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**18. DEMOVIRE’S THEOREM AND TRIGONOMETRIC EXPANSION
**

Synopsis :

1. De moivre’s Theorem for integral index: If n is an integer, then n ( cos θ + i sin θ ) = cos nθ + i sin nθ

2. 3. 4. 5.

**( cos θ + i sin θ ) = cos nθ − i sin nθ n ( cos θ − i sin θ ) = cos nθ − i sin nθ −n ( cos θ − i sin θ ) = cos nθ + i sin nθ
**

−n

nth roots of a complex number : The nth roots of a complex number ⎛ 2kπ + θ ⎞ z = r cos θ are r1/ n cis ⎜ ⎟ where k = 0,1, 2,.....n − 1 ⎝ n ⎠ nth roots of unity : The nth roots of unity are 1, α, α 2 ,.........α n −1 where α = cis

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

2π n

The nth roots of a unity form a G.P. The sum of nth roots of unity = 0 The product of nth roots unity = (–1)n–1

DeMoivre’s theorem for rational index : If

cos

p ( q > 1) is a rational number, then q

11. 12.

pθ pθ p + i sin is one of the qth roots of ( cos θ + i sin θ ) q q ( cisα )( cisβ ) = cis ( α + β )

**( cisα ) / ( cisβ ) = cis ( α − β )
**

Expansion of trigonometric functions : i) cosnθ = cosnθ – C(n, 2) cosn–2θ.sin2θ + C(n, 4)cosn–4θ.sin4θ + ……… ii) sin nθ = C(n, 1) cosn−1θ. sinθ + C(n, 3) cosn−3θ. sin3θ + C(n, 5) cosn−5θ. sin5θ + …… iii) tan nθ = iv) cos n θ = v) sin n θ = vi) sin n θ =

C(n, 1)tanθ - C(n, 3)tan 3 θ + C(n, 5)tan 5 θ − .... 1 − C(n, 2)tan 2 θ + C(n, 4)tan 4 θ − ....

1 2

n −1

13.

[cos nθ + C(n, 1) cos (n – 2)θ + C(n, 2) cos (n – 4)θ + ……] [cos nθ + C(n, 1) cos (n – 2)θ + C(n, 2) cos (n – 4)θ + ……] if n is even. [cos nθ + C(n, 1) cos (n – 2)θ + C(n, 2) cos (n – 4)θ + ….] if n is odd

1 2

n −1

1 (2i) n−1

1

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