.'

.Pra,ct:iicmJ1. wlsdo.m,. Su:hrawardl argues; bfings detachment of IIlhe '"se.lr from ttDl.,e hodny d~sires so dlat ·th.le presence o,r ab~€nlc,e~ ofdle 'L-~fv ~Pio.ro~ ~'O' rw m":l'k'ei{' <;iLf"IV ~:jrf.:~e'it\en""'.iJI' Th', ic et<.lllli""O ,0' "f hem'··· ,iff W···~,l!~'~ 16·" t·,o· l~ UU,}" U"4ll~~ ~J.,. . lll.. , , ,do ~ 'lI!Il~l.l; [u~~_ ~I~. ~ ~ !Li~'111 .If.lI ~ A~ . -.. . ... ~ 0 _ .. IJJ IlirJ,rl ," __ .

74

'[netic aJJ SufJlSm.

be 'a,clooieved '~n this world is -r ;'mWlar tOI "the natural death bl th:1Jt· the: body is left be'hind ex·cept that in sp,iritJuaJ. de:am one can have a viti,on of tbe' ineorporeal world ..

The self trtOifs);, 'whic'h is not. simple and irs C'om~p.Jete and pure'., when departed from the body unltes 'with th,e' world. ~"' ~n~Uect

. 'd"- - ··n·~'''''''Ii''''lll!'u'bsilGmT'll~r!! 'W' hieh it resembles m pe'" rfeeuon 5S

an . ~. spiH L111.t1ib. a. I. U:U:....;...;;;:".. . .' ... _ ~. ~ '11:,;;3;... . I . '~I .' .11.1!;,..",1~. .01

SUhra:wardi mari_n.tmns th~t mangua.ge is incapa_ble of ,expressing' what is observed, fiot the visj.on of these Sffi)irl:WaJJ subsesnces is. ineffclJble and :analogy' is not heIDpfid either since there is nothing to ,analQ.gize it to, The pmYer of tb.te purified srulf at. . ts peak. is such dJ:at it can learn a, :gr,eai:: deal in a short time .. A pit'BOn of thffis. stature. does. :O'Of!. learn through sense' pen:eHtion :and. orher Intermediaries, but learns dwrectiy from dl.e· sourcc'e5 of knoi\rieage~ The. power of :in ~dMlon of a jfili~ now a learned master who learns. Y.lim.ollJ.t a teacher or t.ext; doe's net thin'k or (iona!p: ealize, but hi. is as .~f truth is rev-ea'ted ~D him, ,sych people 9I"e rare" Suinra_tdi mys.. bUT; he who attains fhis stature becomes, vice-gerent ,of God (lialiJat (.ltltili)~ &eCening: to pUI1e and nracdcal wisdom~ Suihnrwardi. s, .. 'S that although some are strooger [In pure and some ~n :~F:r .. acdcal wisdom, if '~ey achieve perfection 'tIlCJ' become o.ne; in their being perfeet, Ha.:V:in.g aUuded to the dis'un.cdo([l bem~ pulie 31ml.d practical TNis.dolm. on numerous eccasions, he ,goes on to elaborate on the necessity of '~larv.ing a prophet (nabt) .. Suhrawardi considers m n 'f wsio.n 'to 'be pr~pheu of'a rolf I -:

There ls a need :fOf a person who, is ,an .aw'tar I( nr:dn.) and at spiritual guardian (walft) .... the need for such a person ~s more than tbe [need :Kw~ h~aving ,eye lashes, or ey,€. bro!PN8 , ... ~ $D

Suhrawardi's description of the: va/i·is. similar to prnQJf;Q·j·,s. philosopher and the gmludj:ans 'wbi,c:h m Shi" ite Islam are refered to as dle '"'spiritual jurist 8llard~an» (wa4:'yi filtJ~"'k) ., e is the Icu~min.anon for which man was cl:ieatro and th n roug~, Gabriel he come-s, so knew ,of dilvine secrets by virtue ,of his lllD'm,edla:mdl and direct knowledge'. Su'hrn~i" then ~s that although. ~frnm the time afGFtem untu. now, 8,0, one ·ftgm the' gm::eat and. fl,g'~~tOOiI!H' sages has reeealed these secrets, ~ but he has bliefly alluded to diem in th.e Yaxd'jn iAiMkk~so, it may encourage the restless soul. The safeguard: ng ,of th.t esoteri.c doctrines is S,Q (JenmJ ·that ~uhl:awardi sees th,e soludon ~n tran,I-' .nJittin~ th'em in m.e· formJ of ·o·ra.1 trad·wtion .. Suhra~rn rels 'Wi: tilat

~I

A.ristode said, ~:DM.De ~am mould D.iever be revealed or 'Writtev.

lexC~p~ tha.t ~.t be b:'anSm~!tt:ed orally fro,m :pef~on to pen.on .~[

7i

Suhr3WMdi and the' School of IJ1IJll:nDi:n:ath~!fl Notes

~'6'"

i' "

7i-1

_ ,f

4

P'HI'-L" 0''--' "~SO 0"'" P··He. -)CiAT' S-" 'U'FI' 'S""M' .' .

. , --~ ~'·:·'o:.;->I

oE.'l ·IL rdi' '1..'"'1 hi .... 1 S··~.at:: .. ~h -I"" f' . h N"

.;:I!uJj.ra~:.· 1. s pHI M@jll]JCiu :'W_ISm IS u ~~. app 'ID~a\U~n O. t: e .' ee-

p1fl'to1liG scheme w traditi,oDail $un c'0nce:pm in :300. af:tlenlPl.t to prlQlride: .mHonally- justifiab],€ an,fi¥~rs, t'Q su~h 'Jjues'ti.o.o,s as (h;e

· I .. f' ~..j d 'I!.. 'III , ... ,0'11

mnerent ,-ea:m.ln.,g Q man ttlW3iuS· transeen ence, me ro'.W.e UJ;

esceticism in ruD'tensifying this fear~ing and, the' naeure O'f'mys:tic.al c][Jperit'n,ce.. Sllhr.award·w" who bM ta.m;is~end.y· argued dlat lij"'!WJ~'

ll...~,.. ....,.~ ...'ill .• ' ,. ,. 1 d 1. ., ~.·!'.;.1 i.. '111]' th"

I!.~ .. :)yo, '~~me!OlSI.on:s-, :p,r:a,c:tlC~. m1;, tli.w.'e~re'u.Cmj also ilJ.,'t'lo!/$ US; . '_!"~al

wha;1;. the' j·nt~ne4t. can underseand, .t.b~ heart can see, ~Kn,.,w thal. the' human se,:bf' :has two ptvW''ersi; one .~ th;~it wni~h ftnd~· QU~" the othe.r is tih.'e 'OrBJ'e dw~t 'which does. things'. j'.1

'rI' th ~ .,'&... J!'.Jo. .... l f co eo' h .~

:J.D. e ~)re'W.Qu:s secuon, t1-W.e practru~~ aspect (). ~- ,~U1.iBU!t '. ~-S WJ~n

diJcus~d\T. 'Wie will n0W tum t<) a tiirseM8si,on of the more ph:UoSl6ph~!CaJly oriented ~pecltS of his :m,:sttcal thougll t"

'1111 '0" 'iJ;i~. ''I'' 'li:G-''I'~'I1'''F' It].r.;,'Ii''in; ~ '1iJ'·I.''Di'f~E''\iI.t'l .l· .. '.' rJl~1 .LJl' .'. n.1.. &~,.lJu!, & I ~ ." r ~ I, .!.l~

The c:erftr:alb,' of Ught as an ~iomab~ p:hen,'Gme~Jon '~11 Suh~ ~rol'~ s phnos.QPh'y has belen ~dl'Ude\clJ. to, before. .- n t_he' lJl:ima:t aHM'!fliq·y. Sul1rrnwa-mi devetes a :m;ljor part (if t\:u;!: book to an

. ' " if .. 'L 1..... ,..41 ,,,., it' ·!II'"·IL.. ~ .•

eX:~J0~!at1JQn 0: ene nature ~ puie€: anu w:ftetrnes 0";, rulg.m.IIJ.t that .~:X];8[ ~s a

ih.ie,(.afchyaIt d]@ 'bop ofwhilcH e~s:ts the lig;'ht of'Ug)lg~ fro~ wtdch an. Ughrs emanate, .At 'me: bcttom, it;h,e.re is da:r!kn.'ess Q~ a:'~sefi,ce Gr :~:~ght. ("a~m) re:pres~notl~d. b¥ co':rporeal1ty '~)if" if,l,3Jnimate o~eets

(.'M~·ff)

.~,_, _. .

• . _ l . " - - .. ,~

$uhraw,aJmil"s rc]ass~fic~ltijon ~s based u:Pt)IEl inteftScity of Ilgh~ or darkness wbo~cb is. dl«e~n.lt fro:m the trncliitiocnatl'bn Sln'wan ·concept ofhi~(fMch.~es of' n~aU'trues; each of which, Me·.d;iBe'l:t~nt in ·thtt d.'egr-ee W ·which. d1:ey 'pMS'e,sS. ~ein.:g~,,'~~ The' ard~11,ary light that tb,e' ,eye can s~e is, only Ig:~!e .manif,esta:don of the light of 'I:ights' m.tlt a s.pe~me

78

PhUosaphical SUfism

j,Dten:sh';y., .AU. thi.ngs in existence are theiref-Ore va:ri.'QU8. degrees.and l~te~n8lde'$ o{ nghl and. d]iu~kriess., The most bnpertal1r. ar- these. cre"~m~. b ciap is the .~d~na~ self ( na/s na,eiq.Wt)o ~. wh Kb S,uht.awa:rd~. refers m as 'nti'T lifW1bftd:1~j ar:gubrug that due te :ruts :purity ~t irs independ~nr d{ matter, S:ince an the 'beio,gs in, the hit!imrChy inHtl¢nee' tha·t 'which is~ 1:;u=.low them and aT<€: muflllen(ied by 'what is ~bt)ve' them, the influe'n'llC,e of a. soft ~'~~'ht 'is, ~ofr. and it, omxl OIH~~ ~veR.

, i!EJ;

harder, SUh1i3:ward'~ te·:n~ US that there are 'Several ~es; of ligb ts

'wim d:lff~ten.t ~[trilb1lllJ1~es~; ~e1 are a~ folloW$;:

Incorporeal :I~ght (uir 'm'iiJjllrmllJ ::

. A£d(lenlal1~gh.:t

( u,~r ~~(lJ"a~) = Corporeal darkness (gAtts~)=

A·ClCi.dernIJ ml darkness

(.1t.oi01lI1iol!11 ." .~-~ - ~

lI'~i ak ~~~l.)!:C:;

The 1igb.t tb~t SJtl.b~balS, by itself: .

The' ]jght that depends, on somietbing other' man w.tself.

It is mat \",'h()se true .~iaiture is A\!'J, rkness,

¥-~~~ - -

'The' type or darkness fhat d~p'ends oft sO:pledl b;'.tg QI~h er than iue"Uf 3J:dd. requires s.p:liJ.Ge and has the' accident of darkness,

An 0 ~el:.t or an object-·;ml:i,e ;e'i'J.ithy 'eha t 'b~d,e$ and reveals, me' lrulhts~

Purgatg·ry (k~~)'~

There ~s intt,~nsic yearnin.g f~jlb,~) 'Q~ml. tb~ part !~.f m~, lower members ~ this hi~mrcbY' tQw~a:£ds, the hig:ffit.'Err ones ·thaL't is marked b~' '~'Ove o~u]d OOQi.ra t~OJl wh~7f-e~~ the r.em.ti,onsb.l,n .. between the ·b ia·h.e:r .~e:mlYten. to 't'he mOwe'f' ones ~$ one ,of dQnrlna:~e (f(j.Jl1·). Tb.'e l~,wer W~llt. to g~ hOOgh ell' mel all of dlem ul'tlmab~ly aim at utli.tif:Ig with the 'lrugh.t ef lrughb ..

lr~U helngs· are' rn~d.e up of ~:~g;~;t then w·h,am. aece .. {q:;_~:n'ts, for th.~it~

cliffeFe~ce? Certain})' their essence being' HSh:r :is not the diBerentia but ~hat is in cemmen 'among f~em ian, (l'tullti& l!il-iskli:¥.:~),. 'm, ~werwords, Ugh!l IS. '[hal which at me same time UR~teB. ,an.d.diJfe:r,en U3J.t!es, I(mij ,bi:hc'ilrim~ij~)1 8!lnong all i~isdng bein,gs. thn:ul.g;h its tuten.sity and 'weakn.'ess\. As Suh:ra'w2u7-di :Stait,e~~

AI] Hghm .ffinhe-rently ;and fmm the' point of their Qlighlr. ... lle~s~ have' no dlfferen.c~; their 'on~y ,d:jJJ1erence lies ifl. th,eir- 'ne;r;:-

~ ,r,-

feetilo'n or sho.rtcomiDg~ar maltells outside; ,theu' e~senre.,s

S[dl:ra~tdj.) Wll0 considers the .atJtribut~~ ,~f an o,~ eet to be ,shortcom:i:tlgs ~d ,a'bsen~es, @.f :~igl~ tj them g.Qe8, .on t~ eq1ilate 'God 'with '!ight~ which. e~.p.lains .. w,twy·his .mfl;tical e~pede:ml-'OOs. haVit ·a1teom,e tQ hhn i'nthe ·PGnn. of ~div.ine tlas'ihe',sD I( ~,(J,~ iliiht) ~ Light 'hen~ :ig,

'79,

Su'h;m.war,~U ~nd tb~ S~b~l, Q;' ID.un1 at[);3J!tiOfi

,equated 'with. God. because it :~s 'dle. p,'henom,en~n 'by w~iJ.ch. and dlro'~g;~ wh,i~h 'lliin,gs a:ro.ltUQwll" S~hN~rdi ,o.flevs, th.,e foD6mng' as a jL'Hi$i£:ificaHell of]:ds ~mel1:t~

If '

. you. seek. the' reason fur a criterion fer the ,~.noo~'real ]i(g;hlt."

it is this:' light is ,3. thing ~hi.cb. in itsnature Is, ohviouS and 'rtV~ all Omeif' thm~. It is in·heren.dY more ObviOlt§, than 'an.ythil1(g else wb()5e' ~p:'p>ea:m[ru=e is added 'ifliil'd1t)', '~ i'~ tmrth ill

_ _ . ~ __ _ _ 1 , ' .. _ ~~!i. , .' . I. ' . I . J. r !II

The light of lighns whic'll 'exists, 'by tu~\@es:d~ (~i'l) llo~mtjWl) is the source' ,of all ,ws®el;u:e te whic'h Suhia;w,ardi reter.s 'I'dD widl ~,' y,a:d.ety of aames, .• .e, a'l=e·n"Com;p.'a:s:si:~g (tll-mu.k~fJ" the S1lJlpnl~mi~ ,( al-a '~atm) J the }i~t~e~ '~nt (,:~~wqe.ddtu) i_fi_d_ dl~' all-victerious (, iJkq'al~lar)i ,. ~

Fo,~ ~9wln;g me Ibn Siln iat,~ c~;)ssincati()Q ,of beings :~D"~l) noc~s.aFf'j c0\ntin.gcen t, and. im,p,QSS!ible~ S[i~~wardl~, g'Qes jpn tQ say mat, l~,g;b,h are either s!~lF-:s-g~b~lsbe[bjt" in 'whiitro case darey are '~\5ubsbiulHtialligllt~ (n1i'f ,ip,.''llih41l) ~ or hl,()l)'r,porea~ light ('1lUT mttJ~ ~ roth of whi,c~ ~uhra~ardi .s~rs are rich (gk&1-lt) ~ There is the, t!oDiting~nt lrugh'uiha.t is referred to as at:ti.dellml light ,( n.iir ~a?T~i), 'Whicl~. 'i~ 'r-eve;a.[.e~d. to b~' ifj_(U,~n'[ VWJir) or 'PQo~r~ - .FirRaUy:, tnere is da:rkne·s,swhich ,is :nod1mg 6'me:E' th;an tbe absen,oe of Ught6. wbleb he refers ,tQ M d~Flm~S~ (~~mdl ~ obscurity fgh~1-ti) ~ 7' :iOttIli,1. I( h;ay~'{tk).8 or batrz.tJki

'wnichbe d~efines as body. '

. ~uhrawardr$ exe,I'eJjs, or 'r'be (;()l1'Q['eal wo:dd U an ,;nhen~ttt~ :~tl~'ig~[tl,~ pheng'm.en.orn and '~dsi a"Dalys~s Q'f cO,rporeaJit;y '~D terms <Cit: m:ight :mi f.un.d.~mefi't'!fdlr relaeed w tribe spiritual journ,e_" ()f man. In a sense, SuhmwRrdi h~,y,s, ib e phH~S6phicaJl fO'~,ndalioD fol' tb>~' eX,p].ana,tion of 'the' journey of tbe soul from Ithe da;rkn .. ess ,of the' ,oor;p.ereal ~T.ll(tt'O d"a!e luminoli,lswolid of ,me' 'hl.,oorpateal ngh t alld. 'flh@ ~ilht of :~ig~ts,. It.. dlo,fQugh reading' af the dense pbnG<80phiG~d, ;algJunle;nts~oftbe secend :paJt oft-be /iilttI1i4t! "~k~iq :rre~e'iIl~;a firm :~Y1tical d,,?ct~m& ]n a see lt1aI]J 1€A.trid,~d, ~rinci,ples On H:ow U'nitJ ,Eman:ates 'Mull!lpUccruty,l~' S~h'tawarai ~l.'te,S!:

'SJirl:0t between the laweF Ught and hlg'b.er Ugh t there is no '~il~ 'D",e:~~Sa!Uf fb,e _l~er Ugll't tees 'the' hich.if:r :rlig;h:t and Ihe h:~-??er dhJmlna!tel~th~: lQWt€:r [brlrnie]., Thre[eiQ:r::e; from t.h~ light "0:f blhts a l)e,am of ]~ght.shtnes upon the' J.awer ~9

:Each ,oi'tlle,se' int:o;rp~~eallight$ r,e~eives a dlrect e,m1tf:1atia~. from._, 'lbe U~_~t _ 0f ligb~ as, well ,_as' t~e' I~h t ~that is di~e~dy above ,it. So~ ,every Ili~ it rec€!.IIYes two ,~~'vels ,af ligh t $imultM'),eoos.-ly, but. th.'i~

80

,PtdlQ5Qipn1£;,i\l1 .Strl]sm

proc~e:;~, dues net eenttn U«2' iftrl i~wilum" In 'a:.u~ :process ,Of Jem~n~a~ dOD 'Ught so]id'idl€',~ 'U:f:ltiID ~t teach.es uorpor:e',~Jitf' whi,ch ,supra:w'a;rdi divides .into m,iuli differen t parts .. :~~ Suhrassardi, in the IJ,f/tmal; ,(tHsJ'lt:~~ ~[t&ing a p~i(.ulia:r and dense :P.bU080phk~~ ~~pagei- ,aWen, a ,dle~tail,ed, a~t"Ou~ t of th-e various 't;~~e, of li,g;h t, 'th;(t~r interaction with OD~ another and th.e,rur fiDal deim(l~ti:Qn.~ w~i~li ~S, fid~ ~nte= .gr~ti91~1, er to use a 'Sufi. term, aOl1ihtla:ti,on btto me light of' lig"h ts .. !n ,3F®elCti,on. endued "On the "r~@~~n,g of tn,of; :Pur~ IJg;tur;s :a~d. dn:ir Transfer to, 'the LuItl~n~U8 World ~,'~I J Slilh:ram.tdl feU!j '~lll~

Whenever the: 'regent light (1tM m:rut~t) is :i:1JQJ( overcome 1br iM, leng;agement :~n ~d\rll(;)f,eaH:tr, ,ruts, yean1~-I ((rv the' :h;e;a:verdy 'w'0.r'~do,f 'lights, is more than his yeam.in.g :rgrQb_s~ul"ity

(g~) ana a:~ hs luminous, shltJu.$ i~ jn,c~~.il8ed, so is its love' for me djgmi.rru;ary lights .' '. ~ ~'n!dl 'rhus ;1 is freed from th€' Dllma'll 'ibod;y and returns lu' ehe w~rld of p[Q]r,g;ligh t and ~e&iil:es, ,am:Orti:gst the 'h.'earvm:~y U8h ts a:nd due 00)., me' purity 0'£ the ,light ~f '~:igb:ts:~, it b€c"mes pure: too..,:1 ~

2. ANCEl.JQLOG¥

SUbmw,atdf'$ ont-tl~,qg;icm cvm,ew~ 'I)ased. on Ug'ht; and i~ wri~tie's and the emarn,atio:n_i:tti~ scheme are :int-e:fWDvm Into, h:its ,wg.el~logy lVli:th e-a~h, aDIJeli~.o:ooerperrorming' an e~~lo,~cal mskl. ;whicb :Oladuammy:he]ps the si1lk t_@, fm.dl his ~:a~ ·aJ,Qd.e'" ~ provid1wLg him Vlid1 spbi:tuml. 'lnpo.~phry of th.e' sa.cood. world ,and ~:m mallf p'3:!tll:s ~~J piidillls.,

Snhrawardi's anF~Qt(jigy ~pR!en~, an illtttcate web of Hghts, elements and symbols" a. great. n umber oaf wbileh are- dJraw.nfrom the Lor,oas1trian: tddi d all,.,' His view·'of tile funaiQIl and the role Qf angels is, Fad,ic~ny d,ifiere,nt ff~)m Ibn Sin~, w'h:1€b ,a:r:t.ribuKd I~ota-· t~,QimS ;a_nd many oo1;ber functions to lhre hea.ve;nly' 'bodies and asfro-, nomieal issues~. F or Suhrawani11 anrge~S' are means ttn:--oulh which :h18 metaph yswcaJ da.ctrine: as we'll M er9Q'l1edt ~i~s !Il:;all be expressedl and, therefore dl.,emn:g~.U!rage"wit~ wbichh,e' p'~;ts forward 'hID8 angelol~" somethne philDs,ophiea.:ID, and lom,eitime' sym bo'~ic; is eneehat borrows 'b,ea~ly frQ~ other 'ttadidJornl~~

~ubF~wa..r~i sayB tJ1~t :fr.o,m the lign-r of Ugh'~ ~t IDWO ~n~lic 'Girdea~, the' bld tud.;:rud, mld longitudin~t Th.,e 'bttinJ.din aJ o~der for ~]J'mm, ;~$ the fj,am.e as P~a.:f-Q<"~$. aJrcb e'grpes 'I!J), W:b~,ch SDh'FaW'~tdi fefel~s ~ '~m;Hters ,of the s,ple~i,es~" (<<1Mb a'an~'~ ~nd whose, defi:J:l,i,~i.'on of tbe'm is sO,Il1'lit~w'h:at ,si:mi1ar '~g Platoi',s" ~he' {o,nn. o.t" ma,terial s,peci.es

Suhnwa!fdi and the, Seheel of 1m UDinati~n

has ~o be In the Hlumlnative world :Rod. be necessary, permanent

and unchangeable, '·I .. ~· .

'Th~ var~.ous aa ', g¢~·ic orders wh.h:h themselves give rise 'to' other angeIDlf: oFi&ers are as. fn]io~s.:

L The _hm~tudinal (tih) Q;rde'£' represents the m-c~1Iang,els and. m· ihe [llst emanation whIch SUhra'YilJ1di idlen.tifies 'with Ba·. man frqm, the Z,or~tria.n tnuj.J tion, 'Th~s ,briiW.e.t' ~ w.b.h::l1. IS .referred te ,as the nearest ~~gbr (nvr .a~b)1 r' is a direct emananon of . I, e suprerne ar'ch,em:ype l{ hu\r:m,'U~ ..

2., The lat_ii:tudin:al. ('~ a.~~) order which arises fro:m the masculi 'e as.pe€t of ;~~e s.up~~eme hier.af.'c.by represents P'laoo' s an~he,types., SUllraw.arrOi uses :Zowastria " Ilia' ies rO'f thege farms. such as. lkdibMi$kt for fire, .KhuTd~' fe-,'r wa'Le':r~ .Mu~id for plants Skalnlwa:r:fo.r minerals and /tsptJ.Minntl% for love. The elements of intis orde:r d.Q not 'Ibri'ng eoe ,an'Q.tb!er :in.m existence ~S, the lORgi:~udinw order does. Sm'Ge aU th'i~ngs, In 'the world are mani .. festations of ·th,eS€: UIJJ!wtudlrnal :a:r(helJl~es.,;.. 'Stihmwardi 'refers ·to them. 'as "theurgj" (li'tinnti,t') 0.1" icons. (~(l-nam) .. He ,ca1J1;s th,ese' ~he'typ;_~.s the ~aBt'fS, of species" ~s~,nce' each one 'has, its celestial domain over wb.iC:h. it rules and exercises its particular influence in :'i'le ereaeed erder.

3., From the feminine iIS"'eC!t of the longi'tud11Ud (J,rder, which ls ,eI}an:C1!emTcd, 'by love and recepuYi'ty" cornea rue solid:Hiation ef the mgele order 'which mmifests itseltf as, flxed sears and heavenl, bodies. These' ~ob5ervab~e' lx>eUes" which in. a sense &e absences of :Ughl, are ·ontolioWJcaUY disJmnt from the . light of ·~ights,.

4 ... FinaUyj .subrat~·{di tells us of another angelic order 'wbj«;b. is effused ~ro~. the l~u.tUicl;ina~ order, This jjri~ennedia.ry a.ngeUc order, '~hi'dl is. _eaUed lonUy' Ugbt {aklR~ ,rd--l$JaAlf#li!fJf1A} or regent ig~t (til, Q~wb' ai.-m"¥daiJliirah),) ~ons;isllS af the ange.ls, of mercy and the' guai"tUaiJ~S oithe earth a ,.d, all its inhabiJtan'ts.

The lordly _ l!gh t w.hich exists 'witbi- the soul of ,eveJY man is. represen ted by 'G:abriel" the :aH:b~type' of hu·manit.y (,f';abh (,d .. n;aUlt I. a~-iW$~n~. whi~~ Suharwardi identifies as the ~hoJy spni't'" (~ a~us.),. ,equating it 1Widl (h.e spirit of: the lPr~p,het Mtdlam:nu'_fL In ~dditi:'~lil to this; ange Ic lentity~ Suhrawardi te~ls US maul e'velll")' man h~ lli:s ~n .gualdian ange1 who resides i.n dll€ ang;~;Uc w.tOr:~d ~Ul.d. 'who, divides, In half before entering die human bod.y. Half of it '~;mains in the an:g1CU€ wiod.d. and th.e other haJf en ters tile' prison

Eii'hi'looopl:r" (;ai~ SWHm,

of body fr,am wbi,ch it a'lwRYSC seeks its ·,eJe'$e \~:n order to become united with the other half

Suh.rawardf',s angeHt: scheme' is s:igUW.CaJDt not only 'because it un ues hIS ontology. and metaphysics but 'also because 'it demonstrates that Islam, the lorna.skian 'ficligion and, f.OI' that matte:r all the ~ivrune~y!everued reHgiQnJ~ allud.e to, th .. same tru 'h whe:n lbey are viewed from an esoteric 'poi, t ofvi·ew" Suhrawardi enters into a hermeneutic cUscussion of the sacred meaning of. the u,roastF:tan a:n:gels to explain. how dley fit 'within the m,et~p' flysl.caJ deetrine of Islam .. Th~' Zoroastrian fln~ ~ Suhra:w,ardi argues, .i's me divine ligl1 t and !O/1'W(JhO/F as archetype of the human souls which. descends up~n the hu:m;arn body after i is, !oanceirvted~ ~ 4],

Anotl er a prfd [cation of g,uhrnw.ardl:i j,s, angelology res in his epistemolegtcal doctrine and the problem. of know.~edg:e, Baw:ng' argued that angeh are independen t realities in the· world~ he then £on,~~ an Ibn Sini~n ~ch~m,e to ,say 'that 'a1Jge~$. are ;~d$O re-presen laUO . '8 of man ',5 mner forces tha t hav~ been e:xter~nallzed. The ~terml,aliz~d.o:n se~s~ as, a ,spirifiu3 .m~rp of tb,e Inner ~ddes,. fIe ,!.ho learns how to fel_ow d:l,em propedy 'Win beled tOI me; heart of the is/Jirliqi doctrine, that ls, "To :mow 'everyrhi:n:g, ODJe· hu to, fi'rst 'know hi' mself »15 ltnowledge of (be self and se1f;.know].edge' lhete .. , fore are 'n~e~s&ary can.didom fOf a~nyome in his spiritual quest who seeks ,certa'hlt¥'~ In t',e words of He':nry Corbin,. elf ... tnowled.gre 11 n,ecessary "forall ·thosewho are called to a direct'and unmediated Jleladon.ship with tie divmle world~ "],6

The pow'er of'g:wdljiUl.0e helps us to everoome our- ft~ndam.enta1 alie(oad.on from, ·gu-rsel:ves :whicb in the isA"f(l(ji sehoolls denoted as, igmIO.faIH:e of ·one.~elr. In .h:s epistlem,ologi(;al (lOn~ti Su~i:n"3wardr s aug 'lob:~gy prOVid.es us 'wilh meaJ)s tll{fOU.gb wh~.ch Goo guid,es us, to sei.f-knowled,ge and, even'tuaJly.~ knolli\'f·m.ed,ge of the' Divio,e iuel[

Zoreastrlan an,gels~ however, are not simp~y' Q'upec.ts·~ 10£ the so preme HilVinh:y". but Seven Powlers. (Ams~tr:nd,J~ ", t_he Seven A'Vesi41'n Ament! ~fJentll; the boty immotta~s." Their he I~ness b an a.tUve a,ndJ aCJtlVEding' energy that Icommun:ircate'J and grants bein:g 110 aU tb m"p, .. 1'"

,Suh~roi ~tf~~,CES: the Zoroastrian an,geb amids!t, the exposition O'f h~s meta:physi,caJ arguments in order to Show the fundamental harmony between the WekmdM;uu1.ig·,O( rue IS1ami.c and .zoroastrian religious universes, The' fo:n6:Wing S,h1QW8 S'UhrawaIdi'~,s, use of the.

:RhilOiwp,hii.c'ai 8t1fmm

of mCQrporeals Md, eeme ~from the ~n 0Wneft' trut prns,perou:s land' ( ~.Il!jii iillii) .,'~~~

The 't,en old men, WhQlSlf hairs, are whttcre a'[DJ,dJ hav,e,su'b!b!n~e bur donot co~eupy spa.te' ave tm!e ~:" levels of Ug,h it whl.ich c0n'\e$.p~_lnd to tbe Ibn $jnian levels of Intelleee, The seeker rtnen, asks, ~'tvhat :tl$ yO\_l:r~c£gpation?:;;;' tfJwhic'h th~old man respends, '~e',an~j ,tail'o:ts/~ The ,angelic function i_s ee ~sew,~~L1J]6 ~wto;rld below ttl~em,~, th~'t. m~ the 'World @:f geJ1e.mtlon and, eom~,p tien j [hie eerporeal domain., They are the intermediaries. between 'the plIre and the frQrnl:pt~b~e 'world, of ours), In highly ~njJrOOnc 'fangu:a;g;e Su]:i(award,~ wri,tes:

I :tiSl-ed:, ~,y are tbe Q;~.d, m,en that are abotve you 0 b~~rvinll' snen~err H~ 'rep,kat "Becau'Sie theY' do nOit ming],e: w~th 'fO'[U' qrp.es. 1: know' dllek lan:gua;~ and they do, .D,ot 8,peak. to. you. ~O'

The- old man '~S t'h€' ,af~h~~,el Gabtie] 'who [exp~Mlts to the ;s,ilik that due tobi:s lim~ted, s.p~'dJtuft] ,m::coJEP1~shme'nl; be can not: J!l1.Inders!'(a'[),,d, d11~ lan(f,'ua~le of the be~ngs 11:~'sjding m'O! tbe ~:p':irl't~'Q]~l 'wodtl.

liell 11]11 '-/'. • jI'

S~braward~ ldrses 8ln;al9(ies fro\m n~lture W' ~c~.}Mn hr~rW ~r:eatton

takes place and wiha,t; m@",fanctioD ,of each Of the 'leve~~ is,. W'henm the creation 6£ the other nine [Q~d domains ,j1 not easily observable due 'IdO meir s<ofme~j ea.bri[el";s creaMon i~, more ''So~fd ~D!d, 'tb us' n'lo[:re '~slble~

'T,h,e, v~hui'OflShjJ.p between, the refDJ mge'fi.c Q;m,en is,.one_ ~ Jt;he sp:iritual 'Qnilj~ and, oneness, 'G~b~e'~ tens the ~ilii that me' oldman w:nose m;(ulde ~S' 0,11 the top[ ~s the s,p1rl'£u,al master ~f the rseoond .0,0[6 and $@ on 'o:ndl ttJ,e ninm master who ua:ined him and ga~ :~'dm his ,sufi' aou. Here,!, the: e;man~tioD~~(lJ.ic. ~nt0logy .0;£ Suhraseardi is e::xplall1Jed, ill terms of ~a [cHain of initiation ,emanadng fro,m Ibm Si:n~i,j ~ M:mt 'int,ellel;t ~>alc- ~'l ,o.J..fltuWllfj er '$uhnwaml," s :Sa.bman I( akft1 ,(l'~'~.ai) ~ 'the elosest Ught (0 We tight ofJights"

Sullrawmdi"s 'vis:~ona'ry narralfiive' continues, wjth tb,e sm. 'q:tlesdOD'~ng' dl:e' relatipnship 'oo't;w'~eD, the ,old, m:a~. and the' world" ~J?lO you h;av~ tl1ildnen ~ :p'ro'pel"ty and the '1ruk_,€'?'~' the iiiliJl; asp,,~] Gab·riel responds 'by saying 'that be does 11,~;t have mates but each ort'h~m, has a ch.~ld.· 'who, 'wQtk_~ at a. mlll whiWI€' . .hey are 8tari~g at 'J-d:ra with one' ~¥e and ;~t the mirul mm 'die' Q1the;r: ~1e,. ~Suhrawa~m"d.i uses the :im:agery Gf children to aU ode to each aJ1i;geU,(j, order igj\ling ~1.r:dl~ ro or emJ!~l:n8\'d:Hg a, l~et level of re.ality d[awn t~ 'the re,nd}J, le':v1el wl}.t,~h. is prre.gnant with, the [c-J::e~t~d, ~rd.,er~ Gabri.'cl 't'~en tel~s th, s,il~~ ~~f1 d1'€ tim~ i~s;.pm_per I tbey CQm~ '(.0 m,e' ;and do not leave' apn ,arnl.QJ]JCW' ebUa:rren @"dtb,ete','~ Those who. hIve, punned them~l;ves

85·

~'t~bl[;:a.w.ar-dli and, the SChQo~ ,fjrf :I~~uminati;o,n,

ZQro~strian angei~o'~.o~ of 'T~r.siarn, ttreosOpihers N[ [{ It'UItam~~ R~) and 'fberur ,comJP~,tabn~ty 'With Islamic :m,e'mph;YS~Cial prin~p,h~s~.

M~:nt1=: In~DJ,PQr~l world

Gtlf- CorpO'real world

RiiHfat,ii= An:hetypal world,

~sk- G-'abrie'I

,F:~adi'rt= The lowl€;r wOfl.d

Gtw1ur:t-- .Pure essence

,BfJlfiim;... ~!Ct'O'ry:~ whi,ch· Clr~n :a;ppears. in the fersn ,of a mad ~OX~ 'white horse: or sometlmes a. hen,

SlIn

&tbe~~' of specie's ~ght in the 1,,9d,

The R<~n~a'rppf'fiaJ Jighf!! 'wh'w£h d€-sc~nd.S uperr thQSie who h~'¥e' :iI"ttamed, the dieine 'msdDm" The:

,p[rie:st~'Jkwng$. of th~ an..cjent. Persia 'were oof.lsi.ld,et-edl b¥ .suhra~rdJ ttl[ ha:ve' ,3J'(mined mp;~ khar.re~~,~the 'W'Wdom that is nece,8saty :fot, 'being a m8~' klng~

Su'hn\wardi deSicrlb~~ the a.bm~ ~s f@'~.~dws~

OJIDGe !th, , rSoul ~,mes ~>U'Qmrunated and, 'strong mr:oqgh me rays or dlvin,e' '~:ig'h t, it reaches ~he' thfiOt1!l'I;! of ki~ni .and - .c- ..:I~.A. d ., Uii

beoom _ s .luny :gl1ou,'n~~eIU, :m, p~ef" anc p,rospenty" - ~'

Ju 'we have discussed, SullrawatdI' s ~'iilgel0':~0'if u:rdtelS his onto'I:Qgy~, m,et~phy~ics and c08m~llQigy. Thls is n~l\iihere' more evid,e;n,itt; :tbarn'Th 10 his mYS!f:.i~aJ~ narratives. Once ~~in 'we' see that 'stt'ihJr:awardl"g analysis irs, e;~aoo,m~~dl uP'Qll. hI, '[h:e language ~f' mysdc;~s;m [tud practical reas@n~ng. Because ph,ilolSop,ldcal di~ODlt~rne alone do~s, not fUtil the :s,ir~'tu~ thirst [6f tb~ seeker, Sru.~h'~a.rd:~ trninslat~s, his, pbi10&ophical and islraqi analysis of ~ngelo1Q'gy in ro, dM.~ '~angu;a:g~ of pmGti~a~ wisdom, as 'we see in sllch treatises as 'Tlu CM'n~' ~f' GgJnkl.'1j; lMing and, TkI! ,&dr Im:~U~~a.

In Tb4 ,Gk4l"fj;t 7)1 G'fI.~l ~ "'inf~ we see ~~ dis[uss~~n, af SuhraJ\I!.1~.attdi~s c-o'imolo~y and onlio:~ogy lritiTin t:'be CJonm~t of a seeker's qTl!l.e~t for truth. Whie:n the' stijikJ,eav~s t~:e pl.ieasure8,~qfth!e b~l¥ and enters tbe desert, he ~S' ten old menfFl wi10se 'h~au:tY' and ,§Iory are mesme:riz'ing., H~\Vjng' b€e.~. ftsJ~[ed. where 'th!ey come f-rom ,. fbe IGld, man wh@, oop:res,enm ~fi anleU,c ord,er says) ~e ,~u'[e 3" gIiOtfP

H'Vrawk ... ShaJ't~ii.r..l~ftJ.WJM=1

~i1: .ti~ 'Ir. j,,:~,~,=

JI'k\ . ~~'Jr . _ i~~'~I·~~

, ,

84.

SUhraw,l;rd~ and the School of ll1'u m~uaition

and haee become what'Suhraltf.ardl cans "brot' aers of purity" can return to tbe angelic orde r ~rheve the¥' 'belolng. ,As '110 the p'roib~,em 0.( dJ .. e unchangeable and immutable nature of the' 3Jn.gel~ 3~fbJd, the ve'q' act of emanating; whidn implies the oeeurrene e of motion run angels, ~he sliNk ash how they carne to, have children. The saul

h ]-d 'L.'~·~I 'iIl,.,- '~I" "~I .. L. 1..",' hi

poses a rat er iG' , piE:11.WOS:0p.!ll~,I·,ca,w issue, name-w,' I!J.H~' relanons - IP'

between change and sameness in the created domain, The old master offerrs an ex:planati~o~l vhen~;by' he lm,flreg.ruues '~~a bla,c'k slave," wbo ~:yr.nb'oliles m.e corporeal wodd{l \rithout a. i[Ju~nge' occurring' in hLm. H:avrung questioned rhe tenth a:ng~.ic order's relation with, tbe corporeal 'odd I! he siJl:ii then questions 'its relationwith Ood and whether the old master pnuses Godl., The old master replies:

A~i()rpti:on in dlwne p.resenrce' does, not aUow.for p,misin:g [Him] j' and. :~f there 'be praISe', :~:t ,is noa by virtue OIf wn:gue,;, no monen 'QJ;' movement is. associated, wm,th ill. z®,

"The old, man. G~briel, me'aEchange'~ ,of revelation and me Inter mediary between 'the oo'lpo~eaJ and incorporeaJ wodd.~ ~beR teaches the :salik the eseeeric secrets. necessary to. understand the true meaning of m€ QI)Am1 \--·dl~,c'h is, n one othe'r'than the secret of ereation,

In a esoteric phrase, the' old master eells the sillilt., 'that, "everything i,n ,th,e four corners of the world ,~s due to the wing of Gabriel, ~'<I R\eten~,Lng once. ag,a1.n. to 'tfli!e emanationistic scheme (If ltghrs~ d\e old ,mas't, 'r' in,~,~cmtes that God's words are 5'0 lum~no'u.s and profound 'that from t'bem comes it Imve'.r 'word and SQ' on u;___otil the "last 'W01~S, which are ·the' w0'rdsc of 'G'a~briel and tl}!e ;~p:~dts of man (,arwa.{l) are from UlruS '[last word. ~J5 The relado.;nsbi.p 'between words and spirits 31$, realities in the a.rche1typ3,m l\1.odd. ?iU he elaborated on in the forthcommg section but h sufftces 00 saytb;a't Subra(\'l,ardw 'USes vartous Qur.:~nl~te references a'S well as other saere- ~ ! seripcures to allude to the tw.o-fold fUfi,cdQ,D of a,ngels, as en tines be.bv~en the '\1IJorld Clf l~ght and the world of da:rkn,ess. It i~ nc .. :,e,-

1". ..,t.... S L di "d M ~II 0, J:: 1

\\liQ~h,~y H~·adt. . ·U.l,\lr:awc~u; 1 COin/St, en tnerumtncus nature oJ.;ang;e' S to.

be 91n, added relation (lflijah) not ru'llh .. erent to. angels, The angl;lic order are con't~ngen't he1.ngs~ from th .. e closest 'to the light oflighlJ

Babnlau,. tQ t'b,e ~asr on,le" Gabrie' . '

G~brie~. hQS two wings:: ~ibe rwg'b t Wing' is plu;~e t~ght and! the entiNty of that ~nootporeal wwog is a relation (i~lif~hi) or hris, e~d.strem'Th,ce to God. And th,ere is, a left [wiQg]1 ,vith :a m~rk of

86

:: . -.' ~,

PHUoso· hieal Sufism

- ,

darkness on ,'- , . ~ that is, a s,~gn of its ,e:x:isrence which has one-side to non-existenoe, If you 'vmew' ~ts existence frn,m a re'Eatt~@nal pointwieh 'Goo,~, h c'xi:s.h, [because QfJ His exlstenee, If 1'00, vie'w ,its, essence, ~.t is 'worthy of no~<xi;ste,noe. .. rffi

if! THE' r-- A "D,C" HE' 1!'f"I'U'1n,.;\'I' ~'''l:O''RLD'' -' M· 'UND' .. " "'''D' rl,.il'.A'G- :fA 'I' " r:reo ~'" 1,~, ,,' T,.;..:_.l. I,rri...lL., '1'1'!_', ·· .. 1 I;: .... c ." • ,'..,~ntAn:~ .I~~'~

ln, his nurnerous treatises, ~;nd in particular The Chant of G:alniel~s ·Wi.ng~ Subta:wa'rtH aUu.de'iS t,G th e ar~hGty:pal realities wh'ru.ch iW~JUl,m,in,ated. human tacu.hy ean 'Mtne.M~ The nature of the arehetypal wOi£ld is such tha't hu:manconsc~,Qusness ean have a viaien of these abstract and incorporeal '.:ings,. Imaginal beings are realities tbat transcend place and 'time but a' ,e as rea iji if not mi)[te rea,.~ dum. dle c@i:po'r-eal world,.

Su:hmwardi." s.pe:alting as a siilik" asks, Gabr,ieI, to disxc1U;SS ids

,. ". - 11 "'" t.. ....... .J,.iI!i. T' 'b a;rf.O' cenveesat ;"n;III'1I' ~~!lli' ~ iii> "'n.i1i~I ..... ulfC'

ong,wnall ~uuu.r\..,.. ,'.U"';III.L~ '~~'1Ii I, Y .... ,IIl,,Qi' . ' . >!I,VI'!~, ~~ 'I;r.I'''''~ ,~go JIliyt~llunra.

I asked from wHich direction harye you." the, ,ex;al~d on es come .. 'The old man wbo was at the corner eplied 'that they are ,:1 group of incor_'o'f1ea:~s 'who have come i rom "the nowhere but :P'F~~'pe'fiou8 13Jnd t! (n;ik:~jii' abii4JI.. I d,~d. no t un.del(standdla.it~ so J. ou.lced to. wbic'h ,ntBjo;D, 'tha.t ~d:ty Delongs,? He' said "It belongs ~ the domain Wh'€iie the ," ndex finger can not poinl to," So. . came to knO'W that the old master knows [ tile secrets] .2:;-

Deserlblng 'the ar,metypal worlds, Snh"ra"V~~looi uses several terms !that are uniqu.eI' 'his own is'~,cb as '~nowhem but prosperous ~a:tl.d.'l' (niilttu.:ia ~'j :ruc~nous, bur p,~~ns.pe;r.'ous land j~ (khor,jlJ dl1ilil} and "the ,city of the senl" '(s.AaArutii'rH'ja/n)j adl ,ofw'hich. he id.en,dfies 'as. the eightb domain ('qUm-i Aasht'um>~ Henry Corbin refe.n. to this do' ain as 1n1t,,,utw i~nalis'a:ld considers, h~ 1.0 be a, level g' .' real~ty that has no ex;ter.nral existence and 'yel is, real, in mc~ more real than the, rex:tema] world,~ the seemingly real, This real wo:rld tOefl&fore is me' -Ui'ma\gJrtal~! as opposed 'to '~itf1a:ginaryH' which im,pties, b oth nfln .. real and non-existence,

Fjn;t, let 'Us see what the nature of thb~ iM3J.ginal demain ~s' which Snbrnward'~ considers to be. the onto,miGgical origin of the cor= poreal world. Sl~. ''hrawanli considers the exlsren thd cause of the afich!eqrpa.l wod.d itO be ,thre t~attidentd intieU.ects'" wbich .have comle 'to. 'be ~n ,a 'variety of fO,nDiS., ,A1TJh.ough ~h.ese' i~ teUectui~, en:utics EWe' snbjec:t,., qua]ity:~ quantity and many other accid.enm1. :~l'l.tribu'te,s,

8'

guhrili;ward~ and ~'bte, Sdlool ~f Uluminat]LQ(fj,

they ~' 'in(t.~l~p"end6~llt of matter" It 'is im:~ eratlve to, IUIOW ~h~;t for SllInrnwafd.i these ~su;spending a;r,eheltfP<lSJj, {m~tn,'U.l,m~ ~aUa'{rhl are

, ,

dirlfer:ent thmt ~PJg_w,~s, rot,1rIS g,r Mrih.'~typ!e,s, wh ilCh 'he te,g-afds to 'be

in tile fixed. wbdd O'Lf':aoch .. f'types, The Sltspe,[ru.ding ar,r:h,etyptBS which

, - ~ ]~I r ~'=J',~ ,', ,:!'.=,f":!'.) d o<L ' l'

are l:jiel~ee'.n the 'C:Qf'pO~a.J W'Q"r, !Q, l \amm..t ,~~~i!'t an cue mlg-e LIe

TWor'ld, (j{ alorm~' f~hri;O!fi.) ar~ n.~r, !on'~y n umerons but 'aJslQ inde-

,,-, d" ,t' 'f-' , 1.;.; ',' " .... ,' - .... 'if~'I"n;'" m;~"'h"'" k ,a;'bI' ~'I1":O,1 'i"i;" 'IJorlc.:'tI' it'1;;.:o:Io, A>U ~A~"~' ,,"-\&Ino ~,QH!' ~f.l - em -0 , ,p\L~.Ge !::d]Q, ~~~t~~, 1,~·,1, ~;I'!o,It",~~l~.J'il!! 'l1!!ll,i l 1..cJ,.I,1!;,.,O ~lI'I!.~"llJj,itU, O"-PI,J,~""

are unable (\13 see th,em e%:oept fun rare and ~,maU ;gUm~p&es\0291

ThJ8' imagi~al 'wQJ\ld is 'tn e ,tpi'rilual tG'"pogt,ap'h, ,(}f a dom~n th~:~ can only ''b:e seen 'by those who bave turned a~f fw,m, tlle .fttwU' com,mu~u and f@ly on .spiritual herlf~en_,euitks, l(to.'~W'l1)~. it. p~~ound isSlll~ wh~~h he di$eQS~SJ 'ooi[h in dl,e al:r:TalmiWt- M, and i4.~i

, .

