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9. LIMITS
Synopsis :
1. Let f(x) be a function defined over a deleted neighborhood of ‘a’ and l ∈ R. i) If for each ∈ > 0 there exists δ>0, such that |f(x)−l|<∈ when ever 0<|x−a|<δ then we say that Lim f ( x ) = l .
x →a

2. If limit of a function exists then it is unique. 3. If Lim− f ( x ) = Lim+ f ( x ) = l, then Lim f ( x ) = l .
x →a x →a x →a

4. If f(x) = c (constant), then Lim f ( x ) = c .
x →a

5. 6. 7.

Lim f ( x ) ⎛f⎞ Lim⎜ ⎟( x ) = x →a ⎜ g⎟ x →a ⎝ ⎠ Lim g( x ) x →a
Lim f n ( x ) = Lim f ( x )
x →a x →a

provided Lim g( x ) ≠ 0 .
x →a

{

}

n

Lim f ( x ) = ±∞ ⇒ Lim
x →a
x →a

1 =0 f(x)

the converse need not be true.
x →a x →a

8. If f(x) ≤ g(x) ≤ h(x) for every x in the deleted neighborhood of a and Lim f ( x ) = l = Lim h( x ) then
Lim g( x )
x→ a

= l.
y →l x →a

9.

Lim f ( x ) = l and Lim g( y ) = m, then Lim(gof )( x ) = m .
x →a

10. Lim log[ f ( x )] = log⎛ Lim f ( x ) ⎞ , if Lim f ( x ) exists and is positive. ⎜ ⎟
x →a

⎝ x →a

x→a

11. Lim
θ →0

sin θ tan θ where θ is in radians. = 1 = Lim θ →0 θ θ

12. Lim

ax − 1 = log e a x →0 x

13. Lim

ex − 1 =1 x →0 x
x →0

14. Lim e1 / x = ∞, Lim− e1 / x = 0
x →0 +

15. Lim+ e−1/ x = 0, Lim− e−1/ x = ∞
x →0 x →0

16. Lim x = 0 if |x|<1
n n→ ∞

17. Lim x n = ∞ if x>1
n→∞

L’Hospials rule : 18. If
0 ∞ f (x) f I (a ) f (a ) is of the form or , Lim . = I g(a) 0 ∞ x →a g( x ) g (a)
x2 x3 + + ....to ∞ ∠2 ∠3 x2 (loge a)2 + ... ∠2

19. e x = 1 + x +

a x = 1 + x + (loge a) +

1

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Limits log(1+x) = x −
x2 x3 x 4 + − − .... (−1<x≤1) 2 3 4

log(1−x) = − x − sinx = x − cosx = 1 − tanx = x +

x2 x3 x 4 − − − .... (−1≤x<1) 2 3 4

x3 x5 x7 + − + .... 3! 5! 7! x2 x4 x6 + − + .... 2! 4! 6! x3 2 5 + x + .... 3 15
x →a

20. If n ∈ Q, then Lim

x n − an = n.a n−1 x−a xm − am x −a
n n

21. If m, n ∈ Q then Lim
x →a

=

m m −n .a n

22. If f(x) and g(x) are two polynomials such that degree of f(x) = m and degree of g(x) = n then
⎧ ⎪0, ⎪ f (x) ⎪ Lim = ⎨± ∞, x → ∞ g( x ) ⎪ coefficient of xn in (numerator) ⎪ ⎪ coefficient of xn in (denominator) ⎩ for m < n for m > n for m = n

23. Lim ⎧ x 2 + ax + b − x ⎫ = ⎨ ⎬ x →∞ ⎩ ⎭

a 2 −a 24. Lim ⎧x − x 2 + ax + b ⎫ = ⎨ ⎬ x →∞⎩ ⎭ 2
1 + xn − 1 − xn xn
n n x →0

25. Lim 26. Lim
x →0 x →0

=1 2 −1 = an n
x 1

a + xm − a − xm xm
x → ∞⎝

1 27. Lim(1 + x )1 / x = Lim ⎛1 + ⎞ = e ⎜ ⎟ x⎠ a 28. Lim(1 + ax )1/ x = Lim⎛1 + ⎞ = e a ⎜ ⎟
x →0 x → ∞⎝ x

x⎠

2

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