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14. HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS
Synopsis : 1. i) sinhx = ii) coshx = iii)tanhx = iv) cothx = v) sechx =
ex − e− x 2

ex + e− x 2
e x − e− x ex + e− x ex + e− x ex − e− x

2 ex + e− x 2 e − e− x
x

vi) cosechx = functions.

are called hyperbolic

Note : sin(ix) = isinhx, cos(ix) = coshx, tan(ix) = itanhx. 2. 3. 4. 5. cosh2x – sinh2x = 1 1 – tanh2x = sech2x coth2x – 1 = cosech2x i) sinh (α + β) = sinh α cosh β + cosh α sinh β ii) sinh (α – β) = sinh α cosh β – cosh α sinh β iii)cosh (α + β) = cosh α cosh β + sinh α sinh β iv) cosh (α – β) = cosh α cosh β – sinh α sinh β v) tanh (α + β) = vi) tanh (α – β) = 6.
tanh α + tanh β 1 + tanh α tanh β tanh α − tanh β 1 − tanh α tanh β

i) sinh 2x = 2sinhx coshx ii) cosh 2x = cosh2x + sinh2x iii)cosh 2x = 2 cosh2 x – 1 or cosh2x = iv) cosh 2x = 1 + sinh2x or 2sinh2x = v) tanh 2x =
2 tanh x 1 + tanh2 x
1 + cosh 2x 2

cosh 2x − 1 2

1

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Hyperbolic Functions vi) sinh 3x = 3sinhx + 4sinh3x vii) cosh 3x = 4cosh3x – 3coshx
3 tanh x + tanh3 x 1 + 3 tanh2 x

viii) tanh 3x = 7.

Values of inverse hyperbolic functions as logarithms functions : i) Sinh−1x = loge ( x + x 2 + 1) ii) Cosh−1x = log( x + x 2 − 1), x ≥ 1 iii) Tanh −1x = log⎛ ⎜
1 2 1+ x ⎞ ⎟, x ∈ (-1, 1) ⎝ 1− x ⎠

iv) Coth−1x = log⎛ ⎜
1 2

x + 1⎞ ⎟, | x |> 1 ⎝ x − 1⎠

v) Sech−1x = log⎜ ⎜

⎛ 1± 1− x2 x ⎝

⎞ ⎟, 0 < x ≤ 1 ⎟ ⎠ ⎞ ⎟, x > 0 or ⎟ ⎠

vi) Co sec h−1x = log⎜ ⎜
⎛ 1− 1+ x2 log⎜ ⎜ x ⎝

⎛ 1+ 1+ x2 x ⎝

⎞ ⎟, x < 0 ⎟ ⎠

2

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