"~ ...... .s: . .J!_~~1 .e' ....... ' - ~- ",1.. ., - ....... -[ _. , - .~ , e . -' "iI"~,'_ oendin - 111 . ''i,., ·t. ,~ .

ll:~, " ~e;u:l.g tne a[1~~~c_yp~' .req:u,wres ~,lii:dl;SLie-n lng ~l~iI, ~I~S al£we-:s

in o:n:l-ertQ t{-Q b~rattd. what Suhra(W,ard:i s;ym bQ]i.(;~11' refers to as m,@j

t1..;:r'm,o,11'1I(1I1"I~iL" Th-' e ft A;ffl.~ ~~, .... !E...;c,;ID, ",,:L.fO m f'im'iJill!iit"t",o~'~c, C1.'.,j;.eo,;:: "v-fi i"~"~ 'W: ,\0· rld

~~I ¥~'~-~~-~~#l\!! 41.: , I ~~ ~~~~; ~'~&~~"1.~~ I~[.l'~ .. 'J-~II.~.lr " .. IUJi]! tLllf,~P~.W: ILIII.i1.~ . ' ,I: ".

of sus,pending areh .. ~types, where' 8UC~, spiritual endt~,es reside,

'if ,.;ik~,"_A~'I',t~{t. - ~ S h 't'· ~ ~.'II ",. f· .. I!..,

Jl:fl- illa~le ~;~f~ ~-'~~i· :0 'm'Wm"~ i menaons se:veraJ C~D,es a I~J.I!e

hr.iagblal wolr:IDd, all ,!'jlG'wh.irl1 bel@~g ~ the e:i,g;i]Jdl, domain, Thley' are

l~'I.,lJri "" J"~:r.; - A H' '=~I - .L, ., h- '....:u . _. '~- - 'lb., ,-- ,~~, 'A,... - .,..J'

,iu,U,~~ll, _ wt:na :afip, ,alifrtijl\ sne cmes W 'IM.L are 11lO'WJ!lilUe' '" ~~C-P'fW

lng £0 Sult~dIi'j, iD, ehe last O(O,€,~, w0nde___rs, e-~dst.l\s, be ~I~tes:: '~An.'d t'her,e are eigrlu domains t'beoom~ JaiJ.i~5.~c Jim"T$:i ~d n-;'n[(J.Jli4 [he SU,l:uitant:e '6f 'Wf:)nd,er~ ,~~~,

:FQE SIU,hra,ward~"~ Bii.\Tfalyd Jie.prresen:H the ilycbeltypes of the

h ]- 00-' d- , h h · fu" , • '. d

.-. , - "~. - ~-. ';' -,' _. . 1 ", - . '< 1'-' . I'l -' .' . . L: . I I"' ~'1" ~ I '-:'

. eaveD=¥ '~_ :_,U;~·~ W",IiQS~ ,arm,oruous . ,nCbOnU],g PFO - gO~S ,il

,subUme~ mUi:dc mat a-n~, tho9~ 'who ~n, dis~,g"'en~rs, and seekers of oi':1!.. ... lli'T'!'III,.,th .. ," r hi 'I -' :aJ4, I' s: -iii ",'iL ,'L..-, tv..,..f ,1i,'~J .," fa "f'H:-~ •.. -0;,,"-1'."': 'lone U lUI, aUil , , e,ar," n,llaclll;,,~ 1IO','u,e ue:iliU "':1 Y'w' UHIl e won. _61'5 to. ':~rq:"'"'"'--it0

w.:td£h those. who have prUf:ifi~d themselves can o~'dy ~pel'icn€e' dl'r'@u,gr;h. m:e' Dinner senses, represents the' saerea world ~of Ole' $ra!JiS whos~'jou:mef has. reached ~ti climax, S,u_ht~~'a~~di :~U1Muogire~l me status of this perfect. man 'with GOO sJince' 'octtffil the'Sufi master and, God can ,c:reale ,archetype's~ 3" state Ori beiIJBg' S\ul1rmW"3ll'"cU ealht ~Ie'~ I(iu;tn}, ~e£el'[:ifi;g t~ dl_,e' ~urar~r~,e v~:rse' in WJ:d.,cn 'God ,creates the'

- =.miI--,l..:1 'by -~y;'_g "fi,;&D "ill..:!ll "" ""' ..... -'

W~iFJJ.iU .. . S~,'I!!l!l~,:' J.j';;i.; i1' d, 'rn'LW\a~,

- - '.- ;- '~' ~, - - - - ,- - -

4: VJ," SIO""N'""

.:. ", I I'

, ill ...... , .. ,'".

SunQwatdi. fcrmulaies a tlteo'r;f' '0f'vjsj,oQ based on his it~.um[fi'3don.iStt fdJeM ... Aooording to. him, kn,01vledge~' pM~I1cej the !~pistemologjcal basis 'Of me Wlm:q!' sma-C).}, provides a f-ramEwork 'wA'rum e~hd'rnl~ 'm~Qn~ in beth :IDm pbiysical md, iq 'runk::~~oc~~l oon~~~ $uh~rdi a;~~u~ th~t ~do;n,~' {mw/~k) ean on,If'~ p~a,~::iiD ~toEdan,re with, the pr1ncipl~ of iUUODnSldo:n" He ,mst mmtes 'llie e:'J{jsrlFbjg meorleSi of how 'rision ocwrs and Mleu ,~n, bis, O\m vi,ew~'~1 A006,rd.~ mg' 1(0 ~e' fll'S:t·lfhleoryj a '~' t~f Ught comes fr'Om the ,obj«'[ O'f '~erlcepd:on and in 'meet:Ln_g the .eye' 1ea~es, 8JD 'impreN:ion which. We 'c~

- -_. d .. L, 1~ ;..1: .. " '. alii 'Ii..

tbe '3,ot of seeinG" Th,e seeon IUlOO:ry takes 'y'Cw.e' Oip,pOMr~ :an~f:' v,

sayin,g mat:l :ray' of 'tight emmlRtie;S from, the' e,-ye~ m11~l:JLm~:lJ the' object and '~t ~OO$lutQte$ ili,e '~~ act of seemg., Suh:mwardi ,~jects 'both

'views .and tdFe:q,'~.iS)OM1 t'he@,ry"wih:icll is:. follows;; ,

On ce ydu. see that sight is, no( the ~o(rr;esp€inden'ee' eKE" the observed ,~:n thee' ~S' and is not dle exidng' of it, ray frol:ml, dl,,e ere,!" ~ben e'x'oept For tbe eneounter of the lit ;olqe~~t m,rJl. th~ healthy ~,e:~ it is nol 1~U)lyItJl:i~~ else" ~ .,', ,And Ole. '008U It @i' this e:n"couD'i1er in relga::rtl, to sigh! i~, due to if.h:~· ,absen.ce' of the veil between that whieJh sees ~nd 'mat ¥iHic~h. j;$ ~een~~'

And, the 'brothers. :~n :purhy llave :a: ,s.p'ecial ,~ltaruS 1.n tha~ m,e),

","'rA ,.y~I-!'£II; 11"'0' ~"",-"",,.,."t6' ' ....... - h-' ',- ItlJn;il!liillj 'ru .... iIf "','ii'\Ii:li, ~e~lr- ..:l,,;:;,p A""",~I,;Qiin- II" "'lio 'lil,.:ar liU~j~' [aU_',~ u. " ~~J ~~ ~ ~a!t~ e '7" ,Ir""~~~ w UiSlIL. ~.J;'~ ,~w \ u'~ ... ilGlIJ,],UJ.~I, ~, ~!Ij, iU]

lha:t smle- ,ws, ru:a,med f,e.",;,1I;,.1j

l&uhf.aw;(1[~di conclud.,es by S'aliyin:g th at the' ol,JJtwatd beau ti,~,s~, sba,pes :iUl d 'f0it~1$ leKf' thii wQrld bave their ~n;t:ologital (lots in ~h€ m~u,ntU$

, .' ,~,,~. ~d I""W 'h " 1 'Il!.. 'b- 1 -m f'"

~m~~}n~~" ;a, WQfw -_' 'W:id,e·· :~$ r,ea lu~iut aoce.ssil. -'\le' o.rn,~y to :a~ ,ew~

~I~ ~

N0whttelatld), me.r-eii'J,rlej ~$; th~' '~~e wh ~,ch 't~anscends WI€ w'O~I'\d.

88

SUhl\lWMdi~s argument can be betee~r :rof:mn~a .. ted as f~Uows~ The e:-x'ru:$.teft~e (~d)r €If an, exissent a bjeGt has a, pr€ieflCe ma:r.lhe' i~tiQ'na~ ~e'1f~' ,~,al--rn:tJ:fo' t{f,.,rti{fi,a~) comes tja ~:alme oo,ce >1£ '~S, w.IDiIIlrun

,- - , f ,. - Th- - £' " " . < '!!... ~' .. '

th~: domasn ,oJ 1m, 'prresen.o€',. ,-.,;=,f'e'lIQr,'e',,, lin .s~~~ng ,S()mJtb,ru:tng~ ,~'~ IS, not

ihe ~He' tha.t fhe' :~nJibjetl '5ee~ th.'e obJect ~bu:t. thalt it; ~s' the p~Jieate' of 'bA!e self 'ch1\t( !c~;m,pl\~b€'nds 'the 'preS'~n-c'e' 'o,t'me object 6,n~~ it 'm hI j,t'S, do:mah'.wi In ower 'fur t'llds in t:em~rtio'n 'to, t~ie plVioc" th!ere has: flO 00 fh,e! ,3,lbsen.ice of a veil <~ijib'j 'between 'Ule' hn0W~I:' ~d the krru.'PMiIJ m S~:llt~ me subjee~ bfdin:g~ mile! self (whjcn, :tot ,Suhrnw~lVi is Hght:) ~ ~om!l!S :runt-a co'nm,C't with, the object tha;:t 'IDS also In-umi[]ated.,~ then the seJlf ~witneMies,~~ (shahiiO the: idibjeecl., T(}), fl~lltify (p,e ~SSU€,~ olne (:an gi:V\~ 'the example gf :30 ['o~m with :S'e'reml p~d'ple in it; how~er, he£ll,lLllBe' the 'J"iOOmt is, da;r.k.fhr~y ean.niot see e~tll otbe:r--.. It iSI ~bly ~fter 'the Ii,go t is itpl'ned an that the, a're' abrJ.1e '~p s~ ·()ne an€1lmer,

f.~.Ir •• L ~ ,,',,: _...lI'. '. "'..;I tbe ~' 1:-<,- ~,:JI ;-,f '(.n'--'m·' -".;-,t·'···-· - 'i,)1I,A~'t!riW.'\war'Ul.1 anu ,1:iIIe "'CiI,I,~,Olll, ,~, uu , jl!nidJ. L0Ji1i

S.i:I1I~e self for Srahra',wami is li:g~h[ and obSi~'IVat~~fl 3;5, such 'fequire~ th €' p~e~en~e 01 Ugb t~ d]"en j,fiIJ, a, !,ta~m~n r. such as ~I know

D' jij ..,;;( 11, - - ..... - 'nl.... - - . .oillI wlfi 7.! . ...L . 1,..,'. . . 'f' !~~ '~I...:al bo h

Jt,~, J, as tne lL!Jlewe'[E' :an,Wl .r' 8 'u,e 'o,~e(;t ,0 ,t.x,I,ow~,euge· _' ~t .,'

depend on :~~g"ht as, the necessary c,gJlditi~Hl Eat me' ~I~' te ,RUGW' ~'P., jj

~'". ,unr~'JIO. "'PJii.:1' ,~; .. ~ I, ;~,I' ilr°,'I;i'~O:-''-'''"1I'' 3, t';,~ j-~ ..lIa '1I1-u.' ._~, .... ~~\<JI & 'Ii 'W

In lCqnJu.ni,lc:don wwdl, the e;xp~afllat;~.6n '(6nrerning the 'very act of Sleeting" Si~melthing bas t€I, be ,said about vision in '~ts int(dlectu~l '~~nt€'~t,. Fo;r Suh:raw:ardi, inteUe!lcd .. on is a, form of 'V:isJi0n (, m~1;,idtIk) dlrougl1. 'wh;icb. ~u~ sees 'toe a:rc.:hetypt:s in the iCma,ginal world,. Irru. fact, '00' thi~~k. in. me ~uth,IEDti.t sense is ~bO 'wimk

f . h h h~ 'L ....l 1...:'1 :1Ii,., lves t '1,,","· l-.

0; t e ~!W:C . :6'~es W . sen ae D1@te'fiu' tnemse VOles, to speeu.,muon u~l

'ilk 'I;~ . 'II 1... ..... , ,U ", ... 'IIl.., 'h " ,~l - ., T'I .. ~. ,.

W,~:~~8e r\'2~~Ujlqr ~1m onlY ~ -Sl~enllllJw~ug,' ]:nteJ!JJ}~9UGln" _I A~$ ~ an

e:M:ttem,ely p~gfound point 'wbich. S:uhrawa:mi 'raises since the' ~er.Y ace, lof inteUe:ctjun neeessitates 1Ene' existence lof an runteUectua] world whose residences are me' ;~lr1Che~'es. It ts note\lltortb:y that Suhr,award'i -dj.~):un~sh,es bet'~ee;n tb.e.se' a:1:chelo/p~~ Md PI:a;t'l)~~ a;rc'hetypCil anOIa. states;:

Tbese- ~\1s:,eIld:in_g -forms are n ~It like Pta to!;s in '("hat. P~a'w;~~ forms are ,fix,ed luminarles ill th~, 1M miFDJ ous ]Jnt~eU~ctual w~rld i i .. bUlt: dl~se' ,ar(he,typ:es, are "S,y.sp.endil~,g, ar.M!d, de not h~~ a plac~ so ,wl is allewed for them to become 'the. man ifestatioas

~f -h· '""'. - 1d]'1 ~

0: 'l' u· 'ripr'.11 s-s -

J\s we d-ls£ussed~ ~;bjec'ts. ,of the' In~teU€Clfua] wodd had tbemselves beerr:~. ~s:ee]l" with Iih-e' ~ye's ,of the Mn]'w~~rs~,'~. ~ll'reneclt' C ~ilf~ii ,l:ullt)" :i 'viS\~an t11;aJ~~ :~ Qitllr possible :Fnr ~he "brerhren of Pu:ri1i;V. ~ This is

. '" '~. '" '~i:it f'IIk" 'iii,.. C£. hi'

~q.uJw~en it b'} pr'esen,ce~ ,a, ..:orm, Q. ve~ng l!Jjeiore an 0 ~ect ar

, 'f-' ''L.~ Th' =:.11 f 1r' 1 d 'L,~ h

~eeln.g~' an OiUJeiCt.\ .r 1S p:resenoe OF' m.~.e 0: KTIOWI,e-' 'F W~.!Li.i( ,

belongs to 'U'Uf! inreU~c~uru elite is only attarned aft£r' o.nf hss corne to knO'w one' S -self., This :p~in~ wffiU be ~futther elaborated upon.,

,lCt ''U''l.:TO·· . 1i~'1'1' 'E'.ftG· _ 'C .l.. ~:fti"I, 'n-D'C'c:!;EJJ..'·1"~:1I ''UI'E'' '1(,iII,TI::I"n 1I1"J!!;..lO· .. ' -.:&m' M' . ·O····'D'E" ,,~ ~,."<- ... ,-,~ _J -cL n.iJlt'llJI CI~~nl,~~!I! ~I ·'F".D~ I~DJJ/.··· '!F,'g : ..... ~

"1'$·-'" ·M··' ,o-'nv~

" ".~< .~ .•

S~nce' Subl"award:~ mllt.s ~h,e 'CO.m)ICe.'pfS, e.f tWf' 'se:Jf~ :~ighl, ~and 000.-' SciOi~sness, t.o 'be ,~quj.v,a]jenn!l it f(;)Uows th~[. whe;n, tfuJ,~ ,self is, m.'i))~e -jJ~.uminakd ~ d1U.'! dQmaln of h~ p(t'es1en(}e ,wncn.~8lSe8.,., ,As s.u.ch~ when, the Qnto,l,ogica~. dis~anrce ~f ~ 'bein,g ~ !th.'e :~t.gh,t -of U,gh.rs d~c:reases~; th.e power @If one'ts p,resenoe h:'l'Cf'eases ,a'Jrru.d . .$0 does the domalin g.f

9(}1

'I:dknophk a:1 Sufism

o'n.e''- $A m'o.tiledg'e;., He whO" kn,~, more is mere'f~"re' <IDRt,olog!k-~U~ spea'king cl,oser 'to God and the~€'fo:re' "is-more." Tll'is "is-ness l;ll er presence m not only :3 srams which is, 'WI be. ,gained. dl r~u'gb the 'puts:u:lllCe of in t'eUetl':uaJ. wlsdODl but ;31:$0 req ruJ'~:re5' ~p'nt~dc:rung the

~~ ~~, 'O:ii!~1,.. 1.:JiL.iWtJ ,t':, ,_.lULl.

Ttu;; 'f-oUowin,g fOi,nn,tlj,~a d:e;IDonstmtes Suhraw,ardl' S v~ew of the

relationship 'beave~n knowledlge a:n,d, p(reseru~e':'

'E~is~ft,e~' (~Ji'!) ~ P:f€seftce (~n¢ttr) ~ "rellie~J,edn~'s-s'" (~~.i,llT) 'To ilrgue for pmitii@n" Suhrl~ifardi. :nrst demonstrases 'that ~~'IH' is no'~hin;g bu t pU~r'e' U:ght m its "ono'rol.o~.ICat~. .sense, :fl~ then U$eS rhis ,con1C'~u~ign i'n. ordler IQ fOrnlulilt!t;e Jru:~£ thleo(ry Of ,knowletd"g~ by pr-esen,ce., In a section enlit'ied ~He YihoP,erceiv.es 'His Essence as, Berung' In.cOilPon.~;al L'ighl~, Stdl'Q~di, states:

Eve~ryQ':l1e who has an e'~e~ ce is net ignomnt 'Q:f' ,~t~ D Ott is he io the dade D 00' til.e' 3!ppear.aoae' O'r hirs, essence to 'him"! ~And, it k. not ~ dark. oor-po'r,e31im;y .cgh~J in gdle~ since lum'~nO'~s COI~,p;(i)rtl:;aU~Y' also ~~s not a, li,gftt ~n its essence, le~t ,alOl,ne: darkness, So, he :is, pUl'e' ;il?lcQql.,re~d light wtd~h, has no sp~thlL lucQ!tion .,'\to

M I ba.v~ d~ussed p:rrewQwsly~ bY' '1i,g,bl~' S\lb_nw,ardi means til·· t ,ph~noD1enon mf'w.hh;:ib. l'1,othLrtg more :a,ppa-r~rru; GllJD be, conceil~ed~ 'Deeming' the self in terms ,Of Hght and; light in 'fd,enns, of ,appm"eJ1'tf..HeS$; allows Suh:mwardj~to d:rnw' the -Following conclusion; Th~ self i~ :Q, simp:[e:'~ s(ingi1e ano, :iD.diVisib:le~ ,e~tit'~, :sblJ'~ if ttlris were noe the' case" it 'wotdd have to' bee dLe!ined in term.s €.tf its eo'mpon~nt:s, That: j,mpUies the' components wo:uld have to, be' mQ.re QxiJomaJ,tJlc than the se:~f~ whic:h, is. co-ntm'ql to eur JdJ!e'fil1jj:ti~n of tfte' self.

Sn'hr~n~,M-drrt M"3um~nllcm be dem,(lRstra:tecl as m:UOW$i;

1., Knowlcdge"of the se:W'is; tbe same as 'the very reality Gl'r'he sen: 2~., The reaUty of the se'l!f is nght~

' .. ', 3~ :Knowledg~ of fa'e self i., Ugbt.

4L 'L~hl can be unders~od <ilo.ly' by 'being hl, its p([',e~n,'Cie.

!t 'KJ1!'~w~edge of the' self can o~n'~y be' understood by; its 'very

'presen]~.,

AlUulu,g;n Suhmlm'rdi a~es no;t p(n~s~n't 'his a'fgum,€nts ,sys,t,e:ma", tic aU, ;lna g,llen. do~s nol1lml~e ,c:~,ear thee J:ielat~o,[}s:~,ip ma:t em~iQ; be~ee;~. Hrb't~ '~elfi' pr:e:s~lIic.e alld lI:loWledg~~ 'bis a:r:gumcnts C~. be cons'tnli:te,g, in a num,'be'F ,€if ways., F,or ,exa:m,pl,e~, g~ 1f~!e 1:@sls of the f:o~h~~Mn:g s1'a;teme:nt w~ can cclJe'E" a dHIerent. venioml Of·th,e· 3,llg-umen L

91

Sull~w~fdi ~~d m:he SchQ.,,1 ~f nIDum]nat~GIin

He' wh,o, can un_aef,suuld hts 01m namre W:i.U be iDic£n:-,pM'ealJ ligbt.!l'~

"rIi,.l1 e . d· . "'. ~ 'nlil .'I.!..'

Da8eu, 0(11 our :~oregoin:g , 1 :~S£USS'10n", It :w.Owl,OW5 'u:w2Ut;

1 'God. is ~~gh't~

2' al~D:eS5,~j, is lig"h~.,

3 IfIII'~ness,h is, Godl.,

4 He 'who 'kn«ws llUr~i~elf, kROW'S God.~

Cod or. me light ,of igh ts, omnipresen t ,and omnsscient, makes seeing fMlJ5S~ble' by'virLllE of '~ing ~lbe light of hea~en$ and ~arth" ~~ as, 'the, 'Q.uMn safs~ n the external and pbysica] sense, m,e' l~ght of lights ,provides 'lb,€: f,uete~sary c!l,)nd,'wtion lor o;~erv:al'ruo'n, w'bereu in the case' uf' wnne:r senses omniscience and, omn ~,pre~en.oe stan d r~ direct relationship ~tfl one 'if_fto:'ther'~

The kft()wledge crucial to' the au:aln:n'H~n It of the partieular mcde of being wHich ,$uhr,awardlc refe~ l~ as, p,reien,ee' is rSpecifica]ly s.eU'::' know'I,ed'le~ Xnowled,g,e ,Of ~h,e: self, [as ~h,e' divine substance best{lwed. upun US!~ is ft1n'r!bnn,eFl'taJ~,y kn(Jlwb,:~d!ge' of' the :DiVine,. God th,erefore beeomes dl,e focal point 'where '['he concepts ~f se"~!, ~~igb,t~ presence and kmi!pwledg~ come wge'th~r inw,a, '!.\l!nified w~'~le~:It~,S in lieu e:f such ;3, vi~w 'thart 5uhrawaroi offers his lep,istem,l!)lal¥ both :iD '~ts pmctical domain and ilb ~ur,~'ly p'hi~o$ophi,(;a~ and 'wntelectuaJ ~Fj,S~', Knowledg'~ ofthe.selleen be attained thI1ou.Jh the ~~" piIYth~ 'which we have' de,eribed hl '(be 'Previous cha:pit,er., :K:n ~Ifed.ge (if the' self' and how it is tl~Ja;Jt the sell k~~$, ~f~'[lf ms the' subJee:t of '$'u'b:mmrdr r$ phiJos~phi€aJ ep~l~v,ng]agy ttt ,"1il'ruch 'we now mrn,

Suhr~r:d.~~'s, 'hlle(Jry 'o:f :kDO'wledgec ~onTsists, of 'ow.n segmell'ts"" First,

, ., ., .. '~'Ik,~ h C 'b - ~...l'. ",."

'them' ,ws, Jme ,nec:omlt;n,lC,Tj,o.n ~Bt seg'm,.e.nt J.n, WillJ.ilc·, diU. m:wal·ul ersn-

cizes 'w:riQUS theories of knowled:gLe!j, in, pa'rticular 'm.owled"e by de:n:nUruon i sense p.erce'pdQ'n and ,(I pn'or:i c .. o;n,ce:p ts~ He;flr:st offe~rs. ill series of ~gum,enl!S ro establish t'hie me't th~t JWorte' of dIe !e~~,$tiD.g' theories of kn(lwled;~' :~.e'ad to eertainty, ,Arguing. that a~thoogb each t'h~e0ry'of l~now:lle~l1e leads 00 one ~pect of ,re~a]iJtf'~ they all fai~

j' -'. ,,),. ,,1,· .. ,·, -h' ' '" ~.,= ".] '...I, - ,'", . .' ' . 'U{v" ", - "e ~'IIi.,.', P" ' _ ~" "t"i, ,- ' , '.'lb,DlII",IIIiO_

. t,p e:rp' aID ow ,ty,li()W leu.ge lIS ,actua~,1f t .p~SI.~le., , ,enpa'l/eUCS L. ,~.l.~

'ton~: ,offer 'at best: a, Ihnited tb'eo~r:y of ,Ik~'ljfQ,y~ed.ge.

Second,"~ 'h31,vJng ofFered hi,s Jcci'dqu€ g,f ~~;h€ PerLipated,cSI~ SUbntlV,~:u:dl gQes O'D to ofter b is, ,awn e.pis~lm,olQglc3] vie·wkJlQwn as

'Phn~lph:lc~l Sn:F.ism

~'kr.H$)W'~edgle by presence" wh:h!l'!J. e~plain;s, how k1:uJwl,€d,g~ 'M the' SJeU' is attained,

"~'e wHl first tU~GUSS S~hrawardi 's c:rid_,qu.e 0·1 the Peripa,tetic,St,and then, ;analyz.e' 'his, th,eory Gf :knO!wl~d,e '~y p,resence'.

I ~1'O'·~··''I'iJ''j' ',?na,E 'BY D'EFlNITION

.!II jI-'W;'1J. ,"~... ,., , '"

Trau.i1t~onanY',' "definition" h as been 8, :rneiU1rS,.thrnug'h 'which k~owledge' ot the'" external world . can be ~rla~ned" Thi~l me thbd, " wbi?ch was primar.f1j' d,ev,eloped by Plato, and of~f!n referred ~'O_ '~ 'C~.e' ~Sacra,t~c M,ethbcl ~'!' <I!t! is based on :3, dialogue' In 'which ;3" "th:in,g~~ j~S defined and rede:fin~d until we can 't'DOW' 'what mat "thl~~' Q'tIly.ls:. It:ri~'tou,e e"rua.bOlaltJes, on this, ,theor;y ,of k.n~wledge by ,d.efin,id?'D whefID' he :iU":gues, that definition should reveal the true ide~ tit! ;01',~a ming 'b¥ dj$closin:g ~ts e'~setrDj'U:a~ n:aItUI,e'. N.I, he states ~'D\~finibo~. ,~ held 'to, eoncem e's~ential nature and :b; in e'V1ery' esse uni'Versal.'~

SubrawaFdP,s the$)ty of krtowl1ed.ge 'by dei1nit~,o.~ is a ra,PP'I'Och& ment between Plarto's and ,Ariswde'!':s, p'D.s.itioft., It is an artt(em'pt t.s.' reconcile 'the Per.rupa:ted,(! p,hHo~:ftphy Qf Arw~ItCi,(I,e and 'tb~ :ilnteUe~~ tual intuieion of Plaoo :into ,8, sing'~e ,an.d,unftled 'iliet)ry; '0f k~n9,w}.edge, Sl#lhrawa.td.'i 's nodon O'f 'ltftow~e(d;ge' ~Y' ?,e!fmition", d~s~~te ]l'is, disagreemen t wffi,th dl,'~ 'P~~i:p3\teJtit!i!, .remam s rather s;rum,n~r to tbeil~,. HoweYef;~ he a;ttempt$, tOi 'offe1r ehe view ®bat an :adeq,uaw' definition. is one t::hi!J,t. mOot ,only tends [0" Cc3J,ptu;ne, tHe' essence of a, thi~ and, its ,ni~adon tip -ruts attributes, lJIli[ alse 'hri'n~ a bout a '~-, .... ·iii'T"!i'iI.--;r"i;v 'L-'"'""'l',i:~~"" ,Mo, '~''''''''''''nl- e's wews ~nd these lllf pr~a m .

.lILlIl~llrJ;~.~~.lIJJ'l: ~'L ""'F~t~~'11 ~.~~,v,_ '. - ' ". ~ ..._~, .. ~. - .\ .. , ,. ~ .. I. i.J

In 'h~s borl;k Tlte PhiJlJ:Sl!JP\i-y ftlnluminat~(dI;,: SUhmwardi offers h.]~ criticism (),' the' P,eripa.tetilcs In a ehapter ern!J"tid~d ~.De'strn,ctiQn of the P'eripaJ,retics~ ,RJldc€'8 of Defini non ~~' 'by a~uin~ that Pe_ri~a!t~t~,'G_&" in d:lstin,gQi~hin.g, 'ro~~~en "gen,e'f~~ essence" (jtlfS) ~d "speCific differ,encet'" (J~,&J ~ h~ve' mad,~ a :grave' '1'n{s_'[a'~i3,., ,., ,

It is :importa.nt tQ' ~aliz:e that des,~\it~ Sru.dl.mwardi',s; cril;~£~m of the P,er.~,pa,'t.et~lss on 'm,e ~su/~iett of defin~,doll, htt., d:oes ~l_"z;t dm.~mxi definition as, an e:ndremy ill'va.11id means of ~:tmm'ru(lg' knawl~dge', Whaf; 'he is trym,g te ',~h~) is allude to tbe Um.rum and, inadequacy', of d.efinitioD in ar:r;~\!inl at ce,rt;aiID.ty~ As we will see in his other WQ(fbJ he' elaborates ,Om] th€:se lP:mb~e\ms :a,'rnl,d, :3iFgUes tbe· c'ODCi:mdans UDder which definition could -a.ell. as ~ m.e·,~n $, of :attainin,g knC1WJ,etlge. Le~ w now 'turn ~b ,ex.amine- Suh:ramrdi'l $, vhel-'\I" o£ d,e{fi:rn~.tion wn order 'to fQnnuhtte his, tlH~cO~ of aefinido,n .. ,

• ,~i \~.

g,:g

S-uhra,wardi and d]" SCbool of Ulum,~na,tion

Subrawardi in T/te'Phiws0l4,' ,of lllumittUltio,no1S as well as 'the Con-

- .,,,,,--..A6' d t: ',I. ~:r.. c • ...Al d h ' "

U"..f!at!w;~' , an ~c_ , tw' JlntlmaUf.f1ts'"'- c ,e'V01)es a Co , apter to thie analysis of

the theofY ',of defirnll[l,o.n" In, the secoed chapter 0:1 Tie In~imat'iM,S: he argues" mat ,ruJl ~s not S'm:fie~ent fer a deiln~don -of 3ln, e'x:isle'nt bem;g to di~close only. the essential nature of that thing, since other all -ribnes, of (1, th'mg should also 'be' eonsidered as part of thi. id€ntit)~ of a thing even though they :may 'be of an acciden tal natU'fiC. Tbe' refore, a de~finiti,on should include not 6nly the essenee but o,tb er elements as, we; 1.

A fQ:~frnu:la, (qa'Wl). i~ indicative 'of the' essence of a thing and oo,mh~ne's (,ajma) all of its eonstitnent elements, Re,garrd.in,, " ~be prjn,dple 're;imi ties, it [t . e formula] is a syn,th(sis r( tfBitl6)

,of their g:ene'm 31 ' d difterentia,."s

Tb~SI 1$ 3J, radKaJ departure 'lfr~m the Msro_Jian app'f;g~ach s;~n1De its unde,rlyirilg .:sumpdon is·tl1at the' identity O'f a thJ'~.ng not only r[O.DSLSts of ~Jm essence but iac.tl\Jdes its other a®tritn:~tesc which, are.also important, 'The !oHl,e-r si;gn:irti.mnee of thilS 3Jpproachis thal if the' diHeren tia or ~'th~ panieular' essence" '(j04l), is not known, then the definition of that thing remains lncomplete. On. 'the basis at ,suhmwardii 5 ilj'1~-, ment we can :anive at 'the foUowing MQ ,oorne~usicf 1$:

] Sinoe we can neve':£: know all the ~consdmie'nt elements" cIa 'WJDg" it can never be' defined pmpe,fly' and :ad.equajtely and the~re,{ofe it cannot be knownt.y' definiden,

'2 If a definition should :include not ,only ,genus, but also all 'he differentia and. other eonsrituents of a iihi "g~ tbat necessitates an .a prigrj 'koowJ.€dge of tht, dirffel'entrua sjnce· tb,e difliercenda are an re'x£1)[~8,I,ve piroperty: ,of an rexis1tenit being ..

Subnwalrdi 's treatment af me' topic ·of d.efin-m'Hon in 'The. iw.timmions,j which is done . n three seCI "o~nsll (4:Essen.ifltal ',a,tu:re/' "Descriptien," ,aod'tb,e ''''FaUa·cie.s in the 'Co:nstrucdon;arnd Use of Definieion .. ,"-'49 is follmted by an even more e~te;n8ive treatment of the 'toplic ip, the 9.J.~Mu:~ha& 'YihaJt, foUo~, is a hri,et'revWew of l~brawa:_rdi"s 'view a's, ,iUu!urated in. twelve different. se.:;ti9DA of thJ! ul~Mu1inlpi~,50

Having defined five diife(fent types of' detmitio([l", SuhRw,ardi continues to, analyze the vrery,compliicated msue of the n~Ia:tiQnship between mental concepts, and tb eir 'corr.es:ponding ;O~ects in. (he €;R:temal W'Qdd'o, He' ,a:rgues that 'whilrt} it. is, ,cunc~dvable 'to define a tb~Di so- 'd).at HiS, genus. and diftere.ntia remain. united it ;~s :f.i .. ot posmb e to dj() 810 hl Iieg~ to 'the class.of those things wno-:se genus

94,

Phi,ru,Qcsophw(~d Sutrl1m

and differentia are one and die same, such as (ol'ors.5,1 A color, be says, is not like Man is a ratlonal animal ~j in m:at there wotdd be a 'COml'~p~ of malll and 'a 'rati.on~U'ty S;Q' t'hmt 'the latter 'ws" a predicate of the former. Color is a gen us wi th ou r a diff~ren t ia, therefore ~ no d:djnitioiftof iii. can be offered. such t-hat. it would encompass its genus and differefu:la.

From the above argument Suhrawardi concludes the fQ,l.o:wiJl;g:

1. Peripam:rftic.5 are "TOng in a:ssumi lJJg that d,eflntdon can be used une.qu:irvocaUy and M(hout any gU3J:tw'c~l~ion la$ a means to attain. knowledge ln, this case alone (.i ... e., cqlors) we elearly realize the Hm~Ju of de-fin itien wn that ,mt is only cap;a]b~re of defin:m:g certain

thingrS·

2 Coler can never 'be kno1WliJJ bY' definition since eotor tan not 'be

deflfied b,' someth,ru og other than it.iclI.

'Ii' T'lt,,~ c~~'" ~ 2 rL,i 1! d· . ... 1"., ~ .-l Ar:: . '.

JI:n . f!~' .-: oBversa~Gn$.,/;iI .ju·~]mwar.· j once apm~_ stressesrnat a ,aednl~

'don 'which is able 'to include the .Slllm ',of all the differentia and other characteristics of the thin,g in question wrou~d be.an accepted mode of oog,o,h~~on., In s,taong th is, be impU" dy is argdin,g that since it ~:S not possible [0' define aU IDe ,attributes of a thln:g, :any attem'P'~ to defln~ a -thing 'would be :hl, w,~n.,

Suhrawardi; in SiO;[11}e rof 'bws, woik.s.. in Persian such as ,Pa.rlaut~nij'Wl-kJ §3 and !QQfjikil. a~.uT~!i4 makes referen ce ItO the problem of' deftnlzion but does not discuss it In, as much detail as, be does in some of h~ ,abie: wo,rks,. In The P1l:j/qsqph, of Illumination, he su mmsrizes his, views r~pnUng the 'P'eripa'te:dc view of ddintdon

L "

uysa~~

He who 'mentions a. number of essentials cannot be cereain (bat there m,ay not be an,othrer essential 'whirch he bas ignolied~_~om:mentalo:r and crinc shoulc i quire (of hils certain ty) ~ and ~f he' says, that \\'terre there another essential, 'lye' would have 'known it, (we sh ou'~d say) there are many atui~ butes that ar:e 'lln'known to 'Us, ., " ,. " The truth of d1ings is 'kno,YIn '0111y when ~U of me essentials are 'kn,()wrJ,~ and ~f there be another essential tha=' we, are unaware ()fr then. knowledge of 'that tbing' '~S not certain, Thus, j,' becomes clear 'lihalt the limits a-ndaefinldons (~d'J 318 lh.e"eripa'tretl.cs have accepted. ~w.in never becerne possiblle, forr man" The master of the Peri:patetics. [Aristod,e] ,~5 'has confessed to this, exirsfing di£Hcuh:.y. Tberefere, the limit and de6nbion caener exise

95,

Phnosop'h~cal SUiffism 1 ~ '~S,11 bswnft':e. has 'Mltno~ d:ilJ.e:ret.l'ua.·~

2 '~'Iii '" d fi" ed J..;1,Il 0i'1I. £i;fyog 'i";-~n ~~,

, ',~ ~ssen.ce\Si are - 'f: lny , ~l ~'~'''-..8~~J,~·';,

,g" ~Thje Sou\~a.nd other men'ud ~DncJept~. have unknown differentia, ~~iI,

,4. ~Aocid~nt~ e~g~", lbl~e'kness~ 'bas been ,d~ned, as a, "color that ~s '0bse:nroJ,b~,~' eo the eye"", and the t,o~-ality IDf sigbt is :a'n ,ac~i"den.raI 'OO:ll(l~pt~ and nnw that you kn6:w ,eo.lor ~ it: becomes n€oe~sa~' . [halt accidesrts cannot even be ,conceived. ot ~

5!~ '~O'f"o~p~ the' eoneepe (1fbeiin:g~ tihat fbl' them I(P'~rru.pal1Leu¢.) :ls,

dl,e ui.ro.m9.Jt:ic prinJ.'cipiel' rus now' }w,OWD" l1~, . _ ,

16 '"If it is p,erc~j~ed lb~t :lnQwJ'edle ~' th'~n~, is. fhmugh ,th,el~ non-essential aruribl!j!tes and du~~:t 'tn,oQse attrl butes ha¥~ ;~;ttri bates and the same Iconlift'~es" then this becomes probl!3matK SiA.£{;' ucord.ln,g, WI tihis assumpdoll it beeemes n'e()ess:a:~ Ulat in (he >world. noihing ~an. 'be kn!own~ ~6"

The :fiI"olt thule. princlples ,t:ru;avlt! been discussed in tbe' JPI;r.eV:i.ous sectwon and, the'f' on~.y ,demons tram tbe inade:quaqr of til e Peripa reti~s, in:SO,:Ealf as the~ :re~¥ on defll'l i,d:on fo 1" the ~uaJnm,ent ~ truth, In the 'ftfdtth prlnci~le~1 8obrnwardj, ~ue-s, t:ba:t there ~Jle o~elC;ts if:) the external world which, can only be 'p~ceiyed but :n?it defined, i.e, 'cO:~,6rs. These ~lfp;e~, of' ph~uome.n,:a be i(al~s "simple truths" ({lcfiiig INuit-M)1 whiJrzh neither can be knmm (hfiou,gll, '~~wlet!g~ ~y dletl~itio.o ~ n~r . be' jg ra'$:p ed, ~- sense perc ep tiocn.. fl8 .. c

A/;, tothe ~tom.p'ound, truth ~ (,~aq6 ~iq mi~l,~rllduJbaJ~}} Suhr.awaroi, ,argues t1},am: this categQry of thing,s, ,J;'an be- redueed to. its essen nal o~mpof.l.'~D'r:sj w'hi'ch are th~ :si:mp~e truths, and to lu1ol~ idlem one h;t<S, to see 'th.em" ]!fo,l"' Instance, a, bb:i;lrd,ing or a U1e~ can bereduced 'VO a number of forms and· 'CQ~'Clrs that can oinly'be the o:1:ti,ecltS .f)f

percep bl~6Il ~ _

The abeve view is p~rt d" the' ~~s,pQ:~;u;e' tha~t SInh mw,ardi provfd!es,

In 'brus sbrtitihprinci.pl1e ,a.piRSIt ,tb(: Peripa ~tS't. who mttin ta;~n ~ba't a, thing can 'b€ Ibl0W,il through jJ'1B aftr~butes and a ccidents, _The problem is \biat ,an ~ttri~~te, h3S to. be ,d,€illne;lj, 'bJ another, whi.ch m,ean~ the p[f&C~S8 ,can, go on ,ad ~~fi'~dtu$in, and nod1,ing ean be' 'lku,o'Wn I' whicl\ i!';, ;ab$urtl.

Suhm~~rdi.l 51 view of m,e' Fun~don of 8e'n~e I=M;:~ce,pdon ~an be better: 1I!lndLe'Fstood if we '~~~mine ,$O'ffi.'e of m,e c~nse'lu·ence$, '0£ ht~ a rg-lunel9J:I., Sunr.a;wa:rdl fur:t'h(rr a:rgu!es" "t'h~u t'he 'd-a:t~, a.'U:ained dl'fiJiug)l &~n.se peroep't~t)~ m n,on,~velrinabl~: in that I€)ue ca:n, n~l' know' if iothe:u ~re e~per:i"enc~ng tl.1A:: s:am,e data .. Themfor'~~, tJe

S1!dl'm:waMi. and thiec School D.f l"ilIJummati~n

.' [..:I --h·' h "m-l ;c. 1l...-'d~~6 '.

e¥f~pt in 'fcpru ta t' ;c.()SC IteJ:":llS w, ose CO~, 'e,c'll:V€ iVUc~].. IS, ,Sin

i~df:ca,ti'i,}n ,@if par'c:uJaritf~ 5'7'

Sut~r~w,amLU in t'he a'have ~r:giUllllu~n-t: has demonstrated tha.t (b.e differentia, of a th~l'J,g is ltn ~~cllls~ve ,prr«p~y of' 'tIll,at: thm:ng ~.Le., ith,e pUITmg' af a CHJ!t). "Rle[t~ if we g,Q, n~M:~ 'k-DOW w'hat rliJJ9lt :pl[,Qpert:y is~ 'We 'win m€'''le~ 'k.n~ the identity of" the thing '~,r((llJlgh defnl'iti,gn~ 'The puni~g' of a cat in, this case has to' 'be aiamed. thr-~ugn ~ll()ther d,efin:i1lgn!, and Otis definition in I,UI'.fl needs to 'be defined tb;~1Jug'b al'H)~he':r. ~e'fin~,dr()n which f@:r Suh:r-af¥i8rdi"is'abs~ro~ There ou,gll~ to be ,an ax~om:a:tic FldntdiP~,e se fh,a;t ,e~[fthin::g else is detin~d in terms ~f it. In fat:t" ,Subr3Jwa:rdi,c in his tIM P:ki&l.ISopiJ oJ·lltuminatiM,~ maintains that knowl~dF 'by d~finilion ,is.possi'ble if and only if there be a fint p.rHu:rpte' ~o4hat ev~rything else is; measured ~gai~st it a:nd .yet itself' ~s not""suJbJect '00 mm:wy definitjon because M its

.. "'T"'h· ,. ,. h '.c:.... ~ h "",",,,,,-..ill· '.

axiomanc nature. J..,: ·15, axlo1maJtic 'pd' 'f-nQmeuon. .ror ou . r~a;:w~ ul U5

lig;ht and 'its de'riJw,Qv-e presence th~t '[WndeFlies: me 'very f01Ulndat[oH of his e:piste:mofolY~

Snh:ra(W,a:mP~ view "of sense pef,cepdQn b dmicult te £onDllll,a.te, in, that h,~s; ''liews ~~n fh:~s ,re,gani are ~.~a:i;r!en;~d '[htP~gbout bi!i wri.O'u;s 'wr~.df11gs~ Qu.~b al~Dln S:td r,az~,~ the famous Avic~nnan commen-

f S' '111.., ' ~.~..lll· ., h·' iI".~iL, J,. ~';:' iE. :o'iI::~ c .:11' .: - I..-~ - 59

tater Q' i: 'Dw,d1tWdJ. uli,. ,Ill n :1;5· 'WOrl'ii., ~ja~';~t, l~m'l/~a~ a~\"~I!rUjl\, arsrues

"I' • til 1·~ ba_--=m_

111-., -e 'IIJ.. '-'II·' b 'li· ,. C • - .-.',1 A' ,Ii::: 'I

t~ .a..8;t ~UIIJ~iIl'l'awarail'e . eves in Jlil¥e' mternas senses arn~ :w:l:Vl@ externat

oine~+ Qu.th al-Din Sh'ir~i:oo' main:tains that. Suhmwardi not Q\n~y 'believes th~Jt dle five senses are fer the' attain-ment 'of ~:O:lWledg~ ,€)'f rbe ,ouhidre w;Qr'~d, trat ~sa, rUlat !there is; a hifGUi-chy of ~¢Inses that ·be.W:n$ 'Mth tb,e sense of iLa~,,€;h and eln.as~ with !Sight.,

The jn[em~] senses f('it ~n_hra~rdi are of five 'i:J'Pes, and ~tbeir exSst-en.~e helps to ~yn It:'besiz,e me' 'mnfoflu3tiall lih at the ,~tema] ~ei1ses has attained. If the~ $e~n$es, did. 119t e;xjst~ the"ft all tb.e bl,owl,ed.ge :ialCq,uired, throngb, the- s.ems,e's eCtu'~d D;0t hat,ye' been mrte~""

irli-11l .... "<';1 'J. i"'i' ..... '!i~'T'. 'mi rf>d'

.r.l ~ L~U, ,~~, VjLf.,~, ~ ~~~'" .. c!!!

Tn 2\ 8e(f~omhe entitleS" ~On the Eivid!c1'l;oe wat P:er-i,pateu,€ P~in~ 'ci,p,Wes NeAZ~.itaJte' fll;at N odling \le KnOI~ 'or DJtlintd,~ ~ in dt€ f1.i1mw~ alFish:rat~ ~~ Sl1l~lmWM'"d'~ c:rilw~i'Zes -the :Pe;ripi1l:retilcs in ~gard to, 'thetr views, o.m sense pero~puoin •. Hi;s' :aT-gume'n t. as, p:reliEntea in ~hl~ cJl3l,pter em be' ,summar.ized in th,e :fbUowing :po~D,m;:'

96

97

Suhrn~fdi and the ,S;eha!.)'rn '1Jif' ·1U.unrilll;a~ion,

ton eludes that. the ~nal!tu:re' ·!jYf the: 'kna~led~ atmi.o:'eo, 'aU~OUI,h :sen.se' 'ptttepuGJl '~s 'priva:t@: and, '~KclusjVie. As, Suhrawardi Si'r~[es:;

It S:b.pu:~d be known. that. yg'U'r ideu andothers are nOll {be same' as lOong as "OUf ideas ·md(. these of otbett are not a'ttik~ned, through the' same means of e'ognition ,la'S'

So. fa:r:~ from the first wro arguments ~f Sllh~~rdt the foUQ'Wing TC6ntlusie:filS can '5~ dxa:wn"::

1 Oldy the s'Unpl~ truthean be :ln~lfl\ th1'"()qgh< sense Re'rc~plion~ 2' ~QJw~edge O'f tl"llf simple trurh is, p,nV:iuJe" ~,I~lU8ive :mdJ, ':0,00-

v-erifia:ble py.outsiders"

Wha!; Suhr;awar.:di b as not made c'lear :ye't are the S>OUKes of these (jon~prts:, tn, lbei Thi Ph£lQ£IJpA,' of' llh'/,;m,iM~'ian't f,(f We. , ,find, an argument whi,ch is, +he ·kJ~y 1'6, [h,e unfiersmndin.:g of this pooble'm~ Ther-e, IStlnra~rdi. 3.'r@iuJ@'s tha:r., there are ~thiO~e:. wh!G.} maintain that in 'o,rder :to' 'k;n:ow ,so,merh:ing one has, te have prior knowli3d~e Or,[rt~ Q;the~se', how w()u~d one kn~ ilt ev,en if he carne across :rut? 'This, prco blem was; firn:[ raised by Plato :himseH" and h,as since been rt'e-p_ea~ed 1)v ~mJlnV ~hno~~~!bef's, The lln'n;ligtion ,of Suh.rarw-a,r€J;ilj s

., }" rJ Ji ~ '.~... .

vesponse 'to (hls, obj~cJtion abo pr{.)'vid,es. the k:~ te SQ.}vi;ltl!g the

pr'0blem, n~,g:~i:n~ding du~ S!et:urct',5 of kilQ(wledg(:~ .soh$;war.dw ~taJ'f,e$ th.a:t this problem can',on;ly be Mis-ed in a~ crut"a!1msmn,c~ 'rmn.d~r wh~th ~metbing is,'run'~jj.)1~'l1\. If $'On],eUlillg 1~ ~e,m,p~e'~elr un:'kfi6wn er C!DIn:pl:mete~y kHocwn 'in aU :~its :as:peces~, 1:1:. can ,fru:Oit be KnQ'WIl., Sometliin~ ean 'be kn;own if:n. is :partially ,k.nown, and panially uIW]~nt)'wn~ It ,b;, oIDL) then dl:a:t 'I::'h,e unknlOW1], part can '~, knmvn ufro;!J]gh an if1.lIieteJ)lC'e :ftOffl. kn'[N\rDl, [00 dle un'tll@iw.n"

]f the: desired enti ty is cgm'pl\~tely unknown, 'I!.he,n it cannot 'be known, ,an,a it is the same ,if som~thing is comp;~,(rte'~y m,~ but that :i:t has ro, 'be knoW,I]J. in, some aspect, ,aBO not knOwtl in Qdu:~rs' so. ~h:~ unkn~,wn can, becom~JmfJ\WIl tllrmugh, it'~1

:Now; since shnp:~e' mJ;111s ,e:XiSlI:, .only in·tb!f!if :pure 'farm", i"t';' ,€lolotSj and are not made up @f severn] paris as .fdnns and, shapes, att, they ~an b~ ei'fh,er GQmplte'le11' unlrnown, or '~htin'I;y known., 1£ die f6r,m,er' :~s rll.'e case" '[h,len we ,ean. never "1co,m,e, to know' ,of Icolors, wihi,ch _is :not~dle ~c:ase,. ]I lil ,ro's th,e ~.a;tr,er dl,e :queSitlQIIl {h,en an~sas, to llQW it is, th;at we know (hem In: thei:r le.ntb:ety sin(:fl neith~w ,dwnitiQ1l, not $ense' pette~pUon e3Jl:1 teU u'S wh~t a ,cti~Q,r or ,simpl~ lwm or shape' ;_s~

P.hnoS()lphi~Hd S~nsm

WhUe 5uhr.awami alludes to Lhb hl various 'p'laces~ be does uot

b - ·.;all ·'1, "Uiil'k 'k d - 'Il;., h

treat th~' su _gee): In uetall..Y",Ii;al ne ~ .. tees 8:a,' IS, tw:1IJa'[ we' :- a~ a.

pl"~knfJw)etJJ3e of ce~m_afn t11]n~s,. which. are a.Xi~oma;tl~ in ~aJ1tlr,e~

Til • '.. -b .c . '1Ik1,·' ·Y':;,.., ",:I' ~~' '. liiit

__ ,~le.S~ ~X:lom;a_be:p c enomena, rle-~emV'llng .1:\:A0t!.· s a r'~ ~m roW~l€e:~'J''j_!

are what Suhmrmf-di feJe'fS iI1.'Oas.fl~~fIi"ah., These are th~r eencepss malt :allo,w us to. .oo):;.cgni2!f:' som:etbit}g wbe1l, w,e' see it. :F.o.r ~:a:ln,pl~" [:elOOg;n,'~z::ing '[mt one :ih.'~ is $~h'altte:r tha:n.. another one '""i;mo'Ut measllting :h .~8 due 't6 [h~ 'p;re,sende of these Inna,t~' ldeas ,~.lm()u,g'h the act ,of OO,gllJtiO,n, be,g.ln s 'with <)'ur senses,

Tor 't-ei~apittd:a;te on Stdl:rnrw~rdi"s view .of knt()wl, d,g~e by sense p'tlt,ep;ti,~n,~ the foUow,rung' tan 'be 'Said: E%b~en[ 'b.ein'gs (o,:r Suhra ... ·w,ardi ;ar-e elt.\:)er sin.:g;le 0.'( coampeund., ltf single', wen me" b~~ DO, diffe:("f'n tia a'n,d. therefore 'W~ can ,DJ-'()t know them by th,~ir aecidents (~m,)., Sense pelr,'c~pti~n €¥lD be heJ,pfUl ~~ decfpb~l",th,e' simple from the Jf:"OI!ll'po.und and further 'Ita, re:arn'wze and reduee m,e·,tom-pound lito ~'~ essential elements wbi~H ~'&im,pl.e:. The t:no:wIe4ge of' 'Wle simple can ne'ith(~r be ·d,lenned nor be ,gl'Upod mrou,Blh 'the'

a 'bo., 'h ~d r ., , ,~:'Iil

$tit1l.:S~S Wttl:~0l~,t t , ie' ,ioU' _ '1Q: r ~nrtaJtt:t:: J:~/e;t.lJt.

