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5. PAIR OF STRAIGHT LINES Synopsis:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

If h2 ≥ ab, then ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0 represent a pair of straight lines passing through the origin. If h2 < ab, then ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0 represents two imaginary lines having real point of intersection, the origin. If h2 = ab, then ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0 represents coincident lines. If h2 > ab, then ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0 represents two real and different lines. If ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0 represents a pair of lines, i) sum of slopes of lines is 2h/b. ii) the product of slopes of lines is a/b If θ is an angle between the lines represented by ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0, then i) cos θ = ii) sinθ = iii) tanθ =
a+b (a − b) 2 + 4h 2

6.

2 h2 − ab (a − b)2 + 4h2
2 h2 − ab a+b

7.

If θ is the acute angle between the lines represented by ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0, then i) cos θ = ii) tanθ =
a+b (a − b)2 + 4h2
2 h2 − ab a+b

8. 9.

If θ = 0, then the two lines will be coincident h2 = ab. If θ = π/2, then the two lines will be perpendicular a + b = 0 ⇒ coefficient of x2 + coefficient of y2 = 0.

10. The equation to the pair of lines passing through (α, β) and parallel to ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0 is a(x−α)2 + 2h(x – α)(y – β) + b(y – β)2 = 0 11. The equation to the pair of lines passing through the origin and perpendicular to ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0 is bx2−2hxy + ay2 = 0. 12. The equation to the pair of lines passing through the point (α, β) and perpendicular to ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0 is b(x – α)2 – 2h(x – α)(y – β) + a(y – β)2 =0. 13. The equation of bisectors of angles between the lines a1x + b1y + c1 = 0. a2x + b2y + c2 = 0 are a1x + b1y + c1 a2 x + b2 y + c 2 ± = 0 If c1c2 >0 then the line bisecting the angle containing the origin between 2 2 a1 + b21 a2 + b22

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Pair of straight lines
the lines is a1x + b1y + c1
2 a1

+

a2 x + b2 y + c 2 a2 + b
2 2 2

= 0 and the line bisecting the other angle is

a1x + b1y + c1 a1 + b21
2

+

b21

a2 x + b 2 y + c 2 a2 + b22
2

=0

14. The equation to the pair of bisectors of angles between the pair of lines ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0 is h(x2 – y2) − (a – b)xy = 0. 15. Every pair of lines are equally inclined to either of its angle bisectors. 16. Two pairs of concurrent lines are equally inclined to each other if both the pairs of lines have the same angle bisectors. 17. The product of the perpendiculars from (α,β) to the pair of lines ax + 2hxy + by = 0 is
2 2

aα 2 + 2hαβ + bβ2 (a − b)2 + 4h2 .

18. The area of the triangle formed by the lines ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0 and the line lx + my + n = 0 is
n2 h2 − ab am2 − 2hlm + bl2 .

19. The line ax + by + c = 0 and the pair of lines (ax + by)2 – 3(bx – ay)2 = 0 form an equilateral triangle and its c2 sq. unit. area is 3 (a 2 + b 2 )

20. The equation to the pair of lines passing through the origin and forming an equilateral triangle with

the line ax + by + c = 0 is (ax + by)2 – 3(bx – ay)2 = 0.
2 2

21. If ax + 2hxy + by + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 represents a pair of lines then i) abc + 2fgh−af2−bg2−ch2 = 0 ii) h2 ≥ ab, g2≥ ac, f2≥bc.
hf − bg gh − af ⎞ 2 iii) The point of intersection of the lines is ⎛ , ⎜ ⎟ where h ≠ ab. 2 2 ⎝ ab − h ab − h ⎠

22. The difference of the slopes of the lines represented by ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0 is

2 h2 − ab . b

23. The condition that the slope of the lines represented by ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0 is the ratio p:q is ab(p + q)2 = 4h2pq. 24. If a1a2 + b1b2 > 0, then the acute angle bisector of the angles between a1x + b1y + c1 = 0, a2x + b2y + a x + b1y + c1 a2 x + b2 y + c 2 = 0. c2 = 0 is 1 + a21 + b21 a2 2 + b22 25. The equation to the pair of lines passing through the origin and each is at a distance of ‘d’ from

(x1, y1) is (xy1 − x1y)2 = d2(x2 + y2).
2 2 2

26. The condition that the lines ax + 2hxy + by = 0, lx + my + n = 0 to form an isosceles triangle of

2

vertex origin is h(l – m ) = (a – b)lm.
27. If ax + 2hxy + by = 0 are two sides of a parallelogram and lx + my + n = 0 is one diagonal, then
2 2

the equation to the other diagonal is y(bl – hm) = x(am – hl).

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Pair of straight lines
28. The length of the intercept on x – axis cut by the pair of the lines ax + 2hxy + by + 2gx + 2fy+c =
2 2

0 is

2 g 2 − ac a

.
2 2

29. The length of the intercept on y – axis cut by the pair of lines ax + 2hxy + by + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0

is

2 f 2 − bc b

.
2 2

30. The condition that the pair of lines represented by ax + 2hxy + by + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 intersect on

x – axis is g2 = ac, on y – axis is f2 = bc. 2 2 31. The condition that the pair of lines represented by ax + 2hxy + by + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 is
aα 2 + 2hαβ + bβ2 + 2gα + 2fβ + c (a − b)2 + 4h2 32. The lines represented by ax + 2hxy + by = 0,ax + 2hxy + by + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 to form a
2 2 2 2

i) parallelogram if a + b≠0, (a – b)fg + h + h(f2 – g2)≠0 ii) rectangle if a + b = 0, (a – b)fg + h(f2 – g2)≠0 iii) rhombus if a + b≠0, (a – b)fg + h(f2 – g2) = 0 iv) square of a + b = 0, (a – b)fg + h(f2 – g2) = 0 35. The area of parallelogram formed by ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0,ax2 + 2hxy + by2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 is
c 2 h − ab
2

36. The condition that one of the lines represented by S = 0 bisects the angle between the co – ordinate axes is (a + b)2 = 4h2. 37. Equation to the pair of angular bisectors of the lines represented by SI = 0 is
( x − x1)( y − y1) h

( x − x1)2 − ( y − y1)2 = a−b

where (x1, y1) is point of intersection of lines of SI = 0.
θ n . = 2 2 a l + m2

38. I) If ‘θ’ is the angle between the lines joining the origin to the points of intersection of the circle x2 + y2 = a2 and the line lx + my + n = 0. Then Cos

ii) These lines are perpendicular then a2(l2 + m2) = 2n2. 37. The line joining the origin to the points of intersection of the line kx + hy = 2hk with the curve (x−h)2 + (y−k)2 = c2 are at right angles if h2+k2 = c2. 2 2 38. Point of intersection of diagonals of rectangle formed by the pairs a1x + b1x + c1 = 0 and a2y +
−b −b b2y + c2 = 0 is ⎜ 1 , 2 ⎟ . ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 2a1 2a2 ⎠ 39. If equation ax + 2hxy + by = 0 represents two sides of a triangle whose orthocentre is (c, d) then
2 2

equation of third side is (a + b)(cx + dy) = bc2 − 2hcd + ad2. 2 2 40. The lines joining the origin to the points of intersection of the curves a1x + 2h1xy + b1y + 2g1x = 0 and a2x2 + 2h2xy + b2y2 + 2g2x = 0 will be at right angles if
a1 + b1 g = 1. a2 + b2 g2

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