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6. THREE DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY
Synopsis :
1.
2.

The distance between the points (x1, y1, z1) and (x2, y2, z2) is ( x 2 − x1)2 + ( y 2 − y1)2 + ( z2 − z1)2 . If A = (x1, y1, z1), B = (x2, y2, z2), the co-ordinates of point which divides AB in the ratio l:m
lx + mx1 ly 2 + my1 lz2 + mz1 ⎞ internally is ⎛ 2 , , ⎜ ⎟. ⎝ l+m l+m l+m ⎠

3.

The co-ordinates of the point which divides AB in the ratio l:m externally is
⎛ lx 2 − mx1 ly 2 − my1 lz2 − mz1 ⎞ , , ⎜ ⎟. l−m l−m ⎠ ⎝ l−m

4. 5.

x +x y +y z +z Mid point of AB = ⎛ 1 2 , 1 2 , 1 2 ⎞ . ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 2 2 2 ⎠

The centroid of the triangle formed by the points
x +x +x y +y +y z +z +z (x1, y1, z1), (x2, y2, z2) and (x3, y3, z3) is ⎛ 1 2 3 , 1 2 3 , 1 2 3 ⎞ . ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 3 3 3 ⎠

6.

The centroid of the tetrahedron formed by the points (x1, y1, z1), (x2, y2, z2), (x3, y3, z3) and (x4, y4, z4) is ⎜ ⎜
⎛ x1 + x 2 + x 3 + x 4 , 4 ⎝
y 1 + y 2 + y 3 + y 4 z1 + z 2 + z 3 + z 4 , 4 4

⎞ ⎟. ⎟ ⎠

7.

The line segment joining (x1, y1, z1) and (x2, y2, z2) is divided by i) YZ plane in the ratio x1:x2 ii) ZX plane in the ratio y1:y2 iii) XY plane in the ratio z1:z2 If A = (x1, y1, z1), B = (x2, y2, z2), P = (x3, y3, z3) are the vertices of a triangle and BC = a, CA = b,
ax + bx 2 + cx 3 ay1 + by 2 + cy 3 az1 + bz 2 + cz3 ⎞ AB = c, then the incentre of the triangle ABC is ⎛ 1 , , ⎜ ⎟. ⎝ a+b+c a+b+c a+b+c ⎠

8.

9.

If a directed line (ray) makes angle α, β, γ with positive directions of the axes of x,y and z respectively the cosα, cosα, cosγ are called the direction cosines (d.c’s) of the line and these are usually denoted by l,m,n.

10. Direction cosines of i) x – axis are (1,0,0) ii) y – axis are (0,1,0) iii) z – axis are (0,0,1) 11. If (l, m, n) are direction cosines of a ling OP and OP

= r then the coordinates p are

(lr, mr, nr).
12. If the coordinates of a point P are (x,y, z) and OP=r then the direction Cosines of OP are (x/r, y/r/

z/r). 1

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Three Dimensional Geometry
13. If α, β, γ are the angles, made by a line with the positive direction of coordinate axes then cos α +
2

cos2β + cos2γ = 1
14. If α, β, γ are the angles, made by a directed line with the positive directions of the coordinate axes,

then sin2 α + sin2 β + sin2γ = 2.
15. If (a, b, c) are direction ratio of a line than
⎛ a b c ⎜ , , ⎜ 2 ⎜ a + b + c 2 a + b2 + c a 2 + b2 + c 2 2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠

are direction cosines of the line.

16. Direction ratios of the line joining the points A (x1, y1, z1), B (x2, y2, z2) are (x2–x1, y2–y1, z2– z1). 17. If l1, m1, n1 and l2, m2, n2 are real numbers then

(l12 + m12 + n12) (l22 + m22 + n22) – (l1l2 + m1m2 + n1n2)2 = (m1n2 – m2n1)2 + (n1l2 – n2l1) + (l1m2 – l2m2)2
18. If (l1, m1,,n1 ) and (l2,,m2,n2) are direction cosines of two lines and θ is an angle between then, then

cosθ = l1l2 + m1m2 + n1n2.
19. If a line makes equal angles with co-ordinate axes, then d.c.’s of a vector are ±
1 3 ,± 1 3 ,± 1 3

and

number of such lines passing through the origin is 4.
20.

If (a1, b1, c1) and (a2, b2, c2) are d.c.’s of two lines and =
a1a2 + b1b2 + c1c 2
2 a1

is the angle between the lines, then cos

+ b1 + c1 2 a2 + b2 + c 2 2

2

2

2

.

21. 22.

If two lines are perpendicular, then a1a2 + b1b2 + c1c2 = 0. If l, m, n be the direction cosines of a line and P = (x1, y1, z1), Q = (x2, y2, z2). The projection of PQ on a line is
l( x 2 − x1) + m( y 2 − y1) + n( z2 − z1)

.

23.

If P = (x1, y1, z1), Q = (x2, y2, z2), then i) The projection of PQ on x-axis is |x2x1|. ii) The projection of PQ on y-axis is |y2y1|. iii) The projection of PQ on z-axis is |z2z1|. If l1, m1, n1 and l2, m2, n2 are d.R.’s of a two lines, then the d.R.’s of a line perpendicular to these two lines are m1n2m2n1, n1l2n2l1, l1m2-l2m1. If (l1, m1, n1), (l2, m2, n2), (l3, m3, n3) are d.c.’s of three mutually perpendicular lines, then d.R.’s of the lines which makes equal angles with the three lines are l1 + l2 + l3, m1 + m2 + m3, n1 + n2 + n3 and each angle is Cos1(1/ 3 ).

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Three Dimensional Geometry
26. 27. 28. 29.

Angle between any two diagonals of a cube is Cos–1(1/3). Angle between one diagonal of a cube and a diagonal of one face is Cos-1( 2 / 3 ). If l, m, n are d.c.’s of a line then the maximum value of lmn is 1/3
3

.

If α, β, γ, δ are angles made by a line with diagonals of a cube, then cos2α + cos2β + cos2γ + cos2δ = 4/3.

3

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