Suh:r.aw,a:roi~ beth in hros f:rlbq:U.'~ of lihe P'er~ip\atetilc 'Vi~ew' of defini .. · tion and. La the problems associated wi.t'h. sense perception, aM'gued,

.. ~ ~

fQf the 'nlt;ce~sru:lJ ~f an inn~te' knowledge ma:t can ~m as; tbe

£aundaJt'ion :ffior: various. modes ~f ~~n]jti.on~

In. TAe P1Iilbso;i, of Ill~mi~"t$o~?2: he discusses ru,e 'lij:O,d.@R of

- ,. ~ ~ ~ . ....J f' .'.l a-""'L 1

inna te :iideills by menuemng r'Of~tr D1OtJ.es 0. C~nJtmoD anc t;,I;J;e. p ace

of :~nn~fYe iiaJeas 3m-nJlI d'tem~ His a'r.gU'men,t~ brw_peBy sl;al'ed,,' i,s as 'FoU,OWS;~' Som,e 'i'1lIta6,s oEknGwledae are either in,rui:te 01' not, In 0rner

~ILr o.

fiat 6fle' to lW,ow' 'a" lidnl~ ,~n~' :ha& t~ rely ,010 that whiih is" al))e~f

known to him, and thb, praces's can go on aii i~ftw..j;t'Um/j a pt«~s

c-:u- L 'il';Qj,''Illloi!'':lli,~.JIl· m~- aintai n,;:o; ii-,i!" im p~s;'lkle- 'Fr;lh_iiI"4: .... ~""', "lII tt ain TTjIi,PII"fIj't """""fl:

~.-'ll~id;"·QJ,U, ,I g;.~ I~-\._~:!II~~ I~ ...... J . .I.~_ l~ I.: I.. )1.~~~;_WJ~V~LL'tl "tU'li.., ""iII~"&~i~,~,~_' v··

'kngw]e~j :at least pa:rrtia:n1~ req~il1es. 'h;amrn;g pre-ul:o\\vle[l,g€ 0'£ thAt 'whl}ch. on~ seeks to' 'k_i11r(~Wt and this knowledge' can 6/,nly be it) nate,

i!I, ~ '(1:1 ~ h . ,'- d''''- .,'.,. -.' ,1:1JS ~ll , rawa~-_~, ,5UU.e'S.,

~lu.man, :k1il0W~,edgi€ 1$, ,eidler iuo-a ~€: 0fi~~"a,ii:} o',r it is noL 'Ylb,ene've:r ,in r,e(:~,gnb;in~gr an un.known~ if f@:cus:ing ODe !!s att€ntion [L~" Se:ns:e ;pel'~~priQ:n] ilod refeFrillr~g' rI,O oifil,,;"s, 'k~~t :is;. "'Oll 5u1i'C~e'nt.~ :arrud. if it :i8, :ntU; :an, afoor thait: Ican 'be lnDwn 'through !t.he 'lisi€l!n (~~UtiJi} tl191,t is,a ch,rac re:risdc .of th~,

'9,""" ~-,"p

S'~h~wa:rd~ Md itLlte' 5cltQ~m @If Illtwndnatit>~

\g.lr~iU, ~afli~~ ·m·en ne~essarJly tn knol.'iing 'we .n10~d p(~.g~ven kfijo·\v:~edgie-.~ . ,; and the pr'Q,ce:5S~ if ,c3rffl,eGl our fun -ceritialn: ord;er wUJ ]~ad ·W dl.€ inD~ f.e .l,de;m;j 78

Su~~:~watdi seems 't6 be SitlJgg~iStir1g that ru:!l:nat~ ide~ :are ~ neeess~'ry 1conditio'n 'if sel::u~-e p-e~~ep,tJ.on :and, eve1w.' dlet]nrun,0:n" IS it'@' be po~~.b~e. I~ roUle:r 'w~)'~ds,j if' kn:j;)~,edge 'by senae pe:r.e,epuon, is not g,~ing 11~ lead, to an i'llfi~it~ :S'g"c~e~sruon 0" beings.", ,e~h of 'w:~_~ch make's (hre'; other o~e,et knowrtj t1;le((f]j, 'mnn,l)te :rud~as, have t~ exist, I'm: is", tihe,refQr~ ~ rceacsona,ble to cqnilu~: th:il\~ inna;r,e md~~ fer $uhra~ ~tclli are the' nt?c~'&'saJf QQ,fjJttUti,.an. if some knolded:le' is to 'be a:lta;ined thl~'~gh d~finitiQn or peDc~PQQ;n.

"hil()S9phkal Sufism,

:rDO'f!€! sl:g;n Hil.i:llrtl·~. This "~S :pardf l:Jc~3tuse. m,QSt thin.:gs tbru ,cmn:nlQJt bedm'J ned can 'be 'knoYim ~tl.~ough me senses. It is For dl:~s reason d]j~:t be says;: wrtuJs."migwfng1a'ftitd :reeo,gnizin:g '0'£ some it,ems: beeemes a,

-. .0.;\... - . '~"l!l!

task of u.~,e sftnie~,. .

S~fID8e p~r()~'J?,ti6nj Su.b ~wa:rd!~ru tells us, is, able to 4t~til1gun.h 'tre'~eefi. the simplle· mud ieQmp'~und ,~nd:d.es," ])IfJSp:~:~' this atdlltyj' our senses eannos escape the same 'rO'!f@'bl!em, du.u., die'Hnioon fa~,ed.

r ,r

T113it is" when faced wmtlh a, ,comp.oundJ. en d'ty~ (bey can come ['Q

know it 'b~J' 'ruts s~lmple constituents, b~t ho-w d-oc we know the~, simp~~ ~~e'n)ents.r' I't is at this poihrt that ,ftith('f thtr~ ha'$ 'r;a be ~ ax~(?JIm";bC 'P'r~nci'ple 'in terms of wh ich a ,s~m,pl~,e th~~ng can 'he known or 'we ;tgath have' 111):(:, problem '0~f'kn~n.:g Qll·ef ming' tbr.'oughmng'~e:l: oo~ £~pn'iht_ On. this ~u hraw,ardi states:

There ~s p,@tIl.il\g ·'more' a,:ppa:~t tha_o Wflai GaO be .'Sen~ed .~ ., .. sln~e all Q1.Ui: :tn,'D'w~edg'f' eomes from 'tile, senses; [h.e:reror~~ all thallI: e, ,sensed is in rt1l!1te' ;afu3, eaa Q:f)t 'be deftml:ed,. j'Q'

:Fina.U,,, 'there' are tibe '~nnat,e jjde~B, tll,at Subtawarw ·~Qnsidefi tQ' 'be' nee~~r;y ~n order '00' 'C;Qng,t;,et the olh,er 1WIa elemen h, ~:r h:ms, pllUo,s~phi,£a.1 ;f;pistem,olo.!lY' The eJdste:uCle' of inna!~e jjd~M;ptoV:i.de5. th~< ne£em~ l~nk berrwe~lll Suhrawardf's 'vie'w' of ln~wled.!ie by definlm don ;a:udl.'seme per,c~pldo,l'j, which ,enabiel, bim Ilk) aff~r a c6h~reht and censistens theo,ry of knowledge., T(;:re nature of tHese ide.as. a'rid· their struet~:re'~ 'be it :~Rlian Of' l?lat'anb~'~ remains sOluew'hrut unclear m S\-~h:m:wami' s ,philo5Q:lDbllea'~ wrld:~!g~:: ~'baJt '~5' elear 'is, tbaLt 'For- Suhnt:wal:d~. iliey ~hav~ a limitea, 'role' and ~n,cti'on"

Slih~\W\a;rdr S 'efiRC,e:pt 'lol phj]9'saJi~11c3jl ~pistemo:tiogf~ th;erefor,e; is] tiasf!d 9,1} th.~ :id.'l.~a tbat W'~~irne cl~n~nt modes of ~Qgl:lirlon and K.b'OO:~~ 0'1 tJpist€':mo1lo,gy are useful in sonre dom~bls~ ultbnai-ely' eem~n't¥ '(;Q'l'llleS, thtough Ulumina:MOVj wh1k.h '~S, the type' gf knowl~· ed,ge ifihmt is, ;afJt3ined. withou't .mediatio~, 1ft ~tbe~ b:e:gil:l~n:~ oif '~e fli~ at.,isihiqSuh t;twatdi snmmarizea l1is, view '[ll'WfimS, ,h:~s theory' ~f ~know~,edlg-e.' ~by :prel~m'eem '" H,~ st.a~~,:

,As ~: ob~e,Vle 'th~ ~m'bl~e:. 'wor~d!, ,tbrougfl w~ich ~ pin ,c~ena1ntr m~ttue,jt' smtes of ~~ ~ then base 3, ~bo.rougb 'Md, J).,r,ool,e K~,eDoo on t})js 'bas~s (:m~:t~., iSuoOOlmy). Dr ;m:ud(Jgy~ 'we observe certain thinl' i~, I[he' 8p~riitu:al domat_o, and, then 'we them as; a,{oWldation itpan which dlfih,er Ihin,p ~, be ba.s~d., He whose pa;th, ilInd melilod, is o[h,€'r dtian this; w..11 IJ,'OJt 1lef1i!l::5t f:f.1lm ,F_·; .... ,i:!l!' '!l:iIIn~ d- P,,",:,riN:r-i· ,,, .. ,;i;~'l L;_ 'lAili~r~II\Ji,p'r""':4 ';~'oo, doubt~ n

IlJ;.lll.~ ~ I, . ~~,~ ¥Mi,w_ll ~ rJ!~~~JII!uo,U g~_ ~ t_ _

4 .. :SUIIlU.:WARD'I'S, PHllLOSOPHI'€AL EPlSTElIO'LOGY

,As 1I hawe ae'm~lJ.stnted,~ i~ :i~ dlttleult tt) ld,eolij Suhritw,ardi~-s epiJs11emoMQ;gf 'with ~aD:~ :palli!Cu'~ar "ep.j(ljem,olo,gbzal "p~ndi,~, (i~e., eIll,piric;~m~ ra,tioJla~i$m" ete.), While ,$i(hnt~'rdi atgues ~~ ultimateilY'Qn,e ean au.ain ee~min,l)? on:~)f 'throu:g:~, the' kno.wh~cd:gs w.hi!c'h is atLili~ed, trf 'm.umi~~a·tiu[1J h:e iQ'Oes nott .djscar,ti 'tnie flls~ibi~itY' of atminin,gJ~;no~edge/t'l'l,n;)ugh o th.e r' medes ()f c~nition"

$uhr.a:WtaJ.fdru.~'sl phno&Qphj!c~d, ,epis~mo:~,ogy as 'bas been djsl(Yssed is made 'OIP ()f the ml'~owm:g three e-lemeolu,

1" ,l)enn:itioD

'2., ~Ilse "elffo~pti:on

9,~ '~'fn:n \'!Iilil\""g;, 'l1~,;alrl!;!;"I1!IIil:' V;"II .l.:.1l;l.lII,;I)R'-.IIb" ,I,a~~

T o,summarile' SWbraw<sl'rdi'iS 'vi,cw' Qf:I. the shO'n:,cgm:ings of '~h.e~;ab~e means 0,rcog:niJti'om~ the' 'fonowing' can be s~:~rl:: S~dlm!wa.rdi mainbins 'mat '4efi[rniti~ft 1$ problema de beeause' i,l.~as 001 d,~fin~' not 'Only'tbe ,cs,en.Uab, ,ar 3Ln ,Ex:ilSbe,n.t being, es Njjstot~e' indicates, 'but a,U .~.~ a:ttdb;Q!cs':I1ld a~~tae~,ts as weU"

Th:~8, js necessary sin,ce' th~' ~;~ as ~l:DJuch ~'H~rt. or ~. m ~ng as the so-called essentials ·~·re 1Jj,ud defhli'ng. an of (h.,~m. is, impo~~Jjle., Suhraward:i, attrihut€~, this problem to th:e';fu:I.aI\~n:g reason:

)Jl f~],e£tnmtiQns in.e~tra:'bly lead ,t@ those 8;,frlidil can,c,e:p:IDi wb:ic'1;t the;tnseJves are ,in no need. Q£' b.e~ng defl:tji!e:d~ .if d]J'~s 'weu' nQ11! the ease th~fe ·wtryu],d. result an inibljre' ~ltcte~si!l~,,,14

C~ntra:ry ro til e less, .~!gn,ifi~~Dt p~a(;e' mat d,ennldon 11 as, irru. Subrn-, 'w~frdi' s :p:h~it0S!QP,hi'c911 ~pf1i:smmoJo,gy~ seAse' peifcccption -is, much

5ubfllW.~row and th Schoo~ o Illumlnadon

What 5uh'rawardi has cleatly 'been bjrmg to a_rg~ue For ,~ s that phile:s'opb., In general and ~pistemology in particu]a.r na¥.e to hav€ an uJ,~",,-aq-i fo ~_ nda:don... In. Suhrawardl ~ s ,eJ~bJw'molo,gy~ l rught becomes the.' substance of knowledge and kno~~]J~~d,g,e lfhe 5tl:bsttanl(leof ~ight.

If there' be a!nythin.g that needs no definition or explananon , h has to be 6bv~ous, by nature, and there .ws, nothing mere obvious and clear Ulan ig. I, t. Thus, there is nothing that

needs flIJO deflnitlon -exe,epll light." -

Ha~ng a~led for rhe ~.~mited role' of cenventlonal modes o.f oognitl.,amt!' what has not bee , answered yet. is. how knowledg'tl: as such 'is pessible, Wha.t Is h. rih t rnakes kn.awm:ng and. cognidon feasi bl,e,?'

We can UQ'W pr,oCleed m'consid~r Suhmw-ardi";s answer to these questions, known as the 'theory' 'Of 'knowledge 'by pl.resenc..-e.,

'B,., KNO;WLEIJrGE BY'PRESENCE

The fundamen tal pr~nciple' upon 'whiCh ,S-uhrawardi' 5 bkrqqi epi& t,enlJo'~~ is '~;ased is that the ~selr is ,c-a,abh: of koo'Wiag' certain :t~iBgs, dif-e,cdy,~rnd:wltb,out mediation by virtue oti:r.s V1ery pre~ehce.

_ anJ S:uh:ra~rdi. s.ays'" G9:n lIt.DrOW hl.tnse':~forn'l.~.y d1J'roU,gll hlmse~f~ and that which is. ether than, b.imseU~ canno be used 00 arrive' at the kn O\q] edge of the self He offe,r,s., several argum,en.ts to prove ehat the self has the abiUty to know directiy and without a,1 Y mediation, beginn ~ng' with t' ,. e knowledge .of the' self.

'The que~tion Suhrawardi poses ~S~I how does the self 'know iUe: If.?

It is precisely the answe;,r to (his quesnoa which IC!QnstitUlles the core 0\ hits ishr~i episte'mo;logyj and It can be, formulated as fon(A~·s:

There is, a special mode of cogn.~tiLQn which attains :k~m][owiedg,e directly and with ou.t mediation ~ thereby transeendlng th,e suJ~ject/ objett di~stinction~ Tbis mod!e of OQ,gnitiQll, which has come to be e,alled ~'kj)ofwledgle by prese ,J,e,e~' (fJl.-"ilm a~fiu(l.unJ~ iJs, as I will de~m9nstra,te ~ the o!nIDy :plailllswb~e explanation as, to hm.v the self can k.nowibeU~

_ The ~me'nfS mat Suh__ra'Wardi oS'ers in support of hirs od.aim that. the selfcan only 'know itse1fby virtue of the v€IYP,re·. '-Ioe,ofitse~f,are' exp:(1€'~d by' SUi - rawa:rdj duuugh his wriangs in two dii£f~I"enl sq1esc. In h~$ Persian 'Wfiiing;s~, which I 'have d~ed in the ~ie.vi.Qu$ di.~e: '.;1 this vffiew is ,exp:ressed sfll1bol.~,cal[ly:, ·Wbl~·UjJ!_S. in his oth,er works, e~p«i .. '

~ny m ]flS te:t.ra.rn,o~caJ. works, 'he :~s' more philesephical, '

102

Philasop:hkal Su' ism

The ,si:gn:mcan,e;:,e' of the pre$en't dlscussion for Sutirawardi",-,

~. ~II'" " th ,.1... .... , - - ~ ,..:II

·mys'tlds.m ues m tne ,cnn~e'pt iuidt. tnie mowld.Jgre, and .fo,l" that IDcaitter

me 'f,oonda:ti~'l, 'of k~wle.d:ge~ is' an on:t1olo,giGaIil wssue' (i.,e: presence) as opposed, to an ep~s.temolegicm], one. KnGwledgeis at qrges~~n that ls d,iJre:cdly related to the qu.esd.on o:f being and. existence and not 311) abstract epistemologieal issue, Furthermore, SU:hrawardi's argument implies that certain ty d.epend~ O'D the direct nature of the ,epwstemic:

11' h"' 1Ik.~ "'.,' .... , • ",lIl...m d - - - -

reiJiliuonsl lp ~'l:W"een tne SUlJ~ject ane the .object.

Mys;tJ..Q:W :in gen,eml .as reflected i,h the per,enn~a!l 'mw.ition" Sophia pctt3~islJ and in particular in the Sufi ttacUtiOll.'i fOT' Suhra;" wa{tU is, disilin,g;Qished 'fl!om, other U.adliti!bns af wisdom by [he directness of dl.' experience of the k.now,eF of the known The 'h'igh~:r tbe status of the knower, Qnto:~O.gically speaking~ .. the' more intense and direct.is the experience. This pOi[nt:wiI . be-elaborated on fu.nber in tb.,e fQtthooming section.

Suhrawardi ,gf(eTs three' atgu men ts 'fa PiMVIf: mal the self. can only kntmr- iJtseiH" llb-rough the :~:idh,y'of its presence, 'W,e will proceed Ito consider' these ar~tlm>en£s.

I~ ARGUMENTIFROM '"I/IT"' D'ICDOTO'MY Suhrawardi pr,esents. his firs,! a'rgumeot by as:k~ngl' ~en ]~know p,. do I :1180 know myse.ffi'~ If I' do, then ~ow did, I. come to knOW myse.U~ Either I' knew myse'mr directly 0,[, ehrcugh some other means, If I. 'know :~y,se]fthr'o\ugh an ,intennediaXYj then 'we foU.owj. ~I g prob- em arises:

A th:in,g 'that e~:is,ts In iMelf I( al.-qa·lm, ,in ~1~dhjlJ and is; €Jonscious of itself <Iii.des, 11JOIr. :b,uw' its~lf thrcnJgb, ,I, ~pre~senlation I( aknU'thtil), rof irself ap'p,earing ill ibe~" This .i;s because if~ .in k_n'oMng one's self, one w ... ere to make a representadon of one,elf~, r~CJlce this represematfen of his "I-ness H (ana ~."ah) could n"e''Veir be the re,a]ity of dl3J.t H'I"n,ess\! ~ it" would be then sut.h.f. that ·lb,al I"iepr.ese.1l tation is, "it" :wn relation to the "l-ness, n md nor "1'. Therefore, the thing appire,bended is- tbe representadoll. It 'thus foUows that the representation apprnj]en~ sionef "l-ness" would be exa,ctlywhat is the a:pfl>re::·.6 ~I sion ·of ~I t-ness" I( h~":W4),. and 'Ch:a;l lh.e apprehension of' hie ,reality of "'I=nt:ss" ~u~kl be ,ellr3.·ctly the apprehension of what is not "Isness .. ~j This is. an a.bsutdity~ On the other hand, this aoo!iJrd,iity- does, 'O'O[ fo~ruow ,in the case o,f app17ehem;.ion of

Sti!Jbram'fdi and o~h.,e' S~chool (;if IB~t\U1Jinatifjn

external 9 hjelCts~ For the rep:re~en muon and ma:t ~O 'w1:dcn tl'hat representa tWtUJ1 'be;~,o:~gs are 'OO'Ulr ~.ru:ts,. :l\tl"iO

.Acc~rd:ing' to, this 3rguJnentj one ,eitb~:r M01\vs· himself thftliiugh himse;~f 0[ som~i[himlg else i.e. a representation. ]f ~b!6 ~la;tte'( be th€ ~a$e'" t'hen. ~seU~~ A is known ~h[1ou,g'h a,rn~presefltati()l'l (mit#.iilj Bb Su.bm\~tdi ehen ,argues that :mol\~ledg~' 'Of A 'whiicll is alta~n.@ld. tbt.g:~~h B~ ±S' :re.aUf D,Or!. 'k.lEl:(wd,oog~' of ,A~ but Is ,seeing A. tht-ough B~ Su.]]'r-awar,dl~s, ,argume~nt aUoWB, fb:r knowled]'~ of 'm.6' 1QU ts ide w'@rld to be ~ttalo~d, ilhxOUlb, ~ repre~entalion (m:it'Ulj" 'whl~h is ratb.er

." • "-. ·1- -., " ~- Hum e'!, c; noti ""'n iFiWf' oI!I;[" ..d jl!!i!g,lI!! ..... '''li'iIi"Ii"..,,1 \.(~im· DIiN:l!'~'S"'l' .;;'1I.'II:'1i(!i!' ", "l..F II"fIiWiQ"IIliili!!'fi" ,;SImI ;af I!kV I _=_' '- ~, ~,~,,,,;I)._ ~" 'u' ,Uio.:,..fia QI.W.i!LL ,IL' '!r--'~' v;"· "liP,! ~.~\o ,fii00' 'L"'II""",,,'J!.:,

ItnorWli,ed,ge: of. th~ sell' wbleh IB M, he a:t~,ined t'liwugh a:n-ything other 't'h~fi t~e ~Jf i~ :noltt. kno~lrn,ed.ge 'G{' the self, but kn . .awl~d;ge' of tb~t whl,cb, ~s ather than the seV. SnlDln:ward:i g,o~s, on to argue that 'if I' :aff,Jj to 'know A. tl1frougll ,B; then in a seHJ~!3' I ~m. ~qjua.thag 'Dlfy u~'jJtd;ersrurtndi,rl_g of B wi.m A~ 'whj.,cl) ~s an ,a~5urdjty., I~ti'w can my self' be rhe same as my understanding of Ri, lh:ron:ff,h 'w:hic;'k" 11 -w.s su pp~sea to be :tnow.l'1'? In other wnl!ds.~ if I arn to uoden.tilft,d the self through ~9m,et}d:ng otne,f du\o itsi:d(j, then the pro'bJem arises. that the ~ndenta:nding of ,stJ~mm'l is, me same as, ~he diin:g itSlc~~lf,

11' ~1" 'I"nll~_ lil::!"~m: I· n .... Suh .... aillo'l'''''''Iii'''..l ~ ',Iii' !i"",",Uru'- m- ., en' t ,,tj,.r--:to 1,\..,~'i:' l,j"n,... 'un' ,~iiI'1I.~, i:'i:3~ ,~~ ~~ ~~ - _ [JIUI ~ l~· '~1P-I~~JJ. u_~ fQ ~J!, 0'·-"."= I. ~ _ ,,-~= YJl~.II'.1 1'~(r.1!~ _'_ ~llJ.!II,C ~~i _l

'"[ ltn,ow :P-l~D he ~ saf~ng' that there ,exists an ~'I ~',.- s,u.en tl):aiE I lul,ow;s,

,iii(. j-."" - l,t"i·:!' - "d' ... ~ -'" .... 1...'. - ;;:j;'T;n -t .... _"illl;J'ii> "n,~~' "if'!l""",!!,, 'J·mp-l~~" :rh"",iIil ''1"rhiaiiil'lil """,,m,e;;

~'~Ca aD - !ii.~51yj. 'U:JJS J.. - ,·,l'.I/;: .... ""'a f ,. .II: :II,:I.I!.;I! ) ,:' _ 'iI, .... r;Ji "' ,nil!.., ;Y!I', i, '''';II!!Ji,u,w WJL

,dwms to have· I'fty 'type 'Of knQ'W~-,ed:g,e~ one is lropUeitly ~Jayi:ng that :1 kn:ow myse]f befere lkIDIJ:o'Mng anydl,t:ng else, Therefore, in claim:lrDig 'tJitat Que. kr).O!ws!:g:0xmething not only is, kn.owl~dlge- ~f tbe S\~lf

d 'III,. - h ' 11.i11l"~~ L..~ "!J,., bi " f' a, " 'Il •. , 'I'~,..lr

assume {!! w:ilU. t . ·tit ""'J! . seems t,o '!E' ene o _ -~ !!LCt. 0: rts O~ }(nO'wlw.ge'.,

It seems '~O 'be m,e' case tha~ :hl me s.ta;temenl ~I knofw' 'my;Slt;w;r' d1.e '~nower ii which, is the , ~'~~ and the known, 'whim is the' '"'stel.~,'" and 'We' rel~th}-nship' betw~~(l} th~m is.one and me same". IT mis. Wf'G not the' case, then there' would 'be an "I" versus "it" whicll. is the ,self. Nfm" ;(tither this ~lf' is made up of the' same ,sJ1!lbs6tn,€.-'e :M the' '"'1" (i.le,. unc'hangeabl~ ~; 0[' it jJ~i not. This, 'l<I;~t~ is erut'her :ruden'tica:l tlO the' ull~' 'Of ~it!~' is ,solmethin:g tiO-tidly diffel1€ll't. ~L, Ui~irioo 2\'(gues, lh~t ~iEf 'W~' ;a'~ept ~h'is, ~r:gJlmef.l t of S:u.'hnwardi.j th~n th e' '~1;j; atld ills r~~p(teb Scentatiom'l ~i1J)j' 'would d]~n b~ 'b;l.fh Jde:nti~a'~. and di£fer,ent in ane7 and m~ s~m.~ ,re's.pec.t/~j whi.,ch ru;s a log,lcal,contr:cadi£twon: :ana t:be-Fe~ for~ an 'a btu rdi t:y .,

An >:a:nJ,alysws; o:f how' Sub~wanJ:i arrives, ~t this conclll~d.o(rr 'is as .fnU0W'5; If .4r' did. nQt kn,~w' ~it'! cliret:rlJ and M'thiout me'iJia:dolD., th,en git j5 has; to k.n.ow i:tself l1l;r0ugh obJe{]ltir~:ng' .,~tse]f 'whIch. 'WOu.~d

Pbi'L!o~p'b~;:a~ SmlSm.

. ~

. - '-:Hi 0 b....,.l «I'..... d ~. !\'I'h ' .0 ~" Iii •

be called j,jIil. •..• :n one ':Ja.nu". :" aU.··"lt·' are t ·.e same, smee n IS"

a. .repF~sen,ta.ti0n of the' "I»; 00 the other hand, ,t-hey a.:n~' DO'€, the same s.fn~e if' they .~f:e-- tbe.saQl~'~ thet-e:~NtllUl~ not haViebeen an ~l!o) and an '~jtf:t.., Tl~Th,efoefore! ~'I!~ :md, lU~t;" are diJIerent slnee ~heystaRd, in

:3. sLl'~j\e(!tl"It.leQt reladO\~~, but '~h~¥ are the ~'m,t' slnee "tt~ is . a.' ,s~ibstitut€'" fo,r It_b,e 'iSlg]j1ti" i~. {he ,sllta"t-em.e'nJt ~II know ~yseK. jj. Avoordl.=

i:ng ttl ,SMh.I1awar-4i~ the r911ow~ng prepesitions would, then h~ve to

'ra... ",,'1.. ... . :,£ th .. . 'MI" ,» 'i'".,,~--., - . """.1 ·t·L. ,,, .... ',. . the ". . if' ~

ee tne samen . e·",'1;,..;(1!:' nV'L ' "u,e same- as, ,ue 56 •

104

1 ~. 'I~ If"I' o"w· ' 'm,-.· ~""·lf· ,-

.1 ,J]. ~_.:J.J. .". .! =.~ Il

2~ I kno'w' :~t

3~ It. k:now~l.my,se'lf~ 4~ ~I,t~~' knows it.

The;~e'for~'t ,t£' it m the ca.sedl:at t_lle ~I~ comes 00, kl1,o'W' imelf th'roug~h 'its replres.ml.taJjO'~ 'the'll tbe above eontr,~j.€ti:o':ns Ui5e' whi,~h m;a~lltain "I" ,and. ~iliii' are the same and tUfferent:at tbe same 'ru:m,e'., Tha,t, is the aJbsumity which, SHhraw,ar8i ,d~m,on~trnt€s in his first arwoom,(f,ol.

'-To summarize the vj,iews Q,[ Su:f,.i'ra\WMd~. on the b.i~ ,of his flnt

,~um,e___A~ we' can classify his fmll a(-g-om,€flt ·:111,(1£" the fo~I~Mllg three' ,.;a,tegori:es:

,A., E.p,fstem~lo~J;:i1~

B. :LQ~,cal

c. 8e,mmtica1l.

A Ep"' .'t·5·~· ""Iq"gq;""aJ

."' . . Il, ," I!j;

I. _ . - .. -.'.,_ _._

If ~il~ can '0'111),' 'kn~w flQiy&e:mf th'r(iJugD a :r~~pr:el$enlmdon of ~lf~ thuen I know'myseH' tbrougb 'wl~art. is D'Qt mYSleUL 'which is, In ~b~utdi~1" This,iiS tm sa~ lfha.t my und,et,sta;lij.d:~ng' ,ilDd! a;l?preb~Dsi:on 0.£ St9met:lhing are the same ~ the' Ul~nl ~run ltself~ T.hen~f1f)r,eci leLWer: 'th~ =1$ ~an,no:t he' blown o,r it h~ 'to be' kn:Qwn 'b¥ ,imeUt We :aU know o'1l:.nehres; th,erefune~if,i5,nea.soRabl~ to ,ooll:(Jude that we' can,

k1ifil,'('if/w ..... 'i'iT' '"''''e'u.m' oi'Ji;ln'l~l'''h'lfi'lIr.'ii.u'ar'L, 1i'"'i;~"W' ~Ii!'"~t£;b

-< 1Il,~'~, .. " V'YA.--' J~_'D ~.I..I.;JiJ~' ~', ,~l~ ~)[W, [~'Y;.J r~~~lJ.

B~,L.ad

If the '"r' is to know iU'elf thr,nugh. its :re:pre~.mdnn,~.lhen either tb,e "'I~ ,and. its, repr-esen tadgn" t:h:e ';itOJ Ii, ,Ire th~, ~am.e or ~[1r~t. II they ~re tb,e' s.:~un~'j. 'then there' cap rril10:t be' 'LVI''O, ,of the:m and 'rib.erefoFe:, '''r'

105

Sutr ,I'.ward~ and :the 'S~hool of IUumm:a:tion

and ~;t" '1l,.<'lIo,,~ 'f-A 1-j. ... ·,-o.:.,....~.~'m"..J the sam ';;;>_ On *:II....[e~ othe r hand 'J-f'" thev !fA .w. ~JII_ ... ·~, ~ ~ ~,~.~~,]I;-U. 1.lC ~Q. , ~!I' '_iiI; U:J . vYJ.. !!I _' J.lltlU". . l.I!lll.~/.

are dlfferens, then h oW ea." ~,t7j be :3 perfee representation of d'l,f; ~~r~?' Thi~ is. 'at t~ilcallCQn lItradiclion which arises H we are -la, aeeept th QT/~ iF,n ..Ji'~'iljt~n.e.· io

' . if!; !t 1!.i- 'uJo;[I_'~" i!....!L:IL'. n.

M H"'-~'J' _. hi k "7',1'. lll..:' ",'~ ... ;oFl7:- • l.'r.i'Pt;l":r:·iIi· Dr. ','1';', '. :. a, In In "JS WlQf ., "- iUJ I'I1ina,p~ OJ' ~fh$te.1JU),~ l;1!, jS,i,am't& rtuso-

... 'Il.. _., n ~-

S.JllJ~ m.a~n tains tnat there is a realm '0:( 4iI~[, .. ness and ~It-nes's .. ! 'g,

I .. ness n,aturaUy can o.:oly be known by iuclf and, if ~"t is. represented

'~, hinzeth h '. '1'.£' th ,,~ ," 'L.~. ~ 17.!' 'h

lJy somet Ing otner tnan usee, !" en. it necomes not" W:"ereas

!' h' IA: L. ·th· • , ~ k .... , ~~¥J' A ' AI"', H~:~" . - tho . 'IlI:J'" ...t' .. 1

'wt ,So ott, ,y toe no . U1.fI UlIIJ!Jt JJ, .,:econ .. :w~ng 'ldO :; a" 1171,' I~ _ ,aJa)l~ tne

'ie" are not the same, lYllJl "it" ex~8.,rs because Qr the' '"I;;,. If the self comes to bow 0". :"tself through the idea or representation 0[£ the ,self (mithii/J, th'~D ,~t cle,ady can never know itself sin Ice' acco,rding to

C ill... d\"' . ..JI 'H ~ ~'''' ~ ',;!I,l. "'1""' ...l" ,.:111:.. ~ ~~, iL..

~u,u rawarc 1. ann I!. "a, In 'Wu,a.· eoes n 0'1 re'p!l~,esen it 1~l!JJ!l e IIlJ71U.

d monstrates tbe "it," In fact tftw:o d,dngs are identically the same 'ttu,:~n ID~ can ~,ot be $epa;r-3ted .. Therefore, by virtue of (he Id:i!uj:Q£Jt-, ness, of the "I" and its representaiion, the "it", we. can, conclude that knowledge of "it" is, not dl:e same as the ~.JJ If [this were not the

,",,'L.. ' "h ~ ~[;]' ,. d th o'.~n h ld u, been th - dl ""

case, men t .. e ' ano 'I. e "111i" S :QUe, nave eeen me same anc ye',"

different at t'lhLe same rime, wbi<;h is an a:bsurdity.

C, Seflu,...n,t~CfJ;1

~,eQ say. '''''I know myself," jf by "'my:self" .1 am reEen."mg· 'to the representation of the I, 'men I am ,actuaI~ .sarymng ~bat ~I know it. ~ F OVif;vefc, since '~t» is ~not ]"t,ithen I am, also saying m,aa ~~I k-n,ow not 1;1 which ,is another w,ay' of saying ~I do. not mow I.. ~ This too' is an ahsurdity, ..... ·~le.()rlling to Suhrawardi, dlen j if iJ, ~, is known rh:-ough

Its lre:p(f'esentatiun" then 'the smtement "'I kno'w myself~ mea:~'Dl8 '. do not 'kn_ow myself"' ~ wbl,ch. is con tradictery a;nd therefore absurd since ~ k~QW llTh-¥Self:,

~ral i(iv,n(:llUJlsions ,can be dm"WD frolm the :a:hov,e ar,gJJ:~m,ents, whi(:'h are ,among Suhrawardf ~ ori,g;mam eon lri,budq-,ns to I8Iam:i,c, ph "ilosophy. cinillt" ms that he seems to bave succeeded in esesblishW:Dg the ~istenJce' (l,f 3, being " at can Golf be understood by i.tse~t but ab.o 'malt "lis understanding takes place by virtue of drl,[e n~ality cf its presence, ' 0" ne second. cQ'n~lusion. jjs that since' "self" can. Qnly 'know iuelf by tb.e reaJi~ of itself" any other m. in. g' is :mrewgn to it and tilereb" wi~ 'never know :It as ''it. realmy is, M~ :iji l in sta!tes, this 3l~ .. 0.1}aW5:

In th;iis prime' ieRm,p.;~e' of presen ce - knowledge., the meanmng iqf knowledge '~eco.imes absolute' y ,equivalent with the me'an ...

06

P'bUoso'Pbic~1 Suf~m

ing of the v~ry being of' the s.e'Hi such-that w"thi~ the te:rrltQ,:ry o"~I-neM'" to, ItD,OW is eo exist and to exist is to knoW.B2'

2 .. 'R·C' "I' nrl"l:.'i,"''Il!''If'!i '.0' s ... 'Dm;'D' 1"10'" G" N~.;m 'Ii. .i'O'· DE ~ ··~:iI'_~., U'lt:LEdt"IJI ,.1_~:·.,1U l.E""~ ", t, .. " .• -.II."'I:IJ m ... _., .' - ~l~

"V1III:'II:'O'--"I'-Tif E'nG',. E'I .D.i,,_; . .,,, ~ I ~

S.lIlhra:~di Offers mo aflgwp,enU in su:pport of tbJe view 'mat our krwowl,[ecl:ge of ouneke:s requires tbe existence of ,3" pre-cogn~ttve mode of k~.owiing; a, d ma,t can anmy be possi ~"e throagh knowled,ge by presence~ In his first \~l~:n:ienr~ Suh:ra~uU attf:mpts. iQ' demonstrate the ,a'bsu'rd;wzy ef'not ,aQ:,epdngthe argum.ent. Through the' ',. Ise o.f ~dio ad a~'diu"Rt in a very difficult passag-e he states:

En.d.eed~ if tha.t. w,hich is unknown "to yon becomes known" then bow do. you know that it is W" at you. ,so'u,g;ht?" For inevif!ably either [your] ignorance remains, 01 I your] pd,orkno:wledge of it eJflisted so. foal 'it could 'be' 'It_llrC$fR _, such [[. ~ .] :For t;ha!t which is sought, jf it is. unknown form in aU aspects.; it could have never been knioc.wn.88

. n the a:bo:ie a:rgumeRt Sml:hra.~dil maimtains thait :irf I" am to ktJJJw' A through B, then ,I must have' come (0 ,mmv. fhaJt a m some sease, represents A ,H,owever jfm say this" men it is necessary fO'E a person to fiJrs.~ know' A" and then H1,e fact that ,Bn:!presents ,A. ,How CUll 'begi'n to know myse1lf tnf,ough som,emiug oth.er. 'liban myse'mf~ ,if] do not already :know myse1f?' This argument o:rigina'Uy goes back to .' lam, who ~ed that in seafieh~ng ,for 'tJ1llth:,.. we In essence must thow the' truth or else, even if'wle do tlnd h.~, bow will we recognize 'wt? Suhraward:~, is applyj;ng roe saDle ~on.cept wid) a great dea] ,of,emphasis on. the j?,m(qplitNe. mode Cfrk~,o.ledge .. Therefore, prior know1ed,ge' of A is ,ne.'cessary :if A ,"$, to, kne.tw itself th,rough B;, 'oiliecwi$ean'Y o~,ect of one! s re:Uecdon may be a re,pfie-8en:m.t:~,on. af' A.,

Suhra:waror~ seQon d argument for har~g pr~~o,g".iti:¥~ tn:o.wl= edge ,W$ ~,£ol ,Ow'S: If A knows itseK throng,il :its :represe:ntation B",

107

Suhmwatdi and ~lu~' 'J.khO,Q;~ ,mf nlumma~~onj

then. the q:~stiQn arises as i((,) ,b"ow it knows that B repRSoenllts A? If' A, does no~, know itself ,dlir,€cdy~ then it m,ust ,bave come to krul,QW B thro,ngll C, ln~. this pr'€)c;e~ g-oo~s, o'n a4' iwdinirtw/M!" tA ddler ~':rds~ eit'h er ,A, knl'Qw! itse,ll d~recrly er else dl,e're' 'wilm. 'be an 'mfinire' ,eh:tdn of re~pt€$en&atjjGn~," each o:f Wh~iCb is, knmm throl"gh the ,o-vnetoine,. This, acoording 'to· Su,h;r:awa.rdi, is lmpossible, From this 'he' IcomJ.t:1ulies. tnal A 'kno~ iuelf dire,.r:;:U.v and w.i~h~u;t m~iation or

l .

:re.preSienltation~ Su'hraw,al"'-dl is careful to' pJ;dnl out lh~t this ,proc~$S

m~ erue Oll.l;y in r~~ I~@ the r,ndw~~d~ ,oj the :S~mf of itself and nor of d1!e 1Qbje1cts; ~f 'ltb'e e'xt@Inal wUtmtl.

g~,''D'G''TTI;~?i.P'iI'" ~O,;:; '1~ ,"~<''l'iDy,~~~: ~\ .. ~ __ ,UI'r~I •• ' ,.~~ ... ~ ... ~. ~,,~JQI-U .-oRI3

:FinaUy.~, ,Suh~awaFdi ofie:r,s an ,ar~.mlent. that is base dl (lIn. the p\rim~t.y Qlf' the. essence ~yer' the aecident, The pr~m)acy !M dlJ,~' essence over the a~~ldtn t is the uJir:d.edyiif\i,g phU9Slop,hb::a~, principlle' rapo:n 'whi~h tbe .If:g~OmJ~nt. 1& based, de>spim ,th,e' fm tn.al! Suh~a~' wa'rdi d.~es, not use' ,th~, ,c~nl~p!M of .essenee and ,~~srence' ~pllid.tl,

~ 'Iii: t.. 'i' ,. 'I This vi 'I:.. .11;., h '

l~ :argu,~ ..:'0'(; ms :pOs:wti!Q,fij,~ , IS V1~W.;. WJ;-iflcu. 'u (?,@:m,e w,be Ko'o'W':n,

as tbe '~pti.nfi,p.ality of essence" (,~altd ,aJ-mooi:1Jak),. as epposed itt) tbe ~p'ri:~!eip~U,ty af exist-en~@"- I( ~~i41 td~~iiFJJ bel,., 'by the Peripale'ric~, Js an ,integral ,par~ rqf me isA'rtll.p; school, To 'know somedr~lingbJ' tn knQw lts essenee, and if 'One is, tQ know the essence of :3., ,necessary b@ingthoo~lh its 3!Ceki'e'n t or in, 'dl,ig ease ~ its predilc~I:e'~1 tbe;n it is 9JS if one 'wcrf: 'to, ~nQw' I; major' p1remise, ,th:oough, ~ mino.r one, To at,pie fa,t hhl' position, Suhr,aw:a~di refies €lin the' metho d, of Tedi4el~Q ~ ,~b~ftlum by ~~ru:mmlng dlll.t' we know' ourse:~ves ~f.'t)ug:h

tbe represea titian ,J dl,'e' " ~ n [) n, th is, he ,s~y&~ -

"Ii...:l. d 'iL.. hi L," h '"'ib...l'.' . .dI h· 'il.. ., ~£'

J!_:_:n~ee1_, bile I: ·l!f.l~ W:ll.1.!1.C ~ I necessaTt~.i ~xls,ts aH'y, 'W .:'lClI!,1, ~5· Sf:,u'~

:pcerreiv~dl does [DJot know' itse~f from. :ac m~'&en'tation of itseU~' wn .hse':If. If it k~,ows [It&elf] lnmu,gh its :repms~Jltationj :and ~h,e r'epfe~e.n ra:cion IQf I-n.e:s.& is not. itse:ilf, "me:n in regardsw, it [i'~ne8S,] ~v it :~s the on!e p£1"Ceivttd :an:d i.-r ms "the ~pooseB taJ.tion at. that time~ The perc~:ptinn O1f I-n~ss. m.uSiE. '~; "l!~f itsel', the'

~ !£' ..:Ib. 'L,·' h ~ ~, ]f· d b 'h

:~erlcep,t]!o:n ,0:1;' 'UI:!Il~1tt: Ww~'ru,~ .. tt." ~!Use,. ':, :~s, ,an~. must. ,':e' t, Ie pel"t:!€p"

tiOD oritsemf~ by i m:elfl'c ,jimJ8t Uke ttu~; ~~rception' of oth~r thaI)

.. - ·Iilt.' ..a .<t., ' '." "ilk 1 +

'~'UJe'i!U( = :a11'u. ' •. :':.t;at liS nrlIFH)SSjlt}~ e - ~:n oontm'Sc to th~ ~~I~tnil!s\"

rep;r~'&entation and, that ",h~,dl ,~I[ has, of ,~,t ,al"e' ooth 1:tm MOre:,ave'r,~, 'if itt is tb;rotIgh a repr~'senta:dDn,~ itt~ '~ne\V" d:hi n~:;M\; '~!p.w Dlt. W;3;S, ~a. :[iep'lre$~lnta,tio;Rj' and ~bus it kBew i~elf it'll fougb

lOS

'piL.'~ I, '-~. ·1-'~:Ii::

. ·:nI lOOOPUU:'~o oU~Jsm

·repres.e~n ta!tion.~ ,And how w,as ~t _not?' It hn~agines that it k_:_n Gl\f.,S

'Ii).. h- 'lb., .. '~,' '!Ik .• 'ru." " - ;;w..., - d : . ~If' f' "

'bw€ 'Very ~ ,~ .. tng uf ~:~.al WlIliru,cill:l ~S' 3tU:'h,.;UteJ_ "to M:S~,~." .'. ~:m o~!t~,

side, it ws an :a~'tdb!ll®e of ~;t.. If' :il is j'Ud:led accord in; to ev~F'f' super-added ~atttibur:e' 'to 'rume~r~ then :it is a knowl~dge cf.other

"'1..0 " 'If' 11· ... 1 . ..-1 t. • ~If b £"= 'nili' - 'II!... - d L

tu!~Ul ItS~JL.. .!1 t wreau¥ ~neWM::ge~': .. ~IUr,~ a"~ ~atlnluures an. .. il:o,J!!,~~

like. lit didl not. kll.ow' itSelith,rough ~d.tibures w;llil'ic]& l-re.sJU.:p,e~-

.... ,:~ . ..l ed ,84, ~UJ'L[~ ..• 1

The a:bov(t :tU,~;meD't seeks'to establish th_e :rea~:h:yo:fth~'b1owle4~e' of the self' by b!;e:~f th r.o:ugh an ,ex;tmln;aJu;l,ol't of the a[trru.bu tes ,of the s~lf, The :~u'gIDullell r is b~~d, on a It,ey' cou,ep(~ which ~s that WI ene is W' k.JlJ~m' b.hnself~ then he ~ must ha'Ve had priQr :knowl'ed:g:e of himself, If dl is we~ not lhre' ease, tHen bOW' could one realize that tb\e thing wldeh rus suppiosed te be the ,fep~e~en.~'t~~oD ,of the &eff does :3:c~:uany ,f,eprese'Jlt the' $~JG The ~plre8~flnui·bns, 'of ,~n e's se;~f, 'which. in ,tll.ls case ~: 'the' :a:ttrlbuite'$ of the ,siq.1(~ are usefw:1 in f,ecogn.izing' the self j" il1.Q Qnly if those' :atttibute~, tmt}" rey,fesefi It tbe"$~ilf. 'This teo, bO'WeNe:r; r~q,tdre!S ha~:llg a frn='kfiacwledg,e 0f'du,~ seJ!£. Th:Ul~, b. can. be said. tb:at if-Que is to know Qn,eself thr{oltl~h his ~til;dbl!lles~, then he has 'to know ~lfat these arttribilues are a,ctuant the a,tu:-i1Ju~~ 'M the serur., To, :kn~w tb~~" one bas to :t:..;ave p(r~knaw}.edg'e afhls own ~seNr ~ w:ht~h impU~s the ~.elt; knows ~itse,[f'through itself as has been ,aIJIued for in the' finit tvlQ, argumen,~m

In the seeond p~n of this ~gumi€'~t Sllhmwardi maintains that 'One kn()ws himself e'fitbl3t' diFectiy Qf iD.direc;t'lf. In 'tffil e first ease, the :proNem is< SDl~., HoweVer" if A i:s to know itself t'hto1lJ;h its '[tte:p,re8-~t~d:an .~ then it ls rea8Pl1il1ble m OQ,nc~~udc'- t):1,3;t':it C~ not '[{DOW 13' eJf.Gepll wrough, 'iu, :f:.e:pr,eselltat~oD ,0. and this process can g'o on d.tl infl'nimfm., ~ '. . Th,exeture~ ~:t can be "('Jonelud.ea tbat ~ CaD n.e'ller knowits~Jf th~oug'h h;s, ,mpn~senta.t~o.n., Suhria;ward:~ ,consider'S rrJds (-0 'be iU] a'})s:u;:rdity on'~ gfQUlld~" First~ it mJ~:ads, 'to' an inn flJ:ite' ,serieB of' 'C;:~litinge[u:. .d!epe:ndent bein:gS-j; w'h i,cb.~, h~ ar.gDe.s,~ is im p~ssibl:e 'for the;r-e: '~s ~n, ,end. 'to' eVjel)!thinrl~· Seciond ~l" we lknJow otlrse'lv.esi~; w'hil~ the above ~~m:e:f.lrt indicates, fua.t we' ca:rru;n,ot It,~!ow ourse(lves", an absuxdi'tJ Sldl m,wardi [,ej-ecu;.,

Suhjr.a~rdw. h~ lD ad re' a.n ~5um.ptioD. here wbi,(!h is tbat the seU~ kn,o~ ,~b~~. \Yha:t if thr~s, bs .not, '~he ca~e and th~il the' se~f is igfi~ian t

of itself? Suhraw,nllw does, :no[ Fe-pily to th:irs, poi~ It si:ll,ce OUl~ kf.towl~ ~dg;e ~r onl"8elves is sO cetud:n ~nd appears to 1;)e ~o ~cleajr ,and ~ di$'tlDJ;,tltj~, as Descartes 'WO~d ny j; th~,t OJ,fl,e ma.~ :not m]sta.'ke his :notf.t~n 10',-' se~f wj:th 'ilie :acw:lW ~elr a:s it, pe,aUy' is-.,

lfilt':l; , ,v.~

Siihmw.ar,d.ru and the Schl()0~ ,of nrnum.tna~ip'n.

