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Oswego Update Project


A Graduate Research Project
Updating Course Outlines in Technology Education
June 2004

Construction Systems
In collaboration with:

Developer:

Mr. Howard Botting, Graduate Research, SUNY Oswego, thebottings@msn.com


Project Directors:
Dr. William Waite, Professor, SUNY-Oswego, waite@oswego.edu
Mr. Eric Suhr, Laisson, New York State Education Department, esuhr@mail.nysed.gov
Content Consultants:
Mr. Richard Bush, Professor, SUNY-Oswego, rbush@oswego.edu
Mr. Robert Spindler, Rome Free Academy High School
Mr. Joseph Rivellino, West Irondiquoit High School
Mr. Charles Miller, West Irondiquoit Central School District
Original Writing Team (1985):
Dr. Jack Brueckman, State University College at Buffalo (also 1989 revision)
Dr. William Waite, State University College at Oswego (also 1989 revision)
Mr. Joseph Botta, South Colonie Central High School
Mr. Robert Jones, Amsdell Heights Junior High School
Mr. John Ptak, Amherst High School
Digitally available at
www.oswego.edu/~waite

Forward
The Oswego Update Project is a collaboration between SUNY Oswego and the NYS
Education Department to refresh and modernize existing Technology Education course outlines.
New York State Learning Standards will be identified and organized.
The original work was a NYSED initiative during the transformation from Industrial Arts to
Technology Education in the 1980s. These courses have proven to be very popular and most
durable for the profession. In fact, many have been used as course models in other states.
Hundreds of sections are offered in New York State each year, according to the Basic
Educational Data System (BEDS). However, the objectives need to be revisited with a current
eye, successful teaching strategies need to be surveyed in the field, bibliographies should be
updated, and Internet resources added, as they were unavailable during the original project.
It is hoped that this graduate-level research endeavor will accomplish the following:

provide a solid graduate research project for the developers involved (learning by doing)

involve known, successful teachers as consultants to the process through a common


interview template

honor the work and dedication of the original writing teams

refresh course objectives and teaching strategies

forge a more uniform format between and among course outlines

update the bibliography of each course to reflect the last ten years of literature review

include Internet resources both useful as general professional tools, and as specific content
enhancement

develop an index showing how NYS M/S/T standards are accomplished for each course
objective

The result will be an enhancement for graduate students at SUNY-Oswego, NYSED


implementation goals, and Technology Education teachers in New York State. Course outlines
will be digitally reproduced and made available through appropriate Internet and electronic
media.

Dr. William Waite, Professor


SUNY Oswego, Dept. of Technology
School of Education

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Overview of the Course
Since humankinds first attempts to use technology to overcome the adversity in the natural
world, he/she has used some element of Construction Systems to solve the problems at hand. In this
course the universal systems approach of inputs, resources, processes, outputs and controls, will be
explored as it pertains to the four main types of construction found today- Light Construction, Commercial
Construction, Industrial Construction, and Civil Construction. Progress made in these four areas affects
every community in the world. Infrastructure building and maintenance is a challenge throughout all
countries. Construction system activities have a major impact on peoples lives, and provide a wide
variety of occupations in each community.
Career opportunities, and job qualifications will be discussed throughout the course. Since all
structures built will have an impact on the environment in which they are constructed, this course will
explore how these impacts can be positive and/or negative. This course is not a vocational training
course, but will provide enough knowledge to the student, so that they may pursue vocational areas of
interest. Student activities will encompass hands-on lab activities as well as computer-based simulations.
Course will be updated to reflect innovations in construction processes and products.
Instructional Methodology
This course will require a laboratory equipped with tools and machines essential to student construction
project activity. Emphasis should be given to hands-on learning. Approximately 75% of the class time
should be devoted to this type of activity. The remaining 25% will be devoted to theory and instruction.
Time is a limiting factor and requires that the instructor carefully structure the course. The content outline
provides a complete overview of the topics to be covered. Varying amounts of time can be spent on
certain areas depending upon the teachers plan for implementing of the curriculum. It is expected,
however, that each area of the content outline be covered in some way to offer a complete view of the
industry. Safety and career information are extremely important and should be stressed throughout each
topic.
Use in Sequence: Systems Course
This course is one of the New York State approved systems courses in Technology Education. It is one of
five courses designed to give students a firm but broad exploration of the technical world in which they
live. Students completing a sequence in Technology Education must have successfully completed any
one of these five systems courses.
This course may also be taken by any student as an elective course. If the instructor uses this syllabus as
a guide for instruction, students may be granted Regents credit for the experience.
Several courses within Technology Education offerings can be offered on a 1/2-unit or 1-unit basis.
Course work earning 1/2-unit must comprise a minimum of 54 hours of instruction and course work
earning 1-unit must comprise a minimum of 108 hours of instructional time.

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Course Goals
Students will gain an understanding of the universal system model as it is applied during the
construction process. Students will explore the various Construction technologies in use today, and how
these technologies impact the world around them. Construction resources and processes will be explored
at depth. Students will critically analyze the use of natural resources and evaluate the effect of use on the
environment.
Course Description
Construction Systems is a -unit, twenty-week course offered to all students. Construction
Systems explores how mankind shapes the world using current technology to provide solutions for
societys needs. This course will explore the four fields of construction- Light Construction, Commercial
Construction, Industrial Construction, and Civil Construction. Seventy-five percent of the course time will
be spent on hands-on activities in a laboratory setting. Lab activities will center on the most common
construction activities found in Light and Commercial Construction. Careers within the construction trades
will be explored throughout the course. Personal safety, energy use, conservation, and environmental
issues are addressed as related to all fields of construction.
Course Skills, Knowledge and Behaviors to be Developed
The student will be able to:
1.

Identify the universal systems model as it relates to construction technology.

2.

Assess the importance of construction technology to society in the manner that it provides shelter,
roadways, dams, and other constructed projects for humans.

3.

Define the necessary inputs and resources for the process of construction technology.

4.

Analyze and demonstrate the processes of construction technology.

Evaluate projects and control of construction as to their quality and their effect on society and the
environment.

6.

Utilize mathematical and scientific principles in the solving of practical construction problems
within the laboratory setting.

7.

Demonstrate problem solving and analytical thinking skills in solutions to simple engineering
problems within the context of laboratory activities.

8.

Develop hand and machine tool skills.

9.

Demonstrate the knowledge of the safe use of machines, tools and materials.

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Content Outline
Module 1.0 Introduction to Construction Systems
1.1 Fields of Construction
1.1.1 Light Construction
1.1.2 Commercial Construction
1.1.3 Industrial Construction
1.1.4 Civil Construction
1.2 Universal Systems Approach Model
1.2.1 Inputs
1.2.2 Resources - Seven Elements
1.2.3 Processes
1.2.4 Outputs
1.2.5 Feedback/ Control
1.3 Historical Developments
1.3.1 Houses
Caves
Mud
Stone
Wood
Metal
1.3.2 Water delivery systems
Aqueducts
Wells
1.3.3 Waste Systems
Out houses
Septic tanks and Leach systems
Sewers
1.3.4 Roads
Migration paths
Dirt
Stone
1.4 Future of Construction
1.4.1 New Developments
Prefabricated
Panelized
Automation
Innovations
1.4.2 Growth areas
Transportation
Civil
Commercial
Energy Facilities
Communication
Renovation/ Remodeling/ Removing Structures
Module 2.0 - System Command Input
2.1 Desired project
2.1.1 Project Selection
Light Construction

2.1.2

2.1.3

o Residential Homes
o Small Offices
o Small Stores
Commercial Construction
o Large Apartment Buildings
o Hospitals
o Churches
o Schools
o Warehouses
Industrial Construction
o Electrical Power Plants
o Material Processing Plants
Civil Construction
o Highways
o Dams
o Bridges
o Canals
o Pipelines
o Electrical Transmission Lines
Project Specifications
End users
Architects
Town Zoning Boards
Building Inspectors
Regulations
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
Pre-Construction Planning
Site Selection
Permits
Zoning
Architectural Drawings

2.2 Expected impacts


2.2.1 Environmental
Positive
Negative
2.2.2 Economic
Personal
Institutions
Global
2.2.3 Societal
Positives
Negatives
2.2.4 Personal
Ownership
Sense of community

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Module 3.0 Resources- Seven Elements of Construction
3.1 People
3.1.1 Job Classifications/ career preparation
Unskilled
Skilled/ Craft
Technical
Professional
3.1.2 Organizational Structure

Management
Line charts
3.1.3 Recruitment

Dependant on skill level

Trade Unions
3.2 Information
3.2.1 History of Construction Successes and Failures

Light Construction
Heavy Building Construction
Industrial Construction
Civil Construction
3.2.2 Safety

OSHA, Occupational Safety and Health Administration

Building Codes/ Regulations

Zoning
3.2.3 Technical Knowledge

Research and Development

Planning

Engineering

Architects
3.3 Materials
3.3.1

3.3.2

Primary Processing

Solids

Liquids

Gases
Secondary Processing

Polymers
o Woods
o Plastic
o Asphalt

Metals
o Rolled stock
o Extruded
o Cast

Ceramics
o Stone
o Glass
o Masonry

Composites
o Engineered Wood Products
o Concrete
o Fiberglass

3.3.3

3.3.4

Recycling

Re-using
Procurement

Bid Process

Estimating
Comparative Characteristics
Choosing best product for use
Evaluating products and goods

3.4 Tools/ Machines/ Equipment


3.4.1 Processing

Separating

Combining

Forming

Conditioning
3.4.2 Function/ Selection
Using tools
Choosing tools
3.4.3 Operating techniques
Safety in use
Proper tool for job
3.4.4 Maintenance
Scheduled
Non-scheduled
3.5 Capital
3.5.1

3.5.2

3.6 Energy
3.6.1

3.6.2

3.6.3

3.6.4

Sources
Loans
o Time-Value of Money
o Amortization Schedules
Savings
Bonds
Taxes
Investors
Disbursements
Bank draws
Other funding
Types

Non-renewable

Renewable
Application
How energy is converted and used
Conservation
Use During Construction Processes
Fossil Fuel
Electrical Generators
Use After Construction Processes
Energy Star Certification
Conservation and Construction Methods

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3.7 Time
3.7.1

3.7.2

3.7.3

Pre-construction Estimating
Site review
Bids
Time Management
Labor schedules
Delivery schedules
Scheduling
Critical Path Method
Bar Chart
Progress Chart

Module 4.0- Processes


4.1 Substructure/ Foundations
4.1.1 Materials
Gravel
Concrete
Wood
Metal
4.1.2 Types

Light Construction

Commercial Construction

Industrial Construction
Civil Construction
4.2 Superstructures
4.2.1 Load Bearing Components
Columns
Girders
Beams
Walls
4.2.2 Non-load Bearing Components
Interior Walls
Curtin Walls
4.2.3 Types
Wood
Steel
Concrete
4.3 Enclosure Systems
4.3.1 Floors
4.3.2 Walls
4.3.3 Ceilings
4.3.4 Roofs
4.3.5 Finishing projects
Interior finishes
Exterior finishes
Finish Flooring
Insulation
Trim
Cabinetry
4.4 Utility Systems

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4.4.1

4.4.2

Types
Plumbing
o Fresh Water
o DWV- Drain, Waste and Vent
Electrical
o Conventional- 110/220 Volt
o Alternative- Solar, hydro, wind
Communication
o Category Five Wiring
o Phone lines
HVAC
o Electrical
o Gas
o Oil
o Propane
o Radiant Systems
Materials
Piping
o Copper
o Iron
o Plastic
o Conduit
Wiring
o Copper
o Aluminum
o Telecommunication/ Coaxial/ Fiber optic
Sheet metal

