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15. PROPERTIES OF TRIANGLES
Synopsis :
1. The perpendicular bisectors of the sides of a triangle are concurrent. The point of concurrence is
called circumcentre of the triangle. If S is the circumcentre of ΔABC, then SA = SB = SC. The
circle with center S and radius SA passes through the three vertices A, B, C of the triangle. This
circle is called circumcircle of the triangle. The radius of the circumcircle of ΔABC is called
circumradius and it is denoted by R.
a b c
2. Sine Rule : = = = 2R.
sin A sin B sin C

∴ a = 2R sin A, b = 2R sin B, c = 2R sin C.
3. Cosine Rule : a2 = b2 + c2 – 2bc cos A, b2 = c2 + a2 – 2ca cos B, c2 = a2 + b2 – 2ab cos C.
b2 + c 2 − a 2 c 2 + a2 − b2
4. cos A = , cos B = ,
2bc 2ca

a2 + b2 − c 2
cos C = .
2ab

5. Projection Rule : a = b cos C + c cos B, b = c cos A + a cos C, c = a cos B + b cos A.
B−C⎞ b−c
Tangent Rule or Napier’s Analogy : tan⎛⎜
A
6. ⎟= cot ,
⎝ 2 ⎠ b + c 2

⎛C−A ⎞ c −a B
tan⎜ ⎟= cot ,
⎝ 2 ⎠ c+a 2

⎛ A −B⎞ a −b C
tan⎜ ⎟= cot .
⎝ 2 ⎠ a+b 2

7. Mollweide Rule :
⎛ A −B⎞ ⎛ A −B⎞
cos⎜ ⎟ sin⎜ ⎟
a+b ⎝ 2 ⎠, a − b ⎝ 2 ⎠
= =
c C c C
sin cos
2 2

A (s − b)(s − c ) B (s − c )(s − a) C (s − a)(s − b)
8. sin = , sin = , sin = .
2 bc 2 ca 2 ab

A s( s − a) B s(s − b) C s( s − c )
9. cos = , cos = , cos = .
2 bc 2 ca 2 ab

A ( s − b)(s − c ) B (s − c )(s − a) C (s − a)(s − b)
10. tan = , tan = , tan =
2 s(s − a) 2 s( s − b) 2 s(s − c )

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Properties of Triangles
A Δ ( s − b)(s − c )
11. tan = = ,
2 s(s − a) Δ

B Δ (s − c )(s − a)
tan = = ,
2 s( s − b) Δ

C Δ (s − a)(s − b)
tan = = .
2 s(s − c ) Δ

A s(s − a) B s(s − b) C s(s − c )
12. cot = , cot = , cot =
2 Δ 2 Δ 2 Δ

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13. Area of ΔABC is Δ = 2
bc sin A = ca sin B = sin C = 2R sin A sin B sin C =
2 2 2

abc
s( s − a)(s − b)(s − c ) .
4R

Δ A B C A B C a b
14. r = = 4R sin sin sin = (s − a) tan = (s − b) tan = (s − c ) tan = =
s 2 2 2 2 2 2 B C C A
cot + cot cot + cot
2 2 2 2

C
=
A B
cot + cot
2 2

Δ A B C A C B a
15. r1 = = 4R sin cos cos = s tan = (s − b) cot = (s − c ) cot = .
s−a 2 2 2 2 2 2 B C
tan + tan
2 2

Δ B A C
16. r2 = = s tan = (s − c ) cot = (s − a) cot =
s−b 2 2 2

A B C b
4R cos sin cos = .
2 2 2 C A
tan + tan
2 2

Δ C B A
17. r3 = = s tan = (s − a) cot = (s − b) cot =
s−c 2 2 2

c
.
A B
tan + tan
2 2

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18. + + = .
r1 r2 r3 r

19. r r1 r2 r3 = Δ2.
20. i) ∑ a sin(B − C) = 0 .
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ii) ∑ a cos(B − C) = 3abc
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iii) a2 sin 2B + b2 sin 2A = 4Δ

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Properties of Triangles
a2 + b2 + c 2
21. i) cotA + cotB + cotC =

A B C (a + b + c )2
ii) cot cot cot = .
2 2 2 4Δ

22. i) If a cos B = b cos A, then the triangle is isosceles.
ii) If a cos A = b cos B, then the triangle is isosceles or right angled.
iii)If a2 + b2 + c2 = 8R2, then the triangle is right angled.
iv) If cos2A + cos2B + cos2C = 1, then the triangle is right angled.
sin B
v) If cosA = , then the triangle is isosceles.
2 sin C

a b c
vi) If = = , then the triangle is equilateral.
cos A cos B cos C

vii) If cosA + cosB + cosC = 3/2, then the triangle is equilateral.
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viii) If sinA + sinB + sinC = , then the triangle is equilateral.
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ix) If cotA + cotB + cotC = 3 , then the triangle is equilateral.

a2 + b2 sin( A + B)
23. i) If = , then C = 90°.
a −b
2 2
sin( A − B)

a+b b
ii) If + = 1, then C = 60°.
b+c c+a

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iii)If + = , then A = 60°
a+b a+c a+b+c

b c
iv) If + = 0, then A = 60°.
a2 − c 2 a2 − b 2

A B C
i) a, b, c are In H.P. ⇔ sin2 , sin2 , sin2 are in H.P.
2 2 2
A B C
ii) a, b, c are in A.P. ⇔ cot , cot , cot are in A.P.
2 2 2
A B C
iii) a, b, c are in A.P. ⇔ tan , tan , tan are in H.P.
2 2 2
iv) a2, b2, c2 are in A.P. ⇔ cotA, cotB, cotC are in A.P.
v) a2, b2, c2 are in A.P. ⇔ tanA, tanB, tanC are in H.P

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