The' :a;d~.ov~ obj;«!lii)(A,2' In. my o'Jnion~ 'ru~ ~ sham::ammg ~n Suhra~. w,ardi 's phHQ&O!phy.. Thce~ DSI no 'qaEt$tian th3t. the c~1f mows '~~r.self~

H .~l...'.;1 'ib, ,0,,1-.. ,o.''b. '~h'n, ,l . ..;I ~c .. 'L.' 1\£

" mveve.'f, mere 15 ,eveJY 'fea~on to 'UWOlillU\t i:',.tall nus ~-~O:WllletiJ.ge Cir 'lone Ru

'ms., the" self as i,t :reali~J is, Fo;r example:" ~;t is nue thaJit my' rela;tl\@n~l),ip to my be~da.£'h.e is marked 'by oorta:inlJ' Mj,dj, (l~t.:m.I~s.s, 'How€Vfr, n':q

,~ /J' head h . ..:1 ,. 1.." a ... '] .. L.. b 'n.

ooncep,t w,my .' eaaac ie arly ItS ,cJi;r;a.ra,ctms!IiJ,@~ 1Ii:.u~Ug1. ce:Elta.;m te me,

sheWd not 'be mumken ftI~ me' 'true' OJiitJ-ure of tbat headache 'wrum mary' never be 'kn~ 'tor me~ .. I. have in idea ~ my '~H"~ but ht)w aQ' I know' this, ][s m, actual self OJ"" tha;t my' b!t()wled_ge ,af' ill. oQ~S<'x)uds W, the' actual se~1? Suh;rnm~nti W€l,tdd 'I'~pI1 tuthe' :above 'by,sa~gll:ta;t the

~ A fO • , '. • ~L hi 'IL. "ilk, 'if 1), ..... , .' 1.£' • ..c,L. h " ',AI

moae 0 ~uon W'111LI1 w iC~;l tne se : ~ MCli~)lW, lilSe'JJ.i 1~ $U'!JU fl . at ,~,t U1oe~

not '1II'~''I'1id: ';'~'=i:~t' ~ ,an'll 'tnM;~C~m' '1~!ln.'i-~;c::-·..,.l ~,.n''''''~\mi~ Therefore 1~'tI;~ no ',to a

IV 1~\IJlRr. _ ~r~U -,..._ _' ''l - .\~(,,"~L ~ • g_·IIIJII,!llIrillt ~ ~iI~~J'~~'!!". - - ~t . . !II'~ ~

pr~pe.r :3Jla[ogy: to Icom~re @I1e~I,s. relaiiamshlp to ~Qn'e t lS headache and

;i\'~, lr'''''' 1-_..1 £1' .. 1.. 'I;ii:' I'" , 11£' Th" , 'ill...ll i" L. .,'iti.,.,. . •

'y~e N~9W~ge 'O'l ImI,J,e S;e~ 0: :~,tse'm;., I re :prowem Wli,l.l, ~~ts ~~t ~S'

'that Sub~tdi ~eaye'S,n6 roem f-or aI1fve'riSi~ad:on ,ofhi& claim by an

ou~ w!'''']'e - . iifII i[',.

- -- -

T- -, ..: ,u,"

he a~ p,~obt~m is. one 'Ul3!Jt li;..,ii 'In, ~dsQ notices, bOit he dees

f:lNJt elaoor,a~ on i:~ :m.d, in fact cvns),d,en :it [0' be' an jss,ue' open, fQf :furlhe:r s~udY'" flow&"V\e~,~, haMg o.f{~red. a fiiiB~,'Uwon of m~' ~oln~cp"t of ~~r;enes,s'!!j· and '"p:fie&e'llCe~ ~ Si t,wd: oonc:~;ud~s th.Jit oi~r knowl·,

;J "",I: '1·' .. 'I!.. 'b~ d -,11>. ~ '~d

eu:le O:J,' OUTse' ves 'i.1 one, Q1J~t peS! ~yP:n' t'Jle '7t~~ an

«ib·l.. ......... :~~,,(I'm d istin ction As Ih,p ,c..",.,'r.-c:'"'

r/,Wl"V·I!'iI'K(I'tf.,~~ _ ~~ .~ ~~ .. __ ,. ~ I "~ ra~~~!Ii

Themost outsitan,din;g; feature of Mlow'ledge by prese:FlJ:ce'; ·h0wever~ is tha;l' the' humediare' o'!bj~c;ti\fl~ rea. .ity qf idle thjjng as 'i,t is, :ws. :hs beIng known~,e5,

d P,!O-, N'-'CL' i1' 'r·'i::!lI'O- 'lk1ii'

~i!1 I~'." .. ~, ,',_ . ...:.. ~ . i-"J.F~: .. ,.j,

Havm.n,g dleJmo~sl~a.ted in 'Ute' lut rJ:u;ee, a\~menlts that the self cri"nnQIf; be~ knOWfl by ~'nrythiqg' ,else ~ceprt i.ue,ll and 'tjb,at ;~.t ~ onl,' th,rough the sib~er pllesen!{;e' of me reaU,'ty O'f die "self' t~t t[li,e kn,Qw'ledge of: the' ~ff 'beioomes pa&sih],e'~ Suhmw,a'rdj gOO! on, t,o' €)on;G~,ude the' foJ]~ovrir~I;:

"

'¥QU cannot be ab&€Jtt t(1Q:m youli:$.e]f (,(lkiitik4h md fmm~y'our

'nl· ., [' • A, ~ • ·'b'nl ... ,L 'h

reawlzatJon a. lft~ ana ,SlUice aW3Jf\ene,. IS, not ,nss:~ ·,iIJ,eud::-oug-

represe:n'mdD'n or ,5UP'€;f-..:acddJ(ioJ1t!! in you:r iL'wa:ren.e',S$, of 'yUH rs~tf, yPU' 'i.}uly Il.d·1g~nelf wh.iJeh :is ris~,'b1e '~o iM~lf aDd. not l~b~en't fro"m iucdf" and :nothifJ.~ els~ Th~ '~_r:,en~'s, Oif th@~ 'se~t :ruJtg.e'lf must be by i'meU~ and cannot be ab~ell'l from it lS'Uch !-a8 the' OJr.gians (t~r the heart" t:h~ liVelf ~ and.· the bntin,~ and, aU,

llO

'Ph'~lost~Djph1.c~J. 'S~fism,

matter and ma~rml darkness :all.d U,aht ~;s not ,i:m~Ued in VQur

o ir I

~w,ue,nels ()fyo,'lJJJneU~. ¥ou:r ,el'~lWloelle$8 is, :n.oOl. an QiJ'lgaIr nor

is, it nla'ir:eriati!1t~J· m,lt unless 1(;(U, awe, absent (rilm, it~ vou have

,'I' ,",,' ,

a:Wan~~:ll!ess (Jf')onr-se'ff~ ,colltirtPdl@lusly and pennane·nt~f..u

TWI~ (j~nclns1.@n~ ~all 00 d:mwn fTltlm, S:u,br,a~rdJ's, d1Je(Jry'~f knmvled,ge by ,pr,ese:nr:e,. ]firsil and fore:mos.[ :~8 that the self can nnly be :kno'WTl by lrne,mf~ and tb:e'~br;e to 'koGW 3l dling m e"qui.va}.~'n t '~O gainlmlg kDowledge' Qf all Qbjeet so tm:hat ~hrel re:tadonm:ip belW"een the o~j~, and, the ,self is the same as the ~reladgnsh~p ~tween ~he

'lE . ..1 '. '1[- -,

" '. - a;- ro, - !!:~

~ _.n __ nse ,

Th,e ~~Qnd o()'ncl~U$i«Q, is ilia:t WQ;alLevet' is ,n,'pm: kn~wn mrou.,gh me' 'p:re~tlce 00£ th,e ~e'lf hl theeefore beyond fJb"e' ~pisre:m]:c domain of ~be ~Jf., CQn$eg,~,end¥", la~'AlQg oerudn"", wirh. rnprd to those

"b. ,,",i..' 'i...~, .ooil ",'i!... " "..:ai. a, f' h '11£ .

(~~e,cts, u.I,iiU: are ~yar~,u tne '~p]8Jte:rn,wc 'UIlOlnmn 0: I ene S-e"JJ, is nat

,pOSjiblf'.

~'. prn.~1 '~"'.11' "....ni""T1'i:1.EQ····· ,l1'~T,CNIl."'~' or "P' H' .n('~!O···iD'lJlJlrAr

~~. ~'Ipi 11 ,a,~ ~Jj?a-I ~ J -'-. 'II..J'\EiaJJ;'.H.j~III:i~ -, .a I ~~ u£ 1I1~~

.' .

",'iP!iO'J[~'1T'·~1i'S:, ' ,~:~l~~jl~&_ .

Wi.th re,gard'to the' .f@re~.in;g di~u.ssiQft", it can be $idd that IIbe fj,rat ~tep in Szuhrawardi J S lepisteJm~Jo,gy is 'to, .arg~.e fO,f m~ eJli{~t~;n ce of

'1~ h- ,. h'· ,. ., ~ - cO -, 'I! 'L.~. T'I: '

a sew "\IV - u: - liS, an l'mma[erwal and ,~mmll'm,b.le' substanee, 1l.Ue proof

for me" e~$te\ll~~ of [he QP 'J ~ d:1 .. e task Qf Idise:urslv1e' ~philosophy, Su'h-raw,ardi ~ as: it !JKu~rul ph wl0,sophe:r,,., carries {Jot the task of est3LbRs¥..lng the very existence of ,81,1} independen t seU" whidl,~ bow~ ever, ~s ma:ny :a;t:tr~but,esc m,at ,~n~ a:~hed 'w it~ These ~tta(luJP~nls are the basic con:s(tj:tu~nt.s of 'th,eo human egg ~ 'na.ft) whose ~is,~en(e' is too ob\dous to. atgu,e' ('OF and in,cl)ude -GleSKes or the flesh, S'1

Su:h,ra;w,anH bQ:~ds the view "that the' seU" Q1fmn a:ppeal131 'rJO be 'IlQtJhtn.g but a ~um of desire~ taw1l(d,s, w"'O:~Jy atl):3.Jt,de,Ds and :~ot 'lJVo '~pS!r.a:w; 6'ndties, a :mfta:physhca;I "Iri 'toO' w:h leb, d.esru:res of the' Helh ar~ sl1f~pa-adi€d~ En ard,er' ,to :ma:ke d)i:s crucial dmsdnt;ti~n:j S~l1Jmra!,~i t:a1l5 f0F £urthet :pbUo:~,phital mal¥s~ 'to. ,firmly es:t.a~h-,

l~ 'IL, th o 'Ilk, rU'[!It) A '" ·'b- i,'Il;;.·I" 'iI/t" h

, ]S,~~,' ,'a&: tllJ,W,~ . ~ ani!.i l'tsi :attnl.cutes ,are 'Rot 'Ul~W,e sru:NLe .. 't IS 6.Uijl t . ,en

tbat. W'~ CaD s~e thalt w:hereas the :naltUfe M tb,e '~r' is divin!e' and. bel~n:g;s to the ~,Qm;nous 'w'owl." iu :attt3!chmenrs :I:re' o:n,t(:dogi~any

. ..;J" iL. '} 'lid' n, ... ," -l~" :.l d - ,. 1).., ·''11

rO(),Ide:u, :~n l1l!e iCO'rpo:R'a, 'W'U!tl~J, ~u()n,a ruS.t~f' m~ .' ts.cursi.v~ pulliOa,

h '. Ib, ., ~ 11 .... ,~'1 ~ . ,..:i: 'Ia,.'l"" iI!;", .. 'I ~I'· ~

sop Y lim tw,w~S, ,c;on.~~t ]_S ca ~~, '~'9r m o:r~er ~o ~'$Uu, lSu, l\iIle 1i1:islm"c\~

'lion 'bet~il;~n, ,the' self :and .i~ :attribute,s.,

Suhra~mj ~ s third, .step in d~aling w~tl1 (he self w()rtd{l,b~ to g'@' beyond the se,pa~r,a,do([l, O'f dye It~]f from its att;rib~tes;, ,k 'd)irs s,ta,ge

II]

SUbraW,3ld~ and. tpe &'hOQ:W 'of 1,lhlminat;~Sin,

SUhrawardl a['rgnlle~ that in, order f'Of '~he se]f w be abl~' >t(), reveal ,~tse'.! the' ",ti1in:g~ 3;Jttrn,nJtes, ~.f dli~ self $f~fOuld, be d~strQyed., T ~ !(lo so, Suhra~J)d~ pre,::;cri 00$ practicing asceticism and 'he roes: 011 to mUustta.te' in ~g,rea;t d~ta:H dle t}pe ~~fnd nature I~E these :p~tiae~ as:

WCld. 'd1s:(;ussed, :ptn::viQu.sly~ Sueh pra<:d~es e,'U,minam.e tn@ 'R~ft and id ,e attri butes of dl'e' ,se,lf 'begin l\") Wn !rsll one 't..y one, ,Mthis 'plril)€)e~~, ,goes OJ~~ the' $eli) wh:pse rela:ti~n tP,· it$ ~Ud'larl,ltel '~_s U~,e l~ reladoD''ship' between ~€ldent'S to essence, 'begins tQ re:-veal i:o '~I-neSlS~," Thi~ pn')cl@ss wiD 'hav€:' l(), eon th]J,u€' rm til th,~ ano'ruj1iiation .0'£ the ;attlr,~'" butes @f the se~r IS com,ple1t-ed'ii and fWnCI€ thm pL[tace~!j has been fints'bed" the _U'lfiU '~emai'n, ~n llrS 'en~ttyMtnO':ut3'J1,'ven {hlm iItseU'"

'\t'lhen you 'h~ve made a ,6Merul in~mry into yl)UBe'lf~ rOll, lWiiU find out that',ou are mla~,e @if ~Otw~·rj milt is, n0'tfiing but that

'Ib,· 'b '~I.,," I"' "'T"'111.. .• , • g. 'Il' ,!~,

Ww:~,l(- ~rU)W$, 1t~, ('J~: rea ],q~ .L ms IS "Otw:~ own I'-De-SIS'

(~~iJJ~ka)., This is the ,m~neI" in ',",'hieh eYelYOl'i1e is to 'knp¥1'

hi 1t" d-" .. 'b . ~ 'KJr ~~, • • .. ;L. il

Jrm5e;g an, c ,In 'UI~U'-~ every6ne':s . Jt~'m'ss, ' :lS ,Cl)mm,on. 'M.'u~, 10u~ .

the :mcthodol()i~' IOf 'brulg1:ng the' ~df ttl it's fullness and ttl US '~na,bling'. :irL to .~al hse:H" can be t'd:mm~lized ,~ '[h~'foUowing::

~. lt~~limdon of me distinctnesis of f:h.'e seW froen its attri bu test.

'2'. Sepa.ntloll. Of th,e ~I ~ :from iits ~taibuU!s\! bQ'm plbi~-osopb i~alty and prncni,caD1~

.3,. 'Empl~yF.Ilf€in t 'Of a~auc;ism as a means for destroying attr-i buttes ;I'D:d leaving 'the self to :its, pur;e FOl<m~

,{~ The self :Wtl :itJ pur'€" fQ,rm, is a single' ~a[ru d ,l~]f~jid!ent phe:no-.

menon f{(€Jo1n which fliod~lll~g more';apparent can €xiglt..

5'~ That from wh ~ch IIJOth1JDg more appareat eM 'e%i_St is light., a S ].iif" ~I- 'h' I'm".....iII 1::'\

!J'~ se _!l;;~~,!lJtg I, 11,. 'l,.£'; "'I:~OiJi,

T., Thin;gs areknown bJ' cQlJIlwlinuJ t'be mere presen.e,e Clf:lig"ht. S~ Thin;p are krl(:'~MI.l, 'b;rc the p:nesen,(e of lithe se~f. (It 6~ 1)

Ells hi regard to the abQw'epistemd;9Jica~ sch~llle Ifuw: phi]~phy and a~fedc~sl11 have their ()wn :pla[.~ and rn fa,c£ are mble w become, hJu:.~gr,aiEid inrn:O,;il l'rad,~dQn, of. 'Wisdom dla:t bdngs ~D~Giln: a ~FF ptOcb,eJlPent betw'ee:n. ~is!cur~i,ve ph'i~O$ophy~ :in,'telID~lCJm;al intuition and pmcd,rc~ 'wiadom.m

Far Slib:mw:anll, ~t~.'e' £nIlc~pt Qif knQw~.ed.ge' b~ presellce. is th"ere'Cor,e de£in~ ,a~ an aw:al\len~ 'ar p~es~nce of th~ o1bje_c~ ~fQre itS 'e.en~~,. ,B~ '~eroin!dJs us: ,th~.t this e~n~,e~,.'whiC:h" 'h;~ cons:id~'rs, mlO be' {be sa_me as the ;se]f~ :l~gbt . a,nd, lkn~wledge" ;s ~u'ch thaJt lh't virtue 'Qf its, ,pm'Slence bd~'ges tLbe s,n h!jecl~bje~t d~Sli:ncdon~

],1'2

f'hUo~phkal ,iun:sp

Si'fil(e' al] thih,gs are ultimattlf made up of light, and because it is ab$'Ut'p to say tt:hrut one needs lig;h t tQ ~fl1'ld al'JJ)W,erf Ugh I" bl rrrder for a~ episterhic :re:~~ti.on. tOe OCCUft' the' veil that is separating ~he ~ubjeGt and, (be' object h~~ to be removed, In tb:mc cfQSe\~,filrIQr light", ~,\lhi:ch an:' e1quirvalent in Su'ln~~,rd.r~ p~,HOB0p'b;r, ,~~ In.o:wled.ge as w.e~L 'T Q maw is to e:~st pand to exist ru~ teO' kn~!' dl·eF~,ft1Ee COD= st:i[u.te~ a m~Jorr eprstemolGgJ.caI t'llem~' and ()W,e: dtf tb~ impe,rmn t c'O:n tri bu noas nfS[d1r-awa.rd:w, te IslamiC' pbn~phf~'S!!

Dcsp,ire, SuhraW'aOOi~'a g:eniu;s~ 'ilia.;-e am :a, tl,lUm~ Qf' o'~jf6ctians &hat can 'be' ~~idsed a~n'&~ some of his :spedf~c ~m.m'~. Here I 'wish, to, d._i~uss .,seve-real 'probl.ema'Jtm~c pomts impJied, by dl,e tb.eoq of knowl .. , ed,g,e by presence" SuhratwilJ7di 3rg!l!es, that after he thuruughl" mastemd 'nne P,~riparet1c;' phit'Q90pb¥:'~ be rewb:ed the inadequa£:ie.s of su(;b a phil~u~phiaI methodQ~~gy. He then i.mprQ~ re\n~ib. Mpects of the :Feripa:mttc' ~pbjltiSQP'hy h¥ ,addi[ii{~' :md amitMH certain .:"" ments, At. that poilllt. be' h~ d,t)t:l,e what anY' bri1imt pc_bito~p}1r~1'"c w~'md do. He' d\eul :te\t~s, 'tis; ma.'t through ~dicism and inhiadQn be hadl, a Yls:iaD ,of the uufil),. H~' reminds us en oumerom:' QC(3S~,a.ns That the pa~_ th ,~f $IBirituaI vea:~iiDti@iil :~q' rWe$lil&Deti('. p"~rntliCies.,

,r· _r,

·\!Yhat. is 'pr'o blemaeic iu S<uht3[watiU~., claim is 'm~'t threugh

spiritual W&i~n. be' has rma]ite.l 'lm~' valldl'ty of 'rh~ :p'hUoso:p,fti-eill prlncipl,es, which h~ a1d.v!(j~aw~J. This ,~s ,e,ra,cdy 'YiiiutJt di$tift,~bhes gnosis ('iljrin.) fram :p;furilosophy,. The pJ;'obl:em, u";u :fbU(!fYlS;: What ,if there' ,t!lxis~ an ~m,ent or a 8,e't of a~gumeftts, In the' works, of Suhmwardi that are cleai~ :(oose'? In order 'ttf'f~bi" ,Suh:m~a;r:di's. :pht~Qsoph i(;,3il :p~~digJn ilt ~s ()In l.y aecessary '£0, find one Instance in ':~hiC:h SoowwarfIJi, advocases a, fabe a~ment:. T,h~Fe are lRideed such iDBnatree's.,

'Basjng' the V3,Udj:ty 'Of a phUo,so,phic:al a_r:gu.mJen! eo o tin g€n It ru]fpon t;p(intual eFe'aUzadoo, creates d],e; foUlowin_g. plr'Ob~,em;s:

1., ,All 'the p~ljloso'phleal ar,gum~nu, must he ~ou n.'~t or else the spiritual 'vision Of Suhrn~v,~<rdi is not ~utb€~,tie,.

:2., ,An 'tllile phi~,oso:p~il."eal j}J'gum~n es ,~m sQund[ r'egV(Uess, ef 'iheir'

,'apparent faU~ies, :and. dler,em~' ,the vtshjrl'l :W~l ,a.udl,e:QdiCm

As m i:p~Hi[art,ea a:b®ve l' in the fir~t 'C~~ ,~:t is n,ot ~ry d:Ulimlt 11.0< :ffiJnd an, argumen.t Qlf S1Jll:h:ravla1d!'w wj,tb ,appanent fla:wl;.., Hl1w SuhraW,3.lidi carru defend, thiS pDsition ics pu~·U:~$'.' Iff. p:r:eSe'fDil a phUo~phlciU

113

SUhmwlMi and th~ .st:boD~ ,of IUummat~()n

,a:rgum,e;n.t ofSuhraw3Idi ',hic __ is byany:accounrfallacious to him, then be either has to admit that :bis, spi~itual '\dsien 'was nut real or tbat. the' valid.ity of ph:ilossophica'~ 'argumen,u is 0:0.'[ :n,e;'f,essar.ily related to one's mys.'tJttal 'vis.ion.· S.in~ Suh~awardi has based his vieYlS on the premise tb~t {h,e 'truth of philosophical :a-rgUme'll ts can be' rem ized throlJl.g'h on e ~ 8 U~~nninatio"n j! tben se:parati ng the validlty of the arguments and. ~pidtual vi:S~.Qn would be a violarlon of" tbe fundamenta pr~nci'plle' u.pon wb~ch tbe iiimqi .scheo is, established. Su.hmwar·di ,obvi,orUlSi~¥ wUl.D.ot grant that his :mystical experience has been it false ene since that wou~d p' ace the is.lt.~ school in. a dilemma,

It fbUQws. that ,sunraw,gl'rdi wiU 'ha¥e ro ad.opt the position ·tb@.·t an the' a~men ts wh~.c'h. he' has presen ted 'have been checked by his 8p:lritua~. realizati9' I' and are correct" regal; '. less of" their lappa' I, ent falb~J!CY ~ The.' £alsm.c.ation of his :a:rgu;me(I)1UtS W8, therefore of no CQn~.". qllenCi! since' he' 'knows that ullfi:mallJel,· 'these prineiples are IO\Jna .. .. :, :", ~'U"·P"I1m.e'Dt does not g'o, verv far and: in fact "":r·I'·~~.·' ,~, a-:J? .... ·,'iIlIIJ(- even

'~,b- _.> ~ ]- - -~t __ I ", IHfI!Y ~) U ,-lIj'b~ :~~. ;¥I~ \

a more fandam~lltal ·pTob)lem. There fraw been manry .eminent ph jJ[osop,h,ers, ill the /m;'fmp. tradition woo have refuted each ether's arguments, Let us Eak'e only tW'0 ,of the greatest masters of [hi_, tradidafl~. Snhraward:~ and 'MuUi ~adr.i~

:U.uUi $ad'm is 'bya'U a 0.: ou 0 itS a man of superior .i;t't,eUect. and prefound 'v:'mon whose spi ,. tual and phUosop, l.i,~a1 acumen is compa:rnb1,e to iu'hrawaFdi 2'50, Mhtl1i sadri takes .issue not nnlY 'With Suhrawardi's QD'tollogy~ but in his "fOmmeil.m.ry 'Upon TiM Pl·ilm.ff/m/l

.6,( nJ'ili~·-i_,n;'··· h _ - _. u , . ....,~'i'ed - ~D" ...,.f:' S h A·"

"9' .l'K·wl1l'"c~nl"{"",p~ ie c I ~;". :s:peCnl( ar-gum. mts W.·-']].' rawams,

One can ,say'th.at the apparent .~nco:nsisooncy between 'Mtdli $adri. and ISohr.awa.nti. e,usB only' within the ~p·h:i]osop'hic.al dom~li.n and that on. M esoterie Ievel 'they remain in 9.igreement~ This 'WOuld 'have been ae~epta'bJe if Suhm1Wam.i mod 'otb.ei "nrat" sages· had not der:wod. the ~wlidily. of'thell ph.Uosop:hieal p"ropOS~tiO:DS, 'from, the :allllme'nrd,city ,of meir sphi.tuaJ vision. ,Mu.la $ad..J'i a d StlhraWaf~]. 'both claim. to 'know tb.e truth and both claim that the wJdity of ·thelr plhU~sophj.ca~ views, i.s\ derived :foom th.e' kn!()wledge tb~ have :i1cq:uired. directlly in. r:h.e form of revelation, Since' th~ disa,Wee wie one anothee, one of the foUowing ,alier.natives must be the case:

I., ,~ he existing'inconslslancies indl,c3!tJe they both are £ahe~

2~ . 'be' existin;g i.n-oo.nSJstaJIlCie51 ;~ndka;~ ()ne' of them. must be fa se~ 3" They 'bod] Me ngh t~

" '

1 ],4

Ph~losop,fi~c~d S-ufijm

One wa;y of derermkDrmg 'wn.ose· c~aim is correct is, 'to. apply the seandard means, of an~ysis and! evaluation tha' philosophers have '(Ieliedi up'on 00 ~.e'~ermirle tbe v!iJidh,' of their agu·men,u. Those who. do engage' In such an '~u]a'lys:is, w5'l" soon find {Jut that there arve 'fa[~.cies, in the works·of._;' _ .ulli ~a,dri and Suih'm;awudi as weU;tS their c·ommen'tamrs~oo The problem to ·which I am alluding is a serious one, sineeif me 'mlidity olf phnosQph~caJ argu~men.ts is 'Sld)ject to the i~'ruth of ones 'vis~onJ' then. philcsopbybeocmea 8u,l:tj@ctiy,e and relative iAl11d one has ~tO accept that Su~rawa_tdi and. Muni ~adra and their ·o·p'ponen.g~e· aU €o,rrec ; w:h:i.ch is not pOM~.ble OOCil'~se thle'Y ,coDlttadh::;t 0.1 re another ..

One m;ay reply to m,· ohjet:dn:n. by a~rgu[ng thal tru It is relative to- the s,pjjd·t.tm.l state of' an ~n&Mdu'al!. and. 'w:bUe gm ~:Y' the' aBsolute, '[ruth can be known abso~uJtei.y~. kno:wle~g~ of aU other beings of the abse-ute tm:rh, is. r-tJadve., Therefore, the ,emstin,g' dDf.e;:fenc¢S 'beMeen Mu1li ~i\ldri. an..d 'S.uhrawardi are super6£iaI. iU!I:d uhi-' .m.at,cly they are in argreem,enl even thou,lh 'they do. not know i~.

T.he .a'bove repll~ :is not ,convincing in ·It:hat philosophical principle;s" e.s.peaaUy th,ose' of a ra;tionaUsti,·c 'll3JJtUIe.; d:o Dot lend themsem.ves. to ,exegesis and in eerpretation in the same way tha.t mystical] assermdoos de. To fu,nhef darify the above; let us' consi~er me foUO'Wlng example, Slt~ppose' SuJ~,ra:~1"di ru;g~.:u~,sc ma,'!:: the fOJ['0.~ng argument is, eerrect and MuUii, ~adri alr,gues, it is fals ',.

], ~ AJJ mien are mortal,

2,. SoCr8!f.\eS Jis. a man, (A) .: .• , ,3,. &:ru:nlt es is' ,monat

A.ssum.ing Suhmw:ardi and MuOi. ~adri both had a geouJne exp£'& e- ce of trn.th~ then they' must ne1cess.arUy :a,gree' wbh .A~ :s;ince the conclusion of the' above a~men,t is uu/e and their philosophica~ ·w.ew· ·is. derived fco'm the ;autheo:ticity of their $pirituat vision. Thoen bow' are we to account fer tbeir d:wsa'fSn~~e:men:1l1rn. (b~s. ~g.d?· In such instancesas the descri:ptioio, oftmtih, Go-'-it or even the nature 0'£:3 mylsticaJ experienc,e.!, .inconststenlc~,es 'can be e.xp,laiDed 'by the r~1t that ene's understand'in,g of 'q-:u,rb. is relative to h~i:s. s.piruu~ state, I 1.1. cases such as .A; howeve''f" we bave a clear and ,si·mpJ.e "iJi,:r.g,nmeniiio ,i'l;..-tlJt' ';iIii iif"le~I~'Y _Jj·i, .. L,JI1I!IIIi'" ~'""I""i._ or rio::JJ~.c_ 'ThT .~iil; ~ir'piI!Ii;'3i,iI,i!I;e ·m P ro -'bI-c,- ~ ~ ,_,.,~ _~_r' < ,Ill. D.W" '[~~ ~Il. ~\l. b •. 'Ili-~.~ IU I~ I,V .Lm.IJ31..r1h '. ~~ ~~''''U~''-r''-I 1M .... ~"I,IJJ.

wh~,ch 18 typica.l of th.,o!Je· wbo halVe offered a p,hUosQpnJ£ill aila1ysis~ based ~n tbeir my,sti,cal vi6i.on..

",AM am.-Razzi'q LihijJj~ one- of the mQ'S["' ce.:~ebta:t.e: c·o.mmen·ta.. '~()Irs O'f Suhrawa:rdi; in 'his ~ok GQcuJhar mUf'tid,!gil a.rgu,es thal ,the'

,-15

Suh~a!wm.rni and the School or IUu;mirr:at[on.

Onn(d,l1!i!i:on one arrives at th rough diseursive r1ea£onin:g :~s 'tJrU e same as, {barf 'wble',h, is attained IrJlrou~b. iUlllmin:adon;." with the' only d:ifler~ ence l:~elmrg me? d·egree ef ,eJarity~ lLihijI raises an important i>t~j.ue whru~h $"uhmYhtrdIi has '~eft ~_n~utM~Il~d~ and, mat ~iSi what if the tnow:ru~dg'e attained th,m'tlgh ill uminatl,g,w, i:s contmdic:ooq.r 'to" the well ,estabUshed pr.~n,c~,plf;s of kn.'o\1Ih~d.,geP' l'ffi~rus> is a question ma,l S~~hnw,afdi, seems 'to take for ':granted hy assum:[ug tha:t illumiuadon arid I1hUQ~I(llip'h~caI analysis_t if~t:~ed 'rllu,:r ~p\ropedy~\~2 IwiU lead t() the ;same eenclusion, Lih ij~, fie al izes t~art ll~g'rueeting t~,e val~dity or~, lQ~eal prin~l.p'l~'~:ait the ~pells€ of an esotedc judI"" meat m~y le',ad to :l(~'Jra~(:hy" since {he :aI:td11Odty of the judgmel1 m: '~tS1e'f is not ve:f'wa'ble"

"t: ~"~-'.-iii '. -] H' - . - . - ~

~w dJl ,8 t:cs.pome is j}, c ever one, __ ;,e mainilaJins th~t :il the re.sul.'t of

0~,e~s [~iSCQVety th:f;O~;h i~hlmi~attQ:f:l were ~Qn:~ to me princi,ples, of l[f)gic~, {hell the 'p~RO.n shQ,U:~d n,(1t 'u1aim ~i be j,llumhtarJeeL ,~th()ng~ d.l~ ~.fih,cffip,~e' gwu::{b the ra'don~d pri~~~pb::'$ frnrtlJiu:bjecd!ve

'irndO'nl,nlf"'lo'I''''' '~i~ ui .. .-.-., n:ci~n':t'V "I",.,.., .. 'II!..., ...:I'" - ", ~!O" '. A,~ "I' ,i;ii,'L ~, .. ~,

.J~' o~-·,-,"':;'J,J.~~ ,111111.. ,~I'-"'~,;'!!f r]'J.-, , '.,j W lJII.1j,e u~srunlve' u; '~Da.nlL. ,~ .!l::;;itUI~I, Sli~l~;:

Therefore, 'a, Sufl~ 'would either be 9" ,the-os.op:her- or 'a, thee'~qgial)~ \Wjtho~'~ a firm gras,p in ~d:tensoph1 o~ theQl.og~~ :an~ 'wiilhout benef:lJri:~-I :from the men of vision, in, accordance 'with the 'woDds of the' [~~~ or '~ts, cO\Htxa-'Y~ an, dJatim 16 ,eutlili';rm--' illi' 'p~UTA t:171iirge' ,ry'_ M

~ r-- -i..~~ til. _ ~~ "~~_~ .-'_ l-'! ••

,', ".,

Philooopht,eal SuflSm

bear.in:g uptin 'the other on e if he is to r~JS;olV'e' the pFo:bl,e'l'fi which I

'h~ d· - d J.. ..,.11i1...... Ci h -..;;1," 'iIi-;r, 'lAi ~ .-

-~a;v.e mscusse ,,_ a W·~~. ,~U_'~ :raw,aIH~"':l s~ sou 'Y, '€QOC:U:J.nUie m 1@(j,l1S1dier

p'b ilO~0phical, tn'tning' aAJdl espec-iaU¥· ma.srecy o.f Perip,,,®,e~ic ph:i~ ~o'pby to be a prerequisite fOF the pursuan,oe o,l tlre ukrtr-rtil tradi~ dgn~ Th'ws, b jus:fifllabte if Subta~tdi @o:~~m.de:~& it to, be a ~1fW e<Jessamy ~rn~nin,g and rnl)o~ihing' else, H,ow'eve~, i'tWDutd, be afatal 'mls:take :for him 'tQ saytha::t the wHdity of ~u. t'b~e philo8op'h.ita'~ p:rinciples;,

,0 '!11. h "..,;1 ~ T!.,~ ,8iJ...::':r...... l-. "j;, :iI",'U • • h'

espectil1Wl.¥ t : ese co.:rtJj,minelU. in 'J:"~ ,i,-"~,W4fJjJ,,.,,:, oJ' jl,~J.'Um~'n~I'i!Q~ ~ arve'

been de:ri,~ ffiam his mJstic~d. 'e~p:t:riien~e'" Mll~e.' some of tbo~e' pr,~n(;ip,~,eS' and. :~~umen'b are 'G~~a;rly re~tled as fuUaciQ'[Ws eV0'ft by such. ,gruant c,o'mme~nca~~o;:t's\ of Suhrawaroi as Mu:i~a ~adrii lLihiji and. S~bllwmi. Re~ardles$ of t;h~s ()'bji~ction,~ Suhra.'ardi ~ 5 philoooJpb;~€al

~ ...;a! ''''1 ." ~ . dh ;i.,1..'.

ar,ll\m,e~ts. :an~ mrn:tl,ca~, narranves are unporta:Qt an -', - ave merr

,. '-w· , . ,1:.,. "iJ1.., h '·'111 hi 1 ,... ~ h' U·'IIl-., .. ·:ld iII..".;_

O\-\fll meru, " "lti!!.1n 'tb"e 'P:, lwOSO~p ucai ".:o"m.arn", r Is, 'W€lifEw~ S.w-I!l.OTw -~, utt

'regardJ~d as a, l)rUliian,i comm~nJ!.aties, oro 'Ibm Sina'$, :i?bilQ,S0pb.y, w,h:h :maJor dHteren.€es hl :tb~ fields of ep,fsl~em'Dlo8Y 'and, on to].Q,g;y.

Te further e1adfy (h e disUn~don be Ilween the p:dp c~lp:l€$ o;f rarmruona[J;8de ,:h Uo\S:~p:h)" and lI:itJma;~!, Lih ijimakes a dist!ri!C:tiof;l, b~'L'W'een. kJ1,owled~ of th,€; s~'iJend6,e prl~ncjp];es versus ,memph¥8id~J bem:g-s.,95! Whe:rea~ t'h,e s(de'n,'[~fi/c. prlnciples lend themselves to ph.iloaop,Jdcal in!qrl ~desj i£~a,i"'wisd@\m does noe,

1"6 summarize, ehere exists ft, fandamental pirQ'bl~m ,at the heart of the $eh~ol of inumin~t~,oftj which arises 'wh~:n,"Suh~awm'di makes th,e_ '~idi~. of ~be philasop~1(:a,~ P'fW:lrDH:ip~~~ contingen t upon one's 'mys,tlcal,wslon. My propos~d so~utiOin is tbLa~ int 'em 'Of arguing ,~,r a" correlation 'between the' spiritua~ rea,'~ization :md, ph:~lo,sophica'~ U1J,ili, 'S1Jhrawaoo'i ~h6uld]' 'St'Pa:r-at~ fhem, It is pe.de,edY ju~tUi_al,b:lt.. for a. mys:truc eo remain i~n[@rafl't of the science of' bi,o].o,g)" ~nd, ch:emistry while cia:iming to know the truth. Ac~or,dinglf!' Su]:n:'a,'ward~ has to djf:fe:rential~ between scientiflc ana, phtlesophical truth .. , He must 'druo~n place them Mthh1 a diff,en~nf: category from truth that is atta~lled 'Cbr~'~,gh a my~tlc.a'~ experience. S'ubmW31rd:i, $~bo'Uld s~y that ~kllQWJ!ed;g,e IQf on ~3,t"egoty ~11Quld 'm'l,""t ha~' ,:iny

..

117

SUbraw,~~(li~nd Ithe &haol OIf UJ.tUlirinattOi[] )lOlts,

I'N'>"F'~L'-U"'E";N"""C"'E: '0' ~ S····UHRA: ""W' ARD····;~'--cl'

,',"" -- 2 .' .... f !..' ,. _. ·,_:"'r ',': ,I,. ,·c~. .,'~,; .. ' ; __ 1_,

ON I,SLAM,IC PHILO',S~OPHY'

Suhra:wami.~~ is:l~~ :;€'haw marked 9i tuming point:in tbe hb:t01J' 'OJ'IiJa;mi(;, ph UQ,sophy since it ,c:ft;arsgedJ m'e ,Ur«tlon an(l Di~ture o[t :phU()~o1?:~l:t~al ~tb.jln.tin,g from a :pur-ely :rMi,o'\rn;alisti~ appI,ga[¢':b "00' one

'!i", ' . .;ru.AI " '. b - f ':I;. = ". '- 11 .' "'"'"

tjj:~a,t e@nsj;UJer~Y. aseeae :fPn€Q€~s ti;) 'e' ,part ~" us ,epJst,em!O:!llpg~_~cw

paradigm, MOOl. Q<~ ~~ ~,'boo18 of ph:iiI~s~phfy '~a~ eame .• rer

S 'L.. .ll:" " ~'.4n ~,it. hi hi "

Ulio'r,aW~FQI w~[',e l~J,pe[u:eY, ~,., ,_, is", teae . 11),@:$ U1 one ~Y' 0,1'

af.i.~w~r: . Some' ~E 'th~e~m~ such .1' ehe SkIzJk~, mov~ment~ w:~j_ch a,gJ'-E!ed 'with, cenain s£:rnnd!.S of ish1WP' th'Ou.~b,tJ Q}Jpose-d others"

The sehcol of inumjn~ti0n 'W'a;S not O'11J, :~mlitnl!menta] in reeen-

, •. " Ai. .. f' ',~.-l th 'L ..... ....l L......" "j._",...,_""" ... t.. '

cilifll 'lrbr€' two tmium],6IlS, 01 ',''Wl~om ,- at ,~-liiIU oeen U} [c)Q;nl~ ~11 'WIu"~ one

m,oth~~ Sufl,Mn and fh,~ F-ed:pa:tedc :philO,iC)"hf~ '~ut also 'br·oug'rtu 3Loo[llt 3.. h.'M1llony fbetween them~ The r~mlt 'WaS, tnat pur:ifteation.and MCed~ ~UW'l@ a n[e¢~ary mn,d~don fer 'lihe ,pbl1ioOO'p!hi£;al s~

'II - ~'L. 'ill" ],jJ.-'I- . .J:", ... '1.., ,. """,iW ",'Ilk..

llatilen,!, W,nlJCIl:l, l~JJ,tmmaleJy ea~ £:0 Ill:ie ~a:tmnmm't ui l~u,~"

'The :mJi'Qmn.g ·disrcussion wI:~, demonstrate hew Su:h:mwardi'i ld,~iU spr~a,<! tq ,ClUfereru. pilJits, 0.£" (he Islamic w,orld a:rmd ,tJIie differ-

" 1b." '-h .. 1 "';tc ' h l' II . .;0] 'ill '. -1i-....:2I 1iI

enr ~fS m Wlll;i~(;:" IlIJle i$fI,i.~ .sclna,., playe~ a rote U1 b,~,e ~,e;ve'~.op-

ment Qf ,su~hseq,nent p,Jd.tDsophi"C~1 ~C:hOQb" Th,e purpose '~s 'not t(),

'11);., :;,~ -I'" 'iIf,,~ ... 'Ii "it... ' C;\ 'L. •. ..:1 ' ..ii, 'II!!;." -- . .

Swc:l.O'W" 'Ilecu:lc mss 'Ulta.1t extst ~e~lrW'een ~uurn,warcUl mlo, ms sueees-

SQfS, '~-'WaJrOlf' re:K~u~~, ;ana]f&is~, bU:lOlthf=f 'riO show~h~ :~oftuern,ce of ,S,ub.:raw,a:Pii on, ~1.ouog sehoels '00 thoug~,it,

'By 'Vrurlu~' 't>f their histori,calt ~dltural a:nd ,~n'reUeCltl~i b~k~ ,gt~oll.u:tdsJ it, wa~ s:reamr Persia .and the sub-eon tinen t 01 India, 'that became' 'Ul-e crn,Ue of the sichoQJ ofi]J]umin;altto:rl;; £rom wbt(h the inftuen.c€' (J,f Subrawardi''-'s ideas spread fn tih'e :rollo:wing geogmphic~~, ~'rre;a;s:

A G,:['~'hI"iI'~':r n,;;g;:lf"'!I!Ll.r.'i ___ • ' .. llo, '!I;.;.~!L.~" I··""R..l~t!-:g

It 'SUh..COIl tinent '0'£ India,

121

Snbr.wWarrdii :j'Hd the School of Uluminadou.

C. Syria, Anami;a:r. Spain and -···~orth AfrIca. D,. Tbl~We8t

SUhr:a:'WUidi~s. school of Ulum·mad·on l,efl; at profound and perman .. ent intlue.nce on t· e. traditio,n ,of 'Wisdom in Persia .. S-~,hr:arwarrdi!'s teach:ings and the bulk of isltr.aqi't,exts became a powerful p,hilo= 50phj.c~,~ movement whose c'~ima:x W3!l the "School of Esfab.a:n~ "The masterly i'3krrlfJI expositions and eemmentaries of the teachings. 001 Suhrawardi are sdU avid~y studied loday .. Why was Suhraw,atdi so 'weU n~ceiv.-d by Persian. p:hUosop'h.e'n of this .period'? 'Was il ,on.-, because: he.' 'Was, :0. native. of Pe'~sia:? The' answer lies, in llie n,el} and eso~ri,ca11y inclined n:digious ambience 0- Persians 1themselves

hich d th - . t!l1!'. h di ~ . ...:II

'W icn mal te I." • em :rece.pnw' to .:iu=~r.awarr: i :S lueas.

Another . eason was th.a! the wU~min:atiornjJs,t. school ,0'£ Subra'warm pifovided. the basis upon whic.h an esoee t.ic ~n te~pt'era:dQn. of Shi I ire lslam could. be formulated. ~ Sh:t~ he Islam puts a" g.reat deal of enlp~asi$ on ra telleet I( ~aql) ~B an ilmJ3.ttument for: rhe .aJt:ltai:nme.nlt a~ ~ truth as· weU as acceptance ,of and adherence to ,tit, .. p'f'eseo.,c,e of an esoteric k"Dowle~g,e that lies .. at tbe .heart of die .Islamic .message. Suhra~:riU.~s sehool of Illumination eensiders both inreil'i!ct.uacl discourse and the practice of asceticism to be t, Je necessary com ... · ponenb fOlf -the' attain ment of truth.

It is n,Ol accidental that Suhrawardt's :~~.h~lQLS6:phy, w'hicb emphasizes the elernen 15· of knowledge as well as ptf3..ctical "Wisd,om" came to show itself during the Safavid peri.od when Shri,'ite I~:~am W,U ad.o'p,t,ed as the' official state (eU_g1Qn. Shi"i(~~ Islam, \vhich. ,e'mpbasized. the nvehre' '[:mlms, as a chain of ini'da.ilo.n throug:b. wb'~ch the MubJ3m'Ql21dan Ught ('nUl" M~ammadl~ manifested itself!. was na:tu:taUy :r.e1(~ptOCve M 'iskmfJi doctrtne.

lnaddi.tion. 'Ito the r,eUg,io,u8 and .mn tel-ectua.l elements tha t enah ed 8QJ~rawardi'.s ideas to tale' root: in Persia, there are oth·e:r 'j;mporiant eommen t~d'@8 and exp osidens which helped to conso lid a lie his ideas, The most Jmpo,ttan.'t wurk w.asthe' eommeneary lofShahrazurl (680.1128 -) on E:Ilkmat· Q~Araq and alIFTalrm1f4t. AlsO; rhe' a)mmeD'taries of ~t1J£b. masters as IbJU! )t.anlm(i;mlah (66'7/12691):t ~AJlim.~h ~ilU '([69.3/1293), Q~.'tib a~-D~n Sh~riD~ AtbJr al-Dln .Abh.ari:,2: a~ir al-Din Tusi and, 'final~y" Mulli Sadri w'e~'e

:r '1.~.

iDfluenda~ in s'pre~dinl the ideas ·of SuhrawaniU.

122:

In8u~n(;e on SUbl:"a'Wa~d:L on bJa:mic" P:trdlo:oopi1y

Abh an and Tusi are kn01m for their Peripat€tic 'wrhingsl 'but w'ere nevertheless higb~iy 'lnHuenGed by Sunrnwardi Fer example, in h~8 work ~Iif ,al-!JafJii~if.fl ,ta-flnf tl~q4if!! a perfect representation of $uhraW,i,Uidi"s (eaih~ngs.; Abhm diseusses a number of .p:hilosophi.cal :fS'SUes. :rrom an isk'1aqi point of \dew. Before the Safarvid. period, BUrch figU[,es. ·as, S,affald 1I:Iaydar Amu]i ~nd. Ibn. a'~i

'IL.,.' d hi .. .~~ :v.'.( .... l. 01' . .J:- l' d-I " 'II '"

_ umnur all; ~js .mty0.f. WOi[ii, ~U'au a~muld P ·a:yeT~ ~ at mfijoN.' rote In

alloMng' the 'isktfllJi' school to r'-e"ch illS climax dllnng tilt Safavid period .. Th.,e re.JigiJ)u& ,ambi.encGe of Persia, irs histerical and culrural characteristics, and me existence of:lJll essen tially gnQS~C" element in the P'eEsi:anWeltans'ka.uun~, helped. to establish Suhraw3nii as a figure, 'l'Iri:fu whom. P,er8~ans felt at h~)t·m·e. As SJ-t~ NasI" statle-s::

By the ·btginnJng· of the ,eigbtll/Jonneenm rentury the is};tR'JXP' school had become d,efmire·!.y ,establIshed in Persia and hencefonh it re.mained an impoHatU: elem,eD't .of die inwl'meeruaJ Ufe not a·nly ofPersians but also the eastern lands. «Ii IsIDam wb6re' tb~ 'enian Is]amic culture has been dominannt 8

The pO"Werful PQrncal m,oveme.nl o.f the Waviids and the keen interest o,f the Saf3..lwd kln~ in fl911rishing th,e int - Wlectu.am and :mysdcal,lifre of Persia brought about the culLmi:nation. of the tradition of islW:aqi ~Qm :m wha:t. ~~as.. ic.;Qm~ to 'be' kiruoMl as the 'KSc'hool of Isfahan. " Before 'embaddn.g on a discussion of the' School of Istahml., I 'will Wi.efty oonsider tllO,ie uhmqi 'phUo.so~phe:rs: whO' paiVeli •. e path for ·the· emergence of lll.1:s powediul :p'3'rnd:lgp1,.

