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17. COMPLEX NUMBERS
Synopsis : 1. Complex Number : A number which is of the form x + iy, where x, y are real numbers and i = − 1 is called a complex number. It also be written as (x, y). If z = x + iy, then x is called real part of z, y is called imaginary part of z. 2. Argand plane : By taking real part along x-axis, imaginary part along y-axis, complex numbers (x, y) can be plotted as points in xy plane, which is called Argand plane. x-axis is called real axis, y-axis is called imaginary axis. The points on x-axis are purely real, points on y-axis are purely imaginary, point of intersection of x and y axes is origin which represents O. 3. Modulus of a complex number : If z = x + iy, then
x 2 + y 2 is called modulus of z and it is denoted by |z|. If z is represented by

P(x, y), then |z| = OP = x 2 + y 2 . 4. Amplitude or argument of a complex number : If OP makes an angle θ with positive direction of x-axis, then θ is called amplitude or argument of z, where z is represented by P(x, y). It is denoted by arg z or amp z. The value of θ, which satisfies x = r cos θ, y = r sin θ where r = |z| and lying in the interval (–π, π) is called principal value of θ. If α is the principal value of θ, then 2nπ + α, n∈Z is called general value of θ. 5. Modulus amplitude form of a complex number : If z = x + iy, |z| = r, argz = θ, then cosθ = x/r, sinθ = y/r and z = r(cosθ + isinθ), which is called modulus amplitude form of z. Also cosθ + isinθ = eiθ (Euler’s theorem on power series). Ordered relations z1 > z2 or z1 < z2 are not defined in the set of complex numbers. 6. Equality of complex numbers : If z1 = x1 + iy1, z2 = x2 + iy2, then z1 = z2 ⇔ x1 = x2 and y1 = y2. 7. Addition, subtraction, multiplication and division of complex numbers. If z1 = x1 + iy1, z2 = x2 + iy2, i) z1 + z2 = x1 + x2 + i(y1 + y2) 1

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Complex Numbers ii) z1 – z2 = x1 – x2 + i(y1 + y2) iii)z1z2 = x1x2 – y1y2 + i(x1y2 + x2y1) iv)
z1 x1x 2 + y1y 2 i( x1y 2 − x 2 y1) = − z2 x2 + y2 x2 + y2 2 2 2 2

If z1 = r1(cosθ1 + isinθ1); z2 = r2(cosθ2 + isinθ2), then z1z2 = r1r2[cos(θ1 + θ2) + isin(θ1 + θ2)] v)
z1 r = 1 [cos( θ1 − θ2 ) + i sin( θ1 − θ2 )] z2 rr2

vi) Additive inverse of x + iy is x−iy. vii) Multiplicative inverse of x + iy is
x x +y
2 2

iy x + y2
2

.

viii) Multiplicative inverse of cisθ is cis(– θ). 8. Conjugate : If z = x + iy, then z = x−iy is called conjugate complex number of z. i) z = z ⇔ z is purely real. ii) z = − z ⇔ z is purely imaginary iii) z + z = 2 Re z iv) z1 ± z2 = z1 ± z2 v) z1z2 = z1z2
⎛z ⎞ z vi) ⎜ 1 ⎟ = 1 where z2 ≠ 0 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ z2 ⎠ z2

9.

Properties of modulus of a complex number : i) | z1 ± z2 |≤| z1 | + | z 2 | (triangle inequality) ii) | z1 ± z2 |≥| z1 | − | z2 | iii) | z1z2 |=| z1 | . | z2 | iv)
z1 |z | = 1 z2 | z2 |

v) |z| = | z | = |−z| = | – z | vi) z z = |z|2 vii) | z1 ± z2 |2 =| z1 |2 + | z2 |2 ±2 Re( z1 z2 ) =
| z1 |2 + | z 2 |2 ±2 | z1 || z2 | cos(θ1−θ2) where θ1

=

arg z1 and θ2 = arg z2. viii) |z1 + z2|2 + |z1−z2|2 = 2(|z1|2 + |z2|2)

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Complex Numbers 10. Properties of amplitude : i) arg(z1 z2) = arg z1 + arg z2 + 2nπ ii) arg ⎜ ⎜
⎛ z1 ⎞ ⎟ = arg z1−arg z2 + 2nπ ⎟ ⎝ z2 ⎠

iii) arg z = – arg z iv) arg z is not defined if z = 0.
y v) arg z = Tan–1 ⎛ ⎞ , if x > 0, y ≠ 0 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝x⎠

y vi) arg z = π + Tan–1 ⎛ ⎞ , if x < 0, y > 0. ⎜ ⎟ ⎝x⎠

vii) arg z = – π + Tan–1 ⎜ ⎟ , if x < 0, y < 0. viii) arg z = π/2, if x = 0, y > 0 = – π/2 if x = 0, y < 0. 11. Demoivre’s theorem : (cosθ + isinθ)n = cosnθ + isinnθ, where n is any integer. If n is rational, cosnθ + isinnθ is one of the values of (cosθ + isinθ)n. 12. Integral powers of ‘i’ : If k is any integer, i4k = 1, i4k + 1 = i, i4k + 2 = –1, i4k + 3 = –i. 13. Square root of a complex number :
⎛ ⎜ i) x + iy = ±⎜ ⎜ ⎝ ⎞ ⎛ x2 + y2 + x ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ + i⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎜ ⎠ ⎝ ⎞ x2 + y2 − x ⎟ ⎟ 2 ⎟ ⎠

⎛y⎞ ⎝x⎠

ii) x + iy = p + iq ⇒ x − iy = p − iq iii) − a − b = − 1 a − 1 b = − ab 14. nth roots of unity : i) ω =
r 2 πr i e n

⎛ 2πr ⎞ ⎛ 2πr ⎞ = cos⎜ ⎟ where r = 0, ⎟ + i sin⎜ ⎝ n ⎠ ⎝ n ⎠

1, 2, ...., n −1 are nth roots of unity. ii) Sum of nth roots of unity is zero. iii)Product of nth roots of unity is (−1)n−1. iv) Cube roots of unity are 1, ω, ω2, where
− 1+ i 3 2

ω=

, ω2 =

− 1− i 3 2

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Complex Numbers v) Also 1 + ω + ω2 = 0, ω3 = 1. vi) Fourth roots of unity are 1, i, –1, –i. vii)The n, nth roots of unity are the vertices of an n – sided regular polygon inscribed in the circle |z| = 1. viii)The three cube roots of unity are the vertices of an equilateral triangle inscribed in the circle |z| = 1. 15. z1, z2, z3 represent points A, B, C respectively i)
2 If z1 + z2 − z1z2 = 0 the origin, z1 and z2 form an equilateral triangle 2

2 2 2 ii) If z1, z2, z3 are the vertices of equilateral triangle and z0 is its centroid, then z1 + z2 + z3 = 3z0 . 2

iii) z, iz, −z, −iz in order form the vertices of a square with center at the origin. iv) If z1, z2, z3, z4 are the consecutive vertices of a parallelogram, then z1 + z3 = z2 + z4. v) If z divides the join of z1 and z2 in the ratio λ1 : λ2, then z = vi) |z – z1| = r represents a circle with center at z1 and radius r. vii)
z − z1 z − z2

λ1z2 + λ 2z1 . λ1 + λ 2

= k represents a circle if k ≠ 1 and a straight line if k = 1.

viii) Perpendicular bisector of the join of z1, z2 is given by |z – z1| = |z – z2|. 16. Logarithm of a complex number : log z = log |z| + iarg z.

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