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7. TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS
Synopsis : 1. Let θ∈R. Take an angle of measure θ radians in the standard position. Let P(x, y) be a point on the terminal side of the angle θ such that OP = r( > 0). Then i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi)
y is called sine of θ and it is denoted by sinθ. r
x is called r y x

cosine of θ and it is denoted by cosθ

(x ≠ 0) is called tangent of θ and it is denoted by tanθ. denoted by cotθ.

x (y ≠ 0) is called cotangent of θ and it is y

r (x ≠ 0) is called secant of θ and it is denoted by secθ. x
r y

(y ≠ 0) is called cosecant of θ and it is denoted by cosecθ.

These six functions (ratios) are called trigonometric functions (ratios). 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. sinθ.cosecθ = 1, sin θ = cosθ.secθ = 1, cos θ = tanθ.cotθ = 1, tan θ =
1 1 , cosec θ = cos ecθ sin θ

1 1 , sec θ = cos θ sec θ 1 1 , cot θ = cot θ tan θ

cosθ sin θ = cot θ = tan θ, sinθ cos θ

sin2θ + cos2θ = 1, sin2θ = 1− cos2θ, cos2θ = 1 − sin2θ

7. 8.

1+tan2θ= sec2θ, tan2θ = sec2θ − 1, sec2θ − tan2θ=1. 1 + cot2 θ = cosec2 θ, cot2 θ = cosec2 θ −1, cosec2 θ − cot2 θ = 1.

9.

sec θ + tan θ =

1 . sec θ − tan θ

1

Trigonometric Functions 10. cosec θ + cot θ =
1 . cos ecθ − cot θ

11. The values of the trigonometric functions of some standard angles : θ sin cos 0 0 1 π/6 1/2
3

π/4 1/ /2 1/
2 2

π/3
3

π/2 /2 1 0

π 0 −1

3π/2 −1 0

2π 0 1

1/2

12. Trigonometric functions of 2nπ + θ; n∈Z 1) sin(2nπ + θ) = sinθ, cos(2nπ + θ) = cosθ 2) tan(2nπ + θ) = tanθ, cot(2nπ + θ) = cotθ 3) sec(2nπ + θ) = secθ, cosec(2nπ + θ) = cosecθ 13. Trigonometric functions of (−θ), for all values of θ 1) sin(−θ) = −sin θ, 3) tan(−θ) = −tan θ, 2) cos(−θ) = cos θ, 4) cot(−θ) = −cot θ,

5) sec(−θ) = sec θ, 6) cosec(−θ) = −cosec θ 14. The values of trigonometric functions of any angle can be represented in terms of an angle in the first quadrant Let A = n.
⎝ π 2
π ±θ 2

where n∈Z, 0 ≤ θ ≤

π 2

. Then

i) sin⎛ n. ± θ ⎞ ⎜ ⎟

= ± sin θ, if n is even = ± cos θ, if n is odd

ii) cos ⎛ n. π ± θ ⎞ ⎜ ⎟
⎝ 2 ⎠

= ± cos θ, if n is even = ± sin θ, if n is odd

iii) tan ⎛ n. ± θ ⎞ = ± tan θ, if n is even ⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠

π 2

= ± cot θ, if n is odd iv) cot ⎛ n. π ± θ ⎞ ⎜ ⎟
⎝ 2 ⎠

= ± cot θ, if n is even = ± tan θ, if n is odd

v) sec ⎛ n. ± θ ⎞ ⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠

π 2

= ± sec θ, if n is even = ± cosec θ, if n is odd

vi) cosec ⎛ n. ± θ ⎞ = ± cosec θ, if n is even ⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠

π 2

= ± sec θ, if n is odd

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