Module 5- Outputs
5.1 Completed project
5.1.1 Site completion
Landscaping
Punch lists
5.1.2 Maintenance

Owners

Outsourced
5.2 Impacts
5.2.1

5.2.2

5.2.3

Environmental
Negatives
o Erosion
o Wildlife
Positives
o Reclamation
o Conservation
Economic
Immediate effect on economy
Long term jobs in maintenance
Positives and Negatives
Societal
Communities
Job growth

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5.2.4

Positives and Negatives


Personal
Long term debt
Assets
Positives and Negatives

Module 6.0- Feedback/ Control


6.1 Reasons
6.1.1 Quality Assurance/ Control
Public safety
Justify monies spent
6.1.2 Profitability
Stability
Future Growth
6.2 Methods
6.2.1

6.2.2

6.2.3

Monitor Output
Structure Inspections
Engineering Analysis
Compare Outputs with Inputs
Identify waste
Improvements for future
Adjust processes
Growth in future
Profitability

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General Instructional Strategies
Sample instructional strategies are described in the section that follows, but they may appear somewhat
fragmented without a description of the overall strategy for the module. This section on General
Instructional Strategies, therefore, is included to explain the nature of the module in a more cohesive
form.
The overall strategy is to involve students with hands on activity of an actual construction project. With the
time restraints that are given, a small-scale project, something like a storage shed or a wall section, pre
cast concrete forms, truss frame construction, models of community development to include roads, dams,
along with residential and non-residential construction, would probably be the most appropriate (see
Appendix). There are other general strategies that the instructor might want to employ, however.
1.
Models. Building models can provide useful activity for many of the stated objectives, but the
instructor must realize that the focus of the course should be more toward actual construction.
2.
Community projects. The instructor is encouraged to solicit the community for small building
projects that can be handled by the size and expertise of the class and that permit the performance
objectives of the module to be met.
3.
Instructional sequence. The display of the course outline in this document might suggest a
sequential teaching strategy. Although this may be true to some extent, it is not absolutely necessary. The
instructor may decide, for instance, to offer instruction on quality control early in the semester, even
though it is listed at the end of the Content outline. The sequence of topics can be changed to facilitate
the individual teaching plans of the instructor and the laboratory equipment, although all performance
objectives must be accomplished to complete the syllabus satisfactorily.
4.
Time management. The instructor should manage the allotted time for the course with
flexibility in order to make up for problems that occur during the construction activity. Nothing is more
frustrating for students than not to finish the construction of an activity they have taken so long to design
and organize. The six topics identified in the content outline; Introduction to Construction Systems,
System Command Input, Resources, Processes, Outputs, and Control, are not equal in terms of the
amount of time to be devoted to each topic.
A suggested division of time might be:
Topic
Introduction to Construction Systems
System Command Input
Resources
Processes
Outputs
Control

Instructional Time
5%
5%
30%
45%
10%
5%

Time is based on three hours per week multiplied by 18 weeks of instruction


5.
Tool skill. Tool skill is a very important part of the success of the activity associated with this
module. The instructor should identify the tools required to fulfill the activity and spend a sufficient amount
of time to assure that the students have the necessary technical and safety skill on those selected tools. If
this means a week or more of instruction on the tools, the instructor should reschedule time in the
remainder of the course to comply with other performance objectives. Due to the nature of using large
sheets of material and long pieces of framing stock, it is suggested to spend time explaining the use of
the portable circular saw.
6.
Storage. Space for storage of construction materials and projects can be a problem in many
laboratories that were not designed with this type of activity in mind. The instructor should plan for
activities that can take advantage of good weather, or activities that can be scaled down in size to adjust
to the space available in the laboratory.

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7.
Field trips. A field trip to a building project or local municipal planning department can be an
invaluable strategy for accomplishing many of the objectives in rapid succession. The instructor should
find a project, such as a housing development, that is in varying stages of completion. This will provide
that opportunity for the students to see several of the construction steps as they are actually occurring.
Also, a field trip around the mechanical rooms of the school is an excellent way to communicate concepts
relating to commercial structures.
8.
Guest Lecturers/ Speakers. Invaluable information can be gained for the scheduling of guest
speakers who work in the various fields of construction. These could include: building inspectors,
architects, homebuilders, re-modelers, general contractors, heavy equipment operators, and business
owners who specialize in areas of construction
9.
Multimedia. Todays multimedia technology allows instructors to provide an easy and valuable
way bring construction projects to the laboratory. They are particularly useful if field trips are not possible,
but they may also be used along with the field trip strategy. An instructor may visit a project site with a
camera and take two or three rolls or film to capture quickly the several stages of the project. Also, largescale projects, such as roads, dams, factories, and the like, might best be captured on film and computer
files and presented in a slideshow. Numerous commercially available movies can be found to highlight
significant construction projects from around the world.
10.
Computer graphics. The use of computer programs for the design and engineering of
construction plans is a popular technique used today. Instructors may demonstrate this technology if the
equipment is available. Several no-cost programs are available to all schools, which allow students to
visually conceptualize and apply theories with immediate feed back. One such program is West Point
Bridge Builder offered and undated yearly by the U. S. Military Academy at West Point.
11.
Written responses. Several of the curriculum objectives can be covered by written reports. The
instructor is encouraged to offer these assignments as homework. This will allow the maximum amount of
available laboratory time for the actual hands-on construction project.
11.
A construction company. Many instructors may want to organize an actual construction company
with their class. This is an excellent strategy to get students involved with design, purchasing, scheduling,
and many other objectives of the course.

12.

Appropriate activity. The instructor should take care to involve students with the appropriate
degree of difficulty when choosing an activity. An entire class may not be involved on the same activity. An
example would be a storage shed. The remaining part of the class may be involved with some other
activity such as precast concrete forms or another construction activity (see Appendix).
13.
Sample instructional strategies. Instructional strategies are listed after the performance
objectives. They are offered as idea stimulators for the teacher, and should be considered as such.
Instructors are encouraged to bring locally relevant topics into the classroom and provide a variety of
activities that enrich instructional opportunities.
14.
Hands on activity. The success of the course and the level of student motivation are affected by
the amount of hands on activity. A goal of 25% instructional time and 75% hands on activity therefore
should be implemented.

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Module 1.0 - Introduction to Construction Systems
1.1 Fields of Construction
Performance Indicators/Supporting Competencies
After studying this topic the students will be able to:
Define Construction.
List the purposes for construction.
Identify the four major types of construction.
Explain the importance of construction in each of the four types.
1.2 Universal Systems Approach Model
Performance Indicators/Supporting Competencies
After studying this topic the students will be able to:
Identify by drawing and labeling the steps of the Universal Systems Approach model.
List and define the steps of problem solving.
List the steps in the design process.
Explain how inputs, processes, outputs, and feedback work in a construction system.
1.3 Historical Developments
Performance Indicators/Supporting Competencies
After studying this topic the students will be able to:
Cite examples of construction in historical perspective.
Match early societies with their most notable construction achievements.
Compare previous construction materials with those in use today.
Cite historical examples of the benefits of construction technologies, and how previous societies
used construction technology to solve problems.
1.4 Future of Construction
Performance Indicators/Supporting Competencies
After studying this topic the students will be able to:
Identify two or more new developments in construction in the last decade.
Cite examples and give reasons for possible growth areas in construction.
Generate a hypothesis of how future demographic changes affect the future of construction .
Identify trends in construction technology.
Identify various topics and classifications of modular technologies.
Suggested Specific Instructional Strategies
1. Instructor will develop a multimedia presentation providing a visual time line of important historical
developments in construction systems.
2. Students will pick a historical construction project and prepare a short report or class
presentation.
3. Students will select and research a topic within the projected future growth areas of construction,
preparing a report or class presentation for sharing.
4. Students will select a construction project and chart the systems model as it applies to that
project.

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5. Students will use the design process to provide a construction solution to a societal problem/
need.
6. Students will successfully pass a written test on material presented, to demonstrate a knowledge
of the history and future of construction technologies.

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Module 2.0- Construction System Input
2.1 Desired Projects
Performance Indicators/Supporting Competencies
After studying this topic the students will be able to:
Define Light Construction, giving two examples.
Define Heavy Building Construction, giving two examples.
Define Industrial Construction giving two examples.
Define Civil Construction giving two examples.
Cite an example of a structure for each four major types of construction.
Describe how a project need is determined.
Cite an example of a need in society for each major type of construction.
Define specifications as it relates to construction projects.
Identify the need for zoning laws and building codes in todays society.
Relate how project specifications will impact the pre-construction planning process.
List individuals involved in pre-construction planning.
Explain how each of these individuals perspective impacts the design of the structure(s).
Describe the pre-construction documents that are generated for a typical project.
List the different types of working drawings and explain what they show.
Explain the principles of planning used in a construction project, including: project initiation,
regulations, site selection, and specifications.
Explain how architectural drawings influence the construction process.
Cite possible locations for locating information to assist in preparing a house plan.
Relate how the Americans with Disabilities Act has effected new commercial construction.
2.2 Expected Impacts
Performance Indicators/Supporting Competencies
After studying this topic the students will be able to:
List four areas of expected impact for any construction project. (Environmental, Economic,
Societal, Personal)
Explain how a proposed construction project would impact the environment.
Provide examples of possible positive and negative impacts for a given project (i.e. New housing
development in agricultural land, industrial complex being build near a residential neighborhood)
Determine when ownership in a construction project changes.
Discuss a civil construction project and provide one positive and one negative result of given
project.
Contemplate the effects that a new industrial (light/ commercial/ civil) construction project will
have on the community in which it will be built.
Create a chart giving a graphic representation of current construction projects using national data.
Cite common concerns faced today when developing land for any type of construction project.
Compile and chart data on home ownership n their immediate neighborhood community, showing
the financial investment that occurs.
Suggested Specific Instructional Strategies
1. Instructor will provide a construction project topic with limitations and client needs for the class.
2. Instructor will provide necessary reference materials or sources for all research projects. For
example local zoning laws, maps outlining use of property designations.

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3. Students will utilize information given to propose solutions to the topic, which meet both the
needs and limitations.
4. Students will prepare a list of materials for the project.
5. Students will prepare a monetary bid for the project using one or more material sources outlined
by the instructor, as well as an estimate of labor costs.
6. Students will brainstorm to determine if there are potential problems with proposed construction
projects. Emphasis should be given to current events/ proposals actually occurring within their
community.
7. Students will investigate a building project that failed due to poor planning/ forecasting.
8. Students will be given a project and using the instructor and class notes determine the financial
impact of the project.
9. Students will research local zoning laws as they apply to a given project. Examples- fences,
sheds, additions, pools, commercial or industrial property.