I., ISKRAQI PHIl.OS·O·PImRS B1ftFOllE, THJit SCH'OOL OF

ESFAIIAN

Am'on,g the signifiC3tl,:, figures, Who eme':r:g_just p,rifl<f' to me Safavid pe__rioo~ w:ho for ,alil'prractical purposes areconaidered 'to be]ODg to the' school of Isfahan, are ~. w\-Din :1jlashtall and his son, IQhiyitb al-Din .M:m~ur Dashtaki~ Man~Ur wrote e:-tensively on the Pen ... pated~!s", such as his icammentary on .. the, ISM-Til and, a, treatise Of1t en rks." Howe.¥er". if ils his eommenti.v.y on SUh"faWafdli' s Ha,a~' al-r-niir' 'that '$bows die e'xrtlent ,of Su'hrawavdi~~l influen.ce even en eertain 'peripoJwdcs;, His wnrb o£rer :3.. perfect representation of i:skfiUJi philo~QPhy :ana. partiruIDarly mBuenced> uUi. $adri, fuF wholP be ms· often mista~·en,. na sense; 'Ma-___!~ilr represents a sueeeesful attempt to bring a.oo'Ul a lAlpp,:ooche"m,ent between tl1,e, 'l?ie:ri:pa~nc philo5'Uph:y as,

- ..... ...:1. Mil" Iii.... S·· _. d th ,. ,I. ., d"·· ..

represenree oy ~n -:'1 DR an ~" . ~ . e U:ltrtup 'tm m.tlo.n ..

12a

~li.il1:raw3Jrd~ :aJjfid the S(::t:.oo"~ af' [llrumUladOiti.

A number pC OlUle'f :tnteUectuJ3!i'£S, €If this period not oJll1 carried out :In i:sh!fmpR fead:ing 6.f Ibn S):ni", bu,t also paid a,fJ:-e,[W,ltlon to dl,e gnosis I~' ~tJfin) of Ibp 4; .Ar,a bi. wh~ ~3 ~n r:rtJd~c,ed, 'IrQ 'the Persians lthr-o'U'g'b the w1otks, ,of hts studentt, $a1ir 3~=Dj n 'Quna~. Am'O'fl,g ti:w,ese' <fi,gure's we can name :Ibn 'TUtk3!h I~ta.hin~ (8th! lith) whose a!lr:~m.pt to bring tog~tber philosophy an d ,g,nQS'is~ M represented i~

• ' ~,' 1 ,_ oj; .-;1' ., rI d 'f' h·

:hi,8 m~J!G!" 'w'ork"J Ta,mkii1. (l(!-.q:,{lwa fu'j ~~J..'lue:n~e~:, nm.n:~ 0:, ,,US

successors, in partitu,b~n" Sayyld I:I-a\ydar .Jvnul~,", Anudi mterpreted S:hi,~]Jte Islam in the ~ight ofd]i,e 'wri1ing'S.)QfSubtawanili; Jb.~ ~At,abi! Ibn Si:n~ an.d ereaeed a philosop:hJical Sfllthesj:s~ :Am,un!s imp ~rrmnt w'ark~,J;dmij: d~r,: ~xemp'~:~£te8 the type O'f sp,iri!r:ual, hr~;m:m~eGeutia

·1'iI,''''~'"''it;,'lii. that ~c nracticed 'b"v "fL.~, ,i_",~-n; masters, \hLI.~ ;fiM'''"~'' I Ui,l. ~ Ir" . d.r."· ~~UJ !_'J' U.:l~ -!>Ji::JIr;W~!I;I UiQI~ "M

,Besidj68 ehe prev~m@usl~r men tjj.on~d Ibn A ~ b~Jumbii1: ~I ,Rajab Bursl ~ ~ho 'wr'Om~Ma;skmi, l«J..an~ sla:rwds, out ;amotlg other Hguf;e,5 of this ttadit1o.n,~ :l:le also. ~ttemp.ted a 5fIl'[h~;s:is of I:b~; '~Ara,bits gnostic doctrine ~ thi~ 'wof.b of ,th~ ',erj.pa,tle;tia~t~nd. ,S:h ~,~ik tho~gh:t~

ClG}n~~minlJ tbe la,'~mpt 'f-o;( a unified and, weU··inkgt,ate:d, ,1?':hi~,CF sophi;ca] pa:radlGDl by the im:po(t'tanft flll'UJres 'Of this period, S~H~ .,

''''''~''''''I!''.f!it''.i~S:: .!iJ~'~i!I ~~~ __ %o~"

The tr-ru~g~atiQn; of is"~ m:ea(:l'dQg hlt-Q ,&ht'ism ~ ~ , ~ rapid and :~~'(iund." Mth, 'rftre' result lIla'lt dJu;dng' :~a'fe~ wenttrrles :mOtst. of the is~ have been S:h:i~,ite,. Owing Ole period pr:OOadng d],e;' ~awds;J. such Shi~'ifie theologians, :U S'atyyld, ,~a~ AmuUl and ,especi~U~r' Ibn Ah~ jumh'ur 'pRparedl the ground, fur the in'.ption of'~is~ wisdom, inoo the ,pe~pOCbv;~ ,of5hi'~iS!m .. 4.

Phi~osQPhKal ,J;cjuvity in leDer-a] an.d $uhn,waroi teachingsjn partic~lar 'which had I;one' UU;CQugh a peRiod of d~JiD~j' w,ere onee again fe:viiv:~d. during the' Safavid dynaJ:"ty when 'me mte,mlec~tual, reJigi.ous~ml$utaj and arti$rn,c: 'IRe 011 Persia reached its (lima.__Xc.

2~, SCHO'OL or ISFAHAN

The f'Ound~er of 'ttlIce' $:00'001 ef lsfaba'R, Mlr MuJ)a'mman Biqj)r :Dim:i\d ,HU$aYDi rutaribidi~ kr.uO"n as ~Mi,r Dimid"', and. often referred to as dl~' ~trurd teaeher", (m:u laUim 'fJ~MQlitk) '" 'YfflS ,orne ,of (he nlq1st c¥uul3ndfin,g il;go_f'€$ of th'is 'fNe'tiod~ Mir fiami4 :mad@' an ,atteM(pt to revi~e ;and re!CQncil~ ,Ibn Sinii, and S~,htawami H,e' 'was

'h~'!! 'L,·' 'III .,. Ii·' • 'Ik,

:hI a umiqm!.e poiitio:n '[(j. r,ewve p::- 'il,~'f!IIl:~~)(a,lI, -achYiI~~.e~ s,1D.,oe Jl.IIJe walS,

ldghly ~$tee~ed by' m,~ jUFiB1ts, as weiU. as tb,e ~ourt,~, wh:i.~h P'IDkcteil :b'wm f[c{)m th~ of'thodo\X,j'udlsi$~ :a .. ecnsa,'lbiQR of heresy.

124

Influenee 0'!n. Suhm.w~r-d~ on Islamic PhUoro"phy

He ma:y be considered an is.hraqi inbel',t:-eterf of Jbn Siimi';s ffiet~:ph"si€5, in the. sphiltwa~ 'tmnjve,~ (If Shi I ism. ~

Whiille Mir Dml'litad defended the r;itiona$~sdc p,hllM@phf ,(;i£ the, P~lri;· P~teticsl he made a d.iscinctJ.o.D 'betlv:e,e-n, ,nttianru:irSm and i'n1Jlmm~~'tio~n,. Wbere~ SUhr.a1l,\fiami diS'linguished ootw'een Oncw,tid. and Otcdjenm~ philosophYJ Mlr Dirnid mstrungu:msh.ed be~'een. r;a;~~-~, the' il~um.'~native 1?h{~oo~p~yj, 3:Jld. V1ini'ni (he ,i:i~JWsicursi",e pbHo~H)phY' 'o~ (~reets,.'6_ Yama.' bewng' the' (:m}e(l~ 'rep:reSeIl6 the itblminau'We~ wbne Y;U~i stands :~~r di~UlrSive :p'hUQ~~ph.,..

~r 'Di.m.adl commented an ,9, Dumber o:f ph:i~oOOfii!Aim~~ Sllg;nirHCitYll mf~cs,; In :parti,o)J.~ar the, princip31irty @f the I~e~c:e' (eqtlki. aJ-c.;Ri1hiYJ-aA) " The d1ru.~;t of 'h~s, :p'hUoo~P:~Y is: £h,@ ~e]~l~a_nship lbetwe~~n me ~"udiUh (crea.ti,on) ~n;d the qithtm (ekmity) of tb:e: w~:rld,. rvlll''' IJimid accepted SlJJhm~:i's W~ of the p;rincipalily 'Qf~~~l,(1e over ,exls't.en~, but; MgU.ed 'that:) .oontrary to dle isl'r'lJfl.s ~,(j 'cnns~dJ~:r. the lncorporeal '\vO!tfld. arnd, the' ill1:h~ (.~fi..m-vjatJft~) '~D have peen cre~~d in th,~ ~',divi:ne lessen~e,f~ (~Ift.Utfti:th aUhliti:) ", he ,t~nsidecliS them to ha~ '~oorp()'Fe~al creation B I( ~~1tduth dl4Jakri)., He a::rgu~ that ~hi1rf!' the ca'~e !~t 'tbe ere-alienI of the_,se., :Mich,e~s may 100 'iD th! diviJne essence, the' ~vent '0([" dect OOCU'B ron the cr~a~ de;Ql~rl 1(,~kt1·, 'In rhe Qi;lilistitt;'i Mir Difnid quote~ Ibn Si.flii exWltslively Dd i:n~rpre~ him in a; 'waiy Wiil,SJUPpo,!1S 'bi~ ,tlWn View of 'the C~jlfOre;al createdn.e§ (ol-1t:ulliUi aUMtt) ~ There ,~ those oo[l'~mpo13ry lD're'lJirete1W of :Wr: Di,mid, w'no, ',argue' 'dl~11 rome of his inlte~mti.ons, of Ibn S~, 'W~ 'f1U~;~~~ 'from, .~ i$itT'4qj poinl of 'view and eherefoee Me not

r~ ..Ji~1· ~~ =

en 'tU!ely :~~cur:ate.

Mru r J)imi.d devoses a major :po:ni~~ of his QpiJrDdJ; to a discJulssion JOf' the' ~)f;;l]Jc~pati;w bf' essence. HIs oQmplel_,~rgu,mefl.t! w'nich is, essend.al1y similar to, Suh.ra;wardj~> is as fo,U@,ws:; It .l~ apparent dUl,t an lexu;tent beinl' does not on'~1 ,exist 'by vIDc:r~ue of ic ,oWn ~Krustence' bUll 'oocaw.te of b.s, ~'e~e:m1riC;e H' (m.iJiJ,,,~tih'. Now ~ either the essence pre(~ii,e'~ the Je:i:isten,ce\ ,~n dl~' or,tlier 'ar tr:e~don !~r vil,~e1 versa, Mil. either case, me o,rder can not be t()nly a €on-ceptual on,'~ m our m:i!tldl or a ran..d,Qm :a~T"lgem.,en"t made :rO;r tbee' 'S~'k:e of eonvenlente~ ~U'f this o:trder must be ,intr,~nsjc or innate 'tG> die' onee~'oglc~ $trucru:re' of (he universe. F:ro,m, dijs.~ Mi r. Dimid ~oncludes ith~au: th.,e es-se nee 'Of an e~oi5:ten t 'being must be the prbwcipal el,ementj sblce ~:t ~s- iRG(jiIJCe:wvab:~e ~, halve Wl eKistent be~~ng 'which ,is, :mad,e_ up of pure exrusrence' (W1ljM) and, HOi eS5ie;n~e. tdlr: IDimad~ s' 11n~~ue co wribu ti on, ,tQ :[5~~nliJe, pbn~e,phr is bis intvod,ncrioJ:l .of

l25

SubtaiWilIrdi aDd' the ,Sch[oo~ of Illumioati0,n

(hie nQdon~ of dme (Oilioornhlg' ~he ·prio.riry a'nd. prin~i:pa,]lty of essence over exlstenee, which is perhaps the' moot important and cOim'p:~ex :p,a.rt otMir Di:ma,~"s· pldlosophy.,9l

Among the fifty' works of Micr' Da'mad which are committed 'to, 'the re'Viv,al m Ibn Sini:',s, and Sll'hrawardi'~s P' 'h;~,osop,by from an

I ' , tI

iskroqi'paiDIb of view, the fonmring ean be named: Qab.~iiJ,~, Tl'Mpm:m

,ctl-imanj aL-,Uju(J ~~muWn" :an d T aqdisiit. Mir D\3;mad. bas also 1Nfi:tten a, :numbe't «;J,t W'arks in Persian, among 'Whl'ch are }imawit, a.14itra:~ aknusttup:m ;I:Od. ehe colleetion of his 'worb in Persian and Arab~£ entitled Masharif al-ifn-war;,

Despite, )4t:r. I),arnatt"s, Gan.tribudon '00 Islamu~ philosophy and.

Shr:ite gnoMs, as .tb,e founder of the SChoo,:1 ef Isfahan, his gr'eateclt ,a[ch]~men.t 'WaS lrain~ng a numb~r of student~,. some' 0'£ 'Wb[om came 'to dQm~.nate rhe intellectual seen e and overshadowed the teacher" Amal:ng me' students, [Q[Mir Dal'Qid who' played an imp-onant. role :~n [con tmuing the trliTtu(i wi$d.<CIDl o.f Suhrawardi by' 'l1e&ching' 'and aushorship, one can name' '/ iF D.imm 's son-in .. law" Sayyid ~ad !Mam; the' author of a oo,m'QleJltaTY on Ibn Sinil'" Qu:db a:~ .. D1n Ashldwirii who also wrote a, book on t'~e history of p:hi lQ-,o·p'hy·~aUed Ma/lmih ial-fulii,~ and. 'M.uUa, Kb:alill 'Q~n_i,. 'who-wrote a cornmentary on UStU al'-l«iji of IWILaJIli .and is r[~~rded M:_:an aiuth.ority 011 Sh,i~ it~jurisp,:rudenee,. There we'r-e many other figures who are less, known" such a3 MuJ~i Shamsi GIllani" who W[r1lte ex.tensively. on Mir Dimad",s, ~iew of creation. and ewrnity and cOImmerited on 'MuUa ~d'fi.

The sec-ond ottilStandlj~ng ,figure of 'the School ,of'kfah~ujl. and 3J1l ishf:tu}i ~J~m with legendary fame in Iran is Shaykb. Bahi, aI-Din Amun" w'h.ose inOuence' goes. beyond. the sphere ,of p'hilosop'ilY and extends inro at1!:nitecwre:. jnris.pfudenc.e~ J\rabic gramma'f an<l ~PQeltl1'·~ Amuti ~I 'known as ~SH.aYkh Balli ti.'H) is. not [onl~' respected £0£ the ni'oety 'works he wrote "in ;aU areas of the sla'-:I ic 5C~eJlCes; 'but i~ also ~['e-ven~d because he' became the teacher of many scholars who went to rs£idla'O,~ VihUe h,e is, not pa:-rtl.(~:ula'fly kJl<O'\1'rn :for :his works on ,~"it'mll~,~ be n,e'veirtb.~iess trie;d i{O reflect the ,spirit Qf ~M!iW9.di in his, architectural ,~_eMgns~ .Rb;[· SUfi ,pO~ltty written ,0''0 (pc 9ty.ie' of RUJQ'i and r[~,~cted bl lhris book Tau:~~ is- "~dl;a'~s, the best re~re=

tll.1 II'~ r ,r" r"

sen mOon 0: b is, uilysticaJ view'S.

The' ,g;rea'[e'St achievement of Shayk~. Bahii."i is th[e f3£1 'thai! he' tr.ained suc;;h :sch,o[ ;a'('$ as, M:ull3 M·uhsin F~:Jdl, Kishi.n:t.o S-'vv;aid

~ 1Y ~)' /1

Al)mad '!'Aiamt" ~d Mu]~!i M~l'bammad Taqi 'M"ifiisi~ :aU of ·wh.o1fn

cantle to be prominent figures of the is/iiraq,itradi.do.n~ It is' ,-o;:r ,this.

126

Influence on Suhrawardi. on Islamic 'Ph~l()saphy'

'~]iil £: hls uni hi ", . -

reason, as c,vew as ror _15 ulnque ac . ievemen ts In archltecrare, that

he: bas. gained almost a mythical peftonaliJty,. so much so tha.t perfo:rm.~ng miracles '~3 'been. attfibUJ.ted ee him,

The third figur[e Qf the ScbQOl 0'£ Istahan~ 'Mlr Abu,~l~m.

F· di . 1,,:"'·' 'I 1~,... .oJl....· his emi - if!'. cl .

In~~lr])$~J IS iess Kiii!IJ,Own 'Ucip(~;t,e us tm1Den,ce and 'l.a'F,r:eaT·ling

hBluenc.€. He traveled to India and had extensive contacts with :Kindu ,. astess to whom he alludes in 3! majoI 'work", Usill alf:-tt"tit Alon.g. Wtr:R '~l'~SI cosnmenraries en other traditional ,fie'lds· of islami(: 'wnu,:diWectual tho,u,ght~ his Risliltd llJ;.,I.~lMia.ltah a;,nd, !milak. ~ami:~~),aA

b d - D' d" · k- iIi... ,t:C !Ii: Z.':1 - 1ft -.

can. e name "5.'_ 'If' rln:c iriS ~ID, WuO' OJEI1!ers ill s,um.ma.ll·u,w, ~~mmaJ m 'his

'book of poetry caUed Q~d4b, tried to express his, "experiential kn.owled,g;e '-, mroug'l\ Ibn Siniian. phdmophic~ categu-rrues as. did Q'tb.er members.of the Sch,oo~ ofls.fah;a:n. He also train.cd.a number of fine scholars s!IJeh as ,_ uJli :Raft:--a, Gila: I~ and Aq,i Susa,yn Illiunsari., Hjs[ mostfamous student is MuUi, ~jiab "Ali Ta]:'rizi, the a;~tho'r of Kj'{l~-i ,&iJdsAt. LO Anothe figure of g1ttla!t irnportanee in the Sc ' 001 of fsfaba.n is :MuUa Muttsin FaYt Kishirli, the besr. smdent o,f M~lll1i. Sad'ri" who lWr'Ot_(~~ ov@:·ri2(J'w'IDrb. Beside w1li:ti~g: .on

e I .l

d~fe'ren't :re]~giOt_1S sciences; he ''Wrote extensively on such wov:k:s· as

M bn A ra,lbii~ ,8 {tl$'utii.!~i· ,at.makkiyyali. a n.d Riim:~ s Ma~htnawi. Kishi·nl~8'wor.k represents Shij,~te gpas~s all its best. "is m~jor'work ' al-Makiijiit. aUflJ~Q;"l1i iflJO; ~ ,a.t-i.~,tr'Vms 008811, 'Up on Gh az· :~:H. j s z~1ti ~ (d ~1tlUm alrDin.. "In fact, ,;;hat '" ulli Mu~~in did was, to. revive the . k ,&'G·I).,., -I .... ,. l.., ""'h~iI:- ,. 1 'by "':""h"~,n:r1!" ;, '. ~~ ~

WOof' 0,1 ; .U.faua'1 m tt.~e ~',·:f.~'te circie [~ .. l' '~,~ngr tt, .[~

Kishini breug h f: ! he Integr~ati.en· ef the school of iUuminarloD

• J [9

to its ,com:ple.den. He' used 'tb e.' rational is. tic phi108'op:h:y of Iti:n .Sini

and the dleos-opl1 ~,€al.id[eas of Suhr-awar_'-;w to offer an ana ~:sis, Q( the'

tT,U, 1}."...,. Ilf· .;:~ JltiiL" ~ '. I 'III '!.,""'€'Jl-'I!I'~'-:lmB,l"J . .i, liiln ~,- ite ,:SJiam..

There are two other prominent ilgIlIres 6f'th.b school, 'M'uli 'AM al=Razzig Ulfg!i and, t.ml soode:nt Qi~i Sa.·~id IQumrnil. Libij~. lSi best :known For his co.nuibutio,n to the field o.f .Kh./iim {tbe();I,ogy), which, e

..... arried Giout ·1'oI'';;''''1I-.1'iI:'1I[ ",'I,.,. .... m- - ~,litriv n£ iI:;,,i."_L ...... _iIIl l","aln_n,iI"'~ . .l '~:r M' -jr- r- ]]'1- -a' ,iZ",;;;'d"' L·,iilIio 't,;~ lI!,~[ .. u1 - • '-n.lUJIl ·1~1'Jj, Ul~ l~!-~~. ~ t~~l~ ·~JJJJllLuJ~III,iIl~U l~'1 _", Ll '\:.'r~-U' ",B~l,WJII,'-.:

'jw~ote ,3, Dumber of 'works of a purely iskrtltJi' ature wm as 8ttiJiith

_1 l.~,r -, d S'-'iIi;;; ~,,~ ..... .l.' '- ,U ~,.,;r' ,,,",1 .... - QiQ' "= ) -

alF·~m,. an~-' .a ,c;ommen.m-~!t'V QQ. ··'lI~ir:a:~Wi:IJJ:'i.i~, s C.l.Qi,-. __ ~~ ~Jjttr; ... ', I.

~ '~I . rn

S -d t""'h '. ii>¥iJ ~ h - 1 .. _.... 'I\....... h fbi " A_ ....... ,b- t:' ... L S' 'IL. '~i

,a, J '. '~W~~.1mrm,? W: <0 came' to u¢' ,m.:i.OWD. as, t·e, .[n riI;-,iiitt Oi l!tl:.ie ·inW.- te

mdidon.; devoted h~s, wOOj 'k), m,e type of s'p:writll!lal be~e-o[euJncs. (,ta, ~WiQ that 'WaS: ~ntendled to cla:bo·mte·on tibe esoteric meani"ng of rh,e

fl.J;~ ..JI ",L. I:~ 1. '.,;;'1" ..:mi'

~ ~ """I;' an,.,,· QU~le'r .[Mamte ~octxU1Jes·:an.u, :ru_'eS.m

Tow.ards the ,end iof the Safavid :pedad. avo events oooUJ:Ted. F1'"1; the Sufi$~, ,"vho had. enjoyed. re'~aJtive' ftieed..::..'m", began Ul' Pe we1ved as, having devi9;~ed. ,from th.e Islmnic 11"re.s -shari~) by ~h,e. more e-&ote'nc

'~~27

S'il,'h'r'ai,w,a:F~i aJ1d 1::be School of rllum,'m;a~i~H.

Jumts, ~ 'l~), and theJiao.fe weng;·p~rooe.uted", The' secend elem~.nt 'was rhe weakening of ahe ~ntml ~o~m.m€nt ~d Ol,~ ,~o.Dseq~uen~al, d"OItdOfmC@ of ~e' more M~5tere and ,orthodo.x aWlos:phe)'"e'. Desp~re: this CbJlllP'j hOWev~f~, dl'ere"were 3l, "umber: of '~~alu;-tm:S'wb,0' ,emerged, at dl~' erujL lOf tlu~~ SJFavid periodL and p'rovided ,3., tTaJlsi,dnn, be'~D we W~wd and, the Q@JjiM periodls ..

The -nrs~[ ~m~nw.t ·isfw~ figurre "w:h0 belongs to' this period.is ~. LJ1l,bmij,~ (]2.,{1'9 lC,e_ll:turyl.~ 'Wh,Q&e I'ml~'pbic~ Sufism db! nOlt !:!'~t "il .. '~-.a.1 'l~nj,;k .,;L.~ .i:."'nlt~~IC ~:~' and who 'was accused of 'beiftP' a S,u:t:k

,,.y,'IJ.. 'n''Iw< ,1(t,;cIi~~ bl,l)~ ""~ ~~,~,.' ~~.'" ~ ,.. '.' .. ,!. .,~ ,i!:)'

Tb"¢ ,seJc'Qlld 'S~;gn'mca.nt ~m of ttLis period vms, 'Mlr;zi ,M~ad g,idin &drus'dni~ who tau~ht ~,mA,~q1,()n the ,ttadi!don QfMU]~i

'., ~,~ ""I '," r- . 0 '.0 .., ~ ~ _. ~. ~,~ •

,c ..... ..j·~ ·D. 'I)'ring" ';1j--,:s ~,od~ such n~ 1~S. as ~stinl and ~hr ~a~dl

~o!;I.UlI,:a.. . . ~-' -' r u,m, _f'-'-- ~~ ~ ,t).",.....~ - ,. ,~ ........ ,~;J.' iL, ""Pirl:: ~ ",' I::~

H~ "IMihiin~ begam to 1J.S.e' Ub,TfIIJ.i ~ m d:l~: W~ra:.M~,t!. -1 a_I!'!"=!Iatl'~", 1,,01"

,.~': ,",'~'-"'l .. :', - __ ';,"" " -t ,~__;- ~~',,' •.. = :' ' ... r,~'t..-':'__~~",,"",~,·~,~·~~,r ,;J

~m,prn,e'~ 'talu;ght fun ~,~b:l ~ ~ 1t1i~~ and ,Stw:u~_d_J ~, Q}U(~~

a~lfflwh~j]e bein;g ,wnOy,enJ~ed, 'bY' MuiWi,~.

'D~Stpim' am en \drolUJle,lit hQsdle to, SMflsJW], ~'i).d ~ikm~'t,: ,.bot~ flourisheal. until Mh:e: '~I~lr p€riod vibe:n an,()(her up~urg-e of inte'~~, lecltutal ~c.tiiwty oceursed, a),tb0u,g,h it never pfoon~ed. as ma'"),

ont$,tatld:tDg 'ft,~n~s:as the Safavid, P€ood. did, ,

B€,~r@ G;O;Jnm~mJtinc.on the St91!tus of the :&eno).')\ of Ubnninartiol)

durin:g . the' :Qa.Jar pe(fiJ(~:t im: l$: n.ece~li'f '9 ~~y a few w?l'd_s abo'tu:t MuUi Sadri both because 0(' IDe"'@xten,t to wbJrc:h he w,u lu:ft!<l~:no~d

,. ! L. ~'nl

'b~y 'Sub,rat.Wil:rdi a;pd' be,eaul~ be eame to dominate ,tbt: p'~,l~~iO=

SOphLG-a'l seene dtld,n.:g d;lle Sftfavid and 'Q3jj:a;r,- period,., MuU~ l$ad:~ '~ :m9nUM,ental ~bUos~,phieal ~o·tpUJ8~, a, syn,llhesis of Ib~: ,$'j.ua, ~[l;~ s.uhra~'Fdi~ ;s:h_ap~ and ,d!d,e;trtd:ned, '~e 'oourse: of p!.hlllosoph:~c~l a~Hrvitfes~ iR f'renda e:ven up' un til'l'doday" Therefo,re'~ th~; is'~fJi tradi ... t,e,n iilnd its ir.np~t. ,011 ·me Sh1~'jtle g-nosis ,can be' 'be't1{~r dn.de~rs:ta0d, :if '~he' inte'Dectual 'I'-elations{hip 'be~'ee'n, tb.ese 'MO :g;iM ts", S\d)'fa-, war111 :f{RJd. MuUi $ad:m;,r 1& Rlilij.e m,ore 'Clea'f.

"I '~Iif"l'O'D .A"'IlYi.'r;\'A.Uifi'l' ."'.~ JMVLI.A. !~ &·'AB.

'~!!Ii II!:JIJU~~I!~ft.D4U,lt .~.'.JL1!I1W' r" ~, •. II

It :is ge'uerany 'b€ii,eved, lhavt ~:lth:mliVardit,s QQli,RbliUl_ce' 'O'f bll~tldc philo~o:pby ~~S :Sll'bsta:ntiaU:y ~urtailed, by MuUi, ~adri." whose,

~ ._..J'~...:iII" bl~ ..... ....J

eti:dcisms, an,d, ~O[;pos'h:lons, of Sub:ra!'W'3;'.IlutaJfji, ,U!o~n,mg ~,t2"ls.n~u

him; as d\e fore:m9~"t ,a;u,lhor:tty 0,8 ~m:ruJ5'fe:ndental ~be~sophy

r ~!i..,~,l., 'j' ,;c ':it"\-

I\,a!r!.·ttl'tm:a~ ,i!lt> .... id[E a,~1"4,;l1... ~,

~p,h:raw,ar(li and M uUa· \$atdti, re,pr,~sen:1i. 'two, dis'tifi1ct Slpproa~bes

t~ ~Mma~~ Multi ~adri's p:h:ilrQsophicaJ syst.em i~,clodes t~a:t of :SUfit:awardi 'but he make,~major cha:~ges (so Id\"at it m,oor.por.~Jlte.s, Ibn

]-qQ'

~r'

l'Ji!fTIfUe'n.rC~i on 5~,11:rnw-at"~i on I'SI]~:unk rbl~6lSQ'p,by

S· - ~ n- 0, • ~ c'~ '~111 iii:'" b =..,.J~ , • ..I. •

.fna s ,[":erruparellC int~rpretauons as 'Wen, M ~.u:.I,J,:ii~wa:~;ui' s U-{i,"ftltjt

klea.<)., The' :iwru,c];tt$hil'e n3.Jt~re @f his- ideas esta bilish-ed Mu,Ui $3idr,a. t~ dominance ;of Islamic ph:f~,osop'by ill Iran until me' present d;ar ~

T9~ most imp,~'o-rtan_t ~tchieve:n1,'eut gf MuUa 8adr,a, is that he

,.

..;li, .,;IL, Ii!:' h rdi l £ h 'I". d

:rev-e:rse~ !J.j(.u~ ,~U 'raW-,it" J:am onto o,gy ;"J"Oll} one t,~ Ialt was easec o:n

'~~gh I: to ene 'baood, 0in pthe :prlnicipality or :!eing. This importan t change 't0Q~ place in "Su~h a, 'waf mat the overall ph:i.lo®ophi.caJ

f ~I l ~o, ., ..-:all "'- .... 'It". • ill;.

,struCture' 0. !:jLlWlrn~an.i~, l~ma;~ne<u Int:act WhA~i one' ~oep:tton; ~~w,e

Pi~-""'i".'aI""';lmf,iii'II""!ii'i'II''''''~ of , .. 'L·co!!; pn·~n""1Innlal'~r!\V' ,Do&.: p~'i'lIi'rt'e' .'n,pe' .if'ri.,.;~,~-~~ ~'''~'~'~OOd''!i:rd:~'~c

\II;'~ U,,,,",, , ,I UaJ.,I!Il.>'!i:.., lW!\ 1,dI,-,J,..... • " "",,,IIi~'., ~.'~}' , ,~ .... ;~'iiI'''., .I."'''"' . V y'"",,];, o.'IIA.I:W,II.,c~"",a~J 1 oJ!

• ;, 1- • ,~.L!'

pnnopa '[ltV!.1i essence,

~ l, l

Cl..i 11 n- ~,'L,~' '~' - ,t':.:Iii" Il!... h '~h· L e

,~a~l'" :aLI}-, 1:0 _.j~,lu:aZl 'WrOM over J; •. ~ I~O'O~S W"~'_jc:':t :raf;);ge ir::,~m

ooW_,_m,len.lt:a;r.les o,n, rhe .Islamic ~z~ sUldl as 'dl~ V~iJ.l alt-Ir.6.ft 'fO his, 'P,eripal!~rle wridngs ~ as .in, ehe case 0',[ Iii.tif,. slif{J~r1! al=A1Jii!to"l. There are a'liso d},Qse warEs, wlii~h delle;nd the pir.in~ip;~e,s of :iUuminad.(;)'n,~ such. ·~S, itUAltJ_~h~'d al-rnNmIJ~ ,i;lm-nmt· ra.l~ ~(J.Y$hi"'(j,A, 111s famous oorum,entry upon. S~I,hrnwardi~s :fM' Ph~'Wmp'lf:-J ujJl(u'm~#a~~'ioo caned.

""',p lr = ~ J~;; .l'. . ....:1'. '1.,':'iJ., .~ :J!' • .iL, d ~ III h·' .

,1 ,a ·1t,.1qutaw, .s'l,ill'i!" {~m,m~t (1~-f.:Jt~!"l,i,~ 3JJ:'l! c. ~l~;alJr ,-. WE, ~';U;m op>US;

{l;~l:!~kma' al.-muta,r:ai"ak fl~kufiw Ql.~/);(J,?it i{j/r ~t:lf,liJyali.

'M·· ~Il ,"" e ..l ~;jI ·hil h . '. .;L...' ..... ,;[" ,.

,u~ a ~ilQra, s p: - ito.SOirn·~ '\I' '~,:r~oo;tiiJt£t a -g,r.nq.' ue S:VIIflIj,llJ",;e;S~$, ~ maier

• ,rr.- I ~r -!if 1"---- ~

in,oone£~ual currents ~ft IlS;~a;m,. ,h S. H,m 'N~s'r sta~s,., tb~v ;tlfe';:

.l ~ '.J

Kala'm" p'!(tripa(edc ~):hnooopb.yj itfn~i th,e9sgp'hy~ ~;nd "r~ In MuUa '$adri we flnd, elesnents of lC:h~]i" Ibn. Sina" Su'hrnwardi and parditulad~f' Ibn "itrahi, 'M,or~oIVier~. "ttFere" is Sufism e's,pecwaOCID, tn h~ gnostic aspect wh len 8erves as 'dl,e b~CJt= ground, (or thisl whole syn,mesi;s.:1·2

The ~eutm;l dMFe-rei~,~,e between, MuUi $ad,:m ,amJ.d ,Suh'ramr-di lies in th.'~ir ~[ID;tologi~al wew~~ ,Aocord:wng to MuUa ~adri,j' who. ad,vocated. tb~' prillJcipadity or( 'belqg and" rrhe gmdallt~0rRS pI Beina: (t-rultkik) ~ eaC:b~ le~$ten t 'oon,g' b~ .~ diff.en:!D t oR'iq,:h'lgiaai ,staws~ ld-m'd6intg' FI~.'r-e" Being as tbe :alhso:hue~ Mulli ~adri maintains. ttrur~U:. tb Ie roe' ls,~, unity amon;gst aU th"e gradatlpln~ of bei:ngf~ matt e'tn;an.ate' from Being,+ So, :[al\ MuUi\ $ad,n~~ systl!W is s~mikn:, t,C) that rofogu:hrnw,aooi, '\viLh the' d.illerenoe be1ng th~t :UuUa, ~ri. 'has, ,sUbSlWlrIlUgd, Berung

,{; -L· ',",,'

.t,or . 'ru~Wct ..

'\tVhat cQns,~tUJ,res dl e' :maj~.r ItHf{en.~nce' betwee'o them.' ~s' 'tlu~ir account gfdru,e :hie~hy dlleJ ha~h advocate,. M\lUi $a:d;rL:argu~s that grad"tion 'rus :lppl:iicable W d~,e ,reahn Qif reKfsten,rCC I( wufo:~ a,~d Ic,anno[ i:lliclude e:S!se'nce (mdA~"d)J~ 8:~,bra'wa.'rdi t~lt,es, I1h,e oppo~arre view by 'mainudninl" lh:fJl g~da;tion ma:kes sense only if atpplled to e~nces. Sayyald. J di] Aslu;~yMt;ru:~ .in 'his oook Hcuti at

,}'291

$uhrawaFdi and ,till SChool of nlumination

nla;ato.i ,/al$ojal we ~iifa~ (E¥isteD()$ frw~ a Philt.Mopmr;"_' ,rlelld' ,~sti e 'Vie:wJ~~4 offers a lengthy' dbcr ssion of' the !~onf.ention betw:een Suhraward:ID and 'MuUi $:a.'dri.~'s, 'vie,,,' of :Being and. 'Existence'. He ,S-~]l'mm;adz,es, 'M,ulla ,$adra 's 'view' as fo,I~.pws: "The extsren . be~ng tha't, has an essence must then be caused and ,existenc,e that is· pure existence .' " ,. is therefore a N'icoessa:ry Be:~ng~ nl.~

Tb~fQre.~ fot MuI ~ $adrn~, existenee precedes the: essence and is, thus princi.p!~e since oom.ething: has. to' exist f1~~t and then have an, essence. 'It is primarilY this, a~Jnent 'whith Iies ~t. ·the' heart of

Mu11i ~atki" s ~phDjOsophy,. , ._, "~

A ... cord '~n'g: '''0. A sh [iv,ani. there is ano~he'r readin ~ of Muna

~by .. _~ \. "-~ J~ ./". -, ~ b

~adra's a~~m~n" that g,oes b,ey'Oud., (be classical .d"stio"cd.OD

between essence and existence" A.s.h:tiyin.i main.tains 'Chile both in me A;ifha_md me Maskj'ir, MuUi ,~ri offer.,s a mi.ddl'~ :road" tb,e~ry that is, ara;pproc.hement between those 'wbo .argue fo~ thec prtnm, cip,3J,lty of 'essenc:e and those wbo ~dVo<ate 't~e _})rin:c~paUt¥ ~ exist,ence, ~nJ1." all eXistJen~t 'beings are essen,bally d~erent m respect to their "lace on ihe hieurc'hy of exh;;~el~ce~~ As?:m.~ni , acr~Sj essence ,and ~ist~lu:e beceme one and ~e same ~n ~( every' existenl bei:ng has an on,to'~ogjjc31 status, 'whic:~ ~e~1~1l1i~,es, us, degr-ee of ~stef1(e and ahis status bestows UP'Oft ~'t 1'U, lde:ntlty 'or

ess'e'nce.

It is in fact ttbe' above ;&rguRueut that d,e':mon,s:trates the extent of

SahnwaE-di'.s, iRflloenoo on MuU.:i $adri:' s ontological ~tnJcmre'. T:be argummt presented by'MuUa $adri can be ,caned it ~middle fiOiad 'pos;iJlt'~.on'" whic'h ,go~iS b.eyund, the trad.i'tioD,a~ essence./ ,e;xn;te'n~ distincden by arguing that 'they' are twO aspects ,of the:

same' reaUty,. ~,& _, _ .. :

.J\. dlO'OO'ugh d:icscussion of the' differences between the mro. g)l3[U's of ,hikmal' is '~nd the ~ope of thi$ worL 'It :sUffi,c.es, lOi SBy' ·that both. ~gures. left an, uule'lll_e 'mark upon '£h,e ,mlte~1!lect :~~ ~b,ri'~. of 'P~ia~ th@ sllb-continenl oflndil, :and in ~tb:1.l1 ... OR Shi'i'sm~ Due to the hoodlilt}f of the' orthodt)x, and eso erie jurists~ Mula ,Sadri "$ t'eadtinl!i' we:lie' not taught in the intene~)n 1;3J centers fee ;aJjWDst at eentury, H,oweveJ:; once 'tb,ey Were revhredj during th.e· emrly p,arn; of the ~ar perioo~ dimr studycame to. the' fnrefront of sch.ola~:hlp,.

4F. IQAJAR PElU'OD

The Qajar period, in l"4Q ab;o wi:f,n'e:ss.ed a pro~fi.c period of ,p'hi~llDi= saph"!cal 'activity. These :arctMties can be divid.ed into twg major

1,30

lange:ru~e on. Stlbrnw3!~d~ en Islamic ~trwlos.o :hy'

trends, the majo'r:ity who earned out 'tb,e trad'~tiDn of S\dlnwardi and $3.drbtn ~ei\\Chjjng5 .and these wb:o opposed them, such, 3;S S.hinw;",

Perha p-s, for :po.Ji,ti,c~d reasons, the teachin gs, of Mul1a $ad:m and the Shi 'a gD.'osdc v~em, d'id, not receive the attention they desewed unul Mulla i'Ati N'ij,ri,~ who. devoted hMms~lf to the l,.;a,c'hi~g and advocating' of M:uUi ,$ad~i':5i p~bUosophr" Nuri's commentary on the' ibJar and Mas/ha~T and 'his traimrmng of so many scholars made him one of me most promwnen t fi_gur,es of the Qajar period,

(lijil Mu1Ia .ljidi Sa]niwiri(13/;_-'9) is (he, ma:~n e:¥pJsit6'r of 'the

';;[>,J"'¥:'.!"ilbt'ijij elo ..... ....I'n'·a durin .. ,.." - Oalar period and .,1.... ., - iI oC-' S- "1"1'- 'i""li

'""",'~jI""'""'f'" iLl).' ~.L ',~ • - -1I'..g tne ~~J~'b :,'~ -11,..,j. ':J' •. ,ii,:r, 'y ~e reVlva'l""~__L ~".l:""

wardJ's teachings its, nla'inly due to h~1 dlortB, Samlwiri.~ 'whQ adhered to MuilJli, :)adri ' s mamm@:s~ studied with MuUa:. Ismi"il KnLbki and :. uDi"AJi Nun in Isf-ahap~ 'His, ascetic praedces are ORe ,of the reasons that :have made it legeDd,a'~ fi,gure' of Sa:bziwiri. His, .emphuilS on asceticism, as a, necessary element ,Ln phio5o.pbical 'tnrining is most

. d inhi '~i d ~'1_~= .. th '"",,,,,,,I f'th

e'Vl·. ent 1.0. rus 'poems" an . aiso Jm,portant m ,-, ~ e rev:rvdla. 01 the 'prn'c:..

deal ~€C!t ,of iiRr.aq., Aldt.ou:gh OO1itded b.r som...e' of the pfJ5t.J5adrian philooo'pbe'fSj his, ,emphasis on ~twcism \G$lm:portraDt.~n 'Ole reviWl of the' pnctica~_ aspecu, of idt.'1~

The works of Sa:ziwiri,! in particular Ska,r{z, a~a~,1Jlahl,~a, have become .s.umdard. lellts for tbe (Jt-uden f,S, of Islamic. philer«ophy in han" T,bey pr:ese,nt a complete discussion of p:hilloso:phy and 'mng(':,c, and mise @'ltrli,€'cUo\o:s. ap.in3't. U:uUi $adm,' s Aqm; ,esped3ny~s ,doctdne of the un ty ·of' th e knower and the' }!t_nown (itti~ ((-I- ~ii'lU' '~~~a;"qil), and the c~'m!pood,()ln 'of 'fonn anti matter. A1:lho:Qgb. Sabziwiri p'rimarily concentrated en 'MuJlli. $adri '8, ph.~IQsophy" h'~ s wotks, ar-e' ;3J$O r,eg:a.rd~, as, expMiluons of i$Atr~ doctrine, eS,pecialll}~ 'his cO'Iamentary' upon MuUi ~'~'ri 's lJl~a:waAUl a~bi"tlA and his. work i,n Persian;., Ari:r al-lii~ .. , Sabzi,wiri;s, oommeru:a:? upon the AsJir of 'Mulli Sadri", one .01' th.e most c,om:pre' > ensirve: iCo'm:mJeftl!alies 'W'ritte'n on this. 'Wo(r«'/9 and his commemsry upon ':~, uUa $a.(lri',s, ~/dli" ,alllba1'/J, provide a va,)ua,bl,e set Qf work for the- s;tude ntf gf Mnlhi. Sidr.i, as. w'eU as, tn;e scnool of i-&n'hW.

, ~ ,. ~-~'l

Sabziwiri"s" interest in SufISm is most :apparent in his, Sufi poems and in his c-o,mmen:ta:_ry On ::s.uml" s, ,J.\fdth'Rll'W;;, ;3" classical work ,of

P- ,. ,~",,,~ T' 1 'd- 20 .,.''l.. C!i~b ~ = •

'e:f.smn ~:UJ.l poe1tl"y . .I t ,~s a so ,sal o.:.~ wat ~, ;. zi.lNaT:l wrOilte' a (omm,en,-

tary' ,on the' Ild~iJJit IOf Ibn. Sini,,~, which 'bas 'ooe'H lost.,

Many leam,ed. s.cho.~an, oo11sulted Sabz.iwiri 00 some of the mare' d.-jim.cult p,h:ilo$o'pil:ica), que.s'tian;s t,o' wbieh he provided written.

11' fC ~1!.., c 1, __ , 1.~ , S L_~., ~ ... ' ~ ':...:11 d 'L.._ '. ~.r:'

;a,m.swen. In one ,0, 'YJIle _esser ,N !mOwn, riepJ! ,es", : ~ '-au.c.lfwan. proviUe._ a" Ung,

]S]

SuhraW,ilfdl :and the SChoom '(}if. lumin:l'tion

aItfi"er tal seven q ~.estio:rrusl that 'were po~eij to, 'him by. a ,COl1R>ID-ponu" phUosopher, Mirzi. J\lhii'l-ij:asan Razayj.}~·- Since the seventh q'aJ~stion deals 'Wf.t~Ll dJi.e' 5U~ eel of .knowledJ,re 'by' p;eseA.I~e and el'€3Jrly demonstrates tbe extent to, which. Sabz.,iwitri ''W,as, mflueneed by Suhra~ra:rdi~ we have tml$bl'teii the entire 8er::don .. Thms trans~a,tio:n also indicates that the ishr4qi theory 'Of knowmed:ge 'was· of gr . 'itt interest ama,ng 'tile in telleerual comm.un.iqt ,of the 'lime ..

n,lI m"S-' TI" '[0" '.. N' U1l. ... UQ ~<ii,

~.'v.t.:!,r . _I.".: " ..lL:t.ldU'£iIE\. ,iii'""

M .. A. Raza;vi:: "Is the' method of Knawled:Se. by' pife1sence}l2' whicb (be- .5ag,es, ofth,t Sufi. 'frndintion hav. prom~i~gated." true' lor DO~? Is it accessl ble despite the dtffere.ne,es. aQl0ing the' fO'U9we;r:s of this 'rneth,od €)f dis co-very ~ and how' can certainty of the truth of this th~ory be attain-ed? As i.t (Q;wr~n) say8~ I.( If you. d:o nee know ~i:t, ask the learned", and. a's.o. "Remember that God. gave bi'rt'b. 'to you through ya'llf mothers and you did not blow anything.,'" The propbedc 1)_adit~ S9;·15',. ~od cUd not make it necessary fer people EO :a;nswer but He made it Incumbent upon ['hie learned to an swe'l",.'j~

1 have dared to 'ask. mis w'hUe' I. am depressed, and; my Inner bein;g ;s, run ;8. tumultuous Slam·. ,I am thereby r:equesting m.at tt'l!e answer be sent to 'me soon, May the pr@sperity o·f the 'DVo worllds b.' youl's.~ your ~O'I:~ be enlightened,,,, ¥Gq.r intellect 00 'W'e,:n and. r0u.1" heart 'be free of ev,ery hondla:gre~!~

~aving a visi,on (musluikidal) is an authen tic :pd8£ipl,e and it :is. spiritual in. nature, SpilrimaJ d~over-y is; a sclence thFou.gh which ,ltn,owled~ge of 'we sel(, lmowled,gre of God and eschatologiad issues are'known, and one becomes in teUe'ctua1Jly certain in a. manner. that is on'~y attainable with 'rewds to ~he domain of true kn,oW:medge~ T: e m"'nd. pro~eedS from the bl.O'WIDedige' of trum { i/:m,~) 10 the 'be'hO,]di~l,g' Cif me troll {'i1j n al.,~a,q.fn).l

and fmaUy becomes the truth (~rJ al-yafi'n},. '

God M.ost Hi!gh has expressed the levels' (")If ,e.e~m:lnty with'in the conrext of ~ftreH' and has, said.: ~·''Q.ll. wU= know soon" l~turo.u.gl1. 'iJtJ11?tl,~aqin~, you will see hell and you lvi11 see "t wi h

],~J2

1'[)'Ruence (J'Wl Suhra.wardi on, IcSlanlb:; PhUasop.hy

the eyes o:f £ertatn·~·.,·~ Elsew': iere He says,) 'lIeU can On 11 'be understood through know~edg'e by. certitude,'

Therefore, the degrees of'knowing the divine '~igh~ are simU~ . .0, die degrees.of knO"~(n,g fire'., FOlr example, ."_:' someone has never seen fire but ha! heard mat whatever becomes UD'·red wi'lth !t gains 1'0 ,auributes~ 'he there~f' 'knows d'raat :it loses :ih iden:tj1ly~ EveI}' eandle and1ighm:: me luminous from it and if it loses some of i,tse1f; it is not reduced, Whatever depa'rts, from it becomes b?~ ·oppo~dk'..m namfe ~ such 318 &moke~ whi.i(:·trJ. ~ dark •. In darkness ~t is 'die master of all 1n~O'rpMeali. lights.

It [fire] is· Uke ~ :~omjjnous. ~tgh L 'rba t". if placed in :ag,a~hedn,g'j w ··n ilIlumi·-, ate e¥eryo,ne in G'OiJ'OfS., and forms ma;nU:est ir.'he>mselves in the presence of tilt'S, Ugh. Not [eveQl ~p~el(ious 'peBjd, that is placed in a.gilimering can do tbe same, dd i 'g. Just as ~n ~Uumilnatio(U and warming,: the sun is su.pJtdor t'O fl.t':e in that 'there is not motion or powe'l" except through Cad.t,'1 and, they can that being fire' .. There are those who 'believe' in it on ~h,e basis of die foHowing (tbooe who 'know) and some who seek. to "heUeve because of i',s sign;s, (smoke from fire) ~ such ss thos:e who, be jeve in 'God on tbe ham!' of clear sign~t Tbet,e are U1Mfi: Wh9' reach divine light and see. exjste'n't beru,ngs through this :nght and see the. essence of fire when the "eil is removed fer them, 'I~ their knowledge' of God.!,.'dli.'ese p'c:N'p,le' are teeing 'dle srurh, People are Ii', e bQrl1riillg' iron to w-holm the effe.!tts. of fife appear when tb.ey understand it" They are those who have become the truth in 'weir kn,owled.ge' of GOdli 8Qirh of these typ~:s are men of true ,dlscovery and fa~j:th in .. hBlt.~s obvi,ous ~a them and ate transcendental theooop:hel's~ .- 'here ate" dif£~lien.iI: degrees armongsl t'b·em and they know 'God. but do not. see 'G(jd~ D~s~O¥ery gf in rms is the disclosure efforms as a parti.r.ular to 'the senses and is, divided in ac,oo~dl.anee te the five senses.

