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4. STRAIGHT LINES Synopsis :
1.

If a line makes an angle θ (0 ≤ θ < π) with x-axis in the positive direction, then θ is called inclination of the line and tanθ is called slope of the line. Slope of a line is denoted by m. If θ is an angle between two nonvertical lines having slopes m1, m2 then tanθ = If θ is the acute angle between the lines having slopes m1, m2 then tanθ = The equation of the horizontal line passing through (x1, y1) is y = y1. The equation of the vertical line passing through (x1, y1) is x = x1. Slope point form : The equation of the line passing through A(x1, y1) and having slope m is y−y1 = m(x−x1). Two points form : The equation of the line passing through (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) (x1 ≠ x2) is y−y1 = ⎜ ⎜
⎛ y 2 − y1 ⎞ ⎟ (x−x1). ⎟ ⎝ x 2 − x1 ⎠
m1 − m2 1 + m1m2

2.

.

3.

m1 − m 2 . 1 + m1m 2

4. 5. 6. 7.

8. 9.

If a line cuts x-axis at A(a, 0) and y-axis at B(0, b), then a is called x-intercept and b is called y-intercept of the line. Slope intercept form : The equation of the line having slope m and y-intercept c is y = mx + c. b(y−y1) = 0

10. The equation of the line parallel to ax + by + c = 0 and passing through (x1, y1) is a(x−x1) + 11. The equation of the line perpendicular to ax + by + c = 0 and passing through (x1, y1) is

b(x−x1)−a(y−y1) = 0.
12. Intercepts form : The equation of the line having x-intercept a and y-intercept b is x y + = 1. a b

13. The area of the triangle formed by the line

x y 1 + = 1 with the coordinate axes is | ab | . a b 2

14. The area of the triangle formed by the line ax + by + c = 0 with the coordinate axes is
c2 . 2 | ab |

15. Perpendicular form or normal form : The equation of the line which is at a distance of p

from the origin and A, 0 ≤ A < 360o is the angle made by the perpendicular with positive direction of x-axis is xcosA + ysinA = p.
16. The equation of the line ax + by + c = 0 in the perpendicular form is ax by −c if c ≤ 0; + = 2 2 2 2 2 a +b a +b a + b2
ax a +b
2 2

+

by a +b
2 2

=

−c a + b2
2

if c > 0. 1

Straight lines
17. The perpendicular distance from a point P(x1, y1) to the line ax + by + c = 0 is | ax 1 + by 1 + c | a2 + b2

.

18. The distance between the two parallel lines ax + by + c1 = 0 and ax + by + c2 = 0 is | c1 − c 2 |
a2 + b2

.

19. The equations x = x1 + rcosθ, y = y1 + rsinθ are called parametric equations with

parameter r of the line passing through (x1,y1)and having inclination θ. B(x2, y2) is −L11 : L22 where L11 = ax1 + by1 + c, L22 = ax2 + by2 + c

20. The ratio in which the line L = ax + by + c = 0 divides the line segment joining A(x1, y1), 21. The points A, B lie in the same side or opposite sides of the line L = 0 according as L11,

L22 have the same sign or opposite signs.
22. Let L≡ax + by + c = 0 be a line and A(x1, y1) be a point. Then A lies in the origin side of L =

0 if cL11>0 and A lies in the opposite to the origin side of L = 0 if cL11<0.
23. The condition that the lines a1x + b1y + c1 = 0, a2x + b2y + c2 = 0, a3x + b3y + c3 = 0 to be a1 b1 c1 concurrent is a2 b2 c 2 = 0 . a 3 b3 c 3 24. If θ is the angle between the lines a1x + b1y + c1 = 0, a2x + b2y + c2 = 0, then cosθ = a1a2 + b1b2 a1 + b1
2 2

a 2 + b2

2

2

.

25. If θ is an acute angle, then cosθ =

| a1a2 + b1b2 |
2 a1

+

2 b1

a 2 + b2

2

2

and sinθ =

| a1b2 − a2b1 | a1 + b1
2 2

a2 + b2

2

2

.

26. If θ (≠ π/2) is an angle between the lines a1x + b1y + c1 = 0, a2x + b2y + c2 = 0 then tanθ = a1b2 − a2b1 . a1a2 + b1b2 27. The lines a1x + b1y + c1 = 0, a2x + b2y + c2 = 0 are parallel if a1 b1 . = a2 b2

28. The lines a1x + b1y + c1 = 0, a2x + b2y + c2 = 0, are perpendicular if a1a2 + b1b2 = 0. 29. The foot of the perpendicular from (x1, y1) to the line ax + by + c = 0 is (ar + x1, br + y1) −(ax 1 + by 1 + c )

where r =

a2 + b2

.

30. 31. 32.

The image of (x1, y1) w.r.t the x-axis is (x1, −y1). The image of (x1, y1) w.r.t the y-axis is (−x1, y1). The image of (x1, y1) w.r.t the line ax + by + c = 0 is (ar + x1, br + y1) where r =
−2(ax 1 + by 1 + c ) a2 + b2

.

33.

The image of (x1, y1) w.r.t the line x = y is (y1, x1).

2

Straight lines
34.

i) The image of y = k w.r.t. x-axis is y = −k. ii) The image of x = k w.r.t y-axis is x = −k. The area of the triangle formed by the lines y = m1x + c1, y = m2x + c2, y = m3x + c3 is
1 2

35.

(c1 − c 2 )2 m1 − m2

.

36.

If p is the altitude of an equilateral triangle then i) length of the side = 2p/ 3 . ii) area of the triangle = p2/ 3 . The area of the parallelogram formed by a1x + b1y + c1 = 0, a1x + b1y + d1 = 0, a2x + b2y + c2 = 0, a2x + b2y + d2 = 0 is
(c1 − d1)(c 2 − d2 ) a1b2 − a2b1

37.

.
2c 2 . | ab |

38. 39.

The area of the rhombus formed by ax ± by ± c = 0 is

Equation of the line passing through (x1, y1) and making an angle A with the line ax + by + c = 0 are given by y−y1 = m1(x−x1) where m1 =
b tan A − a b + a tan A a + b tan A a tan A − b

and y−y1 = m2(x−x1) where m2 =

.

40.

The equation of the line whose portion between the coordinate axes is divided by the point (x1, y1) in the ratio m:n is n) −2(la + mb)(ax + by + c) = 0.
nx my + = m+n. x1 y1
2 2

41. The image of the line lx + my + n = 0 with respect to ax + by + c = 0 is (a + b )(lx + my + 42. The number of lines that can be drawn through the point P at a distance d units from the

point Q is i) 0 if PQ < d, ii) 1 if PQ = d iii) 2 if PQ>d.
43. The distance of the point (x1, y1) from the line ax + by + c = 0 measured along a line ax1 + by1 + c making an angle θ with x-axis is . a cos θ + b sin θ

44. If P is the orthocentre of the ΔABC, then the orthocentre of the triangle formed by any

three points P, A, B, C will be the remaining the point.
45. Area of the parallelogram or rhombus, equations of whose sides are given is p 1p 2 where sin θ

p1, p2 are distance between the parallel lines and θ is the angle between adjacent sides

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