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Module 3.0 - Resources (Seven Elements of Construction)
3.1 People
Performance Indicators/Supporting Competencies
After studying this topic the students will be able to:
Identify careers related to the construction industry, developing a brief description of each
Explain how a persons skill level will impact the ability of an individual to change job
classifications.
Make an organizational line chart for a small construction project.
Classify workers in to groups based on skill level.
Correlate the pay scale of a worker on a job site, with a level of education or skill, in a classroom
setting using an occupational handbook.
3.2 Information
Performance Indicators/Supporting Competencies
After studying this topic the students will be able to:
Discuss what OSHA stands for and how it impacts todays work place.
Correlate the rising cost of insurance with a companys record of safety.
List the different types of working drawings and explain what they show.
Identify various components involved with construction management including bids, OSHA,
inspections, scheduling, monitoring, and selecting contractors and subcontractors.
Offer common safety factors necessary on a construction site.
Develop an understanding of how OSHA has influenced practices on a job site.
3.3 Materials
Performance Indicators/Supporting Competencies
After studying this topic the students will be able to:
Define primary and secondary resources.
Differentiate between primary and secondary resources providing an example of each.
Differentiate between the four categories of polymers, metals, ceramics, and composites and list
two examples of each.
Explain the physical characteristics of structural materials.
Identify different kinds of structural materials that are used in construction systems.
Produce a chart depicting the processes that occur in transforming raw materials to either
finished goods of primary materials.
Describe several possible ways materials are procured for a job.
Describe how old concrete or asphalt can be recycled into a project involving a need for concrete.
Cite comparative characteristics for given materials, listing the features and benefits of each.
Create a material list from a set of construction drawings.
Prepare a monetary bid on a construction job from a material list.
Explain how the materials are chosen for use on a particular job.
Collect information on recycling plans in place for construction projects.

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3.4 Tools/ Machines/ Equipment
Performance Indicators/Supporting Competencies
After studying this topic the students will be able to:
Identify the proper tool to use to solve a problem in the lab.
Sort machines into categories such as: separating, combining, forming, conditioning.
Demonstrate safe operation of tools within the lab setting, 100% of the time.
List the safety concerns for a piece of equipment.
Demonstrate safe behavior in the lab 100% of the time
Use a tool in a correct manner during a practical exam in the lab.
Selects the proper steps needed in a "lock-out tag-out" program.
Demonstrate the knowledge of proper safety behaviors when performing maintenance on a
machine in the shop.
Identify equipment commonly found in different fields of construction (i.e. bulldozer on civil road
construction job)
Select the proper tool for a given job, and explain why.
3.5 Capital
Performance Indicators/Supporting Competencies
After studying this topic the students will be able to:
Describe what capital is as the term is applied to construction.
Describe how an individual can purchase a home.
Use a mortgage calculation table or program to amortize a mortgage.
Compare the effect of interest rates on a construction project, determining end-cost to consumer.
Define the terms liens, foreclosure, insurance, bids, as they apply to construction projects.
Explain how the concept of a bank draw and how it works in a construction project.
3.6 Energy
Performance Indicators/Supporting Competencies
After studying this topic the students will be able to:
Define renewable sources of energy, give two examples.
Define non-renewable sources of energy, give two examples.
Describe three ways a buildings construction will be influenced by rising energy costs.
Explain how energy is used during the construction process.
Explain how energy conservation techniques are incorporated into the design and construction of
new projects.
Relate the governments Energy Star Certification program to new home construction.
Assess how shrinking natural resources have impacted construction designs. (this can be applied
to all four fields of construction)
3.7 Time
Performance Indicators/Supporting Competencies
After studying this topic the students will be able to:

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Explain how time is the only resource, which has not changed with technological advances.
Arrange a list of constructions duties in the order in which they will be needed for a project to
occur.
Explain how the time scheduling of a construction project will impact the overall profitability.
Uncover time costs associated with pre-construction planning, giving examples of costs.
Develop a scheduling chart for a specified construction project.
Define the Critical Path Method of scheduling
Check and monitor the classs progress by developing a progress chart on lab assignments.
Suggested Specific Instructional Strategies

1. Instructor will provide a copy(s) of the Occupational Career Handbook for use by students.
2. Student will analyze the preparation and utilization of people as a resource in construction
projects.
3. Student will investigate and report on a given career in the construction field.
4. Student will research programs available locally which prepare individuals for work in construction
fields.
5. Student will research pay ranges for local community jobs involving construction.
6. Instructor will use a time line and diagrams to illustrate how construction projects been used to
solve societies needs.
7. Students will use technical and historical information to recognize unsafe working conditions.
8. Students will successfully pass written exam on safety in the classroom.
9. Students will successfully pass a practical (performance) exam given by the instructor on each
piece of equipment before they use the equipment.
10. Students will demonstrate daily a concern for safety in the classroom, including but not limited to
wearing safety glasses, and selecting the correct tools for the job.
11. Instructor will model safe working habits 100% of the time in the classroom and lab.
12. Student will draw floor plan of a given structure within certain limitations given by the instructor.
(Example- 1200sq ft dream house/camp with three bedrooms, kitchen, bath, living room, dining
room, and utility room)
13. Student will demonstrate the ability to select appropriate materials for the construction project,
given limitations such as function and overall costs
14. Students will pass a written exam on origin of materials, and conversion processes to primary and
secondary resources.
15. Instructor will demonstrate dimensional stability with examples and comparisons of wood samples
with a moisture meter.
16. Instructor will simulate forces such as tensile, compression and shear in a lab setting.
17. Instructor will provide collection of samples of products for students to observe.
18. Instructor will provide videos of topics that are not appropriate for class room lab activities( bridge
building, industrial, and civil construction projects)
19. Instructor will provide hand, power and specialty tools unique to the construction industry. (Note:
safety concerns are high with pneumatic tools)
20. Instructor will demonstrate proper use of all tools and provide activities on which the students can
practice with tools.
21. Student will explore the need and potential sources for capital and financing for their project(s).
22. Student must complete written assignment on the time-value of money for a project.
23. Students will prepare time estimates for a given project and develop a construction schedule.
24. Students will manage their time in the lab and classroom to properly complete their assigned
activities.
25. Students will choose a local construction project from a list generated by the instructor and
identify the sources of the funding for the project.
26. Students will analyze potential energy sources for a given task. Students will then calculate
monetary costs for each alternative.
27. Instructor will provide examples of renewable energy sources to heat a residential dwelling.
28. Instructor will provide examples of prefabricated components to be used in a project.

21
29. Class will discuss how pre-assembled components can aid in the construction of a building.
30. Students will develop an estimate of materials needed from a given building plan.

22
Module 4
Construction System Processes
4.1 Substructure/ Foundations
Performance Indicators/Supporting Competencies
Students will be able to:
List three types of common light construction structure foundations.
Compare and contrast industrial construction to civil construction.
Describe how foundations and substructures are constructed.
List the different forces that act on a structure including tension/tensile stress, compression
stress, shear stress, torsion stress and equilibrium.
Explain the difference between live and dead loads on a structure.
4.2 Superstructures
Performance Indicators/Supporting Competencies
Students will be able to:
Compare and contrast load bearing and non-load bearing components in a superstructure
List common materials for superstructure components
Relate fields of construction to common components in each.
Differentiate between columns, girders, beams, and walls.
Examine and identify differences in wall design in light construction verses commercial
construction.
4.3 Enclosure Systems
Performance Indicators/Supporting Competencies
Students will be able to:
Arrange listings of enclosure system components in order of completion.
Compare and contrast two interior finishes.
Compare and contrast two exterior finishes.
Construct a schedule of finish projects for a light construction project.
Make use of commercial literature to design a cabinetry finish package for a project.
Offer several solutions/ options for ceiling finishes for a given project.
4.4 Utility Systems
Performance Indicators/Supporting Competencies
Students will be able to:
Identify the different types of utility systems present on most projects.
Identify the two categories of plumbing systems. (fresh water supply and DWV)
Identify options for electrical services and supplies in a house/ industry.
Determine options for a HVAC system in a light construction project.
List materials commonly found in a utility system.
Compare and contrast various choices of pipes for a given project.

23

List common uses of wires in a light construction project.


Suggested Specific Instructional Strategies

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.

Instructor will provide examples of foundations and substructures in photo or video format.
Students will stake out a small foundation using batter boards.
Students will compare the advantages and limitations of wood, metal, and concrete.
Using provided blueprints students would identify various framing features of the building.
Student will build a scale model of a room, using commonly found materials.
Using blueprints provided by instructor, students will calculate the materials need to sheath,
insulate, side and roof a dwelling.
Students will calculate heat loss using given formulas and propose improvements to limit heat
loss in a dwelling.
Instructor will provide samples of commonly used pipe and wire.
Instructor will provide a tour of the school pointing out utilities.
Students will build miniature wall section and wire with several switches and outlets, and finish
wall with sheet rock.
Students will assemble several types of pipe and pressure test assemblies.
Instructor will provide four stations for students to work on full-scale roofing, electrical, plumbing,
framing, and siding labs.
Students will follow plans for a wiring diagram and install boxes, wire and receptacles in a lab
built wall section.
Students will assemble plumbing components to complete a given plumbing plan in a lab built
wall section.
Students will assemble wall sections per framing plan and install window and door in a lab built
wall section.
Students will side wall section, with given materials in a lab built wall section.
Students will apply roofing materials to roof section in the lab.
Students will use knowledge acquired through lab exercises to build a full scale shed or
playhouse as a capstone activity.

24
Module 5
Construction Systems Outputs
5.1 Completed project
Performance Indicators/Supporting Competencies
After studying this topic the students will be able to:
List three reasons for landscaping in a project.
Define punch-list as it refers to project completion.
Relate maintenance of a project as a continuing need in all fields of construction.
Relate outsourced maintenance to its impact on jobs and well being of the community
5.2 Impacts
Performance Indicators/Supporting Competencies
After studying this topic the students will be able to:
Explain the social, economic, political, and environmental impacts of construction technology.
Relate job growth to community acceptance of commercial/ industrial construction in new areas.
Cite examples of negative impacts on communities from given projects.
Cite examples of positive impacts on communities from given projects.
Analyze long-term job growth in an area created by new industrial construction.
Explain how individuals are impacted by long-term debts associated with new light construction,
primarily residential housing.
Suggested Specific Instructional Strategies
1. Students will perform daily cleanup assignments in classroom and lab.
2. Students will pick a structure and suggest landscaping improvements.
3. Students will create with instructors help a list of potential maintenance concerns and costs over
the life of a house.
4. Students will identify where construction wastes are disposed of in their community.
5. Student will find a homeowner and interview the person using a class-developed questionnaire to
determine the long-term economic impacts of their home purchase.
6. Students will identify a large local construction project and discuss the effects of the project ton
the community and environment.

25
Module 6
Construction Systems Control
6.1 Reasons
Performance Indicators/Supporting Competencies
After studying this topic the students will be able to:
Define Quality Control/ Assurance.
Relate Quality Control to financial profitability of a company.
Propose how finding in quality control impact system inputs.
Relate quality control to Zoning and Building Codes enforcement.
6.2 Methods
Performance Indicators/Supporting Competencies
After studying this topic the students will be able to:
Compare and contrast the environmental impact of a finished project to the initial plans.
Explain why outputs are monitored.
Break down and compare inputs and outputs with identification and minimization of wastes in
construction projects.
Compose an argument why control is necessary in a construction system.
Define profitability.
Suggested Specific Instructional Strategies
1.
2.
3.
4.

Students will as a regular practice, check their work during the construction process.
Students will use building plans to verify quality of assembled components.
Students will evaluate the completed project to determine ways in which to increase profits.
Students will perform the job of zoning/building inspector, comparing finished project against list
of instructor provided codes.
5. Students will keep a log of their work time and compare the actual time spent to the original time
estimates that they had previously prepared.