Th~fore ~ discovery ilirou,gh vbi.on~. like' 'I!b': seeing of ineerporeal entiUes by the ascetics [who see] a. Variet1 of lights, is

.. d" · e. ... L • Tl

~U. extensrve « iscussion 'ID'r M.6ibl.ler eccasion, ,,'Iere are

forms, phenomena .and chants which aloe most subm:·im~:, and words that 'are pl,eatSant and. soun .. dls lih,at. are' fearsome and h9,pef'td that are issued forth to the disciples. God said; 'The

;.]1 f L. ,. ·~II::'e. fke th A"'· L,...,.;. .,L; d .. ill&. h

'~a.ys q' i [illl"elf ,wlie are L .e tne ullVlne' :"',lI!ta.lltl.~ ~. ane " 'u re pn)'p' . eit

]38

SunrawawJi and the Schooll 0.£ Ulumina:ti.Cl'rJ

has said, 'He shelters U5~ feeds us and takes OU\'f 'thir-Sf a;'¥m~l and also be said, ~(}bd es:ta'bUshed balance between 'one's shoulders Jit.e t'he ,d.rir,.,k .011(' has be1tween m£ais.",~'

A formal dis.oove:ry 0; the ,p,rirH:::ip'~s (of phHoSQ:phy] iLS, the man ~estau,on of ehe dwv;iin,c' name 'whieh hears all" sees- ;aU~, and nnders;tands aU, '1:11:' ngs.~ ,A sp ~"ritual di 900ve:ry. ,of the pdn-, cip~es) b:ow;e'Ve:f) ls the d~·'s(l!osure 'of the dJ'Vine name'! Hardship, and ease are th,ene~"re appiarent a;p.a ,followi~:g the 'Mul),a:mmadean fra.cilid.gn is' cliftlcult and can oniy become e~asy lbmug'h love and inner yeartd:n;g.

The dlffe1r~nce' . t opinto "I ;amQng the 'men of d:is.<:,Qvery and 'vjJsion should not be. regarded as an obstacle on me :P.~dlof those 'whQ seek ko"ewled:ge and. pn,clical "Wisdo:m~ since djff~:r,.. enee exist leverywb.en~~ ,Are there no' ;iru;on.~istenleie$ in dle apPCfar:ance of God I'S words and in the tmat and in the' appearance of the p:rophed€ S3:'yl.1 ,I ;gs 3!$ well as the s3Lyings. 'of the ,bairns,?

May be w'bo Wa:Olts, the attainment o.f kno.~ledge and scien ces

be s'mcess,fitd. ~~ .

Anoth,er figure of gr"C:at sign~fic;all£e' In pm'pagat~ng ·,Su,bmlWa.t'd,~"'~ teac ing is, Muhamfin.ad RJdi Qoms'ba,''i.. In tthe tnidi'lion of Sabzi-' wan Iud o'[fW,e~r ,gr.ea~ ma,tJe~ af this perioo j' hie mught SII.:dlo:wm;d:j ~I MuUi Sadt:i and, Ibn !Aribi.~ In '''act, it was his a:ttempt to ~ntegrare iskra'li 'trnd~twn with Ibn "A__r.abi's gnosis and Mul i $addi~s meta.:phY8U;:S( that made him one of ". ie for-em,os't ;authorities of lslamie:

hll" '1Ii..,' .. :'11... ., d

P' , . O~;Q,Pfll.ly LQ,uwlS, peDe.' .• '

Th"~-ds the end of the QJj_ period, MIIl]la, i'Abdal~ih .zuD,'wi and his son, M'tf~a, ~A.i Z'UDrUZm wrote'commentaFie~on sabdwin., They and, ~IZi Mahdr Ashdfyini, came to be mown as, the l\1.'ost ,im,p.,rtan~ propaneJl'1:$ of isll~ 3llld ," uUa $adm. i~A1i ZunUzi 11 pa"rtiGular~y impartant~ 'Dot ody because of bils, :imJponant ,oammen,tmy UP01;l, UtiRa $add, ~ s '\?Or4 'ill ,pilIrdou.'lar the Asforj but also because he represents the fint eneounter of rtra.d:idonallslamic philmophy with. Ellropean pb:Uosoplay in Persia. Ali ·'Unfizi was asked, by' a Qajar prince to :pr'Ovide a .' :mply to modern European, pb~loslo:-pby; in pam, c:: laT' Immanuel Kant. His :re.sponse~" the book Bad4yJ~ a~m, earned him a spe~iru place l¥ithin, the Qajar pE;riodl.

:UuUi "AbdaJmih Zun:u'l:i 'Wr~te an i.'mpartant book on ishmqi' phUosop:h;y entided Lama 'at .. ,i i'l4hi1Yak ,~hich '~nd)ica:re's how Suhm-

],34,

Influepce @:D. SUhraw,a..rdi o;_n IJStami;c 'Pbllooophy

wardfs. and M'. 'IIi '~(hi,"s reac.h'hlgS., iilfl1lll.t'DC~d the 'p:b]l(>sophe'fS of the (!ajar period.

·ber,e .are man¥ foUQWle:rs of SllhtawartU and MuUi Sadri and their pbUosophical orietll.(a.,tliQn wl~o transmi tte, r the wisdom ,of transeendental I[,eosgphy to the modern and contem,por~ry !)lI!irms d.uring 'be, 'Qajar .period,. Amon,' the. oUlStandmg figme;s of this FteriQd we· can name Mu~am.mwd lsmi' U I~fah,ir.ii, Mul]a M:u~m:mad, Ja'~f'af Langarudi~ MuUi ISima'5i'l. :Kbriju'i,. Mlr:zi, M;ahdi Ash. ··',ani and 'Mirza Tahir TbnkibunL 'Thlmy censtirute 'One .lutel ... , lee tual trend ,among other mo¥e:men es whi,c.h also reacted ti) ~ad:rian and iskrof,i' schoo,is:; ~mQng whieh We Shaykhiyyah move-

~ ,.

men IS most conspicuous.

,5',,, .. SHAnGUYVAB SCHOoL

Initiated by S.' aykh, AQmad iU)sa{ (lIS3/],?5\~), tlle Shaykhis are' another condnuatiQD of the ideas of Suhn:ward'·· and M'lJllli. Sadri duri' -I the Qajar period 'in Iran, ~ ... , 'The Sha¥khis,:,- 'who seem more influerl:l~;ett. by 'MuUi $a.dra."s doctrine tb:an th.ey admitj. :reject. m.ny of Suhnwardi,~s ideas, ,M presented by MuUi ,Sadri.

While' 'the Sbayl!;..khis adhere to Sub~r,aw~u;d.ils view of the :hie.rnrcihicai structure of the' unive.ne, they reject his, ontology based on ~igh.t. Des,pite, (h is, theY' a~ce'pt the e'~i$itence. ,of am i'o let-mediaty realm bemree.n me an~g,els and , uman souls, whic'h. they de,scri'be as ,the aQlmain of pu:n~ light. The Shaykhfls a'nemp·t ItO reconcile their uAraqi 'views Mf!' i, th,e mere 'uadidona'l theological themes is, perhaps the rq0't .of dieir ~nt1l,c:t with Su~r,a~~"s ishn:q" school, Whe':re~as Suhraward!' en,~saged, the pade's af ··tbe exmten It en tiJtie~ as different i.n lefl&iQes of light:!, the Shay.khi:s argu.ed t'hat. 'both me' eerpereal and. the inco,Epot-eaJ. wndd~ tbe AWftll1'tl are real. 25· De~,pite thei F disagI:e~In€n ts, almost a11 r- e : ,- rcmment :6,gores in thls movement, ~ ch iii Shayikh Ki,pm Rastid and Kiirmilli;" were influe1ucedl. by the rea€:h'ings of SuhrawaFd:"' and. their l",efor.m'ula, ~OID by '~fu~ la ~ad:ri.

,- -,' ' , ,- OiDil:nv' DDlDlIO· 'C. D

6~, COHTEMP,: ~ .. r.ru"

I lid r- phD' h' 'I .,. d ~ 1k Cj, ... E:·d .' d

. e gO!l'Jen ag'e' a: .'~ .. Ilosop ·'L:ICal: aeUVlty' ,urmg tne ~a:V1!··, ~peno~:'

and its continual'on dutS"ng .the' ~}ar period did not ~b:rU'pd" cease, as m:igh.t be ,concluded from certain ,circles of 'Wes;e.em scbo~ar.s Qf I.s:bu.nic, thought. This tracUdon ,~s still very much aJive

185

Stl,bf,awaM~, and the S~'h'co~ of :U.wu:rnjnatiqo

and active to this. day, 'The philQ$optty oOJ SYh~ awardi and hls chief expositor MuUi Sadri become so' fully inreg-r.ated, info the fabric of Persian intellectual th'Ql;l,gtn that they remain 1[.0 this. day the cornerstone [of traditional philosop . weal teach b1eg-s in Iran,

In ·c~nt.t!mparaly Iran" the teach~ng of' !JiI;.n'iltt has continued and

flgwished ... Among, dle greatest rn~lYefS, of :tradj:fion~d teachings, and

'" ,II' • d;- ~ 0' j, ;\.1111- ='11-. 's "II~;ri;iA u ' T- b -'1'0'!I~'Ib.,- !.~ ,., ~11'i"'i, .. 'l~,_".. of

'tS1I,nup:.loc-tnDe IS, riuamru:lii. <'aii~ ,~umyn . a.~al:,d!llJ.a t, 'I, e ~\'&l!liJ,UI! I. I

a:t-M~ and llll wa i-.{.t~kmat: al-i",dki:);yah~ NilMyal a~!Jfkmat and IJidij/J4f .at.-:l}ikmoA He has ·written. numerous commentaries Qn Mulli ~adri and the iSA".aoctrine _) includiwDlg' a new edition of theNf~ Other'

d~'s, Ii""i,p'~~ "1",f ,j,!t"<,f.trnni · .. ,.....,.·dlidon ?i~ ;t;:"':"'J'!l~,.f \: uhammad Kiz;im Aisit;.. whQ

. _\"'I! - l~~ ~l ikl!/~.rCtl..-.-l:E" lUI' G:. ~ -- ~-'~ 1;;141; 1 ~ ~. ~ - . !If r ~ ;II

has lr.ri.tten. 3! major w(lrk on transe,endental the:osop.:hy entlded

. , ~,' -"·~p·'-1' .",,:z.~ ~. ~ " ..... 1. d A.b 1'1 H· 'n ..... c'~ ~("j'fj;J'~ .. '~

TlKlliith. :t-asa til ·~i~~'1'Il,.tl.~, _ . ,'.', ' .. ~.~ ~" t, ·.u ,:Man. Jl"UiU:l ~ ~%,! ... lnl,

L I -," -- [~. e- ., - . ,_.l J • ~ ~ --Iii' " ,." •• L •.•. _ •• _:-1 I ,_ '-'1 ~ ; •• I '::; ~. . _. .

who, ·'··as been. the mam defender of MuUa Sadra. s school dunn:g 'the'

past hall,cenrury~, 0zwin~ has ~_1l!ed a number tOffine scholars, sl~~cb, as, Sanid Ja~iW. al-Din hhtiyinitt. perhaps the' most ,yrolifi.c 'wri;ter in the fieWd ot uadjlional phftosophy i.n Iran toda_y.. He has, writte~n, exeen-

- _ ...:i. ..ilL. r- .,'b. . •.. l. '"

sivety' on a :r:l'umber' of the comm.enUiwn, aao autaees o~ tne :t.Sil"r.~

'tmd:ttion,.26 The li.st 'Of cun~em,pom:ry' ,scho,lws who. haiVe kept me fire

f~ r.. .!.~. ~ ",,",11:: " '~I

.()' . tlZ,,'iiitf.d dove' ,WS, a w.ono' one.

. ~

S.ince' tbe esmbtis.hm~nt of 'IJln'~yer$lt1'es, hl. Era,n :in recent years)

Islamic 'p,hi loseph y' and ~ilmat. began to be taught ou tslde [of the 'Lmdit!j;onal mad'l'aSamfo.r t::.· first tim.e., Thiswas furtherfacilitated by '(he :a:p:pe,arance I~f' ~ch.o·~an wh,() have not Gnly mastered the tl'a!d~ti.Qll,al. lea£hin,!,rs. but a~so 'have become weU acquainted W'I~ Weslie'.m, modes, BE lhou,gJ'tt. Amlon,1I lbe~ scholars are ,:- 'IrIA M .bdi

H'-'·~' v,;... .... ,...:1~ L ...:!Ie d H"' - -. ""- N .

a :In '.I~] aI'iYl 03e~ c ,,9SSf:tn, ,uri

•. 'H I~ - ,. d' oll':'~1 f-' 1f~'I~ . ,. ill.. ''II t; h- .... .,.,..,.,

. '. a'tri. IS a !!nJ. 1 RO([lw. muter '(L' .ciiIlanllC ·p(m~~:I.O'iOP.lLii]1 W.~_06e' IfOC~~I!!'"

s,ive- .... xp~rienre with 'r.h¢ Wes.t. mar~. one ,azdf ~h.e few ,examples of a. seI~,Olt:s' !encou;nJ'fe:r oo't'We,en tradi non al .blam'~c 'Ph ilooophy ,an d We~," ·ph'~.·~().sop,hic;:al paraai;g,ffis. S~C:1 :an ,e:E1,oounle'r. is bes,t repr .'~j~nled. in. his, wOfk en-tided The ~ciples (jfEJ1istew;ilDgy in lrslamic'

~~ilM' rJfrk.' ~ wge bJ'~" . .....,'

';I; .. ' ... .;U~. ~" _ . .,. C·1~e:.:nce. .. ,~

, r [ 50; '. r, ' .. ~ '. .,tI~ , "_. _ \, I. ,. .', r ( ", .:...... j, - ~) •• I

Se.yyed_ HO$se.in N ~I" iScanotber' e·xponent ofSl.;ihraw~mr,s 'phi~

, ,L': dO., dll '" d d j.:I1... fi ~ , ..

sophy whol drst ,e· lled the (exits. aD,,' _ mtro· ,uoe ' u ~,e .Ir erg·laD wnt~

ings of S-u'nrawardi, to both th.e Persi;an world and [he West: H'is thorQugh £a.m:iHa:r.i'ty 'wim Western, modes of. t'hQ~g;ht :a;s we:U_ as, trnlid~tWn,al ls.mam.ie philosolph~ has e:n.abled. him to "resent 'the .iJ:Mratji docU';"ne \1) the Western 2(udl.'oore., Throu,gp his numerous wddnl.s and leGitufes :h:e h;u es:ta.·bHs:hed ·~]rim.se,lf as, the child' '1'10-' pone.nt of the' ishrafi doctrine· in the West. A:riiong his :majof wor~s.

]36

InRuet:u:e' QD S-ribrarwardi on bli1fm~ P:h:ilowp'by

in. the EngIDl$b ~anguage· are A,: l"nu-Gaucolioo To Islt:!.m~, Cosmalogjcal' D'(f~trrims and Sufi c&s~;s. 'His mQs", im,:p,orUlnt p,hUoSQphicd w,or'b

.•.. ' 'nl d' > . 17... - iI' ~,.J'.. . ",.,...J '~'h~ Se. ' .... r_,)I "'ir",1'. ,.... .~cA: . . 1"::' -' s;-"~' " !i!"\~ AI'~ iJ', :F'Ik~ ..

lHewU. le ..Rj(l;Q:UII,~ge Q:r.w;, ,~·e ~'l~~.l f~nl; J:".Jl:U$~n~, :9:ges~ ';.luatl' a,~n:

,fO,L ~ ~ - . .I;LE ~ ~.~ A' J' Fplt, =~ iL ~ n~l"· ....... .:J. ,oII,l.. = n......JI.:......

~lt/tm_%], anU. rns ;I.:ran.1"Wi~enta~ :I luwI£fJ/J,;,tj'j ane zw,~;n aj.-~ uuj VT'fUJl

of Nafu;te. 28

Be'Siwoes, Nasr's major eontrl buttons run spread.in:g the. tmdmtional !t.n, eh .'1\"11 -'\~ of" Suh ii'Q:W rdi M -'~II';' (:,.;;;"...:I'r· a- and other S· '111",.;, .• (-. snestics

["",a!...' li'&-g~ • " ~,' w s, . ',3, :.11; .. ' Uw g. ~~" ... ,. :u.it;lIi. v[ .. : ~Ji. .. ,llhh. .~J. e il:jiI"".'V0 1 .... ~1!

he' has, trained a number ~of fine' seholars, such U Wi Ch··lttick th\e aut~Q:r and trnnsl~'uJor of mauy' WQdit$ lao ~ik,mak.

B-IND'IA

In India, Su1h.m\\Q;rd l's Tiu Pkik;sfllPl/i,J' of ll~um,i.natcwln was ·t~$lated. In to Sanskrit and we:Lcomed ies.pecial.l)' b)! th.e Za: eastrian com .. , .muD·ity the're'. Besides, the kokims and Ieamed, individu;allis, wh6 travelled to In.d.~a';1 th:~ kl3e~' mteresl of Sidtau Mubammad. !bn:

Tughlug (72~t . 325) in p'hiilosophi.caI and, i' I· te Jectuam discuM~.on8 helped to 8pn~ad, the school of iskrtuJ. The Sultan, who bad alleeated la:r.g~ sums at m,ofu~'Y fo~' the building of a U'bmry,.. W,M, .pardcula:rl)" interested in tbe 'woro'ks, of Ibn Sin·~ . S:1lyyUi A'thar Abbis, .Rim. maintains in b'~s book A $tJci~J.n'fJ,lle,r:hml.HutarJ' 0/ the lSnJj

;AshMi'S~i ~m in l'll(J.J,{j~' thai! :mo5t.l~l~~€dy the work,;S ef Khwija'b Natllr al-Din T-dsi and Q ':tb al-Din ShirUi w,ere amongst the iih.~z' teXJ1iS thaa had 'been t;ak~~ to. India 'oy' the :F.oUowiers Q~f Subraw"ardi" :1£ Du,"~ t$l.= Tilj~ the een trw work ,of S11i rin!, w'~r'e' avalla'ble in. lOl.dia, as. R~'m in.dicates!I~a. then ~t is likely tha:t other iskr~workB.; rna, have been ·avaUa.ble as wei" Therefeee, it appears, th.at the ideas ,of Suhrawardi may 'have been discussed. armongst r"he' inte1i,ectll'al circles of' India. 'through the exis,tin,g commentaries 6.R the iskr:atp doctrine',

Anofher e.xample gf me s.p'mtil 0:£ Sllhr,aw3;rdi!ls ide.M, ,faD be see.'D in the met that. several the.olog"rc:al ~enten w~'f.~,·estafbli~hed. by' Sand. N~m ;al-Din in die early iifteenth centu:ry~ :H'·~s,· interestlD these :mat.te'fS, made th.e pl)omioent £SJt;f(lqi ,scholar. Jalil a'~-D!1t Di1wini, c,onsideJ' m.ovin,g to tbe area .. H,owever, Darini died whi e he"watS,waitin:g fOlf two of his studlellts who 'had g,one;iO the ,a'f,ea fa([" f~rthe,r inve'stim;lltion .. D&wAni'{II Q, .famou·s aommenmtar of" Suhrawa.rdi,~ w ote Law.jml~ alJshml/ ft· mak,jrim tll~k'd(jfb and. SbawMtiJ at-nUl".ft ika-r.~ prl:Jakil al:.ntir;; the' la'net is a comm,entaty. upon Subrawardi i,S .Htt~4'1' al~fi!f;. A1th.~ug'h Dawini, did n~)t go to IndIa,. ,m:a;oy of his. sruden~ did. Sue!,:, figurits as ': ""r Mu~h1.~ IYJir Shams

137

Stllnrawa.'rdl ~nd dl.,e SChoo~ of IUu:rn:i[t13Jtilln

al--:Dl:l1l,. and in j)~lrdcnl~ Abii"l~·Fid.W Kiziruni. continued on. the pa th of H1eir teacher by pmp;aga.ting· the transcendental theeSo'p~y!of Suf),mwardi. Suhtawa'rdi's school ,continued to fljQ'~risb in India, and wil!h th . rise of A.kbaJ to pow.·e.r~ the ~p,~ead of :is'kr:attf. :~deas reached its climax. AJdb~;r's ertthusiasm and tolerance for new ideas and reUg;ruems 'p1fig~.ded ·the kind. of ambience that ['hJ.e ~oA~ needed! to freely teach dle' isliw6tp doctrine, which had found a new home In be· rich spiritual Iandscape of Indian culture. It 'WaS fOll' l.rus, reason tha:~ a, btrg~ f:(umber of ,aiims' moved frem lra:n to India, 'wb,e're' th:e.f ,s·e.;":. ed in numerous intellectual centers, Bada'uni, in his book;. Mttnldha6 al..-taw:ank/!." e~ers an aeeoun t efsome olf these masters .. There, hf!: sa:yB~

Some of the 'pbysreians, in. this region were· SQ learned in the theory and .l1tiUed in the' practi ce of medicine dlal they performed mira:_~les, nke, 'lih'o~_'oI'~~$.es, a~d btought to' mirtd the miraculous breath €)Ifth.e. Lerd.jesus,"

Amo:n,fj the most notable masters 0.( the is:kr~ s(inQo.l in this period, - we're! ;l{bati.b Alywt'll,.Fi(l,l KbirOnl.; w'ho, sett]~~, in Al)m.w.f Abid.,. Sbayi - h Mubirat 1- ,alon. and his son Shayth F,i~l, and Snally Badii~ufi~ himself .. The tradluon of' ~~~bas, condu'Uoo·t,tj 'BlOUfi8h, ilm India ~p. ~ me can tem_pOFa!If period~ ,e~.1J1 in the most orthodox ce nre 1'$.,32 In fact", it 'was. the resrult.of the infl ux of somany /umims 'that 'many WQTks, wen:~. wriuen ,on S1.i1lhraward·i the best ~xampl,e' of whieh is the cOmmefrUu7Y of A9rnad iJbn a~Ha,ravA.~ Anwa:-ri,ya'.~~ Tohi.s commentary, wbir!h i-s it classical work on S-uhrnwardi wri ltte R in Pe rs,i an ~ prQ'vi des an overall aeeo un t 00 f Suhr.awardl~~ Th8Phi~k, 6/111'Umi~Mtj~ Ha'Fawj~ who nN'ed hi the

1/17 century mil India,." made use' ofglfher commentartes such as those of 'Qu~b al-Din al Shirazi and Shahrazuri. whi,ch .indi,cates 'batt fb.~~ cemmentaries must bave been :avail.a.b~e in India atthe time Ithr-ough. the £01 lowers of Suhrawardi,

Suhrawardi's in fluen'ee in India \V·en t ooyond the ,e;irele of'ishTllfl!; :flgU.re.s to become a profo'U,nd~ influence on tEe SUO. ,tradition of t'h,e Chilsloi order. 'There are a number of oto;et ·mys.ti.,caI schools tha .

I d - h th "ub, - 'b.~d~·'i b 1

w'ere' infIueD-red by Suhrawar. i, sne as 1-': Ie: . 'nJ;'J..,ayra~, 1· 8C '00

with i.rB' :$tro.ng 1.ogi!iJo..philos.ophi(::~d tendency .. J\lso,~ such Jg,mnd in$ters. ,as Shah Walial ih and Shaykh AlJm:ad. Swhi -dj ·antl their 'mY$)ti1cal st;hools, came to he influen~d by the il~ltminationis,t i' eu· jl)f S~hRward:i1l- although t'he link wwth JStihmwardf:~ requires fUr~U1er ex:p,lt)tation.

1.38

InHrtle-n.,oe' on Subrawardi Oon lSl3Jmic ,PblQsop:hy

The inter octnam scene ·oflndian c-ulitu.r-e' came ·to If.now of Suhnrwardi. in. ltwo separate jler-i,pds. The' fiB·- was in - be first two

~ .a ~ h d~..I 'h h II... d" d Th

centurses arter ~tI:·· raWRr ; '~, s ,~~at·,~ as ,as ~!Beil, c '~S.€u.:ss~, m . .ne

second enceunter of IH.dlia, mth the ilhaminatiordst i.deas of Suhrnwardi wag, f 'fOU.gIl, the sages. of the SafaviJd period. wh.o- belcD.:g ~"O the sC:boo·~;of Isfanan,.

'During' this period. many oJ:" th.e .grea;t masters of' the ish{ra.qi tradition lmve~~dl t'e:) !india,. S0m~ ,of them wilt() wrotei:tl1pol'tant:. w'Oib on ,SubmlR'n~h and the doctrine :of HIumjnati,on \jnclude

. . - - - - h .. 'Im... d . 11.. 11",";: th

Q~4i: NfuaUih JShu:s.tari ~ 'W -- 0' au tnore _. two :ma.Jor IUQo.·M on t .. e

p'hllosop'hyof il[um'inatioo:t ,M'ajilis al-~'U,~minli1l.and l{uJaq al'-f}aq" and Mu;l;wammacl ·Dib:dir Shirazi" the' 3i;u~bo·r ,of tsl$-r4q '(/.'/ '1a-n"'t91l. In a.dld'iiti()n.~, there We[1e such notable sdl·olMs as "f1r FindUiskJ·and, Bah~r' al-Din 1~-ahinll.l a~so known M :Fi(1ifl-i Hindi" who bot Qn~ taughl the Peripatetic :pb:ilO$.O'llhy, espe\eiwly the' SkfJi~, but 'also! knew' the works Q[ other commentators on t'h,e iihrWJi tl"adiJtioll~ Gradually ~ the ~ea.(hings of M.uWUi., Sa,(ki and his t,ache:l"jM'i'r Di'm.a,,~ became ext-,em,e'ly popu]ar, even o\,lershad,mring jthe WQ,rll~.S

f S h ~L" 'F" M 1~- ,C' ~..l -:1\ '11.._ '11., p~. .1. .~ I.'. "--...'I.:;:' .... 'i"

0__ ill . mwar:(wl. 1 or ulstant,~:, ,. III ~a ~rn So ooo.~to ~,r~W':(j; a;w,~~~,~~

became an 0:ffl da te'x,( in rhe'traditional seheol rVuulrruaM). ~5,

The sehool of ishrrr.g aDd the t1e,xts, that deal witJ;l the illum:~naY doniSi( dectrine are be:in;g taught eve'o fOday in th.e ttadidonal centers ofl.e:amiD;fl in tbe rndo-Pakirs.rani suD<ol1tment. Outside of Iran, the sub-eentinen t @s 'the only .r,eglo.n that ls 'to this daY' Fec6~ptire' to the tea-chin,gs '0'£ &uhra!W'U'dL

C·· ·S'- 'I' 1rjI':''Dl!, Ii. 'U"~\l UftllN' C"'UlD1I.... · .. if .. "" .• 'LT.'TO<,~I" Ii'-"

. It- .. IU~"J!'~. c"' IJI!j.~ ~"\IA_'[~"~_ ',_ ~

The eJdStteD!ce of large .numbers of ishTO'/,i manust:dpts :in. Tuikish liibnuies is an indication rhat Subra'Wa]icU was smdie:, ·by TUFkiSh schelars, In 'm:c:tj, I:1h~ Thrkis'h '~j,brlui(:'S ,contain such an a.bunda:noe of iskratp rexm of Ibn !'Axabi and o thers that such. n ott.ab~,e· scholars as.

A.M '~h'" 'I d' - ,if"'!I..-..--1i-.,. -- - ri·t ~ _. 'l'¥!iiL>~1ir- ~t:v,~Q:t'ii:! ';;n 'T'u' ·1....:Il.@V·If, .... . '" ~ . ~.Qlm,ell. :aI}:",_., • '!IoAJl'tim ,~pe',I," _ .• nU.,"uuell, 01. ';!,~<!I a& I Jkl,;...) 'lIV

compleee thelr"researCh on MusUm, ~,QS~and"o{ilier i.sh~ figru;res~

As. fir asthe spread. 'of $ullra:watcU 's ideas, in Syr.ia. .iis concerned, his

th = d . d d . I'! - em:

p·rese.l:lce ere' an":;, ,IS nlUfter-ous stu_ents an·, companIons m .,3" .. ,· ... 3

may h.aYe been i:~_Stnlm,ental in the spre~pg' ,of his ~d,eas. .. Suhrawardi doe~s not m.endon me names oftbese associates btur. a,lm.ud'es t~ them as thooe wllJQ repeatedly mqueslted of bim 'u;.~·wJte v,arioUl.treaJ~ in partkldoot n:m' PAibrfJ., oJ'llllllmi:nmron.,$ En fa.ct, tto-waras the ,end of this book he learves a Mll :asking' hlis ,ciuIDe' of J:n,eruis Ito. safeguard its.

139

S'llbr.~w~~ and the Sebool Q.. Uhnn:ln21JI:lon

'content, ~7 This ~ndicates· the existe IQe of a circle 91 i1l~ ~Tho ·benet1~e.d from Ihe' esoteric ~a:Ghin~ ofSuhrawartii" It is reasonable to assume that they must have oondnued, h'is wo,rk after SubralVard:iJ.~~ death, One' .fign;re who Ina,), bave been among his associates was Shahraziiri. Almoulh the dab! gf his life m.~'S~ ;it pessible that be 'm~:gbt ha!re kt~o1WD Su'hm'WImi binls.e~~f; it ~s '~ikely 'tha;t he was, a

d" . I f f iC' h rdi' d- 3S I .I. • h

' ~,SClp e 0, one 6' ;"u. rnwa - ,~:5 it\! , en,'ts.,' t· 5, certain t -',at

Shtilirufui 's ·eOmDl€'<Iltary on The, PhilfJsqpJ"J' ,of llu:mi",a~ and the aJ,. Ttd~ (680/1281) were amQ'ng' the texts circU'I;;ulin,g mdrin the group' of uA~&:m ~yria.

The discu3sions and, d~€b,atm1eS of Su:t~rmwa:rdi 'with the learned men,

of hls rune 'in ~, the buik, of his JNriting haMn:g been 'co'mp:~elBd in ,S_yriaji. and. his circle '0'£ fr."ends provide reasonable grounds, to e'Q'Dc\ude dlmt his ideas, may :ttave been studied by the ~nleneGtual! c;ommUflJtyin Syri.a. CVe'D. though: they were' ~upp:ressed lor pOlitical reasons,

D'S"" H:.ro " "111. 'D,'~ 'IN- - - -THE' '.:C: 'jj.II'in~ '''"U~",,~ __ I,. '.' . n~.

FtJif uncertain reasons Sn1'n;-awaroi"s works. we~fe not translated into ,Latin and therefo s his, philosophy remained unkaewn to the W,e.s-t. One could ' . ostula!te' three reaso _,S as 'Ito why his worb were Do-it trallslated .. The frrst has 'to do 'with the' existing phU0',s0l>;hical pamdigI1.1J of the period, 'w'hleh.was, more Ibn Sinian ill na ure, Therefore, the n:tio,nalJi.stic p\bri~osoprhy dominMlt-bl the 'W~stem world 'C'.feat,ed ~ :inteUectual ambi,ence that 1WaS, not :tre~efrti¥e to Suhraseardi's ideas .. The second reason could. have been thatthe gireat a:gc oftrans1atlon in SpaiD ,and the creaUve momentum m~t existed in SOiuthem Spain had eome I-O· an lend." Sinc'f! ru,e translation houses (Dil,. rd~ttnjumah)1 were 'no 'Ion~ger pJ'lQ,d.'Ucdl"e, SUhI'8Ww-di did not receive the an,enltj}r.l;n that he' deserved., In my o-p(inion " the' third reason Leouid h;ave been Suh~awa:rdi~$ amUal'tlon wi ';, $alidill 's son Ma .i'k Zinitr,. AltHough Suhmwardi was not farY.o:red. b, the ~~lidin,~, be nevertheless 'may have. 'been ''riew1ed, by me Christian. West as a court. ph:iilosophe;r at. a tlm'e when Mus ims and Christians wem mvolvedl tn I 'be Crusades, For this reason his 'worb may 'have been set luide' a.nd :gmdqaUy forgofJtlenj eXiCept by a. group of c'~me friends o:r initiales.

S.H .. N'a$r' attribu~~ the.1.ac·k, of interest ~ the Wesr. In te.ac.hin,p of Suhrmwatdi to a more fundamen-tal :prohlern". the~ phib:sop.hica!ll and geo,graphical de,PlJ1U'[('e' of the East and the ·W~it.

1·40

.~nfl'Uen.ce on S~ibr.awardi on I:sl am ic Philosophy

The We~t", whicll bad been in .m~y ways an ~orienf ~n the iskmqi sense of the term and had passed a. tmditi-onal civil~ ization whie'll, ., ~ ~ resembled me g,reat; oriental Clvllizatio,:ns, was now becoming an oceidenr, not O'nly g,eQgrap.h.~~al., bu' also ittl the' isl,ratp~ sense 0f COm,C;elTI ~ng itself ~rth. the domain ot radonalieaden. su

:Despi'f,e the ,e~ds,dng in teltelCwat C:U)':'m[[US wh k:b continued 'On ·d.i.{!,rur a;n~'~yt~€al and mdon.aUsnc p.a th, Suhr.a~rdi mar have- inn, senced certain in tellec tual strands. in rtbe West. S. H. N~r att:gues further' tha~ o_ne· '0f tbe m teUectual cireles that 'migh.t b31:ve been. j,n"lfluen,(led ~Y SubGf:w.~~i ~)lS, the' thirteenth cer:rrury Oxford school afRoger

~ Bacon 8ftd. Rdben G.rO'MJe,ste. "While' ·bo-tJn. <of these- f~_gaF.'~s were propenents of an e~QlP,hical method of observation, their experl-' men" were such that th~y we:n~ Dot necessarily inconsisten t wiJth a gnosIdc interp1remdon of nature, In fact, NMr draws a pa~rtdle.l b_etween the Oxford s.cl:,u:)o; of: 'the tldr~en'th i~ntury and IQutb ·])..Din S:hb~,i~ the celebrated Muslim. scientist and commentaoor of Suh.mwardi; whq, had alse continued an empirical method. Bacon and Gro~te.ste wed the' kind ,of e;x;periment~d method, tha:t ~onsi~": the ,~b~lii,atio,n ,a{, nature to. be :a neeessaJry part of lllum~a.uo~: "Bacon wore' the dress ,of the bhTtaq~ and Ieernred up on. them" J'J'.fO

It j~~ bowev;er~ even more likelJ( thM;. Suhmiwar,di bad .~D'flru~n(!ed certain in'te.llec'tJu:al circles :in sp3in where .tlu;:~ i.ntenoctl.l3l. 'milieu r:nigb.t .h~e been more receptwe to his id~~ For eXampli€, it is, Uke-ly tha~J~h KabbtJis& 'who eame 'w knowc of The PhilfMJJj!h, fIj,lllumin~ miay h;ay,e taken th~ b!-,'t 'k) southern Spain where'it '\'V,as. discussed among the .Jewish 'mysties~ Irwas this very tex(", some have ~rgu.edl/1'1, that may havep~a:¥ed an impotnanm: role :~n dle further deve~pment of Jewish illuminationisul thereby a:rtmactilng a!UeRtion to people' who "WrOte. extens,ively on iUtrm~nadon. Another .ineu,cai.ioD. that SDhm;waxdrs 'ideas, d~D ·indeed. trnloVe:~ .. into Sp.am ,~B' tHlU Ibn Sab'in (7/13) of S:pain~ who 'Iived m .~Qr~cd,!, alluqeE to the al.-Ta./wikat of Suhra~Mdi in his book a~lWilat' a1;.lluJin"ak., Alth6ugh ~t is d1fncuJ[ to establish whemet be came to krJow of Suhra~di while; he' was in Spain or wnM:~-rooco) iil·~oe,s, demonstrate the '~m:g~ ,goographjcal sPan reached by SuhravvaIdi's, ·jideruJ.

. Vlhile· :~I~umin;a:tio([list. movements have ~m!ergled from H,m.e ['0 tune" it is difficult to establish a ,defblr~te' teladops:~p between them ,and Suhrnwar,d,i ':S school, Suc:'h movements as me' "Illuminated of

141

$ybra}'li.ardi and Ul~ SCtt.ool, of IU1Ui:lwti(J[t

:Bay,l'ri~.J' ~ f~gndedl by Aehlm, Wehha~um;~ whiC:h ~s; ,.;JP:POSied. to a religious hie,raF'~hy ~ or the :ideaSc ,of SChelUllg and Franz Va,", Baader~, We're' ~ot :alQl'~ to ~evivl'e t:hi£ 'ulumhlatloms'l1 m~¥f!men t ~m :~lS ayu.tbendc and, tcaditiollral. sense,

In the~ conrem[pcn;',ary W~st:.er.n 'WDrld~ the wotks 01 H,eo,~ Co;rihin haw &reaned, a '~at deal of ~n:reres( ill .:suhmcwafidiJ~iS seheol of

,w-

'il1um~nati(J(n", Corbin IJ eat~'ly trnJning, I'WW, lFllJ: W~stem phn~ph,

'with, ~ focus, on medieval 'ont0'~ogy~ and h~s interest ~Il, 11Ia:rn:h:, phjjl"osnph, be~n -~w;rth Ibn 5,ini. The fuc-a'~ point of his, :sch,o'~aBhip,

11.., IlL, 'I. "- d-"' '" _..ll 1Ii.._ '" de f-· =: .

!lII.oW\'e-",ex~ wa tne .il.si!'"i.~l; '~a;;.~u,on any tu~ 'WIS om 0:1 ;anc~e,nt

Persia. In the woms g;f S.:H,. N~.\ "CQ,i1t;J,in hu 'wifm,ou~ doubt d.~ne'

- . ;iIL.""'-, 1l ;",;,,"'d.of> !fiCin;.Ji oI!5."II'rltlo " '. ,.,!II =, n, - "-;, ·_:J;u;e;; the

more' ",~n ,anyone- ell;se;~ oursm e ,~~IUll. , .... 1Ii·'!l;,rIl InSil!~ .It ersia '~Q' ,[ ~,;~,~,ItIL Ii- L,'

ma,e:bi.n,gs of Suhmw:ardi.l'd~

, "U ,.,'L, .~,~ ~,-" 'II ~, ... L, • ..,'I ~- .... i:-.... ~ .. '

.lilte man,y ~)i'U];e:r ~acb~rs ,of uadj:tlO'na~ W'lMIamj ~r~m h11S tonw\-

buted to 'ttle bcuiy of .ls~anli.: sc.mell~s not only: throu,gb his gYm "Mit,. bu~ by' tra~nirn:g, a l1u:_mber of fifll6' S(l!u~'~an. Th.tf following f~es, were ,e~dler nained by h:lm ,dhteetl,' at :inBueft~ed, by' Dm

';il • ....;;'t'~;ii"'ia.Ci" G-'.~ m;~,~ ..... > "=I'19;,,;4IJ 'f"i."-.' .'iAlrl··~'IID· U n<_ n",:",--:,"f"'.-:I r.,~,~J.; 'lI"?''!'li'~~~ U!fh,rl -n'~,l,~_~!I'~o~m ." '.' ~-"Ir~;v--;&· ~~~ __ • ~1j_1l ",I . - ~ ~i U;UJII,;!~tlf:~~, ~I~. ~J ,~'m:V:l.!fC:, ~r' y

belong w lhe'yoUng~ geDenulo~ of 'Ole sd1.plaB'in, France, AJ'SOj the 'we~l h1!OWD J@Wim 'SiC__hQ~~ G,. Sch~le'-m and biologist A.,.:P'ortrnann are'

'" ,Co" 'IL_..... ,- -.. if' '"

am.Q:rI,g tbe: lUlFuartatlt ).'tgUres W.u~ came 'una~T his ,IIlIl'l1:l'eDt,e"

In pl.rtic-u.lar~ ,CQ.rbin.~s ex,pa&mtion of ~'o.denta~ ont1)lDmf~ in pa:rti~g]jar' that o(Stih.mwardiJ ,sdm,ular,ted mu,ch. :lnt£reSJt.3ktD,a;n\1J th.e

;\".::11 h~' 'I' ~ '" 01' 'ilir tb ~ k~'l

'plJ.~~.'OS@p ,lea" mov:e:me,nt 10, \iii :m;nte ,!J,.:t1mVR as ,I re '):'Q'umg p,u:~ 0-

lop·bel's.,"' Th~ main figUI"-e In this m.'rNem~( is ~tim jam~bet~, who took, i:nterest in the oriental plh:UO),~'ph'Y Ol( S!illhmwatd:w, with ,em,ph.~s; on ~ori,eD,tall~igj~.,'~~

ir.!" ~'!liltJ i"!"~ 'L: ..... ']< z:,.;...Y!1:-- .. .i,L. A ---'b- 11..1" ." ~:iII :OiL, ..... ,

.Emm!l:l; W,fl:l.l.ll-l S w;wo.enoe m Il:il.1e m,iit_'" '\iV'O-rJ,~) -mil :pat1J(l;J!JJ.a-f itlI~

:ftlnner Frenth cumomtsjJ is,"lLgt1m~nt.A .number ,of ~h 8Clt.d~aJn~

W a mol d ~by Q' Itt' . 'I ~~., UGh- ",",;ii' J\I:kh the'

, ~"iV' "': n.e-IIl1i'~-. . ... 0-.' - ·m-.-~·~ 'u_hi""it'i!l;l: ..:!7"',.- . as Jr:t~,- .. , ,iI"ii1',.n',_ 1-'· :.

,;jj.PII....~.l . }~.~,~ . '.; "_ _ I • ~ 0 Tlr.ll JI.u.lIJlI;~I~~l i!ii1! _ ~ -,. _ ,r. ~ or- .-\ ~·~;&-.IL",.,.

A1 " Islmli~" Th · i . sch I or- SM' ~~ L, 'I" _'Ik "' d~

~',"",'3Irllfll' . I~r n~~. - - e '~P, ~1i, •... : ~, ~", '-'~" .....•. -,,~ L 'w1ului ~n_ "''';;''lIl11'i1r~·C

elv~r~lII, J...C:U.llt - ~J~ l!_ - ~ ' ... ·A·I.~ '~'<... - - - - __ ,. ._ ,0". ~ - )~Jl~ . -

both Hlfstial and faluamWsric ,concepts 'W8JS 'weU reoeif~ by both the

'D~~. - ,,A 'U;1 -" - a ,riJf~'L 1.,;11 ~ ~ '. l'd Th II ~,'Ik'III:: 'j .... ~A,

~re.m, af};;u.y't,!esnem, regtOIlS v. 'Ul!~ :M~ won_ .,' " if: we' e5wVJ.lSilil.e'U

- • ....... ,11 - dO' ~" .. c. ,- ] c.-I 'D,...iIL.:,. " lk.......... j} ~I· h ·',.:k

:rny£U-t.a.!lr 'tnt.; _ruOODS or me : :n'UO--F~!m.n]J ,su~u:Qlllnent. ,Ile~l [at .·:onloe WUCJ.

~Uhmwarr.dj,'!'s ~.soleric ~o:mes. lena md Norm ,Affl,ca~ oOl!mrte---rs of

" .... 1'.:,~ ~., :k~:1 h ~'iI"3ln'll'" ~ ," iii, ",'I:... 1 - f-

ranonansne 'f!,{iuosoP·. y" were eq'~i ~p'tlve iO tnese e:l~mER'tS 0:'

,6.~'L~_.'~'''''''''''''!'. ~.I..,':;ilA-""'p· 'Ly =:£"::1" 1illi'lmi'noaij.;:o-·n

.::iWl!!i.u.w'M't.d S pilUIli.~S~ .'U~( "Jl ,g)"U!_u 1 .' ~ .•. '~!.lII,_i· ....

lD.fhJ~fj)C~' on SuhmwiWdi .. oa IllaQi.t: PhiLIo80pihy Noles,

143

"lnfluenae on SUh:raW3rl'di en I8!]a.n:ri,€ Ph~losoph.y·

:a19' S. H: .. N:a$l', "The Spl"~3id ocft'he ]UuminradQlJl"istSchoo~ofSu.hrn~M"di~~'

f"sac~m';'" th"''ii;'Ti!.-.1N, '1 AI 'n'""'- 1 (1~~) ,. 1110

Jl~~ ~~ ;i~ ~M"~~' JQ.~,,§l7-' .1'=", ,W.lV'III· . . ~II'U II J 01111

.iI·O' ifb-··..... I-I '11: A

"'.I: ._:' ~ ·~u. ~ ,Ai"'~

4·} :":Qr more infc(rOl1arllOn an. the presenee ,of uh'i"W/i de~atj. Ul AWeppo and iu influence on d).e' d!e~~Qpnlen~ 'QfJtwlsl~ iUurnb~ad·oru~t t'hou.g, t see the 'woi(llt b.f~ M3i"monides.'~ gr,ea~~~ndso'n whkh is 'transW~ood and eemmented by f1aul Fenson tn Deu~ T't-ai-,N$. d~ mlstiq'U:~ jui'fJe~ (Eru:is: 1917) ..

42·~,.:H. N't~~r ,e,d.:, Ja.dtn 'nd;f!!~h,",~' Hen.ry Co~w~, (I'ehmli!JJi Imperial Academy of Philosophy, I 977). J ] 00.

43 F ~::n~_~no~ inform:aJ,1ia.tJ. 011 tlle- ~nnueil¢.:e of Go:tbi:n. on the' 'you:n,g phn~-s:ophefS see dIe in uodl[u:.:ticon that Cbri~tianJambet has writ~ en te

p.JIOc ..... - ;,.. . 'l -' f.!11:... L."iL_,_ _.I ';_.Il -

'\A}r.u,~n s m'tt~( iIllCtllOn 0' iihue ~l~l'[c~R:T'dt1.

6

GO" N" C"'L' U' "DIN' "G'-' RE'" . MARKS" '. '.' ." ....

:' " ..... ," • : I ..... ~ .. I, ',. ....... ',' - ", ;.,~: ::>,' .'.. "'l~, ,,'-.-

• ,- _', .. , - • _.," ... ,,_. ,'," r" .. J , .' .__:__:~. _ •• - ,_.. " , ',',. ", ,"

Before cO:1JcludLn.g this ·wort!, it is. necessary to respond to the cridcism of some scholars who have regarded Suhraw,aroi".s 'W1orks as :having been ,stIDQngly inf1 uenced by natlonaliseic sen Qme'nts\. They have gone. so far as 1('0 accuse him of be'longing' to tbe S:bul'ubiw-dh~l a Persian natienalistic movement of ['he 'b~.rd ~ntj~lCY A~:H .. This inrene~m;~d, :m!oV'e.-rt.U~ilt was led by a group of Persian ,oe'liS; philoeophere, litte:nry f~res. and. scientists reat(:.ting' to the Arab oppression )ofP'enian$ and d1;e.ir sophistk;ated. eulmral sen.sitiVidtes. dU'rm:g the Ab!basid dyn~Hty·~ Later refe'rred, to as, the Shl1'~ ubif.Y,a,]l,~. this, moeement intended 'tip confren t Ant b su.premaic:y with the reViwl ef the pre~ sla_m.~c Persian culture andl re·Wigious val ues It has been argued m:ha,t 'Su b.ra·w-ard;i ~ s isk,aqi sch OQl represents' miJ8 stream. of Persian nationalism for wh.~,c.h it prO¥id,ed the p 1 lilQS'Oprh~cal frnme'wo;r;k. It.is tme that ch.er . are those who accuse the ATabs of in,ability' ~fi fjuny appre,eiare' spe,eu latilve dl0ugb.l such as we. fin.d in the' ,at.Btt,iin wa. "lrl(lOyitJr of Ji~ or Sa' d ibn Abma.·, who i; his book Tllbaqat a.~m.a~ argues tba.t, philosophical th:inkwng has never been aplprecia,ted among lb.e Arabs, The mQiSf. scathing attac'k. comes fr'Om 'Taq~: al-Din Al)mad. i b,lll. !jUi ~aqrizi, WhOM~(e In his ,aL-Kkattit.!t· that while Arabs' m,ight be' capable Off appreciadng' 'p,hilosop'hwcal discourse, th,eir ge-o IUS. U~S in Q!rme'f' domains.

This. 'view~, 'wb",ch reads. to, auribute a" :rr.elatirve absence' of philo. sophical tradition a:m~g the .Arabs compared to the Ber81;an,s\!. is rejecr:e,dj, by Ibn Kba1,diin who a;ttrwb-ute~s the intef,es¢ o:{ 4tsin'tere_s[. of a secie Y' in phUoJ$Qpb :cal ilSUe$ to its· s'Oci'o--polw,tica.m and. ·geograph:ical ·IO,cl1don. There ar'e abo tho,se P:crs.ians 'w'ho: have defended t·h.,e p'f:ruJ~lospphieam, :ttnd cultura:~ ae~;men of the Anl·b~ .. FOT ~nstance, Shahrastini1 the o.elebr,a~ed ra'··'ona.Jist,. says.~n his, bo,o'k

1-46

Concludling R.emarks

,al-M'ital ~o; "l=~i~a~,fJ that i.'8. fact, tbe .Ara:b.s possess, a ltfP1e of Msdom tbat is .. far superior to that or or.he:r n.a[[o:o . s, This. qrpi! of wisdom mlin:ifestS. itself in numerOO$, ·Ratra.dve's, exp[:ess.iens~ hyperb61~,c and metaphorical stale:m.ents,.

The unlol'tllnat:e faltt remains mat despi.te Suhr.aJVanlPs praise fibr the other ttadid,r(.lus.· of 'M_sdftm whi,C:h 'we' have revJewed. earlier in this work, he has, been accused of being a na,tionalisit ~enr. by such fa:m'ous scholars as, M'I hammad ':Ali Abu. RafYin. who slaites

• 1i... • T ~ ':':L .. it.. ;r _ I;;'.t., }'= ltn·~~ .. 11ft iI'.t 'r: ~i~~, 'iL" e: h ,..:I' 'iL.., . ,

m .1f.WUll· . .il anJQ'f. '4t",jl~" a~j'~~~·;~:. ~,W-~~s.m'lr~ mat ,~u c rawaru] liaS, been one

of the Shu' U:biyya'b~ ~

'T" S h dl' -,:It! • alism ] . d d h ..

