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3. CHANGE OF AXES

Synopsis :

1. If the coordinates (x, y) of a point are transformed to (X, Y), when the axes are translated to the point (h, k),

then x = X + h, y = Y + k.

2. If the axes are translated to the point (h, k) then the equation f(x, y) = 0 of a curve is transformed to

f(X + h, Y + k) = 0.

3. If f(X, Y) = 0 is the transformed equation of a curve when the axes are translated to the point (h, k), then the

original equation of the curve is f(x – h, y − k) = 0.

4. The point to which the origin has to be shifted to eliminate x, y terms is ax2 + 2hxy + by2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0

⎛ hf − bg gh - af ⎞

⎟ , where (h ≠ ab)

2

is ⎜ ,

⎝ ab − h ab - h ⎠

2 2

5. The point to which the origin has to be shifted to eliminate x and y terms in the equation a(x + α)2 + b(y + β)2

= c is (−α, −β).

6. If the coordinates (x, y) of a point are transformed to (X, Y), when the axes are rotated through an angle θ

about the origin then x = Xcosθ−Ysinθ, y = Xsinθ + Ycosθ ⇒ X = xcosθ + ysinθ, Y = −xsinθ + ycsoθ.

7. If the axes are rotated through an angle θ then the equation f(x, y) = 0 of a curve is transformed to

f(Xcosθ−Ysinθ, Xsinθ + Ycosθ) = 0.

8. If f(X, Y) = 0 is the transformed equation of a curve when the axes are rotated through an angle θ then the

original equation of the curve is f(xcosθ + ysinθ, −xsinθ + ycosθ) = 0.

9. The angle of rotation of the axes to eliminate xy terms in the equation ax2 + 2hxy + by2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 is

1 ⎛ 2h ⎞

Tan −1⎜ ⎟ , where (a ≠ b)

2 ⎝a−b⎠

10. The angle of rotation of the axes to eliminate xy term in the equation ax2 + 2hxy + ay2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 is

π/4.

11. The condition that the equation ax2 + 2hxy + by2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 to take the form aX2 + 2hXY + bY2 = 0,

when the axes are translated, is abc + 2fgh−af2−bg2−ch2 = 0.

12. If x, y terms are eliminated from ax2 + 2hxy + by2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 by shifting the origin to

(α, β) then the transformed equation is ax2 + 2hxy + by2 + gα + fβ + c = 0.

13. A curve f(x, y) = 0 is symmetric about

i) x-axis if f(x, −y) = f(x, y)

ii) y-axis if f(−x, y) = f(x, y)

iii) origin if f(−x, −y) = f(x, y).

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