26
Bibliography
Allen, E, Iano, J. (2003). Fundamentals of building construction: materials and methods, 4th edition. New
York, New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ISBN: 0-471-21903-7
Allen, E, Thallon, R. (2002). Fundamentals of residential construction. New York, New York: John Wiley &
Sons, Inc. ISBN 0-471-38687-1
Brown, W.C. (1997). Print reading for construction- residential and commercial. Tinley Park, Illinois:
Goodheart-Willcox. ISBN 1-56637-355-7
Ching, F.D.K., Adams, C. (2001). Building construction ills. 3rd edition, New York, New York:
John Wiley and Sons Inc. ISBN 0-471-35898-3
Dishongh, B. (2001). Essential structural technology for construction and architecture, Upper Saddle
River, NJ: Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-012858-9
Feirer, M.D,. Feirer, J. L. (2004). Carpentry and building construction. Peoria, Illinois: Glencoe/ McGrawHill. ISBN 0-07-822702-X
Henak, R. M., (2000). Exploring construction, Tinley Park, Illinois: Goodheart-Willcox.
ISBN 1-56637-681-5
Holzman, H.N. (2002). Modern commercial wiring. Tinley Park, Illinois: Goodheart-Willcox.
ISBN 1-56637-916-4
Holzman, H.N. (2002). Modern residential wiring. Tinley Park, Illinois: Goodheart-Willcox.
ISBN 1-56637-913-X
Kicklighter, C.E. (2004). Architecture residential drafting and design. Tinley Park, Illinois: GoodheartWillcox. ISBN 1-59070-195-X
Kicklighter, C.E. (2003). Modern masonry- brick, block, stone. Tinley Park, Illinois: Goodheart-Willcox.
ISBN 1-56637-962-8
Killinger, J., Killinger, L. (2003). Heating and cooling essentials. Tinley Park, Illinois: Goodheart-Willcox.
ISBN 1-56637-965-2
Marotta, T. W. (2002). Basic construction materials, 6/E. Upper Saddle River, NJ.: Prentice Hall. ISBN 013-089625-X
Mix, F. (2002). House wiring simplified. Tinley Park, Illinois: Goodheart-Willcox.
ISBN 1-56637-899-0
Nunnally, S. W., (1998). Construction methods and management, 4/E. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice
Hall. ISBN: 0-13-570367-0
Peters, R. (2000). Framing basics. New York, New York, Sterling Publishing Company Inc.
ISBN 0-8069-5899-5
Polette, D., Landers, J.M. (2002). Construction systems. Tinley Park, Illinois: Goodheart-Willcox. ISBN 156637-862-1
Richter, HP. Schwan, WC. (2002). Wiring simplified. Minneapolis, MN: Parl Publishing, Inc. ISBN#
096032948X

27
Spence, W. (1997). Carpentry & building construction, a do-it-yourself guide. New York, New York,
Sterling Publishing Company Inc. ISBN 0-8069-9845-8
Wagner, W.H., Smith, H.B. (2003). Modern Carpentry, Tinley Park, Illinois: Goodheart-Willcox. ISBN 159070-202-6
Wagner, W.H., Kicklighter, C.E. (2004). Modern woodworking. Tinley Park, Illinois: Goodheart-Willcox.
ISBN 1-59070-253-0
Willenbrock, J.H., Manbeck, H, Suchar, M.G. (1998). Residential building design and construction. Upper
Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-375874-5

28
Specific Content Web Resources
www.construction.com McGraw-Hill Construction
www.aisc.org

American Institute of Steel Construction

www.construction-institute.org

Construction Industry Institute

www.aci.mt.org American Concrete Institute


www.wolmanizedwood.com Pressure-treated lumber
www.ashrae.org American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers
www.hometime.com Hometime home-improvement television show broadcast on public television, and
The Learning Channel.
www.dams.org World Commission on Dams
www.lehigh.edu/~inctbuh/mission Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat
www.apawood.org APA-The Engineered Wood Association
www.awstruewind.com AWS Truewind-Renewable Energy Technology Applications
www.altenergy.org Alternative Energy Institute
www.plasticsresource.com American Plastics Council
www.wwpa.org

Western Wood Products Association

www.iwpawood.org International Wood Products Association


www.handymanwire.com/articles/picnic.html Picnic Table Project Plans
www.freeww.com/storagebuildings.html Free Wood Working Plans for Sheds, Furniture, Etc.
www.historychannel.com Great link for VHS, and DVD movies- Modern Marvels series

29
DVD, VHS, and Other Instructional Technology Resources
1. Super Structures of the World: Skyscrapers (1999) Studio: Unapix, Theatrical Release Date:
January 1, 1999, Video Release Date: July 28, 1998.Run Time: 52 minutes
2. Building of Hoover Dam (1999) Release Information: Studio: Mpi Home Video. Video Release
Date: May25, 1999Run Time: 52 minutes
2. Great Projects: The Building of America 4PK (VHS) + Hardcover Book. Item no: GPBA952
4. NOVA: Super Bridge (VHS). Item no: NOVA817
6. Autumn Woods (construction of a 3,100-square-foot house) 3-DVD Set Item #6206 Hometime
Video Approx. 360 Minutes (4-tape set), 2004
7. Contracting a Home DVDs, Item #6207, Hometime Video, 179 Minutes (2-DVD Set), 2004
8. Putter Shed Video and Plan Combo 10' x 6' shed, Hometime Video. Item #2512
9. Roofing and Siding Videos, Item #2541, Hometime Video
10. Modern Marvels: Golden Gate Bridge, VHS-$19.95, 1 Volume Set, 50 Minutes, Item Number:
AAE-12206
11. Modern Marvels: Panama Canal, $19.95, 1 Volume Set, 50 Minutes, Item Number: AAE-12203
12. Modern Marvels: The Erie Canal $24.95, 1 Volume Set, 50 Minutes, Item Number: AAE-42928
13. Modern Marvels: Plumbing: The Arteries of Civilization, $24.95,1 Volume Set, 50 Minutes, Item
Number: AAE-42223
14. Modern Marvels: Plumbing: The Arteries of Civilization, $24.95,1 Volume Set, 50 Minutes, Item
Number: AAE-42214
15. Modern Marvels: Chesapeake Bay Bridge and Tunnel DVD, $24.95, 1 Volume Set, 50 Minutes,
Item Number: AAE-71145

30
General Web Resources
Academy of Applied Science (AAS)
American Association for the Advancement of Science
American Chemical Society (ACS)
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)
ASEE EngineeringK12 Center
Association for Career and Technical Education (ACTE)
Council on Technology Teacher Education (CTTE)
Dr. Waite's SUNY Oswego Academic Web Site
Einstein Project
Electronic Industries Foundation
Epsilon Pi Tau Honorary Fraternity in Technology
Florida Technology Education Association
For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology (FIRST)
Four County Technology Association (Rochester Area)
Future Scientists and Engineers of America (FSEA)
History of Education - Selected Moments of 20th Century
History of Science Society
Inner Auto
Innovation Curriculum Online Network
Institute for Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE)
International Society for Technology in Education
International Technology Education Association
JETS
Journal of Technology Education
Journal of Technology Education
KISS Institute for Practical Robotics (KIPR)
Microsoft Educator Resources
Mohawk Valley Technology Education Association
Montgomery Public Schools
NASA - Education Program
Nassau Technology Educators Association
National Academy of Engineering
National Academy of Engineering: TECHNICALLY SPEAKING
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)
National Research Council
National Science Foundation
National Society of Professional Engineers
New York State Technology Education Association
Niagara County & Western New York TEA
Ohio State University
Oswego Technology Education Association
Project Lead The Way
Skills USA
Society for Philosophy and Technology
Society for the History of Technology
Suffolk Technology Education Association
SUNY Oswego Dept of Technology
Teacher Certification Office NYS

31
TECH CORPS
Tech Learning
Techne Journal
Technology for All Americans Project (standards)
Technology Student Association
Technology Student Association (TSA)
The Learning Institute of Technology Education (LITE)
TIES Magazine
U.S. Department of Education

32
Appendix A - Correlation Matrix with NYS Learning Standards for Math, Science, and Technology
(Complete text of standards available on line at : www.emsc.nysed.gov , Go to MST icon)

33

Content Standards

Performance
Module Numbers, Sections and Descriptions
Stan
dards

Standard 1
Analysis, Inquiry, and
Design
Mathematical
analys
is
Scientific inquiry
Engineering design

1.2 Universal Systems Approach Model,


3.2- Information, 6.1 Reasons, 6.2 Methods,
1.2 Universal Systems Approach Model, 2.1- Desired
project, 2.2- Expected impacts, 3.7 Time,
6.0- Feedback/ Control
1.3 Future of Construction, 2.1- Desired project,
2.2 Expected impacts, 3.1- People, 3.2- Information,
3.5 Capital, 3.6 Energy, 6.2 Methods

Standard 2
Information Systems
Retrieve
Process
Communicate
Impacts
Limitations
Ethics

1.3- Historical Developments, 3.1- People,


3.2- Information,
2.1- Desired project, 3.4 Tool/ Machines/ Equipment,
3.1- People, 3.2- Information,
2.2- Expected impacts, 5.1 Completed Project
3.3 Materials, 3.4 Tool/ Machines/ Equipment, 3.5
Capital, 3.6 Energy,
3.2- Information, 6.1 Reasons,

Standard 3
Mathematics
Mathematical
reason
ing
Number and
numer
ation
Operations
Modeling
Measurement
Uncertainty
Patterns

3.5 Capital, 1.2 Universal Systems Approach Model,

Physical setting

2.2 Expected impacts, 3.3 Materials, 4.1 Substructures/


Foundations, 6.0 Feedback Control,
2.2 Expected impacts, 5.2 Impacts, 6.0 Feedback
Control, 6.1 Reasons

3.2- Information, 6.2 Methods


4.0 Processes,
4.0 Processes,
4.1 Substructures/ Foundations,
2.2 Expected impacts, 6.1 Reasons
6.0 Feedback Control,

Standard 4
Science
Living environment
Standard 5
Technology
Engineering design
Tools, resources,
and
techno
logical
proces
ses
Computer
techno

2.1 Desired project, 3.6 Energy, 4.2 Superstructures,


1.4 Future of Construction, 3.1 People, 3.2 Information,
3.3 Materials, 3.4 Tool/ Machines/
Equipment, 3.5 Capital, 3.6 Energy, 3.7
Time, 4.0 Processes, 4.1 Substructures/
Foundations, 4.2 Superstructures, 4.3
Enclosure systems, 4.4 Utility Systems,
2.1 Desired project, 3.2 Information, 3.4 Tool/
Machines/ Equipment,

34
logy
Technological
syste
ms
History of
techno
logy
Impacts
Management

1.1 Fields of Construction, 4.0 Processes, 4.1


Substructures/ Foundations, 4.2
Superstructures,
1.3 Historical Developments, 4.0 Processes, 4.1
Substructures/ Foundations, 4.2
Superstructures,
2.2 Expected impacts, 5.0 Outputs,
3.1 People, 3.5 Capital, 3.7 Time, 5.0 Outputs, 5.1
Completed Project, 5.2 Impacts, 6.0
Feedback Control,

Standard 6
Interconnectiveness:
Common Themes
Systems thinking
Models
Magnitude and
scale
Equilibrium and
stabilit
y
Patterns of change
Optimization

1.2 Universal Systems Approach Model,


4.0 Processes, 4.1 Substructures/ Foundations, 4.2
Superstructures, 5.0 Outputs, 6.0
Feedback Control,
4.0 Processes, 4.1 Substructures/ Foundations, 4.2
Superstructures,
2.2 Expected impacts, 3.6 Energy, 6.1 Reasons
1.3 Historical Developments,
1.2 Universal Systems Approach Model, 5.0 Outputs,
6.0- Feedback/ Control

Standard 7 Interdisciplinary
Problem Solving
Connections
Work habits
Skills and
strateg
ies

2.1 Desired project, 2.2 Expected impacts, 3.2


Information, 3.6 Energy, 4.0 Processes,
5.2 Impacts, 6.2 Methods
3.1 People, 5.2 Impacts
1.2 Universal Systems Approach Model, 3.1 People ,
3.2 Information, 5.2 Impacts

