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12. TRIGONOMETRIC EQUATIONS
Synopsis : 1. An equation involving trigonometric functions of a variable over a set of numbers or over a set of angles is called a trigonometric equation. 2. The set of values of the variable for which the equation is satisfied is the solution set of the equation. 3. The method of finding the solution set is called solving of an equation. 4. If the product of trigonometric functions is zero, then each factor should be equated to zero. The solutions of the resulting equations will give the solution set of the given equation. 5. If sinθ = k where −1 ≤ k ≤ 1 , then the value of θ lying in the interval [−π/2, π/2] and satisfying the equation is called the principal solution. 6. If cosθ = k where −1 ≤ k ≤ 1 , then the value of θ lying in the interval [0, π] and satisfying the equation is called the principal solution. 7. If tanθ = k where k∈R, then the value of θ lying in the interval (−π/2, π/2) and satisfying the equation is called the principal solution. 8. The general solution of sinθ = k for −1 ≤ k ≤ 1 is θ = nπ + (−1)nα, n∈Z where α∈[−π/2, π/2] is the principal value. 9. The general solution of cosθ = k for −1 ≤ k ≤ 1 is θ = 2nπ ± α , n∈Z where α∈(−π/2, π/2) is the principal value. 10. If sinθ = 0, then 11. If cosθ = 0, then 12. If tanθ = 0, then
θ = nπ, n ∈ Z

θ = (2n + 1)π / 2, n ∈ Z θ = nπ, n ∈ Z

13. If (i) sin2θ = sin2α ii) cos2θ = cos2α and iii) tan2θ = tan2α then in each case
θ = nπ ± α, n ∈ Z
| c |≤ a2 + b2

14. The number of solutions of the equation acosθ + bsinθ = c is infinite if 15. The equation acosθ + bsinθ = c has no solution if c2>a2 + b2.

(or)

c 2 ≤ a2 + b2

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