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13. INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS
Synopsis :
1. The function f : [−π/2, π/2] → [−1, 1] defined by f(x) = sinx is a bijection. The inverse of f from
[−1, 1] into [−π/2, π/2] is also a bijection. This function is called inverse sine function or arc sine
function. It is denoted by Sin−1 or Arc sin.
Now Sin−1x = θ ⇔ x = sinθ, ∀ x ∈ [−1, 1]
2. The domains and ranges of the inverse trigonometric functions are as follows.
S.No

Function

Domain

Range

1.

Sin−1x

[−1, 1]

[−π/2, π/2]

2.

Cos−1x

[−1, 1]

[0, π]

3.

Tan−1x

R

(−π/2, π/2)

4.

Cot−1x

R

(0, π)

5.

Sec−1x

(−∞, −1] U [1, ∞) =

[0, π/2) U (π/2, π)

R−(−1, 1)
6.

Cosec−1x

(−∞, −1] U [1, ∞) =

[−π/2, 0) U (0, π/2)

R−R(−1, 1)

3.

i) Sin−1(−x) = −Sin−1x, for x ∈ [−1, 1]
ii) Cos−1(−x) = π−Cos−1x, for x ∈ [−1, 1]
iii)Tan−1(−x) = −Tan−1x, for x ∈ R

4.

i) Cot−1(−x) = π−Cot−1x, for x ∈ R
ii) Sec−1(−x) = π−Sec−1x, for (−∞, −1] U [1, ∞)
iii)Cosec−1(−x) = −Cosec−1x, for (−∞, −1] U [1, ∞)

5.

i) Sin−1(x) = Cosec−1(1/x), for x ∈ [−1, 0) U (0, 1]
ii) Cos−1(x) = Sec−1(1/x), for x ∈ [−1, 0) U (0, 1]
iii)Tan−1(x) = Cot−1(1/x), for x ∈ (0, ∞) and
Tan−1x = −π + Cot−1(1/x), for x ∈ (−∞, 0)
1

Inverse Trigonometric Functions
6.

If x ∈ [−1, 1] then Cos−1x + Sin−1x = π/2.

7.

If x ∈ R, then Tan−1x + Cot−1x = π/2.

8.

If x ∈ (−∞, −1] U [1, ∞), then
Sec−1x + Cosec−1x = π/2

9.

If 0≤x≤1, 0≤y≤0, then
i) Sin−1x + Sin−1y = Sin−1( x 1 − y 2 + y 1 − x 2 ) , for x2 + y2≤1
ii) Sin−1x + Sin−1y = π− Sin−1( x 1 − y 2 + y 1 − x 2 ) , for x2 + y2>1

10. If 0≤x≤1, 0≤y≤1, then Sin−1x−Sin−1y =

Sin−1( x 1 − y 2 − y 1 − x 2 )

11. If 0≤x≤1, 0≤y≤1, then
i) Cos−1x + Cos−1y = Cos−1( xy − 1 − x 2 1 − y 2 ) , for x2 + y2≤1
ii) Cos−1x + Cos−1y = π− Cos−1( 1 − x 2 1 − y 2 − xy) , for x2 + y2>1
12. If 0≤x≤1, 0≤y≤1, then Cos−1x−Cos−1y = Cos−1( xy + 1 − x 2 1 − y 2 )
⎛ x+y ⎞
⎟⎟ , for x>0, y>0,
⎝ 1 − xy ⎠

13. Tan−1x+Tan−1y = Tan−1 ⎜⎜

⎛x+y⎞
⎟⎟ , for x>0, y > 0, xy
⎝ 1 − xy ⎠

= π + Tan−1 ⎜⎜

xy<1

> 1.

⎛x+y⎞
⎟⎟ , for x<0, y<0, xy<1
⎝ 1 − xy ⎠

14. Tan−1x+Tan−1y = Tan−1 ⎜⎜

⎛x+y⎞
⎟⎟ , for x < 0, y < 0, xy > 1.
⎝ 1 − xy ⎠

= −π + Tan−1 ⎜⎜

⎛ x−y ⎞
⎟⎟ .
⎝ 1 + xy ⎠

15. If x>0, y>0, then Tan−1x−Tan−1y = Tan−1 ⎜⎜

⎛ x−y ⎞
⎟⎟
⎝ 1 + xy ⎠

16. If x<0, y<0, then Tan−1x−Tan−1y = Tan−1 ⎜⎜

17. i) 3Sin−1x = Sin−1(3x−4x3), for 0 ≤ x ≤ 1/2
ii) 3Cos−1x = Cos−1(4x3−3x), for 3 /2 ≤ x ≤ 1
⎛ 3x − x 3 ⎞
⎟,
2 ⎟
⎝ 1 − 3x ⎠

iii)3Tan−1x = Tan−1 ⎜⎜

for 0 ≤ x ≤ 1/ 3

2

Inverse Trigonometric Functions
18. i) If Cos−1x + Cos−1y + Cos−1z = π, then
x2 + y2 + z2 + 2xyz = 1.
ii) If Sin−1x + Sin−1y + Sin−1z = π/2, then
x2 + y2 + z2 + 2xyz = 1.
iii)If Sin−1x + Sin−1y + Sin−1z = π, then x 1 − x 2 + y 1 − y 2 + z 1 − z2 = 2xyz.
iv) If Tan−1x + Tan−1y + Tan−1z = π/2, then
xy + yz + zx = 1.
v) If Tan−1x + Tan−1y + Tan−1z = π, then
x + y + z = xyz.
19. i) If Sin−1x + Sin−1y = θ, then Cos−1x + Cos−1y = π−θ
ii) If Cos−1x+ Cos−1y = θ, then Sin−1x + Sin−1y = π−θ
20. i) If Tan−1x + Tan−1y = π/2, then xy = 1.
ii) If Cot−1x + Cot−1y = π/2, then xy = 1.
a
x

21. i) If Sin −1 + Sin −1

b π
= , then x = a 2 + b 2
x 2

ii) If Cos −1

a
b π
+ Cos −1 = , then x = a 2 + b 2
x
x 2

iii)If Tan −1

a
b π
+ Tan −1 = , then x = ab
x
x 2

22. If Cos −1

y
x
+ Cos −1 = θ, then
a
b

x2
a2

2xy
y2
cos θ + 2 = sin 2 θ
ab
b

3