35
Appendix B Examples of Instructional Materials
Example 1: The following project sheets are to be used in lab activities for: Framing, Electrical, Plumbing
and Roofing Activities. Each component will require approximately 50 sq. ft. of room in a lab. Additional
room must be allowed for materials and tool storage. Each station should be equipped with the necessary
tools and a photo attached to indicate where to return the tools to their proper locations at the end of the
class.
Note: All references to textbook work will need to be adjusted for alignment with course textbook.
(Sheet 1)

Wall Framing

Directions: You must first complete the assignments attached. (insert appropriate pages and name of text
here) Have the instructor sign you off as done.
Instructor __________________________
Directions: Your group is going to construct a two section wall units
They both will be 68 tall X 48 in length-------(they must have spacers on one end of each wall- see diagram)
It must have the following:
Rough opening for a window Sized to fit a window 2/0 (wide) X 2/0 (tall).
Top plate
Header for window
Rough opening for a door sized to fit a door 3/0 (wide) X 6/8 (tall).
Header for door
Note: Remember how rough openings are determined- If in doubt check your textbook.
Instructor Signature when completed ----Instructor Signature __________________________________
Take apart when completed, and return components to their original state !!
REMEMBER SAFETY GLASSES ON AT ALL TIMES !
Framing Grading Rubric:
Textbook work done
25 pts
Two walls built correct size w/ spacers
25 pts
Rough opening for window
25 pts
Top plates installed properly
25 pts
Window header installed properly
25 pts
Rough opening for a door
25 pts
Door header installed properly
25 pts
Materials disassembled after grading
25 pts
Total points ..200 pts

36
Wall Sections

WALL #1
WALL #1
SPACER

68

96
STUDS ARE 16 INCHES ON CENTER

WALL # 2

SPACER

HEADE

WINDOW ROUGH OPENING = 25 1/2 x 25

37
(Sheet 2)

Electrical Activity

Guide Lines and Procedures


Directions: You must first complete all written work in this activity. These include the following units and
chapters: You must save all work and will be compiled into a notebook. Each member of the group must
complete these Chapters.
(insert appropriate pages and name of text here)
CHAPTERS MUST BE COMPLETED BEFORE WORK CAN BEGIN!
Using the attached drawing follow these steps:
1. Attached the electrical boxes in the proper location (drawing)
2. Attach the light box to the wall unit (drawing)
3. Run the romex wire to each box leaving extra for cutting
4. Wire unit (drawing)
5. Have instructor check and sign before testing unit _____________
6. Check unit with power supply TEST outlets with drill
7. Remove switch when done and wire a dimmer switch.
8. Test dimmer switch
ELECTRICAL INVENTORY
Red Panel
2- wire strippers
2- wire cutters
needle nose
wire stripper
4- romex silver strippers
Shelf Unit
phillipss screwdrivers
blue outlet boxes
outlets
switch plate covers
roll black electrical tape
light socket
claw hammer (black)
tray for screws (6- screws)

2- flat screw drivers


switches
1-dimmer switch
outlet plate covers
box of green wire connectors
1 box of staples
utility knife
1- tape measure

REMEMBER SAFETY GLASSES ON AT ALL TIMES !


GOOD LUCK !!!!
Electrical Grading Rubric:
Textbook work done
25 pts
Boxes in correct locations
25 pts
Wires run correctly
25 pts
Switches installed correctly
25 pts
Outlets installed correctly
25 pts
Dimmer switch installed correctly
25 pts
All switches and outlets work correctly
25 pts
Materials disassembled after grading
25 pts
Total points ..200 pts

38
Electrical Drawing

39
(Sheet 3)

Plumbing Activity

Directions: Each group will receive a packet depending on the activity they may be working on. In each
packet will be much information on the specific activity. This activity is PLUMBING. In this activity you will
follow several steps in applying roofing shingles.
Follow the Steps for completion. REMEMBER Each member must fill out his or her own answer sheet.
A. DIRECTIONS: You and your team must read and answer the questions for the roofing assignment in
(insert appropriate pages and name of text here). Put all answers on the attached worksheet.
Have instructor sign before working in the lab:
Instructor Signature ___________________________________
B. Now you are ready to begin the plumbing exercise.
The object of this activity is to learn how to run copper pipe (water line) along a given wall without leaks.
Through this process you will learn to cut pipe, and sweat pipe using solder. You will learn how to connect
pipe with sleeves and elbows with the end attached to a facet.
Using the attached drawing follow these steps:
STEP #1- Cut pipe to desired length, (check drawing for length and location) cut the pieces for the
whole activity and solder last.
STEP #2 Use elbows where needed
STEP #3 Attached valve, attach cap, attach faucet (check drawing for location)
STEP #4 Begin soldering cooling each pipe as you go make sure you clean and sand each end before
soldering
STEP #5 Have instructor check your work before it can be tested for water
Instructor Signature ___________________________________
Hook up to hose turn on water and look for leaks.
Take apart when completed, and return components to their original locations !!
Note: Copper fittings can be reused several times if handled with care.
REMEMBER SAFETY GLASSES ON AT ALL TIMES !
GOOD LUCK !!!!
Plumbing Grading Rubric:
Textbook work done
50 pts
Pipe cut to proper lengths
25 pts
Fittings installed in correct locations
25 pts
Soldering completed correctly
50 pts
Water test (leaks??)
25 pts
Materials disassembled after grading
25 pts
Total points ..200 pts

40
Plumbing Drawing

41

(Sheet 4)

Roof Activity

Directions: Each group will receive a packet depending on the activity they may be working on. In each
packet will be much information on the specific activity. This activity is ROOFING. In this activity you will
follow several steps in applying roofing shingles.
Follow the Steps for completion. REMEMBER Each member must fill out his or her own answer sheet.
A. Directions: You and your team must read and answer the questions for the roofing assignment in
(insert appropriate pages and name of text here) Put all answers on the attached worksheet.
Have instructor sign that you completed the written work.
Instructor Signature ___________________________________
B. Begin the practical roofing activity. Call instructor over before you begin!
Roofing Directions as follows:
1. Apply drip edge to bottom of roof sheathing.
2. Roll out 15# felt to cover roof.
3. Apply drip edge to edge of roof sheathing.
4. Following manufacturers instructions apply starter strip.
5. Reference manufacturers instruction and apply first full layer of shingles.
6. Continue shingle application with staggered pattern per manufacturers instructions.
Check to make sure you have all materials before you begin --- Including a copy of the manufacturers
instructions, which can be found on each bundle of shingles.
ROOFING INVENTORY
4- hammers (2- red 2- yellow)
1-square
1-staple gun
4- nail aprons

1- green crow bar


4- utility knives
1- roll tar paper
1- box of roofing nails

After one row has been completed have instructor check ________
After 2 rows have been completed have instructor check ________
When completely done have instructor sign ___________________
Take apart when completed, and return components to their original locations !!
Note: For this activity the shingles can be reused several times if handled with care.
REMEMBER SAFETY GLASSES ON AT ALL TIMES !
GOOD LUCK !!!!
Roofing Grading Rubric:
Textbook work done
25 pts
Drip edge applied correctly
25 pts
15# felt applied correctly
25 pts
Starter strip applied correctly
25 pts
First layer of shingles applied correctly
25 pts
Correct staggered pattern
25 pts
Proper nailing schedule
25 pts
Materials disassembled after grading
25 pts
Total points ..200 pts

42
Example 2: Picnic Table. Note: This a good activity to provide the dimensions and types of materials,
then have the students estimate the materials and locate pricing for the materials and calculate the cost of
the project.
Picnic table with 28x96 table-top

The top I recommend is made of 8- 2x4. You can substitute 5- 2x6 for this, but I like the smaller
width boards since they cup less. Always nail the seat board and top boards with the grain as
shown in figure 2. This will ensure they cup with the concave face down, if they cup at all.

Figure 2
You will need the following materials:

12 - 2x4's 8 ft long

4 - 2x6's 8 ft long (if you can bring home 10ft boards buy 1 10 footer and 2 8's)

2 - 2x10's 8 ft long.

43

Tools:

16 - 3" x 3/8" carriage bolts (galvanized) plus washers and nuts for each.

1 - box of 16d galvanized twist nails

Tape measure

Hammer

Drill (and 3/8" bit, and " spade bit)

Saw (not too much cutting)


Build the top:
Cut a 2x4 into three pieces each 26 inches long for the cross boards.
Nail the 8 top boards to these three cross boards leaving an inch of overhang on each
side. One cross board goes in the middle (the 4 ft mark) and the outer two in 4 inches
from the ends.

Cut the legs:


The four legs are cut identically from two of the 2x6's.
They should have an angle cut on them of 60 degrees at the top and bottom and be 33.5
inches long on each side. To get a 60 degree angle you can use a square and mark a 2:1
rise to run.
Next cut the remaining 2x6's to 5 ft long each for the seat stretchers.(this is where you
can just cut the 10 footer in half if you bought one).
Putting this together
Flip the top upside down. Mount the legs to the outer cross boards. The legs go on the
inside of the cross boards, 3 inches in from the outside of the top. Drill and bolt them to
the cross boards with 2 bolts per leg.
Countersink the holes for the nuts and washers with the inch bit, then drill the rest of
the way through with the 3/8 inch bit. The nuts should go on the inside (On the inside of
the legs) The bolts are only as wide as the wood so there will be no bolt sticking through
to ever hit with your knee.
After all four legs are attached to the top, attach the seat stretchers. They should go such
that the seat will sit on them 17 inches off the ground. That is measure down from the
bottoms of the feet 17 inches and this is where the stretchers top will be. (just look at the

44
picture, sometimes I just have a heck of a time describing something)
Bolt the stretchers to the legs again using 2 bolts per leg and countersinking the
nuts/washers on the inside.

Finally
While it is upside down, attach the diagonal braces. These should be cut from a 2x4.
They should be cut with a ~ 17 degree angle roughly 44 inches per side. These should be
cut to fit. Make sure the legs are square with the top, the braces will hold them square.
Set these offset from each other so you can nail into each of them from opposite sides of
the center cross board. Nail them into the seat stretchers as well, when you are sure the
length will hold the legs square.

45
Now flip the table right side up and nail two 2x4's between the seat stretchers. Finally nail
the two 2x10 seats in place on top of the seat stretchers and the 2x4 seat supports.
Before nailing these in place, measure the distances between the stretchers so again you
are ensuring the table is square.
Finishing
You can leave the table with no finish and it will weather a light gray, or you can apply a sealer a stain or
paint.

46
Example 3: Simple Shed Plans 10x12

47
Example 4: Rafter Layout- Note: This activity can be done with a variety of materials, although it is
suggested that instructor find materials as close to, if not materials actually used for rafter construction.
Rafter Layout Activity
Name:
Vocabulary:
Define the following terms.
Pitch:
Birds mouth:
Common rafter:
Roof truss:
Gable roof:
Slope:
Span :
Run:
Unit of Run:
Rise :
Unit Rise
Plumb and level lines:
Ridge Board:
Rafters:
Common Rafters:
Hip Rafters
Valley Rafters:
Jack Rafters:
Overview:
You are to use the step off method to layout and draw the cuts needed to fabricate a common rafter. Your
instructor will provide the span, slope, and horizontal overhang measurements. You should review pages
(insert appropriate pages and name of text here) prior to attempting this activity. You will draw (but NOT
cut) the rafter on a 2x6x12 provided in class.
Layout Procedure:
1. On the face of the 2x6 layout the ridgeline.
2. Step off each unit of run.
3. Mark the birds mouth (this rafter will sit on a 2x6 wall).
4. Step off and mark the overhang
5. Mark one half of the thickness of the ridge board (this rafter will use a 2x8 ridge board) at
the ridge line.
Rafter Specifications (Instructor will circle):

48

Length Confirmation (and alternate layout technique):


As a check, calculate the rafter length using the rafter tables on a framing square.
1. Determine the run (half of the span). Result:
2. Add to the run, the horizontal overhang. Result:
3. Total of run + overhang =

ft. -

in.