J!.o accuse u, - :rawar·. J 'U.!I( nanon ~ l.ism [s to mtsunc je~s(an.. ,_Im

'comple'tLtdy:.~ The school of inDm~:Dation w:b.icn he advoca.ted. argues for the u_nirversality of truth [0 which [everyone has· e\qrl~l~~ access, pr.rovided they are wOlin,g w' underge the precess of purifi,cadon and i~luminat1;on. Sub,raward~ would aJigue tha~ tru;th, is, not an e~dusive 'p'ropetty 'Of Persians, nor 0.lf ~yl)n.'e else, and 'to ar:gu.e as such is, con.trary' t() the sp.u'it of the iihr,alJl~ school I'D. factJl Suhraw.ar.di, argues, tha;t flikJ?IUl;t origwnated ft&@ll:1L Hermes and th.oouln Egypt carne to Persia where it ·became'. united with the other branch of' wisdom of Persian e,n,gin. Su:hmml'd;i~'s, U.5e of Zoreastrian '~:ym:', ..... oliam .. 'a~ ~Ui>l'l- o"!I;,1lt , .. If-piil!i. ~Ib. 0, Ilsm of .n.'~,""'~ir" tna:mtl"-n" s . '1·,i~ .. e

!UIiOl!!I.W "', riJ' • U1.JI.I.&.....,. ]I ,~ ~ ,~..... ~ ULW!!U '.,. J ~.~. '31.0, . ',.,"'1111], ..... " _".. " .' v _ ;3~ ""a.:Ji

intended to demonstrate how all these tradi tiO'DS adh ere to the same underlytn.g 'f'ealb.y ..

S h "" ...... ~.. 'NI..!I h d'J:': iL..." h~~' 'lL... e "I'iII "

:,,~, . :r.~Y!f~·u~. ,ooU.wU a,ve' arguec ror ll~WS ,P ~'w OSOpn"y oi .W mrm-

nation 'Within the context .of [slam, alone, and for ihat matter --.: oroastrian tradition. on·' .y". but he chose to, Include other traditions

,. ~. d ., .. 1.. '11 d' h '. .. 1

pre,clse1Y 10 ',' erno nsarate u",e ecumenicar ia.:0> _ ·Ilt·ans~ 'lstO\f~t:a

nature of ish'n:fU1i wiidem. This, plus the' fact thar 5uhrawft;r:di wrote most ,M his trea ises in Mabie" demonstrates that such o'bj,ectia.ns are invaUd and stern frem a misunderstanding of' S~du~wan:u.'s -phn.osopby· ..

It u. rum,cult t\O 'Write a conclusion that d,oe:s,jusrice' ~o the 'vas . corplls. ofphUosophica ,oonGepts~, 'theol~cal atgU~e-n.ts" mysdcal assertions aad the profoundly esoteric and yet 'rationally jwn:ifiah~~ philosophi,ca1J ,SC'h9P:~ ~of $ukml1WlrdL :Raiely has $ueh a ~t dOM'mc, oficd,eas

d to"" ~. . - -'V'n:"iL.·.c.eJ"'JI __ d'l ft' t· rn.:'h,·i1:o;:;o,nh!"'a'I' p"Oli'~d';am

:3.0 . eonc,ep Li.1!' ~een 51' ",~.U.l'~,;:u.~.' .... ; . , ~n ~o a, ~.:UJ ....... r'· .. liiL :'~ _"..t 10),' 1.0' ; i,

S 'iL d" iC: d~ ..,.. r- ;lot... • ~ ... 'L.. ..

rU~lI~rawar" 1 ~lill"st .' _lSlcrUS·Se.s inmca,cJies, o~ iY'.I,e s.prnltna ,:ia.!ul 1ft

'r:n)'m,erous, myst.ica~. narratiVes :in whi.ch he' us;e'·9 tt,adidona[ Sufi

b 'ill' I'iII h' L. H'·" .'

sym ,QdSm as we ~ as ··.IS, o-vm:meta·p.uors.. . :-ws me.ssa,ge .~s not an

147

S<u'hnl;w\~rdi, and the Scheol1)~' .nlunI~n~t'iQ'n.

t~t;~uslve theory' ,of truth accessible only ~o 'the :f~:nOwe[8 of one pa;th or tradiuQ(fij but ,pro'poses, t~· t1lescJ"ilie' that :foUllta;in, !of Ufe: w~LoBe odgin lies within the realm :of divine ,sa:pien,(tt' and 'wns, tllrroog;h varieus civiliz-arion~ [0 benefit aU. 'libo~ 'wh@ 'mimt £0(["' w~dGrm~ Suhr.aw-al:'d.~' s vast s~,th.'es,is of philosophy and ~t;~e:nt~~ myth and, "ritu,al, a$ wen ,as 'esote~lc te~:b:ings, and his ~frtegntd€Jn Qf He'['me't~(;~m" rrthagQ'r,~:a'nism and lQr()a~t:rrn,anism :h,a$ indeed brough L allboutt a, UJ;lm~d m,e9'lY' of k_lilowledge which haS 'l]()rQ!f: to' bfi 'tuown as the sfS'hoQl,of 'ruJJum--ru:nadnn. F(Jt' d~!ete' re,aSOO8:~ SuhraW,il:mi" s '~iting$' ~~ould be studied by st.u4~n:ts of 'CvlOl,pan'ti:ve, ph'ilMdp,h, and, \re:~i.g;io!n,. Not on.ly GOt'S Su~:mwardi '6 ontolo~' pllovfude1' u1~e1lil(OOus :a'nd migi"nal tn6igli"m ('Or 'the' ;;'ulia~~s, of tbJ€: tmdi!laD,al pr:.ob]em'$ ~i[ pbilQsap'hYJ' 'but 'h~$ m~dca:~, n.armd;v~1 (dle'f a symooUa and profo'U:n,d, Vi.'ew' ofbumaJI namre.

~S11h;nl~i $h,pwed, bow m~ wi~~m G'J<:f Umu"min~tlon inchu:ilJes, dig... cr!1nive ~amnblg and, asoedd~m buJtc~s :0,0];, nmilr~d 00 th,em" He ,~s d~s.dt.lguish~d from m.e Mm~bn 'thin'ker8"who '!Zm.D,e be['Ore 'him by his ~n.tl~e',s:is of ph.noa.o.phy and my,s.d!c.j;$m~ .hoSie' in tegnrio.h, he considers poovid,es th,e human ,cvndirttione:IDr ~e a!uamm~nl 'Of '~Iu;th..,

:F",~ 1 . ,.:!II" . -. 11)" '_!:ii' 'I ..... ~l1C, uumg Aemar.f!JJ

'N'Qtes,

'I, S'h:rlLl 'uffiii~1i l'tU, '~ 11/9' :I'jJo:v)~menl ~'m.o'ng Pe:F~i~I1Il. int-enet:tual;s., 'puet?8. ,a,nd~ :ar,t~'~ wb~, QiPpO$ed the dom~ilIJation. or 'P~rGi~ns, by Arabs, 'This natiQ~~.~i5iK movement made ~~n aitlThempi( t,o, :If:. i~ P\~l;S~n languaget eulture ~:Rd Zo~o:a8tti~ ,r;eligion:!O wfu.~"c;h 'were ident,]jfi,eM wii~Jh. the golcl;en er'~, o1f tti;.e' ~~J:.54'a:n mlpi~'e'."

-2 Ji1)ilJ A,1=-Ba,"tin "wa1,..f(t&}{.'f!I.,¥ GliT'e;;~ I g_~.f.

3 $i!'jjd, ibn Allmad." T~Mg((J a/..tuq~fl~ B~~ru,~; D;aw 8}~M~a/if]fah" l~lt. 4· ta~;: 3~E)ill'JU:unad ibn '41A]I Maql~ai~, a~K1¥Jli~~ (N.P.).

~ 8ha,hn~stinj~ ,~M~l 'wa ~l4ii~l~ B-eirut: Da:r:albMa,'rifah Press, l'9'90~

26S. .

- - ~ - .JI Ii: Ji; 'I·,; iIi;:I!.._, 'ID' .... ' 'Y"- -l"it,. if_:n~.... '1.J;r-n:ltfi' I' ,:r\..iJI'_ 1'J!<:1 'O~, '16

fj, MIUl~.a;mma~, ',iui n.ui M~i A.~~ (l!l,.Jl~cQ~J:~~~,l',::t ~1:.:rM:fll, v~,·r·l~ ~,.

7

APP'IE" N'o"'D' 'IX' ",

. ~ _. '.'

- ' " '. ._. I ,_"' ," _ .~' ',' .:. "," .

This is the translatj~] of a treatise caned. Slta:r;.-i a'~~i 'M~J'JFa 'i~' (A. .Ca~~t~:,U;~ 'h! ,Ck(1~I: oJGlJmf;ts Wi~)i,,2. Th,e cQ,;mmenlarr '~~lItt~n l~ ~,etsi~n '~Y ~ UnkJ1Uxwn: a?tbo1t ~fPe!tsjan o,rlg~n wbo b~~' 18, ~ndia ~n the 14th oentury·.,~ The' text Wa6 wdm:;,tyen by dl_,e :phil,'Q~p,:b:er-my$J.le~ Suh,n~tGi~ i(l 'the' 12th ,t:el!utmry ~nd. di$:clls~, :Met~~hQ:riJ::aJly some ,of me' m~,iewl p~hil:OBap'h:t,cal themes such as the ~i,emlfJch~ of tilL: inte:H:ecl[S and ,its, :relad,o.llship' with ,ang~ls!J the pr~b, em Jof emanation nf mubipUcity from unity:t form and m~t,~r; ,andl fin.sJIy the' re'lad,olnsb'ip between philo1iQiP;~Y and the S.pirilUaJl path,

'The. present transilJaao(O is siff,nwcaJlt because it p:re'SeJlts a11. .,examp:[e of Sm]1:Nwardi\s writinls,~ in particular ene o,f hi' most ,e_&oter~,€ ,~rea~es .. ~is treatise' 3.~SO 'p(r'ovide~, us wbh an :insigh'& l~to the' medlev,a.1 ,cQSm,'Ql~~ on~'l~ and the ~aeroG~'S'm,-rnl~ocgsm ~o,:rre8PQndan'Cle .'Opa'fi wl:d<:;fl Bunr,awardi so ex'~en;8I.'Vely e,labo:r,altes,.

,~ d h ' e

l:)e!o'OI) , ,. f_ . _e CQmm"en tarY 'o:f th.€ a.udloir is im.pormnil since it

decodes some of t:11,e esoteric sym bols and b:F'hn~ out the in .. tricacies ~n:~ 'lth.e m.ore hidden and lUl:fmiUar ~ymbol~ of Ibis w'O:rk~ Thi:rd~ll,~ tk~s commentary ls im porta'mlt froma historical 'p'Oln t of v1~' n~t O!nmy because irt repr.,es~nts ,3, 7,/1 g, te'xt.liut it al~o bi.d.ifC8JMS tllal iI.S early ,M, me 7l13~ Lonly 'two, centuries after Suh.mw~.'rd:i'" s dea;th'j' his W()'\rb had, ttave:ltd fm.m s'}lria ltQ India. Th is Is ian i:ndiCBJ!tioH. that. ,Suhrawar.di~u8tt have had followers 'who propa:gaWd hls philosophy 1if)~r hn~ d,ealh and tDa,ti. 'his thoughts w\ev~: 'wen rece;Weti, h,' t~Jeo :int~U?"tllaJj commun i,ti,eoS of the lands in b~M~en~ This ma!J ,a~;sple~,pbln the presence"ofSO' m;amy isl,rt«Ji' t~~~8 in tbe Ubmrles of

". cliJo" '. 1 . Til" ~

,1~fW., ~a, m parncu ar in £,ema .. 4,

IfiO

AppG~diN TRA.NSU1Il'ON

C ,~ ,.

_Q~~~~or:., 'O~.'C~5 I ~'was, smdym:g 'the treatlse "Th~ C~t, of

aabriel~.$ m4g/~ w:bu:h ~~ i(~,nce J~)f the Treasises of the 'karned

d];Sicov>Cfier" Shahib am~Di'~ the :ma:r~;,; 'ljlea,()!3' '00 upon him" Thelr~

- . ,

itr:J: nqmem1Js mysteries 3illd, Ij,gns th.'er.em thmt not ,e~pll"e eau

uudersand, [S1n~e] rd3,ose' p,roble'ftls,. wer;~' 801f¥ed for me, I wan ted tQ wri~' a oomIllent~;ry s()e~eryome may""nder'8tand~ 'Ma~ God he':~p me.

S~iIi: I: eD!C~ :f1e:w f'l:ClDl Lbe 'wmn,e:n.~~ court, and fr~ed. :mrse1f from. ,som,e; of the lbM)o,dal,es ,of' the (;hU.dh~tnl court,