4. Convert this total to decimal notation. Example: 4 inches converted to feet is: 4/12 = .33
5. Result:

ft.

6. From the rafter tables on the blade of a framing square, find the length per foot of run
based on the slope value that you have been assigned.
____________
total run (from step 5)

=
table value,

in.

total rafter length

7. Reduce this total rafter length to feet and inches by dividing your answer by 12.
Example:

93.94 divided by 12 = 7.8283 ft. Result:

8. Change the decimal portion into fractional inches. Example: .8283 X 12 = 9.94 in.
Result:
9. Change the remainder (.94) into 1 6ths of an inch. This can be done using the 100th scale
on the framing square or from the decimal chart on page 749 of Modern Carpentry.
Example:

7 -9 15/16. Result:

10. This should give you the length of your completed rafter. Measure from the top of the
plumb cut to the top of the tail cut. Does the step off rafter length match the calculated
length? Result: ___________
11. What is the difference between the two lengths? Result: __________
12. Explain why the results of these two methods may differ.

Instructor:

Grade:

49
Example 5: Stair Layout- Note: This activity can be done with a variety of materials, although it is
suggested that instructor find materials as close to, if not materials actually used for each activity.
Stair Layout Activity
Name:
Vocabulary:
Define the following terms.
Stringer:
Tread:
Headroom:
Total Rise:
Unit Rise:
Unit Run:
Overview:
You are to layout and draw the cuts needed to fabricate a stair stringer. Your instructor will provide the
total rise and total run measurements. You should review pages (insert appropriate pages and name of
text here) prior to attempting this activity. You will draw (but NOT cut) the stringer on a
2x 10x 6 provided in class.
Stair Specifications (Instructor will circle):
Total Rise
24
26
Total Run
48
40

30
36

36
24

In residential construction, a good comfortable target is 7 inches of rise and 11 inches of run. However,
this is not always possible. Given total rise and total run restrictions, you need to calculate a variety of
options to determine the unit rise and unit run values that will result in the most comfortable, safe, and
practical set of steps.
Calculate Options:
Now calculate several different stair options given the total rise and total run restrictions that the instructor
gave you. For this activity determine what the unit rise and unit run would be if you constructed a set of
stairs with 2, 3, 4, 5, and even 6 steps.
Number of Steps
Unit Rise (ft - in)
Unit Run (ft - in)
2
3
4
5
6
Layout Procedure: (additional details attached)
1. Select from your calculations the most appropriate step configuration.
2. On the face of the 2 x 10 layout the stringer using a framing square.
3. Begin layout at the top of the stringer.
4. Let the blade of the square represent the treads and the tongue represents the risers.
5. Draw a line along the outside edge of the square.
6. Move the square to the next position and repeat.
7. You are creating a pattern - accuracy is expected.
Evaluation:
You need to show these calculations AND your completed stringer to your instructor.
Steps all the same (20pts)
All calculations complete (40 pts)
All cut markings complete (40 pts)
Instructor:

50
Example 6: Plate Layout Activity - Note: This activity can be done with a without a power planer, but using
one guarantees that all old marks are completely removed.
Plate Layout Activity
Name___________________________________

Date ________

Definitions:
WaIl Plate
Stud
Trimmer / Jack Stud
On Center
Rough Opening
Header
Cripple
Directions:
Using the 10 2x4 provided by the instructor, you will be marking out to different plate layouts based on
information from the window and door catalog.
Note:

Choose window and door sizes smaller than 5.

Window Plate Layout:


The window is a (brand name)
with a rough opening of
catalog.

number
. This information was found on page number

of the window

On the first EDGE mark 16 centers. Do this by hooking the tape on the end of the plate and drawing a
line at 151/4 in. This represents the outside edge of the first stud. Place an X to the side of that line
toward the larger number on the tape measure. This X represents the placement of the stud relative to the
line. Drive a nail at the 15 1/4 line. Hook your tape here and mark centers at 16 intervals by thawing a
line at each 16 interval and marking the X on the side past the interval line.
Now locate the center for the window at 5- 7/8 from the layout end of the plate and mark it appropriately
with (center-line mark)
Using the rough opening measurement from the catalog, divide the rough opening width by 2. Find that
measurement on the tape and place it on the center mark so that half of the rough opening width falls on
each side of the center mark. Put a mark at 0 and at the rough opening width.
Note:
Show the regular studs with an (X), Trimmer/Jack studs with a (T), and the Cripples with a (C).

51

Door Plate Layout:


The door is a (brand name)
with a rough opening of
catalog.

number
. This information was found on page number

of the door

On the second EDGE mark 24 centers. Do this by hooking the tape on the end of the plate and drawing
a line at 23 1/4 in. This represents the outside edge of the first stud. Place an X to the side of that line
toward the larger number on the tape measure. This X represents the placement of the stud relative to the
line. Drive a nail at the 23 1/4 line. Hook your tape here and mark centers at 24 intervals by drawing a
line at each 2411 interval and marking the X on the side past the interval line.
Now locate the center for the door at 5 3-1/8 from the layout end of the plate and mark it appropriately
with (center-line mark)
Using the rough opening measurement from the catalog, divide the rough opening width by 2. Find that
measurement on the tape and place it on the center mark so that half of the rough opening width fails on
each side of the center mark. Put a mark at 0 and at the rough opening width.
Note:
Show the regular studs with an (X) and the Trimmer/Jack studs with a (T).
Regular wall
16

16
X

16

16

16

Position of R.O. Centerline


12

16
X

T X

Rough Opening

When finished with the above steps, call the instructor over to check your work.

Instructor Signature

Grade

Once your work has been checked, use a power plane to remove your marks from the 2x4. Return the
power plane to the tool cabinet and the 2x4 to the storage rack.

52
Example 7: Framing Systems Model- Note: The use of hot glue guns will speed the construction of the
model, but bring into the classroom the inherent danger of hot liquids.
Framing Systems Model
Directions:
Design and Construct a scale model of a foyer / entryway addition demonstrating wood frame
Construction techniques. The Model is built on apiece of 12 x12 x 1/4 Luan plywood, which represents
the sub floor.
Model Requirements:
1. Built to 1=1 scale
2. Studs and joists are to he 16 oc.
3. Floor system framing
4. Have three outside walls that intersect
5. Wall height must be 8 from the sole plate to the top plate
6. Have two different types corner framing
7. Must include one window and one door
8. Have either 6 trusses or 6 rafters to be 16 o.c. for rafters and 24 o.c. for trusses
9. Model must be glued together
10. All parts labeled
* Additional Options
Insulation
Wallboard
Sheathing
Vapor Barrier

Scale Ratios:
1
3/4
1/ 2
1/ 4
1/ 8
1/16
1/ 32

Basement / crawl space access


=
=
=
=
=
=
=

1
9
6
3
1-1/2
3/4
3/8

Evaluation:

Points

All Requirements Included


Proper Framing Techniques Followed
Quality of Construction
Additional Options
Total =
Grade

80 pts
50 pts
50 pts
20 pts
200

Students
Evaluation
pts
pts
pts
pts

Instructors
Evaluation
pts
pts
pts
pts
______ Total

53
Example 8: Computer design and modeling- Note: This activity can be done with a variety of computer
programs, in this case 3D Home Architect was chosen as a low cost program with a high level of user
friendliness.
3-D Home Architect Activity
Name ________________________
Directions:
Design a ranch style house of under 2000 sq. ft.
Features to include in your design:
Windows and Doors
Include dimensions (but only once)
Exterior walls 6
lnterior walls 4
Full bathroom
Eating area

Furniture Electric (outlets every 6, lights, and switches)


Label rooms
Extras?
Closets
Kitchen (with cabinets)
Bedrooms

Activity Steps:
1. Pre-Sketching:
Before sketching, determine the general sizes of the following rooms from the floor plans in the
3-D Home Architect activity booklet.
Kitchen
___ W x ___ L
Family room
___ W x ___ L
Small Bedrooms ___ W x ___ L
Large Bedrooms___ W x ___ L
Bathroom
___ W x ___ L
Overall dimensions of the structure ___ W x ___ L
2. Sketching:
Sketch out your design on the 1/4 inch grid graph paper. Remember =1 and include
all the required features.
Instructor check:_____________
Date:___________
3. CAD - 3-D Home Architect:
Using one of the three computers, get started by clicking on the 3-D Home icon on the desktop.
Choose the wall tool to enclose the perimeter of the structure and then continue adding features
Save your work on Your Disk (3.5 floppy)
When you are done, have the instructor check out your design. Print it out after the instructor gives the
OK.
4. Output:
Once complete and checked, print out two views:
Floor Plan
Isometric View (without the roof)
5. Grading:
Students
Instructors
Evaluation
Evaluation
All required features included

100pts _________

________

Extra features

25pts

_________

________

Good design / layout

75pts

_________

________

Instructors Signature __________________________ Date _____________

54
Example 9: Roofing Estimation- Note: This activity can be done with a variety of measurements and roof
types.
Roofing Estimation Activity
Name________________________________

Grade __________________

Directions:
Using the equations on the following sheet determine the amount of materials needed to
Complete the job

Note: refer to picture for all


questions
12 x 38 40 Year Warranty
Architectural shingles
18 shingles per bundle
4 bundles per square

1. Find the slope of the roof using the four-foot level shown. Express it in terms of rise and run:
________ in _______
2. What is the square footage of the roof? __________________________
3. How many sheets of 5/8plywood would he needed to cover the roof? ____________
4. I-low many nails would he required for attaching the plywood? ___________
5. How many rolls of felt paper are required?_____________
6. How many pieces of drip edge are required to cover the edges of the eaves and rakes?____
7. How many shingles are required for the starter strip? ____________________________
8. How many shingle nails are required? ___________
9. How many shingles are required for capping?
(figure 5 exposure per cap) ______ caps or ______shingles
10. How many squares of shingles are required to shingle the roof? I (excluding caps and starters)
11. How many squares are required to complete the entire job?________Squares
12. Determine the cost of this job:
Plywood- cost per piece ______ Multiplied by the amount needed_____=
cost ________
Felt 15#- cost per roll ______ Multiplied by the amount needed_____=
cost ________
Drip edge- cost per piece ______ Multiplied by the amount needed_____=
cost ________
Shingles- cost per square ______ Multiplied by the amount needed_____=
cost ________
Common Nails- cost per box ______ Multiplied by the amount needed_____=
cost ________
Roofing Nails- cost per box ______ Multiplied by the amount needed_____=
cost ________
Total cost ________

55
Estimation Techniques For Roofing

Refer to picture
questions

B for all

Perimeter is 140 feet


Area is 1200 square feet
12 x 36 3 tab -shingles
22 shingles per bundle
3 bundles per square

Refer to picture abovefor all questions


Perimeter is 140 feet
Area is 1200 square feet
12 x 36 3 tab -shingles
22 shingles per bundle
3 bundles per square
Determining Slope
place a builders level on toe slope and lift one end until it displays level
measure from the bottom end of the level perpendicularly down to the roof surface.
slope is expressed as rise in run, which actually means ~vertical measurement in inches in
length of level in inches ie: 10 in 24
length measurement is always expressed as 12. so reduce it as a fraction ie: 5 in 12
Determining Materials
divide the perimeter of the roof by 10 (drip edge comes in 10 long pieces) to determine how
many pieces of drip edge are required. ie: 140/10 = 14 pieces
divide the area of the roof by 432 to determine how many rolls of felt paper are required.
ie:1200 /432 = 3 rolls
divide the area by 100 to determine the number of squares required.
ie: 1200/ 100 = 12 squares
add in a percentage of waste for end cuts. On a simple gable roof 5% is sufficient, while a hip roof
may require 15%. The type of roof, number of valleys, pattern used, and even the roofer
contractor all affect the percentage of waste. ie. 12x .05=.6 of a square
take the overall length of both eaves and divide by 3 to determine the number of starters
required.
ie: 80 / 3 = 27 shingles
determine how many caps are required if 5 exposure is used. Take the length of the ridge inches
and divide by 5. ie: 40 x 12 = 480
480 /5 = 96 caps
note: there are 3 caps per shingle, so divide the number of caps by three to determine number of
shingles,ie: in 96 / 3 = 32 shingles
add the number of shingles required for starters and the required for caps.
ie: 27 + 32 = 59 shingles or .9 of a square
add this total to the previously obtained total.
ie.: 12.6 + .9 = 13.5 squares are required

56

Based on the nail chart below, determine the # of nails needed to fasten 1 sheet of plywood then multiply
by the number of sheets.
1 roofing nails are sold 7,200 per box
6d, 8d Common nails are sold 2,000 per box
Roof Sheathing
Boards
Plywood(5/16, 3/8,1/2 )
Plywood(5/8, 3/4 )

8d common nails
6d common nails
6d common nails

Roofing, Asphalt
New Construction
7/8 through 1 galvanized
Re-Roofing Application 1 or 2 galvanized

12 oc and 6 oc edges
12 oc and 6 oc edges
4 Per Shingle
4 Per Shingle

57
Example10- Estimation Activity- Concrete and Siding

Concrete and Stone Calculations


You are to plan for the installation of the following five concrete driveways. Each driveway requires a sixinch thick (0- 6) bed of crushed stone and then wire reinforcing mesh and then the installation of
concrete. For each driveway, a concrete thickness is specified. Calculate the number of yards of crushed
stone needed, then the number of square feet of mesh needed and finally the number of yards of
concrete required.
Driveway Size
15x25
l5x30
l5x50
20x406
20 x80 3

Yards Stone

Feet2 Mesh

Slab Thickness

Yards Concrete

Area
The following walls need to be covered with vinyl siding. You need to determine the number of square feet
in each wall. Then you need to subtract the number of square feet that is windows. Then you need to
determine how many squares of siding should be purchased. Calculate all areas to the nearest tenth of
a foot.
Wall Size

Wall
Area

8x 21- 0
8x 9- 6
8 x 13- 3
8 x 14- 4
8 x 19- 0
18- 6 x 17-6
18-3 x 2l- 9

Window
Size(s)
3 x 5
Four 2 x 3
2-6 x 4-6
3-9 x 3-9
2-0 x 4-6
Six 4 x 5
Ten 2 x4

Window Area

Siding Area

Number of
Squares

Vinyl Siding Accessories


Accessory/
Trim
Starter Strip
J- Channel
Under Sill
Out Side
Corner
Inside Corner
Window Cap
F-Channel
Fascia
Soffit

How to calculate

Lineal
Feet

Length of trim

Perimeter of house
Sum of: (Width of each window) +
(2x Height of each window)
Total of all window widths
Vertical height of all O/S Corners

12 6
12 6

Vertical height of all I/S Corners


Total of all window widths
Total of lineal feet of soffit
Total of lineal feet of Rake and
fascia boards
(Total of lineal feet of Rake and
fascia boards x width of soffit)
divided by the area of soffit panel.

10
10
12 6
12 6

12 6
10

12 W x 10 L

Pieces
Needed

58

Hints and Reminders


Scale: 1/4 means that 1/4 = 1-O
Scale:. others common such as 1/32, 1/8, 1/2, 1
Length measured in feet and inches: 16- 6 3/8
Fractions often converted: 1/2 = 2/4 = 4/8
Square area determined by multiplying length by width.
100 ft2 is called a square and is used for surface area.
Volume is determined by multiplying length by width by height. 27ft 3 is called a yard and is used
for dirt, stones, and concrete.
Often fractions are converted to their decimal equivalents such as 1/8 = .125 This is done with a
calculator or a decimal equivalent chart
Pythagorean theorem used to find right angles. A2 + B2 = C2
Measurements are often added or subtracted: Most can be kept as fractions to make the
additions or subtractions simply by converting all fractions to common denominators.
Example: 4 -2 5/8 - 2 8 1/2 = 1- 6 1/8
Common to find centers: The center of a wall 21 -9 3/16 long is 10 - 10 19/32
Measure twice, cut once. When working in your groups, use each team member as a second and
or third opinion.

59
Example 11- Blueprint Reading Activity. Note: A variety of blueprints can be used for this activity.
From simple to complex plans there are many questions that could be proposed to give students
an understanding of how to read and decipher blueprints. This activity can be used as a standalone assignment or combined with materials cost research and used to develop financial
estimates for a given project.

Blueprint Reading ActivityUsing the assigned blueprint you will answer the following questions. You will need an architects
scale, calculator and scrape paper to complete this assignment.

Name
Plan Name

Date:
and Number

1. What is the overall width and length of the house?


2. What is the total square footage of the house
3. How many bedrooms does the house have?
4. What is the scale used for the floor plan?.
5. What two sizes of masonry block are used to construct the foundation walls?
How many pier footings are there?
7. What size are the pier footings?
8. How thick is the basement floor?
9. How much does the garage floor need to slope?
10. How much gravel fill is required under the concrete slabs? (square area of the
house X thickness of the gravel fill. Remember to use consistent UNITS of
measurement such as inches or feet or yards).
11. What is the size of the floor joists used to build the bedroom floors?
12. What is the spacing of the floor joists?
13. What is the size of the base trim used throughout the house?
14. The bottom of the upper kitchen cabinets are how high from the floor?
15. What is the size of the kitchen work island?
16. How many lights are in the attic?
17. What type of mirrors are used in the bathrooms?
18. The house makes use of rafters. Over which room(s) are they used? What size
are the rafters?
19. What is the pitch of the roof?
20. How wide is the bedroom hall wav?
21. What is the size and type of doors that are used across the back of the house?
22. What is the square foot area of the master bedroom?
23. Where is the cricket?
24. What material(s) are used to cover the exterior walls of the house.
25. How many square of shingle are needed to cover the roof?
26. What size are the rake boards?
27. What size are the corner boards?
28. How many risers are required in the set of steps between the basement and
the first floor?
29. What is the distance of the rise for each step in the set of steps between the

60
basement and the first floor?
30. What size is the concrete footing beneath the 12 concrete block walls?
31. How is the block foundation wall sealed against moisture?
32. Exterior walls are of what type of construction?
33. What type of soffit vent is used?
34. What type of windows are used?
35. How many switches are needed in the master bedroom?
36. What is the recommended minimum amount of insulation required for the attic?
37. What type of electrical service panel is needed for the house?

61
Credits for all Examples of Instructional Materials Loaned for this Project
Example 1: Courtesy of Christopher Hawkins- Cicero-North Syracuse High School.
Example 2: Picnic Table idea courtesy of Robert Spindler- Rome Free Academy High School, Attached
plans found at http://www.handymanwire.com/articles/picnic.html
Example 3: Simple Shed Plans 10x12 found at www.freeww.com/storagebuildings.html
Example 4: Rafter Layout- Courtesy of Richard Bush SUNY Oswego Technology Department Modified by
Howard Botting.
Example 5: Stair Layout- Courtesy of Richard Bush SUNY Oswego Technology Department Modified by
Howard Botting.
Example 6: Plate Layout Activity - Courtesy of Richard Bush SUNY Oswego Technology Department
Modified by Howard Botting.
Example 7: Framing Systems Model- Courtesy of Richard Bush SUNY Oswego Technology Department
Modified by Howard Botting.
Example 8: Computer design and modeling- Courtesy of Richard Bush SUNY Oswego Technology
Department Modified by Howard Botting.
Example 9: Roofing Estimation- Courtesy of Richard Bush SUNY Oswego Technology Department
Modified by Howard Botting.
Example10- Estimation Activity- Concrete and Siding- Courtesy of Richard Bush SUNY Oswego
Technology Department- Modified by Howard Botting.
Example 11- Blueprint Reading Activity. Courtesy of Richard Bush SUNY Oswego Technology
Department- Modified by Howard Botting.

62
Appendix C - Construction Systems Final Exam
Introduction to Construction Systems (3 questions)
1. The four major fields of construction are named:
a. House construction, bridge construction, factory construction, industrial complex construction
b. Transportation construction, civil construction, energy construction, panelized home construction
c. Light construction, commercial construction, industrial construction, civil construction
d. Civil construction, aerospace construction, remodeling construction, sewer construction
2.

Four new developments effecting the future of construction systems include the following:
a. Solar panels, limited forest products, diminishing supplies of oil, small supply of fresh water
b. Pre-fabrication, panelized, automation, innovations
c. Straw bale houses, solar panels, Mars colonys, cord-wood houses
d. Pre-fabricated houses, robots, well and leach systems, plastics

3.

The Universal Systems Model includes:


a. Outputs, Elements, Feedback, Control, Projects
b. Resources, Inputs, Control, Feedback, Engineering
c. Control, Outputs, Processes, Resources, Inputs
d. Processes, Equipment, Inputs, Information, Resources

System Inputs (3 questions)


4. A new construction project will only be built if there is sufficient _______ in the community.
a. Capital
b. Materials
c. Need
d. Workers
5. An expected benefit of a new high volume, interstate highway project between communities A and B
would be?
a. Increased amount of cars at a downtown intersection
b. Less cars on the road
c. Lower price of fuel in both communities
d. A decrease in travel time from point A to point B
6. List four areas of expected impact for any construction project.
a. Environmental, Economic, Societal, Personal
b. Clean Water, Financial, Community, Erosion
c. Disabled Americans, Erosion, Community pressure, Job Growth
d. Architects, Surveyors, Skilled Trades, Building Inspectors
Resources of Construction (15 questions)
7. In construction systems any job can be classified into one of the following areas;
a. Technical, Skilled, Professional, Unskilled
b. Architect, Laborer, Remodeler, General contractor
c. Project manager, Laborer, Craft person, Architect
d. Skilled, Union, Non-union, Designer
8. An explanation of how a persons job-skills or training will effect their job classification is;
a. Laborers are usually highly skilled in several areas of construction.
b. Architects are usually one of the lower educated people on a job site.
c. Project Managers are usually skilled in only one specific areas of construction
d. Plumbers and Electricians are skilled tradespersons.