'~(tMmme:ntar-y: I became de'laJicbed :f"ro-m. lmpuriti:~s6 of the' ~nrld, 'Of fOrn:lJS implies a ratbe~r=-S,Qn: 'r,eladon8~~.p 'wiffi this wIGlfld~, bei(aUSi~ th:is, is. a place i!?iL£ pb;::MU:te' and natural de&ille~s" 'Y&ei:l be' said, ~I freed m~emr fr-om ~m,e bf dl,le bqnda,g:es o:f ,chadhooo,~ ~); he' .is.:refer1r~n~· to, me' ,e'-f,te~mal Slen~es. B.,y s~y.ing ~mme O;;['f) he' l1clel'$ ,0" [h~ jJntternal senses since ~fut rIDJ.'te:rna] senses are the m~a:FbiS of 'Ulld"e:rs:ta,lld.iJ~g ,and, recollecting dl!e U:m1.i~-elrs;aJ~, til fQiuln the

~~~~ .

~ ~~: One niJht dI~kn.ie~5' had, ,'ieruiled in ~'ky md, a darKness that had IbJeld me IbiUl~ of fmC 'brtlt'biBf of l1.'on-existenc'e· had 'been ,~cau.efed, around the : ~e'r 'WOrl(l·

C':. The non~xiste'nte (~_am;) and, ann;~hiiJ}ation fia"') 0'( the sensible w·(~t:[d can be understocd by dl,e' mner ,eJ'c., :nl~- 8!Jpp:o:intmeot. eame d'f..er emf~a,~me'n:t since absence of en~g'.

m.en-t. is, _oc@ted Mith .nighI., ' ,

S~; Mter s1!e~p came upon me, disappoin ooen;t resulted,

0; I 'tiecame- dminosi'on~d 'with sense peliCe'pI~,oo in that 'be,ijn,g' asleep is ind,eed 'be,~n:g drowned in "the' ma)terild a:ttachm,entsr 'On'ce aW,aRe'ned fto:ro that slie~j they [die' SeIl.ll8es,]llte-come ,co:nsciau;Sj af the ~noo:rp~reill 'W,ei.~.d, diS.c<f¥ef the unseen, and master the rtm,€' r~.aUty" J\s :Fma.mJ;Ji~ GQct's,Q'Iace' be upo:n, hbn~ sm(il~ "'People' !die"so t'her _D_l~ ascend, n~ 'Thenf\'Q;J;-e', eonsciousness of\:' the' incorporeal world ~ ~ofl:dll,gent u.pon ,~g frem tile world ~[form., The_masrer of the 'worlds [MuQmumadl j peace 'be' u.pon him, :~n. a. famous (feditk has, said.!" "~Di,re ,a true de5!th ];,,[oce' ',au die a RaJturnl dea'm /~$

If ifhou, die' -bef@'Fe thy namral death,

Be eontent tbalt me' eternal hearvm, is 'y~B.

Ii: I was. bo dbwg ,~ (;11;ndte~

'1,51

5U!hmwar-di, and ~l'i}t:: k~o()] ,mf: ]:~~flJmlnado(n,

C~ The candle.is the in tcllect wh~(;h 'W5, 't~e :g:uid.e a~d dIe mas~e~I" of mankind. [It :is.] the 'light df g[~idan~'e 'Ml:at mtes man from the deplh of SUbB(iB~FDJ,c'ie_ m tlle heigb~ of ,p,R)SP,~ri'lt,a;S is ~:rardicated i.'W1 wj':lolusc ve:~s: of til e Q-ur.an:~ f)adidz,. and the $a"tn",~s 6f Emim '~Ali tJ'fu~t £Qr tht': sake (:if [briefness I have: not meationed.

s~ I" awed t(lfwards the msn ~ s abode and searehed until ,d;~sk,. 'e! 'Oace '1' fre'ed. myself fro,¢! the' aJlfltiJt: Oif women;, which signifies world~y attachmenes, I [hen. aimed at m~e mens court wbich :[db]jd,e~ to the l;l)to[pai~al and the' an,g~HIc. '~rld,"'9 It is he~re dlm~' the palm row311dis the in cerpereal w:cn'i~d b~gruns? since Ole' rising of the' ;mo:m'ing sun requires diVine' g,m'@e' and so is shini~g of the' wn~(}'rpo'ff@a1 Hght~

S~ The yearning t~ ent\er into m,~ lifln(llJO:h (S:uJl house) of fa:lli.ler ,~[f-ev~;ruled,"

CI~ In thw$ kl*i~'iik he lookS, fQ'l' 'hi:s '~selr' :an!(ij, :fad't@IM' 'M the ,e~is:ten dal cause of his 'beinl, whiC:h is tn,,€: inteUec[" After, this sea-r,ch [Thle m:~ts]l.t~ refer to the £~tbe:r as, me caruso ~f 'h~s ~~t= enee, Through entering the kMilUlfM." 'he seess esoteric k_nowl= ed,ge and ,oontemlibll\tes hi~ Oclm ,e,gQ (naft).

S: The kkirttafaJt has \~ doors, one 1(:0 ~llfe C[~ and the orth:er o~!e- '1:6 the de~~ ,I wel},11. .and· closed the diO!lr'dlaJit Q,pens, to ~e ~ity and 'dl,en aim~dl at IDe door to the desert,

c:' These ar~ d],e ga.'lies, ~f sou] and, 'body,;. just as tnidl ,hM two do on,; ene ld,oo,~ tin me. cerpereal 'wO'[,'Md, and the other one :in the inoo~ore~d wor'~d~ The' deer thM o'pe:ns, to toe, ,~ocW 'rep,:~S!~n,ts, tb~ world .or objeeb a~nd, 'that w'hi,en !~I)-~ns '&0 the desert bilofl,g,s to the w(ld.d 0'£ ~p;ir~t~, When it is 'a~~d, ~'I closed, the deer dl~t o;pens tQ ~he' elty and wen.t f~~S the de$e'n~ n he mean1f he lell the ,sen!~,ble' w,or]lJ, and. mmed ~h ,the 'spiritu~l w~rld,.

S:, Once [ looked, I S'ilW ('ell old masters 0'£ srabUme beatU,ty

~.. '...'1:... dl

,s[l,'£'lln,g U], ILUe COUl"tyafl' ",.'

,(]: These ten g'ld, maseers are IDe ren, inteUects th~'t are ,ifj"eoF'"" p~real subsrfaru:es ad free from, the i:roptuides of maf[el'~ The ~g<:ls 'Nho' are me ,oompmd,ans, of GOO and' intennedbtl;e5 'between 'the N'ece~ry &ei~g ,md the 'human, ,sou:t&wer~, dJ~o$ed, to me,

8,= "f;WTh.'dr charisma and ,gre,at_ness puzded. me' and a sense of mmd,ef ca:me u;pon m,e s.u,(':h tbaJt I beeame' sp'e~dlle'§"

£: Th~ we~r:e' ~pit'()me 'of beaJti.'ty and. their :poten tial 'ptwdection had a!ctualwed.., Diy 'til'e ~~{,~'ll t ,of their c'harism~ and bea.uty~" I 'was pef.p~,e~~d.

fi,t With ,gflfre~t ,fear I. pulL my fOot :rorw,ard, and went. alway..

]~,!

,A,ppendix

C~ r waJ&, 19JQt, worlihy fe't to unlte ~.ndl co(n,¥e'ne' wid1.l them due 'W' the m~t'te:ri~ fi'tJaChm,eots thal rem~ined. a 'veil bet~Neefl us,

I: I intended t~ gr,eet Que, mastee who. w,as, in me corner Due w~ t'trule 'h;umiHt¥ 0'1 his character, he' gr'Oeted 'me flrs.'t and smil~d, at me' such t'bat :his, ~lSdom tooth app~ared.

,C~ 'Th6~ o~d, muter in the corner is the: ~ AttJve' Irnen~t:t.'~ and be 1$ in 'th.e corner is 'belfSause his exiB{;emlJG~ and status '(-lGm,~5 ~t me end Q,f",a~~ other in!e'U@cts and he' ls 'c.a:Ued tile: '~F.mallnt,elleC!~,. "fm I.~ is)he whd 'Cas~ fo.r.m, unto the' ~€J.,~me-nt3 ,a:nd, is an, intel'Ill€ld.'ia'I1' benveen the N eeessary B~ing and (be human, souls and i'n 'reUgl~ll. iiS called. the ~~pid.'t~f 'Gn~ (Ri(k ~:_-qudU$~o,r :~a,btie't ~ :His sm.'ileo aJ~ude~ tothe' ,diSC0V1ety of kngrfiW,~ge', a~~, '[be '~Ilefit tlla't one deld~a, from 'til is, k~!UW'led,le is in aecerdanee td om e ~ s tailen t.

S: I :asked:, wren me; whe-t~, dld rh,e flo'b!'e inen eeme fr'D,m?!~ The .old :m.a:smr. ;in the: cornier IDll$We,fefl ~ ~e' are a" gro'U,P of iu!c::;or= 'poreal 'beings Who have' eeme fn)~m "the £H~whefe but p~p@l'QUS~ la'(tld ~ (N-MlQj.~.,;o

c': The.y h~v~ 'proved their dretaci1men t from, spmtiailitf sinu:'(t neM,~ng that is an, a,ttdbu,te of o~ectts, ,a;h,d, rll,ey are ,puiFe spirits, free from substanees {and h~avellly ,elem~n,~. Tbe~for~'~ ~1;J£e,Mes&~ 'to. 'wh"iJc:lIl they' 'IUtV€" a]h;wd'ed~, is, an 3I!tbitiut,e' or an :acdd,ent and a! C~tue,laq am!!)ng tl~e ten ca .. ~e,g·Qdes.,H, On "re]adDf,J!D" it :ht "Did. that this ls an ,attribum of thi~, becall;s~', of its re']a;tlons.hip 'with place,

s: :r did. '0.01 ;wmp: rehend i.'t and! 'asked", '~o 'Wb~,ch p. .. ]ac,e ,(Joes

~ ~'

'Llj,lii ,city btJong?'" He 5ltdd,~ ~,&e place tu wh:i,~h the bl!l:Ie~ rm~ge;r

, ,. jtj<,

,C31U1.0t pOlnt.

0: 'ThaJJt 'whieh can be' demenstraeed by the :~nde'x, linger :has a point Q'f :taen;nte whichtbeJ'JJ mu:st be an o~ject~ and as 'we saJ.'d r!h.ey are ilnroo.rpure'al

s,~: Thus lit 'Putrme :tnown ~ me th:a:t the o:nd mQ~e~r l~n:fiws,

c; I eame to know 'Of th,~fh~ wisdom 'through I[the,ir knGwledl~ gf] me ~,bstanGe of th,1t wo,rJd,.,

s(~ lsajd ~PorGod~'s sak,e:"rllte:~[ m,e; how'ygu spend')!Ourti:me,l?r" He s~idj '~Know that we ilF'e' @ilo,m and ,gua,td:ians or d'Vinre w'cn:'(is, :a;lld. mal we' trraViet~

f'::: Tl\f>DUgh ~m.U,oring ~'~ be wants b:~ demon~ldra:~~ b€iW~ sub-

S'ir3!DC@$, '[are imposed] 'UDto, forms,. ~h: is, in a~oordanG.e with the ,p@!t~ntia1itie$ Jof ~lth.'es~ slIlb'Stances ["th.~t. W@f][ !.!;'],othe' ::r'h'e1D as ill, shin coven.~fh~ 'bod,) m.a t'D'e J~&icient Giuse is 'he '[the' :~ctive inoo~lt~~cJtl· jI't ls tbis miloring th~t. 'bdllgsJo,rder (~'the ih:aiu of beings~ e.ach, one in, a.c~ordan<:e V/i'fi'h iru s;m:m" Through 'pres~rnBg God!',s word~

),53

Sllhmw;aJ~tU ~nd. ~he Scb'oo~, af IIIQnl:iQallWn

sciences and kn,owletlge' are eJ1D~rna.teli from, me N etessary Be;r.Dg. It is th'rou,g'h won,dering' 'm3JIt tt.U~]l nn'~Uect~.J wan t to spread mek grace to all be,~ngs ..

S: I asked, ~ 3Jc're' 'dl~ elden 'who au s~tting' en that hi.g:~, p,laJc.e~, SU~:Blfr:H:e' r~pUed,! ~~ IJoopl~ :Uk.e yoro ,eann6l,.:min:g~,ec Mtb dJ.re;m,.~' ~.I am tbe:tr. wngu,e,,'~ means 'your ~nten~~c; is not woti!h;y 00

L ...).. it.. .. ;II!,. ii "t,lL, 'h id !;oil'll .. 1., _. ,., ,

U~' 'l:1:nl~L;il 'Wiiiln ~,~e.(tr$. e¥'"¥'],\I.e;ti ae sa~,i '-,;Ii am metr Gongue-,.tt he :me~aJlS

th:tollgh my merliatio:n ~€e is 'bgsoowed upon you bl a~QQrd,~!u)ce Mth ~on:.r el,pacity~

St E dle'n ~w an elev'eD=laye;red, 'pot ~l1roW~ 'mht,Q' the de~r,'t-w,rufth some wa.:ter 'in mt and. in me w:aIVer were some P€ bbles ,ar,llu~na, 'whi,e:h there 'Wc;re' ,I 'tew animals,

C:: :B, th,e e:m,€\f~n :ta:y~["lCedl'pot,; be ~dlu,de's·tQ :tbe'wg.rl~ wh"t~h h_ n'ine' neavens and'tw'O, ,~l,elti,ents~ :air.- and :nJe~, ~d boeh :3Fe' :~im~lted by dl€ h;ea\Ve:~s In as much a!S, 'the,' demand the w,a~it" element, Som:e pebblea [refers to] the certt~r. ,of the ~~rt]lc and !the four ele:men'ts" H;e Hilld not say a ,tbirtee.n laremd pot ~~ me :substa:[ijJ!(j~ iQ:f' 'waJ~r Ml,d, the c~r.u\e·r 'Of' e]a:rth are no't wiwin 'm~t. 'whicb li81i1$ them ~om:p':ietelJ" And ,he refe'IS 'W these el,e~ bly,ers due t~ their sph~ri'f'ity ~ oonliDlliily :lIBld d,~mmance'. 'Yben he 'S~id. a ft'w animals we;re1 (mwlins ,af'@~n~l the :pe'b ble'$c,c he me~n;t the ,~nimal ,s.petties, whien have ,I, n),lultip'~ichy' Qfleruj~es OlVer them, sueh :as man" e~,t. In, every g,enus.~ th~re: is a m,ultipUch:.1 of type~ su~h as R(trrtan.s~ Sluida:ne*1'- et,(1. Eiverr:y type' €OnSls,tg of a m"!Ldli,pU~h:y ,of ,blid:hr.ld,uals, ,S'[lc'b as ZraydJ,~Bakr~ etc, wh·€), resid;e ,b~ the-four c aim ers oidi,£: earth.

S;:: On each ~eve~, of ttds ie.b;~ve'.n_'];ayer'ed p~t feom the u:pper .n ine la,~t.s~ a .. glowing 'ban is .~mp~jlnt,ed, 'i.n them e%I:,epf. dw~ s~co.lld one in wbi~h there were :maDy ooUs~" luminous as the p~th .'th,€' Sufisi. The finlt level had, ne e'mtJmng 'baJ1.

,C; On -each of the oj!n€ heavens th,€((-e 'w,as imiP~anood, ,a, glc.'Wing ,pe,a_d ,ext~pt :fOi.f the e~lhth 'heaven, in wliiCh, thc~e 'we're nmany pearls ·iim,p].anJted~ ru~ and the ninth heaven was d,C3'w'id, of pearls, mean rung' ~be' su:pr~me her~"en,. The reasa=m they ea,Il it ItHe ,n~n and, second, he~ven is because' iii. wnuir-e,s the ei'tr'h:1th :and l'lmth. hea:ve;n

"11, ~. ~

wbi~ is the' zod.ia;c~ The ,Sfu.pte'me' bJ~alVeA~ wll'Q:se undcwtandm:g

ea'mcs tilraug'b :tbe inner ,~yeJ is -daminant ,olver 'bearvenly' bodi.e's~ :rJ1at 'in ic~ is the' n:in tb heaven ,fof' to'. is h'~s, [th.e 'ol[cJ, :mas~€I] :irst ODe~ ,etc,

'S"~ D~s.pi:t~ [hisj the ~DJrity 'was m,'D:r@ ~fbeF~shaped 'd1alB any

L ...JI ."'~ .. '1i..1~ h I

s.p1c.l,eoo aDu, .on 'Its Sll:UU,'lI.c:e 'u~:ere was no 'cmt:}l;;;, or ,;, 0 'e,.

154

,A:ppern'oB:.

c': The heav'~HF, ,sphem~ w~re absolute'~ ,f0lUl.dl and &_~r;migh:r line IDCi,uld n,OI(; ha:ve been [dm:wn] be(Weeft them"",

S; Those e'},even 1'C1/els wer~ ,oo:l~rless ;iUld. due to their exb",~'me ,finef!M;;:ss~ wh~~ ~ In, :tb .. em could not be' vei~edl"

c; Ther W'efi€ ,c'Q.:~oriless :S.D their J[~):n)l~ave sunu,e' Qom:dd be distinguished from ,oon'y~ in t"ba;il th~re a;re :implluities, ~:D. thee TCOnCaYl,~ that :pioohibits "i.~iQn (rom occur.ri:ng'i' We see aU. these :hl'e~,ven~ ftu:Qu,g(h the' ,fir_.st heaven 'whi~,e: they shine from 'Iiru,e' ,e\g:b:t.h heaeen dl;n, is mdiac~ Therefore, h: 'h~;citJme ,a:p'Pare~t 'IDilI!; the ~bsertceQf a ve~l among be~v;ens ,~:s due 00 'm,e: :fHl:en~iSS tbat exisu in their

b "L. _., iiilll.."",· II ~ ~ ..:3!]I' 11

su .Slt.ulce~ t~lIJat is. 1,,~*lr IUmln6,Si:IPt~ll~ IOO,lO([,I;e:ss:n.ess.

I: The Upp~f' 'Ub1.r~ [h,~a¥~n~] should Dot be pierced and tbe

h~I\O-" '~IGiVJl!'F.'e k~;II£lliW" -~hA"I'II]ld', 'L_-:; p';Q.Q;'~e.Ai 'Iilicri, ... ~ ~Oil"o'il!!

'~"'I" 1Il~1'-~.I~!IJ!1 ,~JJ,~> rill: \~u· f - ue -'A!~r,",,:.J.~IU...-H".LIU.1 I~~~~

C:e 'W'be;n he said the nine should not 00 plllnched. 'he ~nts, no harm (,1:1' dfama;g::e iliflic~~, 'UpfJ[l the heaVe:ns;. The l~a:rned, m,e:n hia;~ eencrete reasons :FQr W:R1' the nature of hea'Ve-nly bodies are i~pactab]t· :a'nd. this ,short work is- inadelq~~le for this discussion, Vib€ft he' sa:1s "The l~Is 'tu~l~w-aIJe e'asBy WOin;hy to, be'jnrg tern" he' :~:dlud~Si ('Q' m,e €flminrg: tQ,gletbJet ,of tb~ spheres Qf.' fire :and ,air" for wh,en [can softness, :aeceJ)ili'; d.i;w~~biUlJ]X

S~ :1 :as~ed {be Mastel:, ~ia,t:itS' th,ms eftdtty~~ ]{e replied, ~iD the' :fin.t one, wl1:oSle mass is m .. ore jjntense t"haJ], olher' levels, the ,gr~:nd. 'M'asff!,r Wb0 is, si:tdng above al~ has gWven his, o,r4e'~ and. on the

I ' J' ' \ , • .' III

ooc:ond one, Ole seeend mMkf' and ~ on until l'iL reaches me,

These oo'mpaniortrS ;JJl d 'nine frie:nd.:s, have done this 'lime' to th@ir win It), create~ The fQ,Uev'Wlnl twO' le::vel5. below (that to:.n:tain) water :md, a niece ,of,s3nd are tr),v' ,c;r;-€ati~ll,.

Ir . ~f

c: :x:n,ow tna,t 'ene, blrgh~j;;: 'the Ievel, mj'le more iSuperiQli [i'ts,

(lorrespon,djjng]] :heaven is and 'the maste~r ,above, tbis is the ,first iRleUeet" whOi'e effe,c[ i~ 'fmc' sup/rem,le :b.eaven .. The' ~oond ,~eve':~ is emanated by tn,eo "seoond. fnten,e~t and S6 on, Th;eR!f.ooo" IT'Om this it became appm'ent i[h~l :~he:se nine A,eavenS" are ema!llilted. bf nin:~ in.ten,ef:~s 'anod. th,e ltOwte:r hJeaveD, w,~Jt'h, wa'Wf :and ..sa.Hid is ca:~~d br ,'h,e a,c[lve. iru.lellect.

1;:rea;tm,enJ1; '~tlln,fJih\: IblOW that th~· ,hdkifns bav,e 'Sai,d that ~u:t-t,

~ ~ I .1 ~ .

inte'llect ,exjlSred in. the beg1I1n.ing' and e;mana;~d fmm tbe Nec_e~,

sal)' Jle,ing.a:ud had (b~ee ~ham,c~rnsd~~;: F:i rs it", that j];ts ~~,Ge ~~ w'ts s.ubstant~", Hoo,nd~ ~h«t J.'t 'was~ 1\\ Nece.ssa;r,. ]~i~in;g :tfrpm, a., c;ausrd, :point: of ',jew" ithlrd, it is~,a ,~o,nrting,ent be~ng 'fi:am !tlhe pomt 01 ,view ,gf its naJtuFl!. The,r:efof,e" ,dlue to the: p,rin(:i,p~Ii~ o'f ,i:rs sllbscmR:ce; 'the" first mteu.et:t em:ne to be dta't 'which i~ c~Ued, \lnivers'~l ,in ~eUect. ~

155

SullrawVdi and. the Sc'h:..,o~ of (Humination

Due to its existence, l~i_;_!'wc'h is caused, the' secendintellect carne to be and from the point of its possi bilitJ Itha t .i& 'Clu,e to hs essence, the~ first heaven came to be which 'dtey' can ~grandl heavenfj~ ~de'&er .. minator of d~rec~lon ~~, "universal body", "sphere of 'UUJoll,r "mean 10Ingtitude'l'J~ "nobel threne".

From ·the second mtellecta third Intellect and soul and heaven appeared and so on until i~ reached the las intellect, So, eveI)' intellect is the cause of t'h~ee even &8" another intellect, soul and htfaven wh'ich 'belongs, to I'm: 'reX!ceplt the '~twe in~.e'Ue)ct~1 wh.~c:h iJS th:e. cause of the four elements w'hi.c:h are the instruments of [toe cOlming in to ,e'>U sten oe] of the created order and corruptions.

Si~ ,Since thejr wUlpowec'ls superlor, their creation can DOlt be de~tr,oyed, howe:vet~ thalL wbich isc my crealtJon can he damaged, c; The l1olMion of the bea:vens is due to, their inner y~ariR:g such as the' ,substance of d~.f~ ;e'lem,ell)ts wruch is ~~plla1u.ed 'elsewhere.

SI; I asked" '~HO'w are these masters related to you!:'" He said, ~'KnQW that the master whose piralyer rug is on he top, is the master t9f the second one who IS sh"':ng nex '. to h ·'m .. The same m.m the' second, durd, and .fourth until m,seH"~ The ninth masler h~)$ in~dat.ed. me, gi¥.en me th~, khir.,tJh[~' and has tau.g'ht me.

C~ The master 'who :is on rlle tap, is 'me "first tn,teUec·f/~ and, by referrmng te the second master as the teaeher, .he ,is referrlng to IDe. existential cause of the second .intelie~:t and, "SO on until it reaches the active in.tellectm .And the one who said the ninth maste inil1ared him .. is saying '£hat the mule . is the e~~s'ten~ia. cause of h "s pr.esence .,1".

S:~ I asked, ·!oil.Do ·you have childre~;; p.r"operq and SO OD'?~\i! ·Hre said, ~e no not have 'M'A'!S, but. each gf us has :1 ch>ild. and. ,(I mil and we,assi.gn.ed.emt.h chid, to ene mUIsO, he may look after It,

c: Abs~nc,e' of w·:Vf!'S is separation From matter, children ate heavenly SOU~5 and. the mill . s the ninth heaven ang the four substances, Sta.tin:G' that each child lQS ass:igned to a mill means e3.!.Ch "0\11 was placed in it. hea~D::Y 'body that is rex,e]usiv;e f,O it.

IS~ 'Until we 'buihf 'wills, we nevee ·~ooked. at ,them,.

c~ The reason ·f(in;' DOt 'Iooking at them is: their in('O(",on~~a1 nature ..

S;: Each 6/ our c'bildl'e,nis wOirking at a mUl ora hu~~din.g~ Each sees the :miU with one e're' and sees the father 'With another,

Q Miearling d)al each. ene influencea his O'WIl 'WOltt ,mil due' ~, (heir [[ d.em.re]j mr SUhSiis.rence. m.ey are rt.be muse m'themmlves, and this is in accord mlh. science' and, 't', ,eiJr quiddiJtY is, .inf1nentita1 In the

]56

Appendix.

rotation of me heav.eOC\S., ThIS IS the reason irs .n:datio.n to. ego ( naJs) [5 is like that of a ,SQ;D to a father ift £bat i:n'tetleclt is the rnius.e @f the exi~Uit~ni(jl~ of the '~-O sln,te its e6!ence is conting~en.t u,p,on 'me' ex~s·oonee of the intellect and], nof; viee versa. As in a father, ;;d50 it is the' die mat th,€: .exrstence ofene is contingent upon the ~stence of' the' odler 'ODJe :a_ d not the reverse. n a :fallier and son it is. ~e(!ted. that [the: term] ·fadl~ can 'be said only-when Iih.ere is a son and sen !ean only be If ther-e is a fadl,e.r,.

S; My min 'has four levels and .my rroUd,ren are :many and

'11 h ;1-.. iii... ."".. ·:J'II·· .. 'b. 'L . ..;al

:aw:t '·oug~.ii b:~ey may 1zII'e. lr~te!dgent U,t,ey C8iTIOQ[ 1t:Ie' counted.

Cl; The' four levels are referred to as the four substanc·es~6, which are emanated from the "active In.telf~ct.,~V:arious, children represen.t the milterial'; Q'I1Jl$ that seek to oeereome the SUDSI1ml(:es ·thr,nugh the generntion and. dle rorro:pdo:n 'that uncovers one a:ppearan:ce' and ,ch,th€s another. There are many' things. such as air that dilsmm their ,OWl], appearances and a~cept dle form of'.fire and 'vice vela or W".d(~ter· that ·.~Uso~ its OM:'l, form and accepts the (ann of air, These various

aces. ,of~pe.·mnm are beyond any limit.

S:: Vlhe.neve~ I :have a child I send h~m. to my mUl.a.nd each one .IS given a period to be- in charg'e of t'he plaee .. ORiCe: tbey serve their Dine.; '~.he:Y' oo.m.e' eo rse and do not It:a~ me and dle new children that are a;tbtined 10 tbere.

'e:. These children .. are ttl e appea~:an;ces· tn,a,l are to' 'be ml'posed. upon tIlte substances of the world. Limited time.' means the du:~&· . ion that these appearaneearemam [iQlposed.] untolhe subsranees, The' ~p,.ea:nmce of each '·orm. of a su.bsumce frQIn [em ingJ ,su·bs·mnces and its. Q,UrabO,n upon 'm~ttet is determined in :r.ha't its 5.Qb.s.j;st.e~nce· depends en jJits elevadon bel'QP.d obstaeles and. dre, sum. of irs ,mnditiuns, Wben the neeesssrv ~ond.hio,n. disappears. ,OF a pil'obllem. occurs; the. dura don @f 'm:ts life [imp osition of form u,po'n

] d Wh-· "d h .. . .. .,

matmr comes to, an eD, ... _ nen It w:as sal, ('at ence t:', €lr nme ss

mnninated tbcy come to. me and do. nOli; lre~ve me 'he meaI'u:]! it ·'s ~:mdPoss:ible FOf that ,mieh has perished. to retum, since "that which .per.isbe:s dQf!s, nO'1j: on'~y perish ~n. appearance," This means once a change occurs in a compound (muniM.ab) [.su·bs.tance], each simple {,ba.$£~) [substance] yearns. towm:rloS iirs natural state and. dler.e.fOre mat form accepts corrupnon and thereby wants] to return 00, irs origin and its. rerun ~s' :Il'O 'I'Q'ng,er possible. 'With new children, ne'w appear.anoos fullow the eorrupted forms tElro'ugh

157

Suhta:Wairdi and the' &::lloQ~ of IljhJmm~mw~

;S;~ The Q'tlu~'r .old masters, :oowevef", hahVt' on'~y' one ctdld wbo, is responsible, F.Qt a 'mull and who, co([}tin:uou~;ly affirms his, 'tnHtlf!ry of that :plaJ:0~ ..

t::, M~anin:g that tb!e souls tb3!t influ,en®e the :hear,~'n~ are pe'J!.. mao:C'Flrt, con[r~ry b) the( 'Fauns that ~' corrupdbl,f; [~nd [rom

,,",.:k,~ ch] 'i"i,_",u ,ltn'i"'FY.1iI~ r_~'1I11I11It',

~;~].iI!..;".- ,:,.r~n' li!u',1i .lu.:J; ~"'Ijl;...,~IJ, a.

i: Oh'~' of' [d~!e!irl (';hildwn is, str~iDger than Olle' ,o;f' [m,r] c'hiiJdr€D. 'The he.~p [:my] children receiee in [welr]1 mill is from, their 'Ghildteh '.

C~ 'That ·st;mnl' dhUd, :ws the ~'ar:cb.~tffla~ e,g'O" (nafH,Ji,.'l$) wIdell, is €.atQs¢'d, by the ~fir8t inreUet(:t. ":Just as, 'dre fin.! imte]leet influel)tes onher inileU!e€'ll~~ the ,fiFSt e~o 'inflllle~"oos other legGs .. 'Y/ben hie said, "the :3ii~s, in me mUl are m¥ Icbildil"e'Il,,"-f' he meJns 'the' souls tl.Uli.ri. Me' deseendanss of the Original Soul M~' effective in the C~eadliJn. of fo(u:ns.

S:: [I said] :h.ow'does this bif1m and, ;repr-eduado.n in. 9JL!GQ~am.ce wi tn, 'tu:ing>a bac:hre~,o,r: 6~cur?' He. \Said." ~~KnttW ttha:t mycs:m.te' d,Ms .IlO,t ehange and I h;a:¥~ no malt€: eseept a SUd3;",i~~ m'aid, VI.hOom, I neve:f ]GQ'k: Up~l}. :N7omQugn emanares fm1fJ. me exce:pi that which is focased :in 'itb~: center (yf'tbe mlJI and eh .. e 'bla,'dk maid's signt rile~, in the, lnmtion ('JI di,e 'ht!:li,\Ve;l)s., Vih.ell~r du.rin~ the '{lQbtiOft" the'

I~I

eyes ,of the 'bb~k maid. SaJ.l,e 'U(p!Dll me, from me'3; cnild is~an(ejved

ih belt womb w:tl!]l.(lut causifn,g any ,chanle er motion [in me] ,. :1''1

Q: Nron-exis~enee 'Of his u£betype ~s' a;l?fparent here, S, dLepct:iDg a bla:ek Su.d'ml["S :mai~~ [be snows] h~ rmurter is- separ,ared. fresn form m,d by ,attributing bl1ackness to her [be w,an,ts, 'WI] show ·~,non .. e'xi,SJlYein.ce.'H ~ meani ng matter CatrlWlOrr. egis! W,iithout form, Absen.ce of mou'ODt in, me o:[d master m ne{;e-rSSaJ17 since m(obOO is ene 'Of' dl~ pFo.perti~s, m' m,a:JlJtef~ And w:h,en he' said that his ,atten .. , 'UQn WM, on the rotation of Ole mUl [be] me-ani that 'b@ 'e:x,_P@iQU, the emm1HOO'H of form f('Om ane whO' bes'lUrws fgrHl [upen ma,tteT]

(wi!"IJ' at:.nnvar) .. And 'when be said 'wheneve;r in :01,. pre·se;Dc~ a chiild is, eoneeived in her WDll:d)! [be] ,means!; ~h~D!eve-.r it [~a:tter ~ becmnes, wurthy [of r~oo1Ying,~a:form] ~ Hom, me the give:r 0;£ fotm", a" flOI'm <win be- JDes!16wed. n:p<LQ that OliU:te:r,.

Q,o; 11", .:,,\ .. :iI. ,n.Jj'~.,", '.", ,~1l..,~~ ~:ffii~ .. " .-"Jii~{',11 '~.i""""""'JL,~,~;_m' .......... n ...... ~~"""·.J)Hi '0"",: .,..".~..4

iJJ.. II :sa\I)!!.:I_]I DUW liS YJlltol,'I! "'~~ ~,!;u.TH~.ln.!l,m:III"",,~ ~"""'JII.II.It.eJi,v~. ,,£'~ ~~

~e p~ of th~ 'word$"is 'rltOlU! omer~tllm, WGrth~ness t~lld ability.,

C~ He m,eans, thati, (be'se' words are 'worthy of dlese :meanings 'we :har;ve s'~rea~ That :~s" 'onde:fsltan dlng 10f the in lleneC[ wlltb our cor;pmeru, self is n{'JIit, c.Qnce~mbJe hut d1~t 'Such :potgLntiaUcy and, 'warrhiRlea, m ,matter :n,ecessttaJresFonn,.

_. - -:-- "--1.- - - - -- --- -- - - .

A,pendJUr;,

S,~ [~bd 'rh:e f)ld m~ter~ ~Howls it diat }Iou :barye: ,CiGce'n.derl], to this state Iltarin_;g €laioled thas '[110 cJ~an_ge OIl"" .m,Qd,~n. occurred 'wifhin 'foli? ~'Hll He' replied, "Oh, pore h'e'arted~ the S!\,lO Is al~,a1s, in ehe heasens 'but if' a, bl~nd, 'man does, not h~v'€ d'li@ 'C0D:soj(DUmess '(;0 un~tersmnd and extper:ienoe its ,sta't~j the :abse'o)(!e of' this ,a;lbility does not cause. the absence of t_h~ sun ,in its poslt~,o;D.~ :Ii the' inabili ty ,of a bUDd ,fI'J;an va:n.mhed, he ~,pu.ld. n Qt. J(o~plain, to the '5UOj ~y you. were not p:r:e'sent In tile world before' and, did not benefit me?" The sun has a1~y8 been .movkrg andl th'an\ge 'has been in the bllnd, man and, nat 'tb,e sun, We are always., in thie same sta,te~ your not se '"·'nw us is not ,a_ reason fJha~ \'ie do ,flO:t;. exist and is nb!l;, an

~ee~ ,~ _., , . , . _ _ ."..... . ., .'

.mdteadoo ma:r. we unde~o chml~ lrtl )l@ur state.

(:.:.;: 'The' purp~e' of all dte~ w'Qr:ds is meal rne grace and benefit whic'h .are spiritual essences eon tinuously emanate upon the w~nh,y., T~,lere is, nojea:['(iJOSf an d if Qi~!~' does not benefit :from 'th .. eilr gJilCe :18, :n,at, because' of the absence 'of their grnoe 'but is, 'his iRaibi'~ity and lack 'of' atten tj,QO ,ItO" t:he [:spiritwacll w:urld. Mel hb. €n;pp~nt within lth.,e 'woF~,d of the sensibles,

S~ I' ,Mbdl Ui,e old ~tel' '~ ~~eh 'me t~be art of' mjlo:d:ng,. H~: smiled anrd said: '~Oh ~ :shJdJ,(I\\fi$ and your ~~e cannot le~m and S!ilch b~ings as ytiu c~no, :n1;aS,wr thla, However~ you, 'M11 'be taught ,enltN~lglru so r\~' may make 8omethi:ng tto.m your ld~dth,. And, thi~ m~(\h be itaugJh,~ me,

'e.; A.s I indicated in mhe begm:ning of the. treatise, '~tailormr( (l~I]l~~SlS 'of imposing fgrm upon m.3!ttef ~ and, mal) does no,t l\a~e we' :a'ibilil¥ 'to comprehend thi.s. By saring~'"Jou Wi~ll 'be' taught. enough so "YOU maJ" ,e-ODslItHZ:t a bui]din_g;" ht, m ,almudinJ'~ l'QI ute' science ~f' :w~di,cin~ ;a:n.d, hod)" ,0' :1, thleur1Y>~r a bulHfh~g. He sa:jit m tum. your Sil1fl dr:e~ itlrt\Q a 'bui]:d;lng~ and tUd n'~il a,' sewing which. is the '.:::fim'p-osjliJoJl. IQf 'tnl€: IO[(U'1l arnd. ma'ttef since '~hat is, Dot 'what be:can 00'; if. '\W(as, ppeyiousl, discussed.

S= lu]ted!the master mo 'tea£n me tbe'ward, o:f'Godj" He said: "It is i:nconc~wb]e' :fg[' YOll ,~, Je,arn mucb abour Goo_~, :1.00' as you,

'III· .1 -'hill • '"

d've 'to to !IS ;Q,(,.,

C~' As, '~D:D;g as y~ a'll~' in the wor~d of s@'mibbes; you, will nat mQiw the u_niVel'sals and the truth .. " aU me sciences.

S,~ Thf. 'master :said~. ~ viiU [e~eh. you in ~cn(['d__a[H~e 'with y.o~ abnfty~~' :H,e' took, 'my 'tablet 3J,nd b:u,gbt me a stralng.e' mantra S'li)Jch th~~ with it I cou'ld, 'mGW every s~(!ret l desirled~

c:~, T,ablet:is, 1;h,~ C!DmUl,gn s-en,se and by ~'~ be m~an$r lo,gi,i(, :~s ;re}adve to dJ.i,e w;o,rld oif tn,~wledg~e ({tm,moOc. ~g BJ sa:ying, ~I could

159

SubraW3.rQru .arnd me kbool of Illu 'lnaJtjon

solve anif problems I Ylan:tedli he means ilia.f: all)' p'mb~em he encoun rered, in science, he could resolve usin@.lo,gic as :3., crite jon" S:, The: masrer said; ~Anyone' who does not eeme to know' of this. secret 'win no! know the' secrete of the divine WtC>rd as, he [Goo] necessitated, and he wbo :knows tb~s wom attains, inner peace, --

C'= This mean s tha t anyone wh.o, has nor. s~1!ld:ted :io,gic cannot disti n:guis- , helVie, n ,dgh t and 'WrO'l\g since kn;ow, edge requires composition [0£ iI!I'£ere'nees and eonstruetion of analogies and infelTiu.g ,coft[dusjofQS so the unlmo"Wn becomes knoW1\!, and an these are c'~a;rified throu;gh, logic.

II; Aite - that. I learned 'he science ·.of leuers (" al?/atlj 20 and my ~tableJt!" W3.$ beau.'tifi~ed biy h'. s[~}cb moot .I pined :power and we'olt beyond, matter, and dle'D from d'·vine 'W'ord ma:n.y m,s"eries[ appeared to' me 'that are beyond any' limit or eomperison,

0.: LThe. selenee of letters refers 'to me s.ci.en[ce of hikmat and,

~ ..- ~. • ~: - _. - III

AbjadsJtl:._1JlJds wi,1Il ,re~pefCil to 'the: wo:rldly scieneee The tablet after it bl$ auained the secret, discovers the sciellce and ,kuowledge' and. -tLIef, [the old masters] call this dle science o;f tranooendemJZe (ldtt-u'fti"ak) tb.r.01.Ig;ti 'wh.ich the lll.idden secrets in tb'is seienee reveal themselves and, this, has no litmi ' .

S: Every time a p[rob~e'm, was posed, I offered it to the tlUlSt'ef and me problem was. SlO]Y6d.

C: This means that levery time two analogeus gihtnaoeDs arose in my mind, I relied an the moo lectual wQrld, so the result of that ana;logy. th_rough the path of ~e.~, frcm the gh\l'e.'F O'ffIorms} wo'uld emanate upon: me,

S.i Often we' discussed the ~~IOWillg of d, e spiriL Ii The' master pointed that it emanates ~rom, tb,e bol,y ,s:pbit~

C: The souls of anim,aJ, and Ill I minated beings are numerous

and are emanated from the active uBrteJlect.

S I, 'ked til 4!l;H' 'l 'h·' rd :'!!. H' H' ·'d- !i.!l1\n" .,'L.

;. as " _:;, .. i i " e.:' T'in[~'li:!iJ~..... - ow lSI t' "1If~ 0:' I .!. ilAili"~ .ii'>' ~'-:io'i1 .' ' [' 'ow 'U~l!at't

... ,r~,. • I .• A~~~~l~h-'l ',_., l ,.~_iIlIi, __ ., '-. ~!.JI, ~ ~_IJ _:Ii' . ~ . ' I

God Almighty.' bas many supreme words and those words 3JT:ie lllu:m ":nated and thee' center Qf some is above that ~of' others" --

c:: These '"wovdsn'roefef' to. 'dle inmUl@cts'j 'mtlllBing mat th~ essences are hlmmnous intel eets 'which are numerous, and are emanated from the 'Neoess'all Being, '[he most h:i:gh~ Same' are ,above ethers in their dignity :audi seatus, 'thou,g;h n.oli spadaUy,.

S,:. The first Ligbt. is 1the: supreme word beyond" whick there is no superior one. The relation between rtns j:n luminosi.ty :and apparentness with 0the~r 'words is, :~ike the' S!llD. to otb.[er planets,

16t)

Ap:pendm

C:: The.flrst Light ls.the ~~t intell . C i !~', and. ntrstatus amongst be':ings is higher than t ~jtl.

$: Th e master 5aidJ ""from the ~y of rn:h'~s worn!, anothe:r 'wo~m, wu a nalned .. ~

Q This means, the ~firs·' intellect" 'is. the, cause of the "second ~nilenect~~ and dl,e second [Is cause of] the thi:rd ,and ,SOl on until a perfeot nnm bet:' w~,~h is len was ·a:ttamed. [God. said, "Ten is p.erfect. ~ ~S: The word is, use: ess, 2:~

c: This means, that his, gJm,ce' is. oon~inuous~y de$cend.~ng upon those who, are w'O,r~by of it.

,S:: &t the .end of l~hLe8e lIIi~ords is, C;a briel and 'the soul [of men from tho world, is tile last.

'C; It. is clear tjh;a:t Gabriel is the ~as.t intellect in rank, and that the so01s, of moen belong to , '[ 11m and th:~s has 'been illustrated,.

s: [the qr:igl.nal man tls~dpt is, nOll c ear]

c: :iF.'or:- mstanee, o ne 6' the cencepiien is, complete, in. the 'w:om b and [fetus bee om, sworthyo.f'[mceivmg] a human fbrm fremthe "active iD'r~nect." .a soul emanates so it may be rgn i.ted 'with lit,

S~ I said, ~(,~ 'me. ef 'Gabri[els Mng',.~' H,e 'ai.d~ '~Know that Oabriel has two wings:, one is, tbe·ri,g'ht. wing and thai ls pure Ji,ght. That w.iJn,g II its, :incqrpdn~al existence. and a relation ~ [i~Jaj to tru t~h, There 1$ a wi'lllg to 'the :teft whkh, indicates the' darkness ,SI1J.'ch, as me' da.rk spots 'o'n the moon, It resembles the feet rof pe.a"cocb and. that is the sign. of ,its existence 'whic'h is juxtaposed 'tu (he 110De,u,5te(nt. Once you, 'see the re atiO'n 'betw\cen, hs. existeneeand the. exls.t~Jil,ce 0. . truth, it does h,ave the ,l't'm,'bu:Ite' of e~lste.nce'. If 'you

1 'k th h" of"· ". ",1...,1:' ,.

00, .at re won IJjneS5" ,. l'tli essence, It 1;8 W6'rll'liY 0.1 non .. exiseeace,

'These tvlo concepts arl€: l:iiketwo wings:; the' added I(ar!ttr.~butes) are: dueto ill gntcelmr--I the' east, and the possibi :i1;y ofselfsu.bsis.tence' from the ·west.,

C; We have' ind1ca:tea. before that 'th,e first Intellect ,oo,~,h.h\}s. three entit ~es and it is, beca US'e of each of them, that somethn .~,g is emanated Here, 'by ,saying the ~,n;g of Gabriel", be means t\yoO characteristics, One Is '''necessary"!, 'm.~aning that 'n ,lOU IDoe.-k ;it :tts cause, you. Win tmd a necessary be~ng due -'eo, the presence of :ir.s cause and this, 'was what the master' was . alluding' to whe~n he sald: ~i:Irt is .from pure Light 'a,nd incJa.rpore.a]:ity 'which ~s its relational existence to tha;t truth and wt ~s, ,th~s, necessity that .is the' ~uribulbe [of truth. The other attribute is 'passJ,biUty,. meaning ify,ou look at ig

.. • ., hl' 'Th- -. .' iii", d~ 'h· 1l!... -h

~S8efice tt ~s con t;~:ngen[. . ec masre,.. ru8 ali In:' rung W, l , W~S WI!Jil€ft ,. e'

~ys, '~lr:.s. 8wgn is d~r.kneH s;u:<:h :as th,e dark spots[ OlD the 'm'o,OD a'od!

161

SubrawaFidi Qnd -; e School 01 IUur~nination

that d~knes$ is the sigA ofc·annngene .. "He a_tl'i ~utes,dafkness '0 t:ondngren£;y since non-existence comes from a, .contingenrcy and because of' tb':s it ~s said} tift you ].ook, at the wrotth mess of 'itS' essence, it is, worthy Qf non-exlstenee," If..is: these two ,ooo'repts mall 'are like MOr Winfgs: the easlt [Mn:!d ban 3. ItJtdbure' oL'uut"k which IS ~.e~ssa~iJr and the' west [w:ln;g] is, an attribute @f himself and iliait ~'tl' C\E)nt-l~n'v:~'n,ri""V -<!iIi' - d [th- nerefcre I no, - -exlsrem e-'

!IIQ-. .. -:.~ .•. b~" ~'J' R:' _ ~I~!~&I.· .. '" " ~~i!.\Il~~~~ .1

:8, .As God, ;almig°hty· has stated: 'The angels we're sent [~n Bets of] rwos~, threes and four5!,,~~!' The [dme;st D1I1ml::arer to one is ·ltw·o~, th.en three and four .. Indeed that whieh has, tw'o. wings. is i:nrOre virtuous than tJh~t whi,cnh bas, tll'ree and. four-~ n the science of

1'" - d ~" d ,. ..t... h 'II 1..,_ h'·

rea uy ano VIS. onary' "_lSC-OVery there IS mu€ ,- lOerJ!a~rali!e on. tr IS

bur; :not everyon'e' can 'understand ." t ..

C: All this means that if 'wul'ti:pli,city w-ould decrease ~ closeness to th~· source of 'U:nit~ would. Inerease and. on,ce closenesslnten-

l'

sifies, S'O dees virtU,Mity., I-t bJ lo,r this reason 'dla:t he s~id'J ~h<1!1t

wh'mcb has, two 'Wings :is" mere vin;uDus. than tiDB't which. has three' and four," When be said "]n- tlb~sci.en!ces and dltSCQ~enes,-, not everyone can understand, ~ he means mat, tb.e ·v,.U-tuosjty· o,f that 'which has ti'W'IO w~np i~ different than.lhat Wh:"lCh bas three Mn,ls, and mat 'which has three ·wm.p'to 'thaI whlch bas, four and so en .. Indeed." not reveryone' can understand the ·trut.h ..

s: The wo:rld. of ego is the' sh ad,QW of G,a briel whieh is. emanated from his left wilDg;" and the Uluminate.:l souls come from his right WiDg,.

[e; This, means that th~e' corporeal .3iud roonupdble worlds come from his rcondn,gent [l'Ja'wre since th~ are perishable, and human, souls are ,emanated ,fram the \upeC'~, of iu n§a!S5ity, because :rt is DOt perishable.

S: The realides which· come. to mind as .it is said, "It was. written. within 'the·if beans 'widt faith; and we blow -unte them from 'Ours,puitt ~3· and. the voice' of the :a:ngel [who said] ~e rcaD,eel u:,on him~ (to :nh:mh im .. ~ Other th,an these are tb.e sound gf Gahrler's 'Wing,

let. Jr. has. 'beoo:m·e· ~:ppar~nt that 'Gab.rie:1 is, the interrrwcUary > : e'tll;e en. the' Necessary Be.·iJng and. : ~ uman souls and ~it is beeause of this, t ,I'mt reveaUng IDe' "truth throiu;g;h. divine mice, i.s. his task,

S: Vengeance and the O£€: 1T '. nee 'of' eve. 'ls aF(3' :1,- so from [G'aa-riers, vQ~ce.,

C: It tbus ·beC31m·e' known th.t :jt ,"s he who imflueUrO!S ·t.h:,e WOf. dof :pe:nnaneD£e' and CtOmlip:tlon and ht is, here tbat eve:nb occur .. Therefore, e-ve·ryth log is, due to his in '. uenee,

162

A:p' p@'nd~iV'

~-~-I· -=.,.....-~

s: I asked, ~.Fin,3I Iy~ wbalt does tbis [Gabrie:J. [rook Uke·?~' He sa'~d" ~ h, y.ou ignrQI"aQJt one) do you ROt ~. '. ·OW' tkat ,all these are secreta :~f ~keD e~lericaJly" are useless uUetaoces'?~'

c·:: He (IGalbriel) has a face and wic~ that; cannot be .tid~dlied.; hO'Weverj be uses [human] hmguage S4l) the masses ~y underssaed.

S; '1 was m the Sufi bouse 'when 'he ftgood, day ~ oc·cu.roed'· thiey closed. the exterior door and opened th.re ,door 'Qf the chf.. Th e merchsne entered and 'the g;roup of oeld,er$ disa,ppe~a'red frorm :my si,g,~·u .. Of rbei'r absence remained 'W4lo~d'rqus'O

C: Once 'worldly ~;n:p':ge:ro,en (s. prrevaJIed over ,diJsenp.gie£O''l!en -. an d the exterlor door, wil:iieh :"8, the world of sprint, was, d,ooed; the ci.'~; 'which n~presents, the material 'world, became dominant. The merchants 'whQI are the bodi.!.)' fbn.cdon." m,eaning' the sense pereepdons, took over. He aUuded to them as, me-reb,ants since they' are the ones w.bo plant the seeds of nn.demtaadi-n::g the ·pa:r:d.eu];ars SO' the result [can be h.~ universals. When he said" "The elders dis,ap.I,pe.~d, from my sig,ht"; he' means tbat onee drawn m,ltO 'the' ,sensiWe w:odddt the In-wUect is turned away.

Suffering that results- -fit-om the a"DsellC€ of the o·mel'Vati .. on of the !'nteI1igible world and. ,in;cotpo-~ea'~, essenees is neeessary,

SrunFlt.warni and tlle Senoo] or Illum m~uifin Notes

'1 This rtnn's]:adOfi ~s '~:ttd ;~,)}, tbe VefSiIJ@[ID that ,Mu~i.d IGhas~mi: has, edIted., The atti~le has :appe~red in:: '[.;S:har;~-.i i~i p~u·-iJlb~'ili':> i;n Ma,~arit no.I, UM~r~h l'H51':: 17'-99;,

2: This. work r,e,pre~nltS, (XU~ af :the roas1S~rl?~,e~€s of 'u}n~wami! So Per&ia'n Yritings,. :IF,Of, a €Q:mple'~ ver;~i,~n ~(dl]~ mysde~ narra t$~eJ see;: Snbrawardi~ C/pwa' ,~~ !i~2!!.

S No~ 'm;uLh ~s Mrli)1\'1]jJJ ai)!Ull.lt the ~iI!lth,oi',s. mi~[~ ~,~~pill:b:at he must have been ;aWl$:-"- d. 'with I, spid~ll'aJ order ~!1d b:aJs frnct:i.ced the ishrtMJi dQcttml~', 'llte;au'ilI;ooo-i's. ~Qnlmenta;ry lorlk:,aus 'lh~t he was weD versed

" L ~ ... 1(1.vi'''''';- .A" - , .;AI • - 'k III"

In tl'J!e· ~~ "-~~ tra~lI;]n0.n an.~, UB "S~a,.i!aiJj~$)rn.,

4 Or.u,~, e~[). 'fi~n~I a gr,ea;~ d~p.0'Si't'Q'ry of such '~~ts in FBd~a:,. Fer' example, in R0zi UbralJ"'~n Rampur and rn Khudabakhsh Hbra~ t~. Pa'~a;tli-ere a:re' a ,gr,eQtJcleru o:f ishra:;p teJW:.. 8:p'renG~ th,e Gennan schQf:n- who run the l~Jth. '~ei1r~uff itrf',a;:veled, ®~ kuJia had bl"()u,ghItt. ]9"6:6 eexts run Ara,h]c~ fe1"Si.an a:_nJ~l 'Hmdi bw.(k :(!gllGenn.auy~ ma:ny ofw,hi1l&n ,i1Ire eo:mmentalie~ OR 'T_ J)!iti~!.A1 (ff.ltlu.Tld"ali~ ~p~ ~11Ju &'b&¥~em ~~ ~gpi~ (C'ilss~n: W~lhe~f1n Keillel\ lS57}.

$, The tre~se begins 'wid] ~e[~d ve[f~S or me Qurran whk~ are :~ot t;tanij,~i~~ -a The ~f,~S ar,~~~ ~'f'Un~, ::(I! Q6,...){Xrv!, ,35; and XXXVI~, 56.

6 Suhfi!lwaJ,dI ~_d th~ ,oommen,Ulrttiir bo,-jh i!!l~ the' wo.~,d Jfid:r'meaning that wldt:h d_s nbt'3~b)w lw,ght eo pass thfo'u-Ib i~~~Uy.

7 ~baWinL, ~n '(hie ~hf a"~Ja~ h3Js, ,3!ttdbuted Ui is s,~ng ~lmim Alffi~ ~e': V.,2:!, '8']12. Ho~ever~ Sba~.r:ud i~ hi~, T~~ bas a;tmbu;t~d th.hs, ~~yi~' to the- fiunQ'us &uJi} Sa;il'W ~~!J:ri., _ . _ 8 Ibn.ijajaiF .con~idef1~d t1fH~ lj;latlJth, i(\O, b-e;~. s~,y,Wng ,of th,e Sun m;~tSters :and not the pt;;ophet h im.s elf:, See:, KfMilalJIhijd1;, 'v",2~, '2:$n",

9 Fl:)Y mere ki_j1o,nt1I!~ti.Q:n, {IJlm Sru,h.r:awar@LP's a!ngelo~~m .seee C., 'Webb~c Tb.le' HmlBi~n/.Mg'elie llel~don lEi Im-~ fhi~oso~bi~'$ O'f S1]jhraw,i!J.m~ ~nd ]bn ~'Araibi, {Pl~"lb., D~.! I'~llIJiple Ulli.;v";I~ 19~~)'-

to Subra:~-m-d~i beUe\ile-s tha;t me: fin~being 'God ,cre~,ood W,IS me !1l'r,st in®eJl.~t:t~ (~~~ ,~~4", Hb ~m;~rrut ~s pa:rti~lly h~d 0;([ '[be QUr:arDrut:, vette th3;t. St1tlue-s: wr'.he :fir~t. int;eUkt dieD ~mtfn~ws_ ,th~, atti-~ irl~eUe~:t '~vhi.e':h ht. :i.identifies, M.th the I g~' of form ~ (~,(zl~m.~ or ~'~uminoul ,old :rqast~:rj (h~i mpa'n~).'""

[I 8'.y' the' tlen t:at~gorie-s he'. :fs' :r.efef;Jf~iI1g to th~ .AJ;istow1i'~o tafj~g0de'§\.

SU:lu ... a,~~~U r~u~~s tb~se' <:alte,gG::rde:s, ~~ UMe'!, 'w'bleh ~e quantily~ qyua1ilY, ~$:S~n,©ce':, reJ:arlo(I]J HInd m~ilion. Add~ng: motion to th~ _Ari&'~ 'reJian ~~t:'g:o[ies ~s S,ubnrwardi !'~ ol"igin;~ill coo ttil.JuJ~(¥n~, whk:h l'€Ml~!r on in 'M'uUa Sadri:> s p'hilfJ5.~p,k~' bea;:;~me' ~he bMrnsv.f tJia1'e 't11.eo:ry ~f rr~&sub$tan~r.dMo:t:i,oll ~ (at4,w.mtat ll.l-Jii:uilimiJJoo) .

12 :~n II[ne teeXi!. i~, ffis phm:a!Sed ·'Yml.e~Dlng the' ie'Jgb:lh hearven u~ whiCh t'~~ .~ ~~.i~OOitr"~ ]~d~d_~~; b~ ~~ro:ne,o.us and :s~,ou~~ '~e ~~mpr'e~e' h~~\1,e~n. .. "· l3 KJufj'q(l~. i()r tbe Su-u (jre-:ss ~s g, ~omg and whltue~cloilIft 'IDfterr m~e of JiO ug1'i m;at<er,:£a]s wh iCi;"), die spi'!rl]Il!l!liaJ} m:it5Jte~r Gfi'en to -rJ).e fiOiW,(:le ~'l 'm.e 'titn~ ,of ibwlllacioiA .•

14· "'P.;r!esenc~1<J' is, ®i.lWfyconf;Bp~ in ,th~ id'tmtfAjoc'~rifl~ 'i!!'Q!d 1,:5. u.~d, in ~g, dlilf.~~nt ,t,o'noo~ts~ ftr~~ it is 'lI,,])5~d. wi,tb~~n" tb~ context o.r ,eDl3lna;ti.'~n

,m~n-wDJ the 'wojd~, is, the ,[eSil!l~lt 'o!f' ian e~manation! {and ,~cJ)'~d it is. the ~b~0'ff ~f know:1edre '~',r'eseneel' wh:ith Hes at ~be' he3!rt ~f Suhr3FW~~tU~s· moory '(1.£ knaw~~d~., Far 'more jnf~:ttna,Ub;m see M'ehJdI~, :I:;1;ril'i

"iL. .... A:- 'PI.. .~ .- ,II'- ~J" ~ . ,,-~--~... ,., :r. :r;~, ,. lD:r. ... ,l~ . .t\ K' l'-,,~' l'iwJ

iI~~~,. ;i-,f,8 ,rnnap~5 oJ ,~PUUm,.-wD m ~$~m1C ~_1r~:ivfJ$qJ)"')]i , . ~~Wi!ia. ,~j'

PmlmG4. rwidi :~, .'o~f1d, by S.H. N'3$F' CNew Ybr:k:. SUNfYPoo~~ 'UJ9(2) ..

15 The word 1Ittft Rel'e trrul;sbtfed ilS ,t.[eg'Q'~ b~$ Q pejotfa)ive m~nm,g :in

[ I' ilk ~ h C\J. ~'L. di . '&.. .,. • ru]' '" ~ L. ......lI

,_Si!ilUl1 wIljJi~: ~~~u:r-ilJ:Wap_' :tu~e$ rus,~lJ·u:s,em,ent to mrew.eci~]]j t.lille'1Ci1iu~I['

of ereaden b'Ut Qr,en' _f,ebeWs ~-pwn8t it.

16, The :[OU[ su.bS!ta'mlces, ~m ,t1~r '~te~'~, e~thj, wmtit w17rk'!b, some of the

."" 'II ,. h " di 1 '1..... ~ L. - IL.

pTl~Q;~ti€saj"pe'!J eonsnmee t -,€, pnm.o:r wa substance :~r-om 'WuiCn

the world ~ ~fea~d.

17 Th:€ m;3JiII,el"ja.~ wo['c~d for S'Ijlh;m,wa'rdi, represer.t~ n()n-eldSltefi~e (~(tatnzt.).

Tnr~ n..O:n-e~i5ten~'e' s'houl~, ,nat ID-e mistaleen wmilb n.@:fl-<eN:iSlling but iif. SbilDUIJI be .f,~~d~dL as th,e '~'~;,(de 'W dIe migt:. t Qf lights., The- E~m_tde' ch~~t:ir :ls the W6,rld. o.f "~LFJ~S that is id~n'l:la~d, wufth 'the m'am:ed~l wm-1.d_. Vihat ~'hmwatd.i ws ~d~udjn, to :h,tft~ is that'tbe dirine e_e:[u~e' can £l'€'31ite Itt'he' '@::ds®~l'art Q'bjects 'wit'h:outcn~n,~ be;mg mtr'()fhlC~, ;inta, his' e~efi.Qe',"

l8 The retarll~ID;s~hip ~tw~~~ t_;_hang'~' ~:Ulj~ pe'l"manef:1ce h~, been a jcelt.l.t~U ;:ia"'iF'liI~ 'J' . .". 1!·,,,,-'I""'m.· h~ n]tij]o;s,oo'hv God 9Y In:3l!1'JU'r~' r1...Ml~~~SSl has emamm:~d

MI~~W~i ~"IIi, Jl~ - r . . .~, ',/[· _... ,I - J.' ,1j.1. - ~~~J -- D-~' - ~ --- - -- - - .

~Id ",'I... d' - i._ ,~ :1.. ,.l"' .... II!.. - d"'.. .it-' I'b

'a worlll;uwa:t UDJ ,etgoe:s, eJ:ilange~ ~MI:llirnwaFy.wJ 11[1 IWILi!e' .tlD'aL ~;liI,on,p'.E. in

Sirnil"'lll!',M1ilS t~! ,31f'gu,t! that p,re;sen.ee of(:!han.g,e· d6es nQJt; nooe$sita~ dia't ~h~ cause of tJiis -~h~' :rtull8t aWw" un,de:~, .cihange.

19' The commen tattor dI,Q~:S n.om; use' the word ~fliJmah in ,~, ,OO'Iil'slsmnl fashl.unj; lS'Omeurmes, 1.Isingil lOt m.e,aiEl m.QW~edge a;ndJf)&b.'cr times re:(en ll~ .~ par~cU;rQl' kadition '0£ msd~m M ~ppooet1 ro the ped,paletie pbnl.z.sapby.

2fJ 'The ~l~n(:e ,w lel!~s i'5 based O(l1J a ~6meSis oJ PymaFreMl 'malhe-, mam.(;:8i 31U-d the be,ltgf ilia!t each b;~t~f of 3,1p-tlabe't repn:~mnts fit sat:~, mltbemab~~l "IltUnbef';, Thi$ f1eldJ w'hwch ~n· ]'sbm IS, refer,r~d ~ID' '';.ts,jiJp, is ~i~S:O' prti:'vajI,ern: in lJ11]d~iiSJ.mil :arFld M,ed:i.ev,a). Cbr~sri,an~

Qi 1/1 Th _ .... A 'Ilk .1 - • ,- - '1..'. h 'I., ' "- '.l." ,,' - 'iii'

";;;,:1iJ . r.e ~ir~. dle:t~ ,ILS ~mmm Wnrl~ - alim .me,aDS, a 'pr-ourn,gl€(J![bS evelOt ,0([" al

.,eat suft'~:__Q(J wh:rc.h wiiIJl ~~~ ,Q[iJJ die -iay i().fju~p;enL l~ :i;s.Jlot ri~eM'

wn wnat conteX' Sunrawardi. used :it.. -

,g,g. n' - . - ·YVVl.l" 'iI ,,,,~~;ur~B .. ~.~.,~ lI.,.

'~',3 In~dfi 'L\IU 1'" 2~t

'-' ~ .. ~ .. ,. --

'2'4 'QU~iO~ '~I~ 10',

Ax~S~lQde'. ,pO,~(W A'n~b1b'a., 'N~ YQ:~k, IRa:n.itffiom House, 1 Q4,1.,

Av~?es. T~,jful at~Mfld. T.m:;alIS!]ated bY S~ V~n de" BerGh. :W([ilr:jC'!ti; Lmi~ and J(5Q"i ),'954,.

'&,d;i~'lini. .M~n~kat ~;fDtirikk Vol.. I~, E(U.'l~d 'by Ce.d~1! :raaTIJkimg~ Kar~i:: '~d~~ns~, 19rt6=*lmS,.

Ba:'y~~~, Ma"g,o~,. M,;dki~ ~71tlJ:msenLtl,. NeW' 'York: Stm.(;Us~ llf)lversi~ty, P\r-ess, lQ.8'2'.

Er~~~. 'E~G"A, ,U~ry ,l!i!i'~ of rmia.) 4, ,~~,1s,. London; T., FllSh'~J' Ull1w~n, 1. 002-19~'4~:, and. C~m'E:J(I."ldge:: .C:'ambrid~~ UuJw~n~:ty ,F,r,ess!, 19!) 1.

B~~k'_h~oo~ T. A,ldiemie~ Sinn u~ 'W~UMltt Ol,ten:: W:i:lh,e,r .. Yedag:j, 1~60. R~hH;)ruy'!, M'l,dtaet, I~~e WiicblfU ,(),,€, I1ruu~mn3:tian~ A ,Srudy of th€ ,P,~ose Sitori,es Qf $u.h'ntward~. ~ PhJJl, Dws's~ U ni¥enLq Oil' (]hi:cap:. 9?'!5, Chitdck.~ 'w., C., J~ MDi~ R¥mt" 1M Aak I@!~e: The SpirihJ.~t Te;aci~ oJ

B.umi N",ew Y~~'k' N,~' YQf:':~ St3;re Ut'1~tsiilf 'Pr~§~ 1981. .

-- '~he W-aru flC"S~ HQ~~il1IN~r. Tlhrou,gh his Fiordl~th Bmfthd3J,,"'~

UllJi:~l1eT8i~,c of 'U~; Mid~rn,e Mst. O~luer!, '~sear(h ,M'O(DJ@'gr,a,p'h 6~! 19r7?r.,

'CQ;rbin)~ H, L ~tJ:rdt;(jgMgt qmp~lrpr~ Fa:-rw~~' F~~nd, '1:97'iS. ..

"-===0 AMfERc~,~ tjie 'Vti~ Jl.e:€ital Texas;. sp'r\ing'Pob.~, '1 tOO ..

~- ~g l1rmf§i,'H~QJi .in ~Ihe g~ r;! llin j4'rmji PdiDce®OD.: PrimtCJeun~ ,r,ess,. 19r6~:t

~""'., ,E~ lilo:m £MV)t;~)' wt 2., :~[:is: ca:~~,inafd~ 1,'91:1.

-.-_ L ~w,~ ,sltIik_hie ~ ikeol~ Shi.~'f., '']fe'h@u: :[.peti~l bani~J]! AqI;~eiMf ,of 'hll(.u~()~hJ mg~,.,

__ ._ ~UM~ r~fl{JlH m: ,tl$ l~f#IJ ~~ las ,l~il(:lt 'T;ramlamed, by'

1ln1l~, Ho:rlm~'.lpswich:: 'G01~gonooza 'ress Eii'6. . -

=~ 7"Ii!1 ~ !>f ,ligJ!J' m Imtl'min i1UjisJ:tJ. Bou!bit~r atnd. L:mdan:: Sha'~~

1918:. ·

__ , ~i"~ik1mi/!":i' uh~ wa {''4'l~tJlh'h da-f" lrp--'; ,il.:;;::,,_,~.~_

,. r-" ~Ir - Ifri 0; . ...,."1: JJ~~ ~~~ ~ c I ~~"fP IWt~lCU:l'l'!HIJ

. . ~@jiciJ,'de~Us. i~t$c£m~1\d ,11liJ,I~ 4e ,fa '~Ji~e: •. tmJ~ iJ/l~htJt

'att;Si; 192',.

,-- Spi1"i~dt.~ a~d ~si~til~l. ,[Prhu;et!~).n': PriI'l0e:t~n Press, ~'9IiEL O~~biJn~ U:.t '~n eOl'LaihondQD, with S",H .. :Na,li\ and 0+ 'Yabya", ,1IiSt4J.1:.a dp ta ,PkiJMOP/ji:e'u-kmimKe~ F;ad~:: Ga]mima'l1d~ l'91li4~

~~'

S@l~te'd BU,~iQgnpby

'DMisiM"~slu:I' AJtb9.s', ~Jk6r""i Suh~~di ~ M'ulhi ~YailM. ~['~hr:arJl;; "F~h~fl U'niN;eflili,~ ,PreS\S~ 19,D.

de BQe~, T:'.Ji,., T~' lU5Wry TOj P.lizws~J};Ij" i~ ]:rltlm., Pari~ P; G(ell1dln.el'~ 192;1=

l~L . .

Dhl.i~m,j G'b ~~~ H'u,~ar_D, $~~fl~l ~~d"k(J. Wd $~b.f~/AiJ4 d~r la~$(i/~i' . ~hm~ 'I'dl~fl: < 8~kml~t f1jJb.l, 19116 ..

'Gi'[~rn,!, 'I:,,, H(j;sJQf"j «. (]Aristfaw. Piito,sQj1k, iw; t'lre MiiM'fj ,Ag&'\' :New Y@tk~

,Randilm U~ruJ~,~ 195Ei, .

Haibibwj 'N,. Si ,RiMh/f a; rilut1k~ tshM!J~' TebrM~ Imperial A~adem, ,of

Ybl iJ1~$c:Jpbry ,PreSiS~ lQ'1.5. '

J;Ia ~']ri, :M:ebrli. The Pnnciplu ()lEpis~lfigJ !In ,1s.'lamic. PmWopi;,~· KU:Ole~

bJ Pi~Jen& New Y~rk! SlJNY.'lPF~~ 1992., ..

Har,awl~ .AJ:wmad ~bn", An~n»'Q~ "Ji,ehran: ,AmiI' Kaibir FR~ 1'98~[Jt. ,Heide~r, M,. ~ryj ,~~ TlQUghr;., T:rtn~'~ati()ln '~nd, InufJdu.eb.O!n, iby _ A. Hofsrad reJ7;. New' Y0l"k~' Harper and, Row';!;. ~ ;971~

Hg:tlr.ini~ G~" ed, Essap ~ lMf1l1c P&~16s~~ ,(Z;nd .sri~t;6. Alban,:' 8t,JNY.

Pr-e;~~ 1'25,.

Ih~",!: B~~·I\Il. T~it ~~fdi:red by.A, M",llt!lr. ~jlJ!lb~

Ibn _ Slni., KiWJ a~iitd~ ~ ~'mJt1>ihiie. Edil~d. 'b,' M"" s.ma.h_i'bi. T~h111!Dl1:

Tebran U'nive:v.dty, Pr.c@~~ I 98j~1 .

-- M(m,~,al--Mas~n. Tehim,miJa,4.&Ji Tabrm Pu'b, Ht)use~ 1(17:g:.

_ ...... ~ H(qj lim, ':r~ EW~d. by Aftmr318 Amin '[gyp\t. Dar af~Ma'~~

Pub., ~gOO: ~: _,~r - . - "-.' ".., '-' .• ,. ' " "

Imi'm~, ~im St~iL .,F.tasajtilt dar 1-1rlm4: !~mn 'Ul'a maMltji"" ~ma~i' ish~:,

Tehran: N···i'N."c"'~'n'.' ~"''''iiI-d l,n~211 __ "W ,I ,L !iili.L1I,. .. '!iJPUill ~.';~,Il .£!!U'U:ldli.' .',.~ ~ ,r ~Il

]q'ba:~;; ,u~ T~'~~l ~fMetq~~'m Pmi(k Lona()ft;, Luzae, 190t, ,b;ubl~ T. ~e Bai( SttUCtUlfe ,af MletapJI~ea.l Th'iokJim1i, :in ~m.,~ lh

f:L/Ile~.tdJ' !~ ~ 1:5:~mic :P.h~~iJjf~1 ~ ~y.tJi'~, ,~~t M" M~h3lqll~q:b ~D.d H., ,Law_il)Q;]t" T-e-nra;n: lmperlwl J:m;rnrnn .Academy' of ,~:iil,psap~~ 19iiL

'Iz'tu;su._ ~ T'" ~b,uwod'Ulc ti'i1)i!l, ~,.@ SltJ;th,J ma'mll'--""J.~ lOW S .... ~4twan ed U' -

, - • , r~ - t.. ~~~ - I ~ I")~ ',!l ~. II!, •

:Noh3lg'~.~.gh and :r. [.z,u,U'u. Tebraft:: 19~~ .

-- Me&p.hpitat~~t"f '()I.~~. :N,ew Yami~: Ca;gwn, &oks~ 1917.,

'if ;:!'L..~"m' tL.t:l!...A: '1ID_. __ ~n,_ -"I. - , '

,~Jj:i~~~,,'J:'!"~u ,I ,~~q." w1On:~ 'mu,~, BQ{IDibay: 1,9,28 ..

--. ~.Riwah _ flU_~ dar t A~~i JflidliiID.. ~ In ,MaJ~ ilbmijat "Wa 'mfi~~l ls/arm: Mashb~.d.: M',a(bh:ad Uni:v,er~i.ty Press, 1'972,.

,Maud~jl(.ou.r! 1._, ,~'~!1~,&aJat td---is,m.~lt, Caito'; Oil' I',a.~ ill-KJ'lu:u'b al- l\l'ab~yy;ab(J 1941"

'~~»na. M.,~ ,ed,. 1~bml'6' 'ThM~ (l"nd Phi/Mt!JJh" AJllbany., SUNY Fr~'.ss.j 1984.,

'M~~n~t~J~ Di~ d {4 du~dt,I~~~W'clh6'icA:wmn_ ~~e~s; :Lbuvam Publimcf"$1 I QS,'.

'Mlr Di~id.!, Qfo~, Tehntn: '1"ehMuJ, 'V1J:Wf<r,siq 'P:r~5SjlJl3i65, ,A.H,~~

:Mo iill;, 'M~~'€!I~i ~b ''(Jj,fJ~h.. T ~h~n~ Min'fstry Jllf Eilttel:uon Press, 1921~

Mo.rewed¥~ P:.~ W,' l.mi~ P~kicm ~ ,AJ:bat:ly.: SUNY'Jressj 1979;, N ~F'~ SolI.. An l~t'NJdumb# m limmie Q)~~,Dea~e; New Yo:m:'!k!C SUN¥J 199,3.

S-~h'ra\~ard!i a~ua the ::S'i,hme~ elf l-llum:m3Jtl(]i!n,

-~' ,r;tmn~,h:J in F1i~15ltiJffl'e ~d' tf~m·i€ p,~'~, Tebran; Cu:~mmJ Com~

mi.-tree :PiesS, ,rn,ofinsraph)! 197 W., . ,

........... ~' JiUAn ~J·i Iil-"" ~u" TehrnIl': :lm,eriil ]~a1:liaj] At~d.~:rny '~f .f'hil!o:fi)pbYi" 19?'.

-- K'MiNm, "oo!i ~ S(J.CQ{m., 'New Y()li~ t1rQS$~dt, '1 §JB.J.

,-~ O~~ Philos~;hique-~ eli. MJ$tiques~ 111., ~~hran:: Acad,em~,e Imperi~le Iranlenne de' 'r'hilQSQp'}~ie~ 1971'.

-- ,~Mt fit-Din SJtiriL~- ~&' His Tra,n:j'~dSfl;Ml' '11MJJf#l'1" "['~ln:'3!n: }978.,

-- $dma ~a: (;.iv.lJitalWn, -i?l ls-lam C~unbrid~~ Is,la:mruc T,e~t Sr:rd,ety,~

'i'98'.

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CUlU::tJ.N !res~ ~'9g:6,

P:erry, JG.hr.t PmMiflJ ldirtU,,'. Berkeley,: U;R'~'hl\eHJl'r, of B&tkeil~y' Press, ~'9'i5'. ":eter"8j F,.I,,~ A~-R4' ,~w;d me Ambs':' The A:riB't1iklm.n T~~'~i~ 1ln .Isl:a~ New Y~ik: New '¥o(('k U nt~erj]tr F,r'~ss.; a'ID:d Lon,dttn: U;t.j;~versitJ' of :LOiaG;(JLl1" Ig6S.,

flQUnus. En~a.h_. Tr,ansIDated b" ,Stephen M~~OOlua. N ew Var'k~: fandi,eGl'l, &ou~ m'969'.

hhmu j Ji- ~kt~i'n Js,l.(J.,m~' PkDf'!f;ny ,rnJ,d'JldiwthJ49.' Cbh~81go:: [b]i~r.r~ity'

()fCh~(:;ag~ Pvess" ~.'Q7g. .'

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It;i:~vi~ ~yid Atb:a:r Abbas. 1.1, Sfilj»-l.ntell«lw.al ,lfif$l~: lof ~ 1J~ ~Asll~ Ski1~

ien IM:«J) <2 ~~18_ i\:U]~ttMia;; 'Ma.'iifat PWJlh. Housel, 1'98:6,~ Sa'bmwiri, AJfir f~i~. Te::tu~an:: T:ell'trMl U;nlversilf :f~S$~

,~~ .l:)fmrim:-i (1$' ~~ hl"abaf1;: ,Sl1qafl fress,~ 1'£1-59,. '

-- ~' a~,"~.m44., N:~iI'i EdiJtJ],(Ul. 'lVeh"ll~ T,~hr~n UOJVe:F~tr fuSi5k.

SaJ.i~dw~, S,d', SlWlliti/b' ~1l\ Sld~1"a~~m ~ s~ri' aM Inbtfl(Jk-yi iflfO;q. Tebmn::: faiSailM, Pte,$S~ 1984.

Sbi~rizill $adl' al~nin. $~iiyaj ~«i ~ ~ \aLisk~. Tehrnn~ .Chape' ~ __ Tehmm1" '~91S\',

$3J1ibi~ Kamal. TtDilik Ln~~ Beiru!t; DiE aJ~Nah;3~ ,P:N:s:~, 'F~l':l17. 5C:h~DWe~~A_n~~m;aJn~., M1s.tieal'l1t~mm, oj.tda,m Ch~p~l AUI: Um.v~r~ity >lOrN~Fth Cal'~U:na, ,!resst 197tt

sc.h:UJ~D, F,. 'From tke ,Qimfit: to tIM. H!l~12.. "fra11l~lated by G. Pbili~t and 11, ·~Qert.lBrnt)omi'f!l,gm'n, Ind.;, W~r1d '~'5~m Bi00k$:! 19l81tl,

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quIi ijibillbi T'ehran: Imperial FI'all1liaitl ~dG:~ o!'i1!iQSoFhry~, ~,~n~ Suhm-mlM. Le ,Livn ,de /a: Sl1.~StG merdak., 'I'ran$rua:ti.0~, and netes by EIIeDrbwn~ PIns: Verdier:, 1,;9~n.

SUhra\V31\\d.i. Qptt_(J' Mttllf!j1#~ It Af1stt~ 1" Edi'tre~ and Tn tFod~cti~n o'y He n ry C6 f' hi n, Te h:r:a:n:: E:~:Scd ~ut. dr' E t.ud,~'.s 08':t des Re'(;h,er'Ch es Cul't~rene$:.. 1993.,

.suh~wa:['di._ ~m:a Me~h"pitp; el MlftittU' ~ ,'Ed~oo~l aDa_ :bUl~~d~t.inn bj H,!Bury Co:rb];,n~ Tehran: ln5~~:~rtU.t' d~Et,tui,m'l' et !tte,s Ile(:,her'¢'ne.l Cultt!f.'eru1es'lo 1993.,

Su.llriWI,ardt Q{ier.tJ Mt/~/ih:JS#.:c'(J fl! M)s«~l 3:, IlEdjred Sltd 'lrnr()d1.';K,tio~, ~ S eyyed. H .N'~., T'~hr~.nll,:: "nsti ~U,t d" E r.Ufd~$ ~ t des Ree be:ri!C:h;~$ 'CuJi[ur.e~~esj 1'9Q~t

T3;b~i~ahi:!iJ M,~I!~amRlad Husayn." ,t.Zni~ l'cl~I$'(Jf(JJ*, rwa" ~aj~$M n~~ MUr~~di Mmul1lbarij 5 ~I'-J Qum, 1 m50119fi!, ..

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Y3!Zd!i" Mehdlj I$j ~ir:i. J"k ITincip1es ~t $r'Pi£tem~m ';en ldami'c' PM\~hJ:

K1fIjw~ i~ ~m~~ '~th a f()rward~ by S.H:., N,~r" 'New' YOfk~: S:UN¥

_ r~~!, 1991.,_ ,

Z~a~i:j ft" I{~~e and Rlu,mi~. ,At1.ari~! Seho1~ Press l'900"

== '~,~~i·$ Pli~~, qf ItJ'ufjd»tl,~,~ Fh.D" DiS$,,~ HafV3I_rd Univ~r~

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Carla d_,e Va~ ~'Th 'phtl()&Oplii~ llumm~Jtl~' d,J:apres, S11lblr~~di Maqtll). ~

J~~'A~kit~~']9 (l902)~ 6~94;

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}f!mrnal AsMt~ ()H.~!51):i 1~8~t

Lloyd, A.C lfiI,Ne(}pb~or.t~c Logic and M.sltfiUan L~le}l! PIi1Wit~]l~ no. 1 (November 1955): ;§~~2; and wn Phn;~ l~, n!D'. 2' (195,6)~ ~;46-,- ~9"

lieSI

Subrn'MU'dii and, the School of Uluminalidn

!van~ Robert. ~'Henry, CoJtibin ~nd Suh~rs J\Qg,dotogy'..'" HamdtJ1d lsiamiv.u 11 no., 1 (n.d..}l:. l2-i!O.

Qisemi:. ~Shar~i iwb~ flM"~Jibm~u.n Ma'~m1J. ·~o. I (~l'~ 1[9~5): '!7~~, lj'ftlamiJ M .. M., '~A:thir al~uhrawaDd~ alJ..maqwJ ta,n'i~ha wa kb~ ~~ a~m~wwrdiyyil wa~l-fltJsaft,,;mL,'" Kuli)1dI. a.1-i~b[2 (195[1): 1~1,78\._ Jml!rjli~, "J. "The :Isnmqi Il~wl ?~ al\-Sullraw,anU;f> Jau.m,al (If tM. Amtrl"''n 0riImItJi SocK~ 60 (19'40): [90-9~.

N~~, S.~" ~be '. nu;mJin~lie SUfiJI,''' JfJU.mtil Df the A'm~n Dnmtal SwlJ' 57 (1 9t73)· '99=U)

~--:', nMuf~r~i ~m:~& ghuFba:t wa ~ahid~ tar'~ q-i mtirifa't." MQ·tarifi

r~'im.fU) I(NQV~ 19m):: Pli 8-191,

~- g'Nuki,ti Chand dar' bka"yi sba~y.kh=i ~shnlq. H M&~frny..~ ii/timi, noS,. 1

I(se,p'. 1 96') ~ 116--18" -.

~=-- :TItt- &~'ladonsh'~p ·Betwe·oo Sufism and PhUoso.phy in. 'Persi.an Cu~wr,e! ~ HamiLtwd .lslrJ,m.i,cus 6~ no. 4: (1983):: 313-47 ..

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Qu~ 14 ~~1,'!~70):: 1-121. _

Zi'a'~t H. ~he Sour'~e and N.a;ture o.f p'ordc~d Audt·ori~ in Suhmwardi.~·s PbJk)mp~y of J Ihun~ n rdon, [i; 10 p'~lirical AifJ:ec~ i!/ ls~(;' Pltiiloi5tph:'j ed, Buu:erwo1rtll .. , IGamibrid~:: H3:rv~u'd l;lnive;rsi'tY' _P~e~, 1'99!.

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Crusades! I ~I

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172

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,~9:, '9'2 .. ~~13~ 96,~ 101,. I ~!~ 1 ill N. i~

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~. H~ ,genetaW (ji~li):, 9!~ p~rtiteulu {lfaJl'J 'j\ 94;, h[e' ( ~-wiml ,.,,84

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'l en, H)'2~ 1.63" Si8 .ms~ ~;h,etype of hlur:~:a!nltJ

1.7,3

IN'I)E'K.

~Hermetidsm~ xvi"li; OJ lU, ·iJik~ xix~ 51!, 65~ , 3,7

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- ~ - -lJ! -" i' -:Ii _. '" _ - _ ,Iy

100

,Hikma.~· td- ~anhwa (Tle Wisdom of 1M ThrJmt.), 1'29

(ll'/lf~l aJ-.muta ~aliJ:Jah fi~t-asldT

~'~l (Jiri(jfGJ,fIh - -

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fl., ~ ;[i~", ffj see "" iI1J"_, ,·fur I~U~JI~l:1i ~'.' n~J'~I!'

~1:I~11!i, 'IAmJim~h, 122

.Hindi .. Fid" -,n~j,. Su '_ S ~aha]]~.~, Bahii'

§' II • ~

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I: (Mft'-1ld:"'ah)~ 62'

E=n~ss, (smi.~)" . '03 YOW"""'lSei[ ~,ana ~'''a.tui4)." ] 12' Ibn 4!,Arab~, 124;"127,, 128, 129~ 1M" 13·~J

IhfiK.a.nil'~lllna'hf 1'22'

Ibn KhaldllD; 141

Ibn Sahi'in~ 1.41,

Ibn Sma~, xvilJ xvii":!! ';1" I~ 7j 8) 9'", l(~) 14l~ 17', 24" 3]"" ~:, 43" ~ 45; 4:,; 48, SO,;, ,8l;, 185j '] 2.S~, 124,.

l~ljif. 126" 1'27~, '] 28=29'~ l3'J r

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8~~ 86~ 127;: logic., .. 'See'lb~j' 100 Sinian;, l[u:~~lta!pJhiy ~. es, SIB

me&apbysiic8; Ibn Sinian

icons (ttl~)I, 82

":_":';;'"i~iL ( I" \ 00- Q~ ]£)

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1741

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~,a"Hl.'lllu!m ai".D£n (~~lmt~ fJj,dIJj BSWmn Sci.entes),.; ~2" Jla'hiyy.it 1S 1

Uluminamd ofB~varia !m.ovement~ 142

:tnuminated ,SOW~ .6,2

:il1uminatio\H (i.s:-h'TQq):; xviii 62~ 71 ~ 7:2~ 74" 114; I I 6" 1'2'51;, ~boO:I,ru~ X'V' xvi xb:) 1 '21 122

, -,- " -', . -, , .-. --~" - ~, ,_:

n~u:minarti;o\[irist: ~deas,. 39;... 139;~ meeements, 14 ; seheol, 1'2',2:, 127, iss, 14·!-~ (,if'!, lf2

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~"magjA'UlL;. 87

+ maginid wCilrld, xx, S8~, [9 I)

"ma_gj1mrJ~ 87

lml1.3,ginadoo (m.mta'IwJPlah)~ otQ I'mains;! 122'i 134

]uanimiJil!'C o~octs. Se« ~o:r:po1'eali~ mcarpoteill. l:irgiht. See, HgJlt-

bruc>orpo(r-eal

inOOrp()J7~a~ nfitD[Jei- l!Hi inc.oF.porea) c:~ds.tenc.e:. See ,t:'x.isteoceJj m.'cotpo'reaIi incorporea;l world~, (~iJkm-j ,~l!fq.nud}1 i' f1i" 8' I ~,Sti'" See abo 'mrn,u;

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inidwte ',m'U~J 12

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6,7=68

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