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9. What does OSHA stand for?
a. Occupational Service Handling Association
b. Oceanfront Standard Housing Agreement
c. Ongoing Safety and Health Act
d. Occupational Safety and Heath Administration
10. An example of a Primary Resource is
a. Sheet Metal
b. Composites
c. A tree
d. Kiln-dried lumber
11. Which is an example of reusing/recycling in making a construction material
a. Cellulose insulation
b. Fiberglass insulation
c. Foam insulation
d. Spray foam insulation
12. A bank construction draw is used when?
a. This drawing is used to show the bank what the final construction project will look like.
b. This old term is not used today.
c. Draws are a financial transfer, which correspond to specific points of project completion.
d. A draw refers to a schedule drawn up to reflect when mortgage payments are due.
13. Plywood is commonly manufactured in which of the following sizes:
a. 3 x 8
b. 2 x 8
c. 4 x 8
d. 4 x 6
14. Time is as a resource in the construction process is
a. The only resource that hasnt been changed or altered by technology.
b. Flexible, allowing work to progress in measurable stages.
c. Most important because this is how all workers are paid.
d. Divided into Primary and Secondary job schedules.
15. The time to consider energy conservation in the construction process is
a. When the project transfers to the new owner.
b. Only if the project is a Green Certified program.
c. At the very beginning of the project.
d. At the very end of the building process.
16. Woods are a type of
a. Composite
b. Polymer
c. Ceramic
d. Alloy
e.
17. What is the actual size of a 2 x 4 piece of lumber?
a. 1 x 3
b. 1 x 3
c. 2 x 4
d. none of the above

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18. The table saw. Set the blade so it extends about _______ inch above the stock.
a. 1
b.
c.
d.
19. To ensure safety when performing equipment maintenance, such as changing a blade on a saw, you
should
a. Use vise grips so you dont cut your hand.
b. Have another saw ready if this saw breaks.
c. Follow lockout/tag out procedures.
d. Tell all the students in the class to watch you.
20. Which is not a working drawing?
a. Floor plan
b. Plumbing plan
c. Elevations
d. Bill of materials
21. Resources are part of which segment of the universal systems model?
a. Control
b. Inputs
c. Outputs
d. Processes
Processes of Construction (22 questions)
22. When using any machine, wait until the machine has ________ before leaving.
a. Been turned off
b. Stopped running
c. Someone else to use it
d. Been unplugged
23. Concrete is an excellent choice for foundations because it is very strong under
a. Compression force
b. Shearing force
c. Tensile stress
d. Equilibrium pressure
24. The job of a substructure is to
a. Support the roof coverings.
b. Support the doors and windows.
c. Mark the ground to show where to dig.
d. Support the entire structure.
25. The term superstructure describes
a. The main supporting components of the project.
b. Another term for basements and foundations.
c. The management system in an industrial complex
d. Best possible choice for a structure.
26. A Curtin wall is
a. A type of wall from colonial times.
b. A wall made out of fabric.
c. A non-load bearing wall
d. Not really a wall at all.

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27. Shingles, and sidings are measured, priced and sold by this unit
a. Square
b. Bundle
c. Board Foot
d. Transit
28. Tools used when laying out foundations include all of these except..
a. Batter boards
b. Masons Twine
c. Surveyors Transit
d. Pneumatics
29. An insulations R-value refers to its
a. Size of the framing members within which it will fit, usually 16 or 24
b. Place of origin/ manufacture
c. Coefficient of U-value
d. Resistance to transmission of heat/ cold
30. In building construction, HVAC system refers to what?
a. Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning
b. High Velocity Air Conditioning
c. HVAC is not referred to when discussing building construction
d. High Volume Accessibility Controls
31. The most common foundation built in regions that are very wet or very rocky are
a. full basement
b. Crawlspace
c. Slab
d. Piling
32. In light construction a common interior finish is
a. stucco
b. Brick veneer
c. fiberglass insulation
d. Drywall
33. The purpose of the footer in a house is to:
a. Hold the doors closed
b. Support the weight of the house
c. Track mud on the floor
d. Keep the rain out of the basement
34. The purpose of spacing wall studs 16 on center vs. 17 or 15 on center is to:
a. It easier to work with even numbers than it is to work with odd numbers
b. To save on space.
c. Fit to standard size building materials.
d. Provide adequate support for the roof or floor above.
35. When looking at a set of blueprints the scale is given as =1, which means
a. 5 inches on the drawing will be equal to 5/4.
b. 5 inches on the drawing will be equal to 20 feet.
c. You must use a architects scale to draw all accompanying drawings
d. All measurements taken with a normal ruler must be divided by 4 to get the correct measurement.

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For the next two questions use the following information to calculate a structures R-Value
Material
Sheet rock
6 Nominal Insulation
8 Nominal Insulation
Plywood sheathing
1 Foam board
Vinyl Siding

R-Value
1.0
19.0
25.0
2.0
7.2
0.5

36. The highest possible R-value of a 2x6 wall built with only sheet rock, insulation, plywood, and vinyl
siding would be
a. 54.7
b. 22.5
c. 28.5
d. 19
37. One way to increase the overall R-value of a 2x6 wall is
a. Pack the 8 R-25 insulation in the 2x6 wall cavity.
b. Add a Thromb (absorbing mass) wall to the north side of the house.
c. Sheath the house with 1 foam board instead of plywood.
d. Use a 2x4 wall instead.
38. In twelve-foot wall section, how many studs would it take to make up that wall if the studs were 16 on
center?
a. 9
b. 10
c. 12
d. 6
39. Copper pipe is most commonly joined by which method?
a. Solvent and glue
b. Compression fittings
c. Dielectric couplers
d. Flux and solder
40. When discussing construction live load refers to what?
a. The weight of permanent, stationary construction and equipment placed within the structure.
b. The amount of living space contained inside the structure.
c. The total of all moving and variable loads, which can be placed on a building.
d. Amount of farm animals that will fit in the building.
41. The name of a stud that holds up a window or door header is a:
a. King Stud
b. Door sill
c. Jack stud
d. Header stud
42. The wood framing member that sets on the foundation wall is called:
a. A sill
b. A sill joist
c. A sleeper
d. Blocking

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43. Use a ___________ __________ to hold the stock close to the fence.
a. Push Stick
b. Combination Square
c. Framing Square
d. Feather Board
Outputs of construction (4 questions)
44. Which would NOT be a negative impact of a new housing development built in a woodland area?
a. Fewer homes for wild animals.
b. Increased job growth
c. Increased traffic
d. Less room for water runoff/ storage
45. A final walk-through a construction site reveals items not fully completed. These items would be
placed on a ____________.
a. To do list.
b. Honey-do list.
c. Homeowners list.
d. Punch list
46. Which is not a final stage step in a construction project?
a. Landscaping.
b. Developing a maintenance schedule.
c. Turning over keys to the customer/owner.
d. Roofing the structure.
47. Positive examples of construction projects can be
a. Land reclamation
b. Decrease in skilled jobs
c. Assembly line work
d. A lumber mill
Control of construction (3 questions)
48. In construction the control/ feedback component is used to
a. Comparing inputs with outputs
b. Identifying waste
c. Maintain the stability of company
d. All the above
49. Which are not used to ensure public safety?
b. Structural inspections
c. Engineering analysis
d. Zoning laws
e. Punch lists
50. To minimize waste a business should
a. Compare inputs with outputs
b. Hire less workers
c. Cut back on benefits offered
d. Use less land for each project.

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Construction Systems
50 Final Exam Answers
1. C
26. C

2. B
3. C
4. C
5. D
6. A
7. A
8. D
9. D
10. C
11. A
12. C
13. C
14. A
15. D
16. B
17. A
18. D
19. C
20. D
21. B
22. B
23. A
24. D
25. A

27. B
28. D
29. D
30. A
31. C
32. D
33. B
34. C
35. B
36. B
37. C
38. B
39. D
40. C
41. C
42. A
43. D
44. B
45. D
46. D
47. D
48. D
49. A
50. A

Final Exam Blueprint


Module
Number
1
2
3
4
5
6

Title
Intro to
Construction
Systems
System Inputs
Resources
Processes
Outputs
Feedback/Control

Number of
Questions
3

Knowledge

Comprehension

Application

3
15
22
4
3

1
9
11
1
1

1
4
5
3
1

1
2
6
0
1

Upper
Level

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Appendix D - Students with Disabilities
The Board of Regents, through part 100 Regulations of the Commissioner, the Action Plan, and
The Compact for Learning, has made a strong commitment to integrating the education of students with
disabilities into the total school program. According to Section 100.2(s) of the Regulations of the
Commissioner of Education, Each student with a handicapping condition as such term is defined in
Section 200.1(ii) of this Chapter, shall have access to the full range of programs and services set forth in
this Part to the extent that such programs and services are appropriate to such students special
educational needs. Districts must have policies and procedures in place to make sure that students with
disabilities have equal opportunities to access diploma credits, courses, and requirements.
The majority of students with disabilities have the intellectual potential to master the curricula
content requirements of a high school diploma. Most students who require special education attend
regular education classes in conjunction with specialized instruction and/or related services. The
students must attain the same academic standards as their non-disabled peers to meet graduation
requirements, and, therefore, must receive instruction in the same content area, at all grade levels. This
will ensure that they have the same informational base necessary to pass statewide testing programs and
meet diploma requirements.
Teachers certified in the subject area should become aware of the needs of students with
disabilities who are participating in their classes. Instructional techniques and materials must be modified
to the extent appropriate to provide students with disabilities the opportunity to meet diploma
requirements. Information or assistance is available through special education teachers, administrators,
the Committee on Special Education (CSE) or students Individualized Education Program (IEP).
Strategies for Modifying Instructional Techniques and Materials.
1. Students with disabilities may use alternative testing techniques. The needed testing
modification must be identified in the students Individualized Education Program (IEP). Both
special and regular education teachers need to work in close cooperation so that the testing
modifications can be used consistently throughout the students program.
2. Identify, define, and pre-teach key vocabulary. Many terms in this syllabus are specific, and
some students with disabilities will need continuous reinforcement to learn them. It would be
helpful to provide a list of these key words in the special education teacher in order to provide
additional reinforcement in the special education setting.
3. Assign a partner for the duration of a unit to a student as an additional resource to facilitate
clarification of daily assignments, timelines for assignments, and access to daily notes.
4. When assigning long-term projects or reports, provide a timeline with benchmarks as
indicators for completion of major sections. Students who have difficulty with organizational
skills and time sequence ma need to see completion of sections to maintain the organization
of a lengthy project or report.
Infusing Awareness of Persons with Disabilities Through Curriculum.
In keeping with the concept of integration, the following sub goal of the Action Plan was established.
In all subject areas, revisions in the syllabi will include materials and activities related to generic sub
goals, such as problem solving, reasoning skills, speaking, capacity to search for information, the use
of libraries, and increasing student awareness of and information about the disabled.
The purpose of this sub goal is to ensure that appropriate activities and materials are available to
increase student awareness of disabilities.
The curriculum, by design, includes information, activities, and materials regarding persons with
disabilities. Teachers are encouraged to include other examples as may be appropriate to their
classroom or the situation at hand.

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Appendix E - Student Leadership Skills
Development of leadership skills is an integral part of occupational education in New York State.
The New York State Education Department states that each education agency should provide to
every student the opportunity to participate in student leadership development activities. All
occupational education students should be provided the opportunity to participate in the educational
activities of the student organization(s) which most directly relate(s) to their chosen educational
program.
Leadership skills should be incorporated in the New York state occupational education curricula to
assist students to become better citizens with positive qualities and attitudes. Each individual should
develop skills in communications, decision making/problem solving, human relations, management,
and motivational techniques.
Leadership skill may be incorporated into the curricula as competencies (performance indicators)
to be developed by every student or included within the suggested instructional strategies. Teachers
providing instruction through occupational educational curricula should familiarize themselves with the
competencies. Assistance may be requested from the State adviser of the occupational student
organization related to the program area.
Students who elect to become active members in student leadership organizations chartered by
NYSED have the advantage of the practical forum to practice leadership skills in an action-oriented
format. They have the potential for recognition at the local, state, and national level.
More information in Technology Education can be found at the Technology Education Student
Association web site at:
http://